22 views

Uploaded by p_k_soni_iit_physics

- WHAT IS A GENE?
- Motion
- Beyond-Einstein.pdf
- KVPY 7 Years Papers Booklet
- Dan Winter the Real Grail is in Your DNA
- Front Matter
- Gravity
- 1. Numerical Investigation of Minimum Impulse Orbital Transfer
- stars_that_hide_and_move_swiftly
- arti
- MSc Spacetrack Kickoff September 2016
- Essay on Black Holes
- Teacher Guide Activity 3 Gravity
- viteze cosmice
- First-Principles Plasma Simulations of Black-Hole Jet Launching
- A-B-Cs of Sun-Synchronous JPL
- Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions
- Our Impossible Earth and Moon - An Article by Fred Cameron
- Gravitation - An Elementary Explanation of the Principal Perturbations in the Solar System, Airy
- Wil McCarthy - How the Bald Apes Saved Mass Crossing

You are on page 1of 20

the Hydrogen Atom

F 12

F 21

m2

r

r̂ 12

m1

The gravitational force between

two particles is attractive. The

unit vector r̂ 12 is directed from

particle

:

1 toward

:

particle 2. Note

that F 21 F 12.

Light

Mirror source

M r

m

the Cavendish apparatus for

measuring G. As the small spheres of

mass m are attracted to the large

spheres of mass M, the rod rotates

through a small angle. A light beam

reflected from a mirror on the

rotating apparatus measures the angle

of rotation. The dashed line

represents the original position of the

rod. (In reality, the length of wire

above the mirror is much larger than

that below it.)

F I G U R E 11.3 (a) The gravi-

tational field vectors in the

vicinity of a uniform spherical

mass vary in both direction

and magnitude. (b) The gravi-

tational field vectors in a

small region near the Earth’s

surface are uniform; that is,

they all have the same

direction and magnitude. (a) (b)

r

h

RE

Fg

v

m

F I G U R E 11.4 (Example 11.1) A

satellite of mass m moving around

the Earth in a circular orbit of

radius r with constant speed v. The

only force acting on the :satellite is

the gravitational force F g . (Not

drawn to scale.)

y

a

r2 c b

r1

x

F1 F2

Figure 11.5

Plot of an ellipse. The semimajor axis

has length a, and the semiminor axis

has length b. A focus is located at a

distance c from the center on each side

of the center.

Sun

Center

Orbit

of Pluto

(a)

Orbit of

Comet Halley Sun

Center

(b)

of Pluto, which has the highest eccentricity

(e 0.25) among the planets in the Solar

System. The Sun is located at the large

yellow dot, which is a focus of the ellipse.

Nothing physical is located at the center of

the orbit (the small dot) or the other focus

(the blue dot). (b) The shape of the orbit of

Comet Halley.

Mp

Sun

Fg v

MS

(a)

r d r = v dt

Sun

dA

(b)

Figure 11.7

planet acts toward the Sun, along the

radius vector. (b) As a planet orbits

the Sun, the area swept out by the

radius vector in a time interval dt is

equal to one-half the area of the

parallelogram formed by the vectors

r and d :

:

r :

v dt .

v

Mp

MS

moving in a circular orbit about the

Sun. Kepler’s third law relates the

period of the orbit to the radius.

Energy

Etot (unbound)

rmax

0 r

Etot (bound)

U (r)

line represents a bound system. The

separation distance r between the two

gravitationally bound objects never

exceeds rmax. The upper total energy

line represents an unbound system of

two objects interacting gravitationally.

The separation distance r between the

two objects can have any value.

va a

vf = 0

ra

h

rmax

vi

rp

m

p vp

F I G U R E 11.11An object of

RE

mass m projected upward

from the Earth’s surface with

F I G U R E 11.10 (Example 11.2)

A satellite in an elliptical orbit

an initial speed vi reaches a

ME about the Earth.

maximum altitude h rmax

R E.

Event

horizon

Black

hole

RS

distance R S equals the Schwarzschild

radius. Any event occurring within the

boundary of radius R S, called the event

horizon, is invisible to an outside

observer.

F I G U R E 11.13 A binary star

system consisting of an

ordinary star on the left and a

black hole on the right. Matter

pulled from the ordinary star

forms an accretion disk

around the black hole, in

which matter is raised to very

high temperatures, resulting

in the emission of x-rays.

Telescope images of the galaxy

M87. The inset shows the center

of the galaxy. The wider view

shows a jet of material moving

away from the center of the

galaxy toward the upper right of

the figure at about one-tenth the

(H. Ford et al. & NASA)

believed to be evidence of a

supermassive black hole at the

galaxy’s center.

y

l

traveling to the right with wave speed

v. Any point on the wave moves a

distance of one wavelength in a time

interval equal to the period T of the

wave.

(K. W. Whitten, R. E. Davis, M. L. Peck, and G. G. Stanley, General Chemistry, 7th ed., Belmont, CA, Brooks/Cole, 2004)

l (nm) 400 500 600 700

Hg

Ne

(a)

(b)

F I G U R E 11.16 Visible spectra. (a) Line spectra produced by emission in the visible range for the elements hydrogen,

mercury, and neon. (b) The absorption spectrum for hydrogen. The dark absorption lines occur at the same wavelengths as

the emission lines for hydrogen shown in (a).

l (nm)

486.1 656.3

lines for atomic hydrogen. The

prominent lines labeled are part of the

Balmer series.

–e

me

F

+e v

F I G U R E 11.18

A pictorial representation

of Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom,

in which the electron is in a circular

orbit about the proton.

9a 0

4a 0

–e

a0

+e

Figure 11.19

The first three circular orbits predicted

by the Bohr model for hydrogen.

n E (eV)

∞ 0.00

5 –0.544 2

4 –0.850 4

3 –1.512

Paschen

series

2 –3.401

Balmer

series

Lyman

ENERGY

series

1 –13.606

Figure 11.20

An energy level diagram for

hydrogen. The discrete allowed

energies are plotted on the vertical

axis. Nothing is plotted on the

horizontal axis, but the horizontal

extent of the diagram is made large

enough to show allowed transitions.

Quantum numbers are given on the

left and energies (in electron volts)

on the right. Vertical arrows represent

the four lowest-energy transitions in

each of the spectral series shown. The

colored arrows for the Balmer series

indicate that this series results in

visible light.

y

(0, 3.00) m

2.00 kg

F24

(– 4.00, 0) m

x

F64 O 4.00 kg

6.00 kg

Figure P11.4

(Courtesy of NASA /JPL)

(a) (b)

image of a 5 000-m cliff on Miranda

Black hole

100 m 10.0 km

Figure P11.10

M

r P

P

M

Figure P11.11

Sun

0.570 AU x

2a

Halley (not to scale).

220 km/s

CM

M

220 km/s

Figure P11.17

Y X

(a) (b)

Figure P11.18

By permission of John Hart FLP, and Creators Syndicate, Inc.

Figure P11.27

- WHAT IS A GENE?Uploaded byTyranosopher
- MotionUploaded bycircleline
- Beyond-Einstein.pdfUploaded byYe Thurein Min
- KVPY 7 Years Papers BookletUploaded byNilesh Gupta
- Dan Winter the Real Grail is in Your DNAUploaded byramashakti
- Front MatterUploaded byrichardfisica
- GravityUploaded byzingoria
- 1. Numerical Investigation of Minimum Impulse Orbital TransferUploaded byFrancisco Carvalho
- stars_that_hide_and_move_swiftlyUploaded bydastaq
- artiUploaded byAshkan Nourizadeh Dehkordi
- MSc Spacetrack Kickoff September 2016Uploaded byKiran Kumar
- Essay on Black HolesUploaded byJae Hyuk KIM
- Teacher Guide Activity 3 GravityUploaded byCanada Railway Times
- viteze cosmiceUploaded bySolaris
- First-Principles Plasma Simulations of Black-Hole Jet LaunchingUploaded byBrasil Terraplanista
- A-B-Cs of Sun-Synchronous JPLUploaded byJohn R Walsh
- Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density ConditionsUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Our Impossible Earth and Moon - An Article by Fred CameronUploaded byAnjum-1-4-1
- Gravitation - An Elementary Explanation of the Principal Perturbations in the Solar System, AiryUploaded byandresmejia68
- Wil McCarthy - How the Bald Apes Saved Mass CrossingUploaded bykoshinbashi4259
- 3-d Virtual Reality Model of the SunUploaded byAgung Taufik Hermansyah
- Dear Qubitzers, GR=QM_1708.03040Uploaded bydagush
- Circular Motion, Orbits, And GravityUploaded bygundul pacul
- Analytical Dynamics - Problems Set 5Uploaded bySiddharth Rajamohanan
- Atomic SpectroscopyUploaded bybarnokoy
- Laser ScannerUploaded byRutvij Rami
- Toulmin99Uploaded byanita041966
- Report SampleUploaded byAyalew Mohammed
- EC6004 - Satellite Communications (1).xlsUploaded bysaravanan
- 1405.6575v2Uploaded byjimjorge

- iit Jee 2010 Paper 1Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- THERMODYNAMICSUploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- Jan 2012Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- Polarization 1Uploaded byshings
- Calculus based PhysicsUploaded bySAMEER ALI KHAN
- Irodov Problems in General PhysicsUploaded byadiscauchy
- AIEEE 2010 SolutionUploaded byResonance Kota
- Iit Jee 2010 Paper 2Uploaded byjagtan
- Solutions to HC VermaUploaded byNetesh Kumar Singh
- m127Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- fiitjeeUploaded byKashish Kamboj
- IIT JEE 2011 PAPER-2 FIITJEEUploaded bytanmay100
- m495Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- physics 2011 model test paper for 12th cbseUploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- Iit Jee Paper 1Uploaded byManasvi Sharma
- m510Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m494Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m493Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m366Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m142Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m135Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m134Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m130Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m128Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m125Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- Magnetic Field of a Moving ChargeUploaded byGeeleegoat
- m123Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- Force of Charged Particle in Magnetic FieldUploaded byPoqu Chan
- m121Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics
- m101Uploaded byp_k_soni_iit_physics

- Lecture - 2&3 - Direct DyesUploaded bymlg54
- Preview of “Acid dissociation constant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia”Uploaded byAnge Joey Lau
- 1Uploaded byவிஜய்ராஜ்
- thomas hewlett puente del alamillo teamgeckoUploaded byapi-284149698
- Unwedge Theory of FSUploaded byRisman Chandra
- finite width correction factors-Journal of Composite Materials-1988-Tan-1080-97 (3).pdfUploaded byDeghboudj Samir
- Superposition Notes 2013_Student VersionUploaded byRonnie Quek
- E-6012_DC ad adasd ad adqwe adas daUploaded byPeja Jusoh
- Ch13Uploaded byxperia30
- KineticsUploaded bysamuelo
- Mixture and SeperationsUploaded byChevy Toni Lewin
- CHAPTER 3 Sheet PileUploaded byMuhammad Hafizuddin
- 02c Multi Distillation 2014Uploaded byAlfredArulapanAlexander
- Ship Dynamics in WavesUploaded byramia_30
- Theory Manual Volume 1Uploaded byDario Manrique Gamarra
- Assignment No.1. MechanicsUploaded byNiejam AdDin's Law
- Chemistry Lesson Plans 08 - StoichiometryUploaded byHernandez Jan Marini
- The Prophecy CompleteUploaded byWilliam Lewis
- Desalter Operation OptimizationUploaded byusman_hafeez86
- Answers of Ch 9 hibler staticsUploaded byEslam Belal
- zeeshanmahdi lab reportsUploaded byZeeshanMahdi
- Experimental Free-space Quantum Teleportation - WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COMUploaded byFausto Intilla
- Trial SBP SPM 2014 ADD MATH K2Uploaded byCikgu Faizal
- rotodynamicsUploaded byLaksh Man
- Spectro 5Uploaded bywani
- qchem2-lecturenotes01Uploaded byMark Cliffton Badlon
- 3 D GeomertyUploaded byPrithviraj Netke
- S. Goldfein - Energy Development From Elemental Transmutations in Biological Systems - Report 2247 -Uploaded byLucaChiesi
- 06 Chapter 2Uploaded byPremdass Devadass
- Agip Blasia p 1000Uploaded byranjangupt