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# Chapter 15

## SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS ANALYSIS,

STATE-MINIMIZATION,
ASSIGNMENT AND CIRCUIT
IMPLEMENTATION

Lesson 1

## General Sequential Circuit with the

memory section and combinational
circuits at input and output stages

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

Outline

## Next state of a Flip Flop

General sequential circuit
Synchronous Sequential circuit
Asynchronous sequential circuit
Clocked sequential circuit

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

Flip-Flop States

## Qn+1 is the next state after the (n + 1)th

transition
Qn is state (present state)

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

## Flip-flop Characteristic expressions for

next state
SRFF: Qn+1 = S + R. Q n
DFF: Qn+1 = D
JK FF: Qn+1 = J.Q n + K. Q n
T FF: Qn+1 = T.Q n + T. Q n
= T. XOR Q n

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

Outline

Flip Flops
General sequential circuit
Synchronous Sequential circuit
Asynchronous sequential circuit
Clocked sequential circuit

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

## In general, a sequential circuit consist of a

complex circuit, which combines memory
section and combinational circuit(s)

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

## m of flip-flops, which have a set Q with m

present state outputs Q0, Q1 and Qm1.

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

External Inputs X
and Present state Q as input to a
combinational circuit
Q are always the inputs to the
combinational circuit

## A Set X of i inputs X0, X1, ...Xi1.

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

## Outputs Y from the combinational circuit

with Q and X in the inputs
A Set Y of i outputs Y0, Y1, ...Yi1 out of
Y0, Y1, ...Yi1 are feedback as inputs to
memory section to get next state.
Note: Sequential circuit is one the present
state Q is input to have transition to next
state
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## General Sequential Circuit

Y0...Yj1

Present
state
X0...Xi1
X

Q0
m- FFs
Q
Memory ...
Section Qm1
Combinational Y0
...
Circuit
Yj1 Y

Next
state
Feedback
Y0...Yj

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Outline

Flip Flops
General sequential circuit
Synchronous Sequential circuit
Asynchronous sequential circuit
Clocked sequential circuit

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Synchronous sequential circuit

Synchronous sequential circuit is a circuit in
which the output Y depends on present state
Q and present inputs X at the clocked
instances only. These instances can be
defined by the clock inputs or or or
and memory section activates to give
next state Q.

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## General Synchronous Sequential

Circuit
Present
Q
c0...cp1

Sequential Q0
Q
...
Circuit
Qm1

Change to next
Y
state Q and Y
Y0...Yj1 at clock input
instances only

Clocking
instances

X0...Xp1
External
Inputs

state

X
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Outline

Flip Flops
A general sequential circuit
Synchronous Sequential circuit
Asynchronous sequential circuit
Clocked sequential circuit

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Asynchronous sequential circuit

Asynchronous sequential circuit is a circuit
in which not only the present inputs X and
present state Q but also the sequences of
changes affect the output Y. The changes
can be at undefined instances.

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## General Asynchronous Sequential

Circuit
Present
Q
X0...Xp1
External
X
Inputs

Sequential Q0
Q
...
Circuit
Qm1

state

Change to next
Y
state Q and Y
Y0...Yj1 at undefined
instances

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Outline

Flip Flops
A general sequential circuit
Synchronous Sequential circuit
Asynchronous sequential circuit
Clocked sequential circuit

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Clocked Sequential Circuit

A clocked sequential circuit is a
synchronous sequential circuit in which the
output Y depends on present state Q and
present inputs X at a clocked instance,
which are identical to all the flip-flops at the
memory section.
Memory section undergoes change to next
state input after the identical clock inputs
occur at each flip-flop
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## General clocked Sequential Circuit

Q
Clocking
instance

Sequential Q0
Q
...
Circuit
Qm1

Change to next
Y
state Q and Y
Y0...Yj1 at clock input
instances only

X0...Xp1
External
Inputs

Present
state

X
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Outline

Flip Flops
A general sequential circuit
Synchronous Sequential circuit
Asynchronous sequential circuit
Clocked sequential circuit
Moore and Mealy Machines
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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State Machine
A sequential circuit can also be considered
as a machine producing states after
undergoing sequential transitions
Instances of Sequence change can be guided
by the clock inputs in synchronous
sequential circuits
Instances of Sequence change is not guided
in asynchronous sequential circuits
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Clocked Sequential Circuit as Moore

Clocking
Machine
instance

Y0...Yj1
Moore
Machine

Q0
m- FFs
Q
Memory ...
Section Qm1

Combinational Y0
Present Circuit
...
state
Yi1 Y

Next
state
Feedback
Y0...Yj1

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Clocked Sequential Circuit as Mealy

Clocking
Machine
instance

Y0...Yj1

Q0
m- FFs
Q
Memory ...
Section Qm1

Mealy
Machine
Present
Combinational Y0
state
...
Circuit
Yj1 Y
X0...Xi1
X

Next
state
Feedback
Y0...Yj

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Moore Machine
Q = FQ (Q) [Next state outputs Q are the
function of past state as the present inputs
at a clocking instance.] and Y = FQ (Q) [Y
is a function of present state outputs Q
before the clocking instance.]

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Mealy Machine
Q = FQ (X, Q) [Next state outputs Q are
the function of past state Q and present
external inputs at a clocking instance.] and
Y = Fo (Q) [Y is a function of present state
outputs Q before the clocking instance.]

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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Moore-Mealy Conversion
Any sequential circuit for the Y can be
designed as Mealy machine as a Moore
machine can be converted to a Mealy
machine by using appropriate set of (X, Q,
FQ, FY). Similarly any sequential circuit for
the Y can be designed as Moore machine as
a Mealy machine can be converted to a
Moore machine by using appropriate set of
(Q, FQ, FY).
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Summary

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Sequential circuit has both the memory

section and combinational circuit
General sequential circuit has external
inputs, and present state as the input to
generate next state

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Synchronous sequential circuit next state at

outputs depends on external inputs, and
present state at the clock instances to
generate next states
Clocked sequential circuit next state at
outputs depends on external inputs, and
present state at a clock instance the input to
generate next state
Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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## Asynchronous sequential circuit next state at

outputs depends on external inputs, and present
state at the undefined instances
Mealy machine next state outputs Y and Q are
the function of past state Q and present external
inputs at a clocking instance
Moore machine outputs Y and Q are the function
of past state Q at a clocking instance

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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End of Lesson 1 on
General Sequential Circuit with the
memory section and combinational
circuits at input and output stages

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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THANK YOU

Ch15L1- "Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006

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