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EET101-Lab4

EET101-Lab4

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EET-101-Principles of DC Circuits

1. INTRODUCTION:

In this experiment, the objective is to study the characteristics and behavior of

a parallel DC circuit and to also verify the current divider rule.

2. THEORY AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION:

This experiment requires knowledge of parallel DC circuits and the current

divider rule. A parallel circuit is one that has two or more paths for the current

to flow and the loads are parallel to each other. The parallel circuit has

different characteristics than a series circuit. In a parallel circuit, the total

resistance is always less than any of the branch resistances. Also in a parallel

circuit, the voltage is the same across each component of the circuit and no

voltage is lost. The current in a parallel circuit breaks up, with some flowing

along each parallel branch and re-combining when the branches meet again.

The current in each branch can be calculated using the current divider

rule/formula. The current divider rule is the rule that determines how much

current flows through each branch when the current is divided. The formula is

Ix=(IT*RT)/(Rx) which is the (total current multiplied by the total resistance)

divided by the resistance in the specified branch.

In the first part of the lab, the experimenter is asked to compute IT, I1, I2, I3,

and REQ for the circuit shown in Figure 1 on the Experiment Sheets. Then,

the experimenter will check the resistance of each resistor and connect the

three resistors in parallel to measure REQ. Next, using the VOM, the

experiment will record current readings and calculate the resistances using the

measured data. In the last part of the lab, the experimenter will design a twobrand parallel circuit that limits the current to 12.5 mA and divides the current

such that about 20% of the current flows through one resistor and 80% flows

through the other. Once the circuit is constructed, the experimenter will check

its performance by taking voltage and current readings.

3. EQUIPMENT USED:

A DC Power Supply

o ELENCO PRECISION-TRIPLE REGULATED POWER

SUPPLY MODEL XP-660

A VOM

o Keithley 169 Multimeter

A Resistor Set

o 1.2 k ohms

o 2.2 k ohms

o 3.3 k ohms

2 Resistors to be determined by circuit design (Procedure #4)

A Breadboard

o R.S.R. Board Model MB-104

4. PRESENTATION OF DATA:

Procedure 1

Nominal

(ohms)

R1

1200

R2

2200

R3

3300

REQ

629

E (Volts)

10

10

10

10

I (mA)

8.33

4.55

3.03

15.9

Procedure 2

Measured (ohms)

1196

2180

3260

625

R1

R2

R3

REQ

E (Volts)

10

10

10

10

IT

I1

I2

I3

E (Volts)

10

10

10

IT

I1

I2

Calculated

(mA)

12.5

10.0

2.50

Procedure 3

Measured

(mA)

18.0

8.35

4.58

3.07

Procedure 4

Measured

(mA)

12.34

10.0

2.34

REQ

R1

R2

R3

REQ

R1

R2

Calculated

(Ohms)

556

1198

2183

3257

Calculate

d (ohms)

800

1000

4000

5. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:

Product/Sum : (2200*3300)/(2200+3300)=1320 ohms

I=V/R=(10V)/(629ohms)=0.0159A

0.0159A * 1000 = 15.9 mA

R=V/I=(10V)/(0.018A)=556 ohms

Ix=(IT*RT)/(Rx)=(12.5mA*800ohms)/(1000ohms)=10.0mA

Measured

(ohms)

808

994

4260

6. ANALYSIS OF DATA:

The data that was determined was pretty accurate verified the current divider

rule. The only discrepancy was in procedure 3. The total current that was

measured is not equal to the sum of the three current readings in each branch.

The total current that was measured was 18mA but (8.35+4.58+3.07) = 16mA.

16mA does not equal 18 mA (IT). Nonetheless, the current divider rule was

verified in all other procedures for this experiment.

7. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS:

1. In a parallel circuit, voltage is the same across each resistor and anywhere

in the circuit. In a parallel circuit, there is no voltage drop unlike in a

series circuit where there is a voltage drop.

2. Kirchoffs current law states that the total current leaving a circuit is equal

to that entering the circuit and no current is lost. The current readings at

nodes a and b verify Kirchoffs current law but the total current that was

measured is not equal to the sum of the three current readings for each

resistor. (8.35+4.58+3.07) = 16mA. 16mA does not equal 18 mA (IT).

3. The measured resistances are similar to the calculated resistance values

but are not equal. Although they are not equal, all measured resistances are

within tolerance.

4. The current divider rule is the rule that determines how much current

flows through each branch when the current is divided. The formula is

Ix=(IT*RT)/(Rx) which is the (total current multiplied by the total

resistance) divided by the resistance in the specified branch. In procedure

4, the 12mA current was divided into 10.0mA and 2.50mA.

I1=(12.5mA)(800 ohms)/(1000 ohms) = 10.0mA

I2=(12.5mA)(800 ohms)/(4000 ohms) = 2.50mA

Thus the current was divided into two parts, which are equal to the total

current because no current is lost.

8. ROUGH DATA:

See attached paper labeled Rough Data.

9. EXPERIMENT SHEETS:

See attached papers titled Experiment Sheets.

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