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The canning industry produces hundreds of different canned food items. These items include fruits, vegetables, juices, fish and seafood, meats, soups, baby foods, milk, and many specialty items. The total production is several billion kilograms. Next time you visit your local supermarket, notice the area set aside for the canned food products. It is substantial. The job of your local cannery is to take the raw fruit, vegetable, etc., and process it. The end product is a can of processed raw material that can be saved for many months due to the processing and the ability of the can to protect the product. How does a cannery do this?


Preliminary Preparation

After the raw food in brought in from the field, the first step is the thorough cleaning of the raw food material. The methods of cleaning vary with the nature of the food. In all cases the foods are freed of soil and other foreign or undesirable material which is present. Fruits and vegetables are washed by high pressure sprays or by strong flowing streams of water while being passed along a moving belt, agitating screens, or revolving screens. Chaff or other extraneous material is removed by flotation water, in which food is floated free of dirt. With certain products, washing is preceded by a dry-cleaning treatment in which adhering soil and other material are mechanically removed from the food by revolving or agitating screens, or by strong air blasts. After cleaning, the washed fruits and vegetables are trimmed. The preliminary preparation of fish and shellfish is to scale or skin the fish and remove the shellfish from their shells. The fish and shellfish are then cleaned and trimmed. In the canning of meats, butchering and dressing are generally performed in packing houses. The meats are delivered already dressed to the cannery. There they are trimmed and cut into pieces of the size desired for canning. In the packing of foods such as soups, baby foods, and other foods canned throughout the year, the ingredients are prepared separately and then blended.

Preparations For Canning

After being thoroughly cleaned, the raw foods are prepared for canning. Many fruits and vegetables are first sorted for size and maturity. Sorting for size is accomplished by a series of moving screens with different mesh sizes, or by passing the raw foods over differently spaced rollers. Separation into groups according to degree of ripeness or perfection of shape is done

by hand. Peas and lima beans are frequently separated into more and less mature portions by flotation in a salt solution, the operation being performed continuously in automatic machines. Trimming, if necessary, is done by hand by operators trained in locating and removing blemishes. Sometimes trimming is the only cutting necessary to prepare the foods for the desired style of pack. However, when the foods are to be canned other than whole, they are cut, sliced, diced, halved, or peeled, usually by machines specially designed for each product. In each of these steps the raw food is continuously inspected, but a final inspection is made by experienced persons to pick out mashed or broken pieces, pieces of food that are off-colour, or any foreign matter which may have passed the cleaning, washing and trimming operations.


Some foods then are immersed in hot water or exposed to live steam in an operation known as the "blanch". This pre-cooking usually is accomplished in equipment especially designed for individual products. In general, the raw foods are conveyed through hot water or steam by various mechanical devices which subject them to a particular temperature range for the proper period of time. Blanching of vegetables and some fruits serves to expel air and gases, to inactivate enzymes and thus arrest changes in flavour, and to wilt products (such as spinach) so that more may be filled into the container. Shrimp are precooked in a salt blanch to curl and shrink them for proper filling. Proper blanching, by removing occluded gases, reduces strain on the seams of cans during processing, particularly where the filled cans are not thermally exhausted.


After necessary preparatory steps, the raw foods are ready to be filled into metal or glass containers. The containers are conveyed by automatic runways through washers to the point of filling. Most filling is done by machine. Foods canned in larger pieces, such as peaches, pears and salmon, may be filled into containers by hand. The container always is filled as completely as possible with the solid product and packing medium -- juice, salted and/or sweetened water, or sugar-syrup -- then is added, according to the product and style of pack. Depending on the size of container and nature of the product mechanical filling is carried on at speeds up to 1,200 containers a minute.

Ensuring Vacuum in Containers

The objective of obtaining vacuum in containers is to remove air and gas so that pressure inside the container following the process and cooling will be less than atmospheric. The vacuum (1) helps keep can ends drawn in -- an index of a sound

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package, (2) reduces strain on containers during processing, (3) minimizes discolouration or flavour effects of oxygen remaining in the headspace, (4) helps to assure shelf life of food products, (5) prevents bulging of the container at high altitudes or at high temperatures, and (6) is necessary to keep some styles of lids on glass containers. The vacuum may be obtained by the use of heat or by mechanical means. Some products, notably juices, are preheated during their preparation and are filled into containers and sealed hot. With products that cannot be filled hot, such as tomatoes, it may be necessary to pass the containers through a steam chamber or tunnel just ahead of the sealing machine to expel gases from the food and raise the temperature. Vacuum also may be produced mechanically by sealing containers in a chamber under a high vacuum. Sometimes, just before sealing the container, the air in the headspace is replaced with steam, which condenses after processing and thereby creates vacuum. The degree of vacuum in the processed, cooled container will vary with the size of the container and the style of the product. Too high a vacuum in the larger can sizes will result in paneling, or a drawing in of the side of the can.

Sealing the Container

The lid is sealed, airtight, on the filled containers by a closing machine. In sealing lids on metal cans, a double seam is created by interlocking the curl of the lid and flange of the can. Many closing machines are equipped to create vacuum in the headspace either mechanically or by steamflow before lids are sealed. Glass containers are sealed under vacuum created mechanically or by steam-flow. The containers are sealed by pressing on a close-fitting cover of tin plate or with a threaded or lug cap. When containers are filled mechanically, closing machines keep pace with filling at speeds up to 1,200 containers a minute.

Heat Processing

The heat treatment to which foods are subjected after hermetic (airtight) sealing in containers is called the "process". During the process, microorganisms which would cause spoilage if their action were not stopped are destroyed by heat. The degree of heat and length of exposure to heat vary with the product being processed and the size of the container. The processes required to preserve the food contents are the result of many years of scientific research. Fruit juices and tomato juice frequently are preserved in continuous heaters before being filled into containers and are filled and sealed hot enough to need no further cooking in the container. Acid products such as tomatoes and fruit are readily preserved at the temperature of boiling water. The containers holding these products are processed in atmospheric steam or hot water cookers. Low-acid products such as vegetables, fish and meat require higher temperatures for preservation and these are processed in steam-tight pressure cookers -- "retorts" or in

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"continuous cookers" -- usually controlled by automatic devices. In general, the length of the process depends on the processing temperature -- the higher the temperature the shorter the time required. For example, a can of cream style corn sealed at 82°C. may be processed in 85 minutes. If, however, the same can is processed at a temperature of 120°C., processing time can be cut to 65 minutes. The size of the can also is an important factor in determining the correct combination of time and temperature in processing. Obviously, heat will penetrate to the center of a small can more quickly than to the center of a large one. Since it is vital for canning processes to be exact for every size of container as well as for every type of product, precise information about the rate of heat penetration is required. Improved methods of heat processing are being used extensively. These included continuous agitating cookers; hydrostatic cookers in which the necessary temperature is maintained by the pressure of a water column; and aseptic canning, in which the product is preserved at high temperatures and cooled before being filled and closed in sterile containers.


After the "process", containers are cooled quickly to prevent overcooking. This may be done with water in the cooker under air pressure, by conveying the containers from the cooker to a tank of cold water or by placing them under a cold water spray. Some products in extremely large sized cans may be partially cooled in water and then further air-cooled. This is done in well ventilated specially designed warehouses.

Labeling and Casing

After cooking and cooling, containers are ready for labeling. Labeling machines apply glue and labels in one high-speed operation. The labeled cans or jars are conveyed to devices which pack them into shipping cartons. The canned foods are ready to be shipped to market.


Now that you know the processes going on in a cannery, you need to know what Melrose Chemicals supplies to the industry. We supply sanitation chemicals, lubricants, water treatment, chain lubricants, environmental control, and a number of specialty items. We will not concern ourselves with lubricants, water treatment, chain lubricants, or environmental control products at this time. These product lines are covered in more detail than we care to go into with this manual, in other literature. Refer to specific manuals for these product lines. Cleaning procedures for the preparation and processing areas are foam cleaning, high pressure cleaning, steam cleaning, and CIP type cleaning. The foam method of

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cleaning is excellent for the typical canning plant. When the plant is in operation there is

little time for cleaning so the method must be fast and efficient

that. The advantages of foam cleaning are: dwell time, high visibility, no splashback of chemical, no strong odours, ease of dispensing, and speed of application. The foam

allows dwell time which is important in dissolving and removing food soils. Further, foam will seep into crevices and hard to reach places of intricate equipment. Foam cleaning

is fast, easy to apply, easy to rinse, and most importantly it is effective in cleaning food


foam cleaning is just

High pressure cleaning is another method of cleaning popular in the canning industry. High pressure cleaning is fast but it does use more water and cleaning compounds and there is a danger from splashback. While foam clings to food surfaces and dissolves the soils, high pressure applies the impingement to remove tenacious builds ups.

Central high pressure systems are usually used. High pressure pre-rinse and post rinse are most effective when used in conjunction with a foam program. Steam cleaning has been particularly effective in the cleaning of certain pieces of canning machines.

A final type of cleaning common to the canning industry is Cleaning In Place (CIP) type

cleaning. With the production of ketchup, tomato paste, cream-style corn, puree and juice operations, CIP cleaning is predominant. These systems are cleaned by the circulation of cleaning solution through the lines and equipment. In a similar manner, insides of kettles, vats, and cookers are often soak cleaned with agitators on. From these general cleaning methods we can clean most any area of the canning plant. These methods described for specific areas, along with some special applications, follows.

Washing of Fruits and Vegetables

We have four products approved for use for the washing of fruits and vegetables. They are F-3170, OXYCLEAN, BXA-325, and CHLORINALL G. These products can be used

in the flume system, reel washer, tumbler washer, spray washer, etc., as long as the

product receives a potable wash spray rinse after its use. F-3170 can be used at a 1% solution for washing fruits and vegetables. Normally F-3170 is used in conjunction with caustic peeling of fruits and vegetables. BXA-325 can be used as low as 50 grams per 100 litres. OXYCLEAN can be used as low as 100 grams per 100 litres. OXYCLEAN and BXA-325 help in keeping down the slime buildup on the flumes and washers and both products are low foaming. CHLORINALL G would be too high foaming for this use, in most cases, because of the turbulence of the washing operation. The reason for fruits and vegetables being washed is to remove field soils, insecticides, etc., but spoilage type bacteria must also be removed. BXA-325 and OXYCLEAN contain chlorine and assist greatly in removing various types of bacteria. Again, remember that these products have to be rinsed by potable water at the end of the washing cycle.

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Peeling of Fruits & Vegetables

F-3170 although used as a wash material is primarily designed for the peeling operation involving caustic or lye. This product can be used at 0.1% to 0.6% of the amount of caustic or lye solution by volume. For instance, if the peeling tank contains a 1000 litre solution of lye and water and the lye is being used at a 20% strength or 200 litres, you would use 0.1% to 0.6% of F-3170 of the 1000 litres of lye solution or 1 litre if you used it at a 0.1% concentration. The lye peeling operation is the method used to remove the skin from potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, etc., by chemically removing them, thus eliminating the old time- consuming and costly method of hand peeling. The product passes through a solution of caustic or lye in order to remove the skin. The optimum situation would be to have just the skin removed and none of the product. This, of course, is extremely difficult to control and that is where F-3170 comes in. By using F-3170 the amount of caustic needed is reduced, the peel is smoother, there is less product loss, and there is less caustic carry-out to the settling ponds or sewage disposal area. With a smoother peel and less product loss, the grade of the product can be raised, which means money to the producer. Also by reducing the amount of caustic used there is less caustic carry- out to the settling ponds or sewage disposal area. F-3170 has several advantages over our competitor's like product. F-3170 has no odour to it when added to the lye peeling solution. Also, F-3170 does not congeal after the peel tank has been cooled down as other peeling additives do. It also has a long solution life.

Cleaning Sorters, Graders, Peelers, Etc.

For these pieces of equipment, two types of products will be needed

cleaner and an acid cleaner. Usually these pieces of equipment are constructed of. stainless steel, but sometimes aluminum or galvanize will be involved. An important step in the cleaning of these various pieces of equipment is the pre-rinse. This is to remove particles of the product and to keep the stains from having time to form. Several cleaners can be used which would be safe on all types of metals; GENERAL CLEAN “F” or SUPER KLEEN. As mentioned earlier, the Foam method of

cleaning would probably be the most applicable, followed by a high pressure rinse, if possible. If only stainless steel is involved, or iron, stronger cleaners, such as CHLORINALL G, CHLORINALL H or OXYCLEAN could be used. The concentrations would vary according to the soil buildup, but generally, the usage would be from 25 ml to 50 ml per litre. It should be remembered that 60°C. water should be used, especially with the chlorinated products, because at temperatures above 60°C., the chlorine will dissipate from the material too quickly. Acid descaling will be needed occasionally to remove water scale, protein scale, rust, etc. FAS-GLO, ACID-O-CLEAN, LUSTREX, or PRO-CLEAN, at 65°C. at a 1 to 20 to 1 to 40 solution is effective on equipment and conveyors. ACID-O-CLEAN and LUSTREX should be used with FOME-ADD and are safe on all iron or steel equipment. If soft metals are involved, then POLYSOLV A should be used. The concentration should be

an alkaline

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25 ml per litre and the water and foam solution temperatures should be 15 to 30°C. The general alkaline cleaning is done once daily or between each production shift. The acid descaling can vary, depending on water conditions. This procedure may be needed anywhere from twice weekly to once per month.


The blanchers are usually constructed of stainless steel and can be cleaned by using CHLORINALL G, CHLORINALL H at 1:20 or A-420 with FOME-ADD at a concentration of 1 to 30 in 85°C. water. This procedure should be done after every production shift or on a daily basis. Because of the nature of the blanching operation a great deal of scale and protein buildup occurs. This is a step in the process similar to pre-cooking in which the product passes through 80°C to 95°C water or a steam bath. Because of the buildup an acid product is needed for protein and water scale removal. By foaming FAS-GLO, ACID-O-CLEAN, LUSTREX, or PRO-CLEAN at 1:20 on the blancher, light buildup can be removed. Often, the buildup is quite severe especially in hard water areas, and DETARTREUR has to be used. The procedure is to make a 10% solution in 65°C water and allow this solution to circulate through the blancher for 1 to 2 hours. The solution should be dumped and the blancher rinsed with cold water. This procedure should be done at least once every two weeks.


Fillers can be cleaned by the foam method with CHLORINALL G, CHLORINALL H, OXYCLEAN and FOME-ADD, in 60°C. water. Concentrations will depend upon the severity of the soil. Many times, you will find fillers that are constructed of soft metals. In this case you would have to use products which are metal safe, like CHLORINALL G or CHLORINALL H. It is very helpful to pre-rinse the fillers before they are foamed, since there is often a syrup or brine solution involved.


These units usually do not require considerable amounts of cleaning unless there has been a great deal of spillage involved. CHLORINALL G, CHLORINALL H, OXYCLEAN and FOME-ADD will normally do a good job. Again, remember, if you foam these products on the surface, use water at 60°C. If you are working with soft metals, you then have to use a product like CHLORINALL G or CHLORINALL H. Occasional acid descaling may be needed by using FAS-GLO, ACID-O-CLEAN, or PRO-CLEAN at a 1 to 20 concentration at 65°C. The acid cleaning should also be in a foam solution. Depending upon water hardness conditions, this may be done once per week or once per month.

Sealers, Closers, and Seamers

The cleaning of this type of equipment is very similar to the cleaning of the fillers. Some

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spillage occurs here, although not as much as at the filler. K-50 FOOD GRADE GREASE should be used for can seamers and, especially, steam flo seamers. In operations involving extremes of: high temperatures (230°C.), heavy loads, water washout, live steam, attacked by acids and alkalines, high rpms, MEL 500 grease not only out-performs competitive "BB" rated greases; but does so while extending lubrication cycles three times.

Retorts and Continuous Cookers

As far as cleaning, very little is done to these pieces of equipment except at the end or beginning of the canning season. Then they should be boiled-out with F-685 to remove soil buildup, rust, hard water scale, etc. This sometimes is followed with an application of DETARTREUR or BRITE-ALL to remove excessive rust or water scale. Both products should be used at approximately 1 to 20 at 82°C. to boiling. In either vertical or horizontal retorts, after the cook, cold water is sprayed onto the cans for initial cooling before the cans go on to be air cooled or put through the cooling canal. At this point, especially in excessive hard water areas, spotting will occur on the cans and glass. A product which will eliminate this problem is PROTECTO 2850. This product should be injected at a ratio of 1:1000 down to 1:5000 in the final cold water injection into the retort. PROTECTO 2850 does an excellent job in eliminating water spotting and also assists somewhat in cleaning residue left by leakers. PROTECTO 2850 holds the hard water particles in suspension thus keeping them from attaching to the containers. PROTECTO 2850 can also be injected into the final stage, or cold water spray section, of a continuous cooker at the same ratio. This product also assists in speeding the drying of the cans which eliminates a lot of problems which can occur in the labeling operation.

Cooling Canals

After being retorted or cooked in the horizontal or vertical retorts the cans are conveyed

to the cooling canal, a 12 to 30 meter long tank through which the baskets pass, thus

cooling the cans so that they can be handled for labeling and to completely halt the cooking process so that the product won't be overcooked by residual beat.

To eliminate water spotting, PROTECTO 2850 can be dispensed through the DOSATRON™ at 1:5000 to 1:1000 at the exit end of the canal where the cans are lifted up and out of the canal.

C.I.P. Applications

With the production of ketchup, tomato paste, cream style corn, puree and juice operations, CIP (Clean In Place) cleaning is predominant.

A series of steps are involved beginning with the crusher, grinder, or pulper which

converts the product to a liquid or pulp form, which is then pumped to the first tank. This process follows the usual washing and inspection procedures. What comes next, with variations for certain products, is the mixing and blending of various ingredients

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according to the individual canner's formula, plus, of course, the cooking in a tank,

usually with exposed rotating steam coils. There are then holding tanks or pre-cookers

in which the batch is kept hot before it is pumped to the filler to be put in cans or glass

containers. The above is more or less the process for ketchup. Tomato paste differs in that a vacuum pan is used instead of a normal cook tank. A vacuum pan is a cook tank under pressure with a partial vacuum, thus making it possible to cook the product at a lower temperature which helps retain colour and flavour. Also involved in both ketchup and paste production is a finisher which is a screen through which the product is pumped in order to remove small fibers and particles. The "finishing" process usually precedes the cooking process. With cream-style corn, a heat exchanger is often involved as with tomato paste on occasion. The best product for circulation cleaning is OXYCLEAN. Because of the cooking process there is a problem with burnt-on residue and a high alkaline product such as OXYCLEAN is needed. The solution, at 1 to 125 in 60°C. water should be pumped into

the first tank in the series, usually an ingredient addition tank, then through the finisher, the cooker or vacuum pan, heat exchanger, and through to the filler, where the solution

is dumped. Depending on the severity of the buildup, additions of OXYCLEAN may

have to be made in various tanks, especially the cooker, vacuum pan, and directly

before the heat exchanger. The screen or screens in the finisher should be dismantled and soaked in a 1 to 50 solution of A-420 or F-685 at 82°C.

A water rinse should precede and follow the alkaline cleaning process. The final rinse

water should be checked with pH paper to insure that there is no alkaline residue. Occasionally, an acid treatment my be needed to remove water scale. ACID-O-CLEAN or DETARTREUR at 1 to 50 in 60° to 70° water should be circulated throughout the system. For sanitizing we recommend the use of IX-91 diluted 1 to 500 in cold water or not over 30°C water. This process does not require a final rinse.

Conveyor Belts

One of the biggest problems in a typical canning plant is the cleaning of the conveyor belt. There are thousands of feet of belts in the average cannery, and they must be kept clean. Again, the foam method is the most applicable for the general clean-up. CHLORINALL G at approximately 1 to 20 at 60°C. does an excellent job of keeping neoprene, rubber, and canvas belts clean. At the beginning of the canning season the belts are usually in bad condition and a strong solution of ACID-O-CLEAN, applied with FOME-ADD or in 60°C. water approximately 1:2 to 1:10, should be used to remove protein and hard water scale besides the usual stains. ACID-O-CLEAN or FAS-GLO will probably be needed periodically during the canning season also, probably on a basis of once or twice a month. An example of continuous belt sanitizing consists of spraying a sanitizer on the belts at the discharge end of the belt while in production. Either IX-91 can be used at 25 ppm or

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CL-18 at 100 ppm. The sanitizer can also be sprayed on by using a Hudson Sprayer or


Continuous belt cleaning has also been done by using a spray bar system whereby a solution of OXYCLEAN, is automatically sprayed on the belts and rinsed through the same system. The HYDROCHEM 911 is used for this, through a system of quick disconnects. The rinse can also be provided through this system.

Walls, Floors, Ceilings

For general cleaning of walls, we recommend the use of CHLORINALL G or CHLORINALL H in 60°C. water through the FOAMASTER 890 or 865 This method can

also be used on ceilings. These products will be safe on painted walls and ceilings. Also, these chlorinated products reduce odour, and help control mould due to the chlorine content.


the walls are concrete or plastic, you can use SUPER KLEEN or CHLORINALL G.


mould is present, use a chlorinated cleaner at approximately 1 to 16 down to 1 to 32

in 60°C. water, which will remove most of the mould buildup. Agitation with a stiff bristled nylon brush may be necessary as well as more than one application if the mould has had a chance to adhere tenaciously to the walls and ceilings. In processing areas, after rinsing the product from the surface, use D-600 at a concentration of 16 ml per litre of water, which will give you 1600 ppm of quat. At this concentration of D-600, the sanitizer will kill mould on contact. D-600 is registered as a fungicide by Agriculture Canada at 16 ml per litre of water. Another method of retarding mould growth would be to spray STAY CLEAN on the walls and ceilings after they are cleaned and sanitized. STAY CLEAN does not support bacteriological growth and, thus, is a deterrent to mold, besides making the walls and ceilings easier to clean in the future. For cleaning tough soils on concrete floors where floor scrubbers are being used, we recommend F-3826 at 25 grammes per litre of warm water. F-3826 should not be used on other than quarry tile or concrete floors. For cleaning warehouse floors, we recommend the use of GENERAL CLEAN, FORMULA 268 or OP-430. GENERAL CLEAN and FORMULA 268 are designed for the cleaning of concrete floors with application through a power floor scrubber. GENERAL CLEAN cleans and seals

concrete by building up a clear, protective coating which is non-slippery. The recommended concentrations for GENERAL CLEAN or FORMULA 268, since they are

highly concentrated products, are 1 to 40 down to 1 to 160 with room temperature water.

If a powdered product is desired, OP-430 is effective on tile on concrete floors. It should be used at a concentration of 12 to 25 grammes per litre of water. The most basic way of using OP-430 would be to pre-rinse the floor, spread OP-430 around, allow the product to soak in for 15 to 30 minutes, and rinse. Stubborn areas way need agitation with a stiff bristled nylon brush.

If the floors are painted, you can recommend the use of NEUTRA CLEAN.

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After cleaning of all equipment, we would recommend the use of a final sanitizer. The use of a final sanitizer will reduce the number of bacteria present on the equipment, thus insuring a lower number of bacteria in the product. D-600 or IX-91 can be applied via a DOSATRON™ or through an existing high pressure system.

Off-Season Operations

At the end of the season's production, all the machinery should be well cleaned, rinsed, and dried. Once this has been done, a coat of STAY CLEAN or PROTECT will protect paint from peeling, metal from rusting, etc. This procedure will more than pay for itself at the start of the next season.



Equipment to precook some canned products by direct contact with hot water or live steam. Blanching softens tissue, eliminates air and destroys enzymes before products are packed into cans.

Closing Machine

Equipment also known as a double seamer. Machine which double seams can ends onto can-bodies.


Neoprene or metal runways used to transfer product from one area to another.

Cooling Canals

Water bath used to quickly cool the canned product after cooking to prevent over cooking.


Equipment used to cut or section fruits or vegetables before filling.

Filling Machine

Equipment that places product into metal or glass containers.


Water system used to transport fruits and vegetables.


Moving screens or spaced rollers used to sort fruits and vegetables for size and maturity.


Equipment used to grind fruit or vegetables prior to further processing.


Equipment used to remove peel from fruits or vegetables


Pressure cookers of various type used to "process" or cook the

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canned product.

A) Continuous cooker/cooler reel type cooker that continuously feeds in cans, cooks and cools the cans and discharges the cans.

B) Crateless retorts - cookers that are fed cans from above, cook the cans and then drop them from the bottom, usually into a cooling canal.

C) Horizontal/vertical retorts batch retorts that cook the cans after they have been stacked in wire baskets. An older, slower process.

Vacuum Pan

Cook tank under pressure with a partial vacuum allowing lower cook temperature.

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