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Antenna Engineering

MIMO System

MIMO Antenna

Wireless standards and MIMO

MIMO Antenna

SISO and Multipath Fading

MIMO Antenna

Multiple Antennas improves Signal Quality

MIMO Antenna

Multiple Antennas improve capacity

MIMO Antenna

Antenna Polarization

MIMO Antenna

Cross Polarization

MIMO Antenna

Correlation coefficient

MIMO Antenna

Mean Effective Gain

MIMO Antenna

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MEG Ratio

MIMO Antenna

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MIMO antenna design parameters


Low envelope correlation between antennas
Low envelope correlation can result from having sets of antenna patterns
that are diverse in the spatial, phase and polarization senses. In order
words, if all antenna patterns are "looking" in different directions or in di
fferent ways(phase/polarization) one has low correlation.

Large individual antenna mean effective gain (MEG)


MEG refers to the gain of an antenna in particular environment relative
to some reference antenna (e.g. isotropic radiator). In order words, it is a
measure of how well an antenna receives power for a particular scatterin
g environment.

All antennas with roughly the same mean effective gain


The MEG of each antenna needs to be roughly the same for a balanced
system

Low total array reflection coefficient (TARC)


Antennas radiate simultaneously and must have minimal crosstalk pairs
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2x2 MIMO Antenna Design


The typical antenna specification for 2x2 MIMO has the
following goals;
Number of independent antenna ports: 2
Radiation efficiency : As high as possible
Gain balanced ratio (ratio of the gain at each antenna port) :
As high as possible, approaching 1
Correlation coefficient (envelope correlation coefficient between
the two antenna ports) : As low as possible, approaching 0

MIMO Antenna

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Diversity Gain

MIMO Antenna

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Correlation in free space

MIMO Antenna

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Correlation with Scattering object

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Correlation over distance

MIMO Antenna

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Diversity Gain

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Antenna placement (2-antenna array)

MIMO Antenna

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Single Antenna Design (f=2.6GHz)

MIMO Antenna

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Placement Investigation (s-parameters)

MIMO Antenna

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Mutual coupling (2-1)

MIMO Antenna

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Mutual coupling (2-2)

MIMO Antenna

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Mutual coupling (2-3)

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Mutual coupling comparison

MIMO Antenna

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Correlation coefficient comparison

MIMO Antenna

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MIMO Antenna Design

MIMO Antenna

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MIMO Antenna Design

MIMO Antenna

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MIMO Antenna Design

MIMO Antenna

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MIMO Antenna Design

MIMO Antenna

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MIMO Antenna Design

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LTE handset antenna design

MIMO Antenna

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LTE handset antenna design

MIMO Antenna

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LTE handset antenna design


VSWR: <2:1

Efficiency:
30-40%

Patterns
almost
identical

Coupling:

CC: >0.8

-4dB

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LTE handset antenna design

MIMO Antenna

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LTE handset antenna design


VSWR <2.
2:1

Efficiency
50-58%

CC: <0.35

Isolation:
<-13 dB

Significantly different
patterns results in low
envelope correlation
coefficient
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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design


Ground Surface Current and Isolation

Actually position on
ly is not enough

Preferable position

Antenna surface
current distribution

Type A antenna current


-9dB isolation

MIMO Antenna

Type B antenna current


-11dB isolation

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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design

Type 1

Type 2

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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design


Current distribution with slot on the ground
Current induci
ng coupling

Current mag
nitude

Current suppre
ssed

Short end

MIMO Antenna

Open end

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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design


1/4

slot on PDA ground size

30db suppression

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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design

MIMO Antenna

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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design

1.Without slot
2.With 2.4GHz only
3.With 5.2GHz only
4.With dual slot

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Ex) MIMO Antenna Design

MIMO Antenna

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