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Citation: Wani SP, Sahrawat KL, Sarvesh KV, Baburao Mudbi, and Krishnappa K (eds.

)
2011. Soil Fertility Atlas for Karnataka, India. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India:
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 312 pp. ISBN 978-92-9066543-4. Order code: BOE 055.

Abstract


use of fertilizers supplying various nutrient elements. This Atlas comprises of results from


productivity of rain-fed systems in the state of Karnataka by adopting science-led approach
with technical backstopping from ICRISAT-led consortium. The recommendations on nutrient

Following a soil sampling methodology standardized earlier, 92904 soil samples were collected
from 30 districts of Karnataka in India. The soil samples were processed and analyzed for
pH, electrical conductivity (EC) as a measure of salts, organic carbon (as a proxy for available
nitrogen), and available phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, boron and zinc using standard methods.

Soil samples were prepared showing the category of soil sample per nutrient or soil fertility

results at the Taluka or Block level of each of the 30 districts.
The results showed that soil reaction was in the neutral range with a few soil samples in the acid



results on available sulfur, boron and zinc were most revealing. Considering the mean values of



or farmers. The results presented in the maps are made web-based for easy access and practical
 

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), 2011. All rights reserved.
ICRISAT holds the copyright to its publications, but these can be shared and duplicated for non-commercial
purposes. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part(s) or all of any publication for non-commercial use is
hereby granted as long as ICRISAT is properly cited. For any clarication, please contact the 'irector of
Communication at icrisat@cgiar.org. ICRISATs name and logo are registered trademarks and may not be used
without permission. You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice.

Soil Fertility Atlas for Karnataka, India

Editors

Suhas P Wani, KL Sahrawat, KV Sarvesh, Mudbi Baburao,


and K Krishnappa

Department of Agriculture
Government of Karnataka
Bengaluru 560 001, Karnataka, India

Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India

Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge the Government of Karnataka for its bold and innovative
initiative to adopt science-led approach for development in the state. This is possible largely
because of examplery leadership shown by the leaders and policy makers in the state. We
sincerely acknowledge support of Mr Sandeep Dave, Commissioner of Watershed and
currently Principal Secretary, Principal Secretary to Government, Department of Agriculture,
who initiated the soil fertility mapping in six districts of Karnataka under Sujala-ICRISAT
initiative at the pilot for scaling-up productivity enhancement measures to cover 3700
ha. Based on the results of the pilot initiative in 2009, Dr KV Raju, Economic Advisor to
Hon. Chief Minister of Karnataka, Additional Chief Secretary and Development Commissioner
    
  
   
Directors of Agriculture - Organic Farming, Crop Development and Planning; Joint Directors
of Agriculture - Inputs, Development; Deputy Directors of Agriculture - Soil Health and
Food Crops; All District Joint Directors of Agriculture; All Assistant Director of Agriculture;
  
   
        
Universities; ICRISAT, Patancheru; NBSS&LUP, Nagpur; Farm Facilitators and Farmers).
   
assistance provided by the Government of Karnataka to ICRISAT is gratefully acknowledged.

ICRISAT who undertook the analysis and Soil analytical laboratory in the state of Karnataka
who have undertaken the analysis. We also acknowledge ICRISATs GIS Lab, Communication


ii

List of Project Team


Project Leader
Suhas P Wani
 
Resilient Dryland Systems, ICRISAT

Members
Additional Chief Secretary and Development Commissioner, Govt. of Karnataka
Additional Directors of Agriculture - Organic Farming, Crop Development and Planning, GoK



All Agriculture Assistants of ICRISAT and Govt. of Karnataka

All Assistant Directors of Agriculture, Govt. of Karnataka
All District Joint Directors of Agriculture. Govt. of Karnataka
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Karnataka
Deputy Directors of Agriculture - Soil Health and Food Crops, Govt. of Karnataka
Director of Agriculture, Commissionerate of Agriculture, Govt. of Karnataka
Economic Advisor to Honble Chief Minister, Govt. of Karnataka
Farm Facilitators and Farmers
  
Joint Directors of Agriculture - Inputs, Development, Govt. of Karnataka
Kishnappa K, Visiting Scientist, Resilient Dryland Systems, ICRISAT
   

   
Principal Secretary to Government, Dept. of Agriculture, Govt. of Karnataka
  
Sahrawat KL, Consultant, Resilient Dryland Systems, ICRISAT
Vice Chancellor, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Vice Chancellor, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka
Vice Chancellor, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka

iii

Contents
Messages........................................................................................................................ vii-xiv
Introduction ............................................................................................................................1
 ...........................................................1
References ...............................................................................................................................2
Karnataka Soil Fertility Status at a Glance .........................................................................3
District-wise Soil Status Maps ............................................................................................23
Appendix: Chemical characteristics of Karnataka soils ...............................................265

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xiv

Introduction
 
soils. However, it is a commonly held belief that at relatively low yields of crops in the



crop production systems. It is duly recognized and emphasized that the productivity of SAT
soils is low due to water shortage. Apart from water shortage, low fertility is also an issue
because low fertility constrains crop productivity in the SAT regions of India, but in practice

Moreover, the inputs of major nutrients to dryland production systems are meager. Also, due
to low productivity of the dryland, it is generally assumed that the mining of micronutrient
reserves in soils is much less than in irrigated production systems.
Our past research showed that the SAT soils of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh

states are widespread; and the productivity of these soils can be sustainably enhanced
through balanced nutrient management. Our research also demonstrated that soil testing

al. 2010). This report further uses soil testing to cover entire SAT districts of Karnataka and

management in pursuit of sustainable enhancement of agricultural productivity in rain-fed


areas of Karnataka.

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To characterize the fertility status of soils, 92904 soil samples were collected from farmers

arable land in watersheds varied along with land holding size and cropping systems. Soil
sampling strategy was based on taking samples to represent the entire watershed. The soil

sampling units were decided on the basis of crop, area covered by the crop and number of




category. For soil sampling, we randomly selected 20% farmers in each position on the
 

sample.

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The soil samples were air-dried and powdered with wooden hammer to pass through a 2-mm
sieve. For organic carbon analysis, the soil samples were ground to pass through a 0.25-mm
sieve. Prepared samples were analyzed for various fertility characteristics using methods


using soil to water ratio of 1:2 organic carbon was determined using the Walkley-Black
method. Exchangeable or available potassium was determined using the ammonium acetate
2) as an extractant;

3) test. Available
zinc was extracted by DTPA reagent and available boron was extracted by hot water.

References
Sahrawat KL, Rego TJ, Wani SP and Pardhasaradhi G. 2008. Stretching soil sampling to watershed:
Evaluation of soil-test parameters in a semi-arid tropical watershed. Communications in Soil Science
and Plant Analysis 39:2950-2960.
Sahrawat KL, Wani SP, Pardhasaradhi G and Murthy KVS. 2010. Diagnosis of secondary and

semi-arid tropics. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 41:346-360.

Karnataka Soil Fertility Status


at a Glance

Source: NBSS&LUP, Nagpur, India

Figure 1. Soil orders of Karnataka state


5

Figure 2. pH status of Karnataka soils


6

Figure 3. Electrical conductivity status of Karnataka soils


7

Figure 4. Organic carbon status of Karnataka soils


8

Figure 5. Available phosphorus status of Karnataka soils


9

Figure 6. Available potassium status of Karnataka soils


10

Figure 7. Available sulphur status of Karnataka soils


11

Figure 8. Available zinc status of Karnataka soils


12

Figure 9. Available boron status of Karnataka soils


13

39
58

Figure 10. Karnataka soil status - pH

14

C
C

96

Figure 11. Karnataka soil status - Electrical conductivity

15

48

52

Figure 12. Karnataka soil status - Organic carbon

16

59

41

Figure 13. Karnataka soil status - Available phosphorus

17

23

77

Figure 14. Karnataka soil status - Available potassium

18

48

52

Figure 15. Karnataka soil status - Available sulfur

19

45

55

Figure 16. Karnataka soil status - Available zinc

20

38

62

Figure 17. Karnataka soil status - Available boron

21

District-wise
Soil Status Maps

24

Figure 18. pH status in Bagalkot district

25

Figure 19. Electrical conductivity status in Bagalkot district

26

Figure 20. Organic carbon status in Bagalkot district

27

Figure 21. Available phosphorus status in Bagalkot district

28

Figure 22. Available potassium status in Bagalkot district

29

Figure 23. Available sulphur status in Bagalkot district

30

Figure 24. Available zinc status in Bagalkot district

31

Figure 25. Available boron status Bagalkot district

Figure 26. pH status in Bengaluru Urban district


32

Figure 27. Electrical conductivity status in Bengaluru Urban district


33

Figure 28. Organic carbon status in Bengaluru Urban district


34

Figure 29. Available phosphorus status in Bengaluru Urban district


35

Figure 30. Available potassium status in Bengaluru Urban district


36

Figure 31. Available sulphur status in Bengaluru Urban district


37

Figure 32. Available zinc status in Bengaluru Urban district


38

Figure 33. Available boron status in Bengaluru Urban district


39

Figure 34. pH status in Belgaum district


40

Figure 35. Electrical conductivity status in Belgaum district


41

Figure 36. Organic carbon status in Belgaum district


42

Figure 37. Available phosphorus status in Belgaum district


43

Figure 38. Available potassium status in Belgaum district


44

Figure 39. Available sulphur status in Belgaum district


45

Figure 40. Available zinc status in Belgaum district


46

Figure 41. Available boron status in Belgaum district


47

48

Figure 42. pH status in Bellary district

49

Figure 43. Electrical conductivity status in Bellary district

50

Figure 44. Organic carbon status in Bellary district

51

Figure 45. Available phosphorus status in Bellary district

52

Figure 46. Available potassium status in Bellary district

53

Figure 47. Available sulphur status in Bellary district

54

Figure 48. Available zinc status in Bellary district

55

Figure 49. Available boron status in Bellary district

56

Figure 50. pH status in Bengaluru Rural district

57

Figure 51. Electrical conductivity status in Bengaluru Rural district

58

Figure 52. Organic carbon status in Bengaluru Rural district

59

Figure 53. Available phosphorus status in Bengaluru Rural district

60

Figure 54. Available potassium status in Bengaluru Rural district

61

Figure 55. Available sulphur status in Bengaluru Rural district

62

Figure 56. Available zinc status in Bengaluru Rural district

63

Figure 57. Available boron status in Bengaluru Rural district

64

Figure 58. pH status in Bidar district

65

Figure 59. Electrical conductivity status in Bidar district

66

Figure 60. Organic carbon status in Bidar district

67

Figure 61. Available phosphorus status in Bidar district

68

Figure 62. Available potassium status in Bidar district

69

Figure 63. Available sulphur status in Bidar district

70

Figure 64. Available zinc status in Bidar district

71

Figure 65. Available boron status in Bidar district



72


73


74


75


76


77


78


79

80

Figure 74. pH status in Chamarajanagar district

81

Figure 75. Electrical conductivity status in Chamarajanagar district

82

Figure 76. Organic carbon status in Chamarajanagar district

83

Figure 77. Available phosphorus status in Chamarajanagar district

84

Figure 78. Available potassium status in Chamarajanagar district

85

Figure 79. Available sulphur status in Chamarajanagar district

86

Figure 80. Available zinc status in Chamarajanagar district

87

Figure 81. Available boron status in Chamarajanagar district

88

Figure 82. pH status in Chikaballapur district

89

Figure 83. Electrical conductivity status in Chikaballapur district

90

Figure 84. Organic carbon status in Chikaballapur district

91

Figure 85. Available phosphorus status in Chikaballapur district

92

Figure 86. Available potassium status in Chikaballapur district

93

Figure 87. Available sulphur status in Chikaballapur district

94

Figure 88. Available zinc status in Chikaballapur district

95

Figure 89. Available boron status in Chikaballapur district

96

Figure 90. pH status in Chikamagalur district

97

Figure 91. Electrical conductivity status in Chikamagalur district

98

Figure 92. Organic carbon status in Chikamagalur district

99

Figure 93. Available phosphorus status in Chikamagalur district

100

Figure 94. Available potassium status in Chikamagalur district

101

Figure 95. Available sulphur status in Chikamagalur district

102

Figure 96. Available zinc status in Chikamagalur district

103

Figure 97. Available boron status in Chikamagalur district

Figure 98. pH status in Chitradurga district


104

Figure 99. Electrical conductivity status in Chitradurga district


105

Figure 100. Organic carbon status in Chitradurga district


106

Figure 101. Available phosphorus status in Chitradurga district


107

Figure 102. Available potassium status in Chitradurga district


108

Figure 103. Available sulphur status in Chitradurga district


109

Figure 104. Available zinc status in Chitradurga district


110

Figure 105. Available boron status in Chitradurga district


111

112

Figure 106. pH status in Dakshina Kannada district

113

Figure 107. Electrical conductivity status in Dakshina Kannada district

114

Figure 108. Organic carbon status in Dakshina Kannada district

115

Figure 109. Available phosphorus status in Dakshina Kannada district

116

Figure 110. Available potassium status in Dakshina Kannada district

117

Figure 111. Available sulphur status in Dakshina Kannada district

118

Figure 112. Available zinc status in Dakshina Kannada district

119

Figure 113. Available boron status in Dakshina Kannada district

Figure 114. pH status in Davangere district


120

Figure 115. Electrical conductivity status in Davangere district


121

Figure 116. Organic carbon status in Davangere district


122

Figure 117. Available phosphorus status in Davangere district


123

Figure 118. Available potassium status in Davangere district


124

Figure 119. Available sulphur status in Davangere district


125

Figure 120. Available zinc status in Davangere district


126

Figure 121. Available boron status in Davangere district


127

128

Figure 122. pH status in Dharwad district

129

Figure 123. Electrical conductivity status in Dharwad district

130

Figure 124. Organic carbon status in Dharwad district

131

Figure 125. Available phosphorus status in Dharwad district

132

Figure 126. Available potassium status in Dharwad district

133

Figure 127. Available sulphur status in Dharwad district

134

Figure 128. Available zinc status in Dharwad district

135

Figure 129. Available boron status in Dharwad district

Figure 130. pH status in Gadag district


136

Figure 131. Electrical conductivity status in Gadag district


137

Figure 132. Organic carbon status in Gadag district


138

Figure 133. Available phosphorus status in Gadag district


139

Figure 134. Available potassium status in Gadag district


140

Figure 135. Available sulphur status in Gadag district


141

Figure 136. Available zinc status in Gadag district


142

Figure 137. Available boron status in Gadag district


143

144

Figure 138. pH status in Gulbarga district

145

Figure 139. Electrical conductivity status in Gulbarga district

146

Figure 140. Organic carbon status in Gulbarga district

147

Figure 141. Available phosphorus status in Gulbarga district

148

Figure 142. Available potassium status in Gulbarga district

149

Figure 143. Available sulphur status in Gulbarga district

150

Figure 144. Available zinc status in Gulbarga district

151

Figure 145. Available boron status in Gulbarga district

152

Figure 146. pH status in Hassan district

153

Figure 147. Electrical conductivity status in Hassan district

154

Figure 148. Organic carbon status in Hassan district

155

Figure 149. Available phosphorus status in Hassan district

156

Figure 150. Available potassium status in Hassan district

157

Figure 151. Available sulphur status in Hassan district

158

Figure 152. Available zinc status in Hassan district

159

Figure 153. Available boron status in Hassan district

160

Figure 154. pH status in Haveri district

161

Figure 155. Electrical conductivity status in Haveri district

162

Figure 156. Organic carbon status in Haveri district

163

Figure 157. Available phosphorus status in Haveri district

164

Figure 158. Available potassium status in Haveri district

165

Figure 159. Available sulphur status in Haveri district

166

Figure 160. Available zinc status in Haveri district

167

Figure 161. Available boron status in Haveri district

Figure 162. pH status in Kodagu district


168

Figure 163. Electrical conductivity status in Kodagu district


169

Figure 164. Organic carbon status in Kodagu district


170

Figure 165. Available phosphorus status in Kodagu district


171

Figure 166. Available potassium status in Kodagu district


172

Figure 167. Available sulphur status in Kodagu district


173

Figure 168. Available zinc status in Kodagu district


174

Figure 169. Available boron status in Kodagu district


175

Figure 170. pH status in Kolar district


176

Figure 171. Electrical conductivity status in Kolar district


177

Figure 172. Organic carbon status in Kolar district


178

Figure 173. Available phosphorus status in Kolar district


179

Figure 174. Available potassium status in Kolar district


180

Figure 175. Available sulphur status in Kolar district


181

Figure 176. Available zinc status in Kolar district


182

Figure 177. Available boron status in Kolar district


183

184

Figure 178. pH status in Koppal district

185

Figure 179. Electrical conductivity status in Koppal district

186

Figure 180. Organic carbon status in Koppal district

187

Figure 181. Available phosphorus status in Koppal district

188

Figure 182. Available potassium status in Koppal district

189

Figure 183. Available sulphur status in Koppal district

190

Figure 184. Available zinc status in Koppal district

191

Figure 185. Available boron status in Koppal district

192

Figure 186. pH status in Mandya district

193

Figure 187. Electrical conductivity status in Mandya district

194

Figure 188. Organic carbon status in Mandya district

195

Figure 189. Available phosphorus status in Mandya district

196

Figure 190. Available potassium status in Mandya district

197

Figure 191. Available sulphur status in Mandya district

198

Figure 192. Available zinc status in Mandya district

199

Figure 193. Available boron status in Mandya district

200

Figure 194. pH status in Mysore district

201

Figure 195. Electrical conductivity status in Mysore district

202

Figure 196. Organic carbon status in Mysore district

203

Figure 197. Available phosphorus status in Mysore district

204

Figure 198. Available potassium status in Mysore district

205

Figure 199. Available sulphur status in Mysore district

206

Figure 200. Available zinc status in Mysore district

207

Figure 201. Available boron status in Mysore district

208

Figure 202. pH status in Raichur district

209

Figure 203. Electrical conductivity status in Raichur district

210

Figure 204. Organic carbon status in Raichur district

211

Figure 205. Available phosphorus status in Raichur district

212

Figure 206. Available potassium status in Raichur district

213

Figure 207. Available sulphur status in Raichur district

214

Figure 208. Available zinc status in Raichur district

215

Figure 209. Available boron status in Raichur district

Figure 210. pH status in Ramanagara district


216

Figure 211. Electrical conductivity status in Ramanagara district


217

Figure 212. Organic carbon status in Ramanagara district


218

Figure 213. Available phosphorus status in Ramanagara district


219

Figure 214. Available potassium status in Ramanagara district


220

Figure 215. Available sulphur status in Ramanagara district


221

Figure 216. Available zinc status in Ramanagara district


222

Figure 217. Available boron status in Ramanagara district


223

224

Figure 218. pH status in Shimoga district

225

Figure 219. Electrical conductivity status in Shimoga district

226

Figure 220. Organic carbon status in Shimoga district

227

Figure 221. Available phosphorus status in Shimoga district

228

Figure 222. Available potassium status in Shimoga district

229

Figure 223. Available sulphur status in Shimoga district

230

Figure 224. Available zinc status in Shimoga district

231

Figure 225. Available boron status in Shimoga district

Figure 226. pH status in Tumkur district


232

Figure 227. Electrical conductivity status in Tumkur district


233

Figure 228. Organic carbon status in Tumkur district


234

Figure 229. Available phosphorus status in Tumkur district


235

Figure 230. Available potassium status in Tumkur district


236

Figure 231. Available sulphur status in Tumkur district


237

Figure 232. Available zinc status in Tumkur district


238

Figure 233. Available boron status in Tumkur district


239

Figure 234. pH status in Udupi district


240

Figure 235. Electrical conductivity status in Udupi district


241

Figure 236. Organic carbon status in Udupi district


242

Figure 237. Available phosphorus status in Udupi district


243

Figure 238. Available potassium status in Udupi district


244

Figure 239. Available sulphur status in Udupi district


245

Figure 240. Available zinc status in Udupi district


246

Figure 241. Available boron status in Udupi district


247



248


249


250


251


252


253


254


255

256

Figure 250. pH status in Yadgir district

257

Figure 251. Electrical conductivity status in Yadgir district

258

Figure 252. Organic carbon status in Yadgir district

259

Figure 253. Available phosphorus status in Yadgir district

260

Figure 254. Available potassium status in Yadgir district

261

Figure 255. Available sulphur status in Yadgir district

262

Figure 256. Available zinc status in Yadgir district

263

Figure 257. Available boron status in Yadgir district

Appendix:
Chemical characteristics of
Karnataka soils

267

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'HILFLHQWILHOGV

0XGLJHUH 

6ULQJHUL 

7DULNHUH 

&KLNDPDJDOXU
'LVWULFW 

































$Y=Q
SSP

































 













$Y6
SSP

      















   









   









5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.RSSD 

   









5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

    











(&
G6P

.DGXU 

&KLNDPDJDOXU &KLNDPDJDOXU  5DQJH


0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

'LVWULFW

S+

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ&KLNDPDJDOXUGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV

































$Y%
SSP

277











5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+LUL\XU 

+RODONHUH 

+RVDGXUJD 

0RODNDOPXUX  5DQJH


0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

&KLWUDGXUJD'LVWULFW 5DQJH
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV







&KLWUDGXUJD  5DQJH


0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

S+



3DUDPHWHU
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

7DOXND

&KLWUDGXUJD &KDOODNHUH 

'LVWULFW






















(&
G6P





























2&






























$Y3
SSP

$Y%
SSP
 





$Y=Q
SSP

 





  









  









  













  













$Y6
SSP

   



































$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ&KLWUDGXUJDGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV

278
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

0DQJDORUH 

3XWWXU 

6XO\D 

'DNVKLQD.DQQDGD 5DQJH
0HDQ
'LVWULFW 
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

  







5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

%DQWZDO 









   









  







  







   













   









%HOWKDQJDG\  5DQJH


0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

$Y3
SSP

'DNVKLQD
.DQQDGD

3DUDPHWHU

2&


7DOXND

(&
G6P

'LVWULFW

S+

























$Y.
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

 





 





 





 





 





 





$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ'DNVKLQD.DQQDGDGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV

























SSP

$Y%

279

7DOXND






+DULKDUD  5DQJH


0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+RQQDOL 

-DJDOXU 

'DYDQDJHUH
'LVWULFW 










+DUDSDQDKDOOL 5DQJH
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV






5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

3DUDPHWHU

S+

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

'DYDQDJHUH




'DYDQDJHUH &KDQQDJLUL

'LVWULFW

7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV

2&


 




 




 




 




 




 




 




(&
G6P





























$Y3
SSP





























$Y.
SSP





























$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ'DYDQDJHUHGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND





























$Y=Q
SSP





























SSP

$Y%

280

7DOXND






5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.XQGJRO 

1DYDODJXQG


'KDUZDG'LVWULFW 5DQJH
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV







5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.DOJKDWJL 







S+

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

3DUDPHWHU

+XEOOL 

'KDUZDG 'KDUZDG 

'LVWULFW

7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV



















(&
G6P

























2&


























$Y3
SSP

























$Y.
SSP





$Y=Q
SSP





$Y%
SSP

























  





















  













$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ'KDUZDGGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND

281

*DGDJ






5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

1DUJXQG 

5RQ 

6KLUKDWWL 

*DGDJ'LVWULFW  5DQJH


0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV










5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

0XQGDUJL 




S+
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

3DUDPHWHU

*DGDJ 

'LVWULFW 7DOXND

2&


 




 




 




 




 




 




(&
G6P

























$Y3
SSP

























$Y.
SSP

$Y6
SSP













$Y=Q
SSP

 





 





 

















7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ*DGDJGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV
$Y%

























SSP

282

&KLQFKROL   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

&KLWDSXU   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

*XOEDUJD   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

-HYDUJL  



6HGDP  



*XOEDUJD'LVWULFW5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

























5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

$I]DOSXU   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

*XOEDUJD$ODQG  










3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

































S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









  









  









  









(&
G6P

$Y6
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  








  













  











   











   











   











   











   











$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ*XOEDUJDGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV

283

$UNDOJXG   5DQJH


Mean


 Decient elds

$UVLNHUH   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

%HOXU  



&KDQQDUD\D
5DQJH
SDWWDQD   0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+DVVDQ   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+ROHQDUVLSXU
 


6DNOHVKSXU  5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+DVVDQ'LVWULFW 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

































5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

'HILFLHQWILHOGV




5DQJH
Mean

+DVVDQ $OXU  





3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND





























0.63
30

23.4
18

  









  









  









  









  









  









  









0.30





$Y3
SSP

 
0.71
24.3

2&


  


0.37

(&
G6P

6.2




5.8

S+





7.0

$Y6
SSP




1.23

$Y=Q
SSP




0.33

$Y%
SSP

13.1
68

0.97
48

0.36
89

  









  









  








  









  









   































   











119
8

   




107

$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ+DVVDQGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

284
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+DYHUL %\DGJL  







+DQJDO  



+DYHUL  



+LUHNHUXU   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQLEHQQXU
 


6DYDQXU   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

6KLJJDRQ   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+DYHUL'LVWULFW 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





























5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV


3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

































S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









  









  









  









(&
G6P

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  









  









$Y6
SSP

  









   











   











   











   















   



















$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ+DYHULGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

285

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.RGDJX












0DGLNHUL
 

6RPYDUSHW
 

9LUDMSHW  


.RGDJX'LVWULFW
 



3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND













S+


7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV














(&
G6P













2&














$Y3
SSP













$Y.
SSP














$Y6
SSP














$Y=Q
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ.RGDJXGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND














$Y%
SSP

286
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

%DQJDUDSHW
 


.RODU  



0DOXU  



0XOEDJDO   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

6ULQLYDVSXU
 


.RODU'LVWULFW
 


.RODU























5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV


3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

























S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









  









(&
G6P

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  









  









  









$Y6
SSP

  








   













   























$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ.RODUGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

287

.XVKWDJL   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

<HOEDUJD   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.RSSDO'LVWULFW 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





























5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.RSSDO  







S+






3DUDPHWHU

.RSSDO *DQJDZDWL  5DQJH




0HDQ


'HILFLHQWILHOGV



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

2&


$Y3
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









(&
G6P

$Y6
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  








  













   











   











  











$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ.RSSDOGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

288

0DQG\D   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

1DJDPDQJDOD 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

3DQGDYDSXUD
 


6KULUDQJD
SDWWDQD  


0DQG\D'LVWULFW 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





















5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

0DODYDOOL   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





0DGGXU   5DQJH



0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV 

5DQJH
Mean
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

0DQG\D .ULVKQDUDMSHW

 








3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND






























6.8


S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









  









  









  


0.29
0.56
13.5




(&
G6P






























102


$Y.
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









  









  









  


42.0
0.49
0.61




$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ0DQG\DGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

289

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

0\VRUH +HJJDGD

GHYDQD

.RWH  

+XQVXU  



.ULVKQDUDMD
QDJDU  


0\VRUH  



1DQMDQJXG
 


3LUL\DSDWQD
 


71DUVLSXU
 


0\VRUH'LVWULFW 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





























5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
 0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV


3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

































S+


































(&
G6P

$Y3
SSP

 





 





 





 





 





 





 





 





2&


$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  









  









  









$Y6
SSP





 





  









  









   























   























$Y.
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ0\VRUHGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

290
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DLFKXU 'HYDGXUJD

 



/LQJVXJXU
 


0DQYL  



5DLFKXU  



6LQGKDQXU
 


5DLFKXU'LVWULFW 5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





















5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV


3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

























S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

$Y.
SSP

$Y6
SSP

















$Y=Q
SSP

     















     















    













    













    













    













(&
G6P

$Y%
SSP

























7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ5DLFKXUGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

291

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DPD &KDQQDSDWQD
QDJDUD  



.DQDNDSXUD
 


0DJDGL  



5DPDQDJDUD
 


5DPDQDJDUD 5DQJH
'LVWULFW   0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

















5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV


3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND





















S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

$Y.
SSP

  









  









  









  

























   











(&
G6P

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

  









  









  









  









  









$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
ILHOGVLQ5DPDQDJDUDGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND
7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIILHOGV

292
'HILFLHQWILHOGV
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

+RVDQDJDUD
 


6DJDU  



6KLNDULSXUD
 


6KLPRJD   5DQJH



0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV

6RUDE  



7KLUWKDKDOOL
 


6KLPRJD
5DQJH
'LVWULFW   0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV





























5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5.9

Mean































5DQJH

6KLPRJD%KDGUDYDWL

 



S+



3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

2&


$Y3
SSP



0.61



12.8

  









  









  









  









  









  









  









0.10

  

(&
G6P































133



$Y.
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP



1.05



0.76

  









  









  









  









  









  









  











17.8

  

$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ6KLPRJDGLVWULFW.DUQDWDND

293

7XPNXU


































3DUDPHWHU

&KLNDQD\DNDQ 5DQJH
Mean
KDOOL  

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
*XEEL  
5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
.RUDWDJHUH
5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
.XQLJDO   5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
0DGKXJLUL   5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
3DYDJDGD   5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
6LUD  
5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
7LSWXU  
5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
7XPNXU   5DQJH

0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
7XUXYHNHUH
5DQJH
 
0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV
7XPNXU
5DQJH
'LVWULFW   0HDQ

'HILFLHQWILHOGV



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

2&


$Y3
SSP

0.18

































































































0.37

































4.0

  

(&
G6P

6.8



S+


































83



$Y.
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP

































5.6

































0.85

































0.32

  

$Y6
SSP

7DEOH&KHPLFDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIVRLOVDPSOHVFROOHFWHGIURPIDUPHUV
HOGVLQ7XPNXUGLVWULFW
.DUQDWDND7KHYDOXHVLQSDUHQWKHVLVLVQXPEHURIHOGV

294
5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

.DUNDO  



.XQGDSXUD
 


8GXSL  



8GXSL'LVWULFW
 


8GXSL















5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV

5DQJH
0HDQ
'HILFLHQWILHOGV


3DUDPHWHU



'LVWULFW 7DOXND

















S+


2&


$Y3
SSP

  









  









  









  









(&
G6P

















$Y.
SSP

$Y=Q
SSP

$Y%
SSP













 





 





 





  









$Y6
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About ICRISAT
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is a non-prot, non-political organi]ation that
conducts agricultural research for development in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa with a wide array of partners throughout the world.
Covering 6.5 million sTuare kilometers of land in 55 countries, the semi-arid tropics have over 2 billion people, and 644 million
of these are the poorest of the poor. ICRISAT and its partners help empower these poor people to overcome poverty, hunger,
malnutrition and a degraded environment through better and more resilient agriculture.
ICRISAT is headTuartered in +yderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, with two regional hubs and four country ofces in sub-Saharan
Africa. It belongs to the Consortium of Centers supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Contact Information
ICRISAT-Patancheru
(Headquarters)
Patancheru 502 324
Andhra Pradesh, India
Tel +91 40 30713071
Fax +91 40 30713074
icrisat@cgiar.org

,&5,6$7/LDLVRQ2IFH
CG Centers Block
NASC Complex
Dev Prakash Shastri Marg
New Delhi 110 012, India
Tel +91 11 32472306 to 08
Fax +91 11 25841294

ICRISAT-Nairobi
(Regional hub ESA)
P2 Box 39063, Nairobi, .enya
Tel +254 20 7224550
Fax +254 20 7224001
icrisat-nairobi@cgiar.org

ICRISAT-Bamako
(Regional hub WCA)
BP 320
Bamako, Mali
Tel +223 20 223375
Fax +223 20 228683
icrisat-w-mali@cgiar.org

ICRISAT-Niamey
BP 12404, Niamey, Niger
(9ia Paris)
Tel +227 20722529,
20722725
Fax +227 20734329
icrisatsc@cgiar.org

ICRISAT-Bulawayo
Matopos Research Station
P2 Box 776,
Bulawayo, =imbabwe
Tel +263 383 311 to 15
Fax +263 383 307
icrisat]w@cgiar.org

ICRISAT-Lilongwe
Chited]e Agricultural Research Station
P2 Box 1096
Lilongwe, Malawi
Tel +265 1 707297, 071, 067, 057
Fax +265 1 707298
icrisat-malawi@cgiar.org

ICRISAT-Maputo
co IIAM, Av. das FPLM No 2698
Caixa Postal 1906
Maputo, Mo]ambiTue
Tel +258 21 461657
Fax +258 21 461581
icrisatmo]@panintra.com

www.icrisat.org

ISBN: 978-92-9066-543-4

2rder code: B2( 055

596-2011