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Culture, Lifestyle and Sociology Study of Sade Village at Lombok Island,

Indonesia
Arif Anwar1, Shah Hakimi1, Mohd Amerhakim1, Justin Aizad1 and Fuad Mat Jali2
1

National Gifted and Talented Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi,
Selangor.

Social Science and Humanities Faculty, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi,
Selangor.
lokmanolhakim@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Sade Village, Lombok Island is one of traditional village where existed of Islam Sasak tribe, natural
tribe at Lombok. They practice interest culture and their own lifestyles but still practice Islam
teachings. This village is also a tourist area that always visited by tourists from whole the world
because of its unique and located on the side road of Mataram to Kuta Beach. So, the purpose of this
study is to disclose culture and real lifestyles of peoples at there. Observation methods by recording
video and observing peoples life at there and interview method with village head also done to know
everything about lifestyles and all village residents sociology aspect. After that, video observation
playing, interview recording and every sociology aspect that heard analysed and wrote inside a
notebook. The result is village residents practice marriage kidnapping to bring to males family house
as replace of apply or melamar. Its house building has Bale Dalam and Bale Luar where has three
cement staircases that describe position of God and parents that need respected. Besides, their sons
also highly educated. Furthermore, peoples at there make ceremony which is like legeh hujan,
kitana and so on with following Islam guide. Decapitation punishment also applies towards husband
who cheats other women. Their main economic activity is weaving, making products and souvenirs,
farmer and tourist guide. Finally, they were Islamized on 16 th century by Wali Songo and after that,
they still practice pray three times per day, or Telu time and todays, they practice pray five times per
day after their Islam enhanced. In conclusion, village residents at there still practice natural lifestyle
and have own social condition.

KEYWORDS: Bale; Decapitation; Telu; Lifestyle; Culture

INTRODUCTION
Lombok Background

For your knowledge, Lombok Island is one of province or states in Indonesia and becomes
exotic tourist area after Bali which neighbouring with this island. However, this province
name is actually known as Southeast Nusa. Although at overall surface, their communication
language is Indonesia language but Sasak language more used by local residents. Indonesia
languages only used for communicate with outside residents of Lombok. Geographically,
island which covered 5,435 km2 located at west Bali. 85% of residents at here is Sasak tribe
and majority of them Islam although most of their culture still influenced by Bali Hindu
religion, so its dont matter if called Balis sibling. Here, it has a few of tourist islands, like
Gili Island where consists of three small islands and Sumbawa Island.
To go to Lombok, if you use public transport, international airport provided for those any
flight that landing at here and it located 30 minutes to north Mataram city (West Lombok)
and very near to Praya. Mataram City is main province administrative centre. Rinjani
Mountain also accessed by pass through international airport. For those who use water
transport, Gili Trawangan Island port and Kecamatan Pemenang port provided either from
Bali, where take 2 hours with express boat from Gili. To go Sumbawa Island, Lombok port
where located at the backside of Mataram City provided to Sumbawa Island.
At here has a few of interest tourists area to visit such as Rinjani Mountain (3,476 m at sea
level) for hiker lover that provided bomb and excited scenery mostly this mountain is less
active volcano mountain and has own big lake. Normally, tourists from outside come here
will choose Gili Trawangan Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Air Island. Other tourist places
like Kuta Beach (like at Australia beach), weaving area, pearl making, Senggigi Beach, Batu
Layar Island and so on. Public transport around here only has metered taxi and cidomo
(horse-drawn carriage). Because of that, tourists normally will take driver or shuttle agent
with bargain price to walk around Lombok.

Sade Village
Here also is the one of traditional village in Lombok, which is Sade Village that 100% Sasak
tribe is Islam religious although most of their culture still oriented Bali Hindu religion. This
village is also one of the village where defend their local culture, lifestyle and artefact system
still awake with its norm. Geographically, it is Nilsnd (2013) is one of four Sasak village
where located at Desa Rembitan, Kecamatan Pujut, Kabupaten Middle Lombok dan located
at the side road of Mataram-Kuta Beach, around 1 hour journey from Mataram, while 1 hour
30 minutes from airport. For more accessibility, it is advisable for accommodate Fatoer
Doang (2011) at Senggigi area, because only took 30 minutes to go to that village due to
Senggigi located at Middle Lombok. Sade Village located bordered by:
Barat side

: Dusun Penyalu

East side

: Dusun Lentak

North side

: Dusun Selak

South side

: Dusun Selemang

Its terrain is hilly and heave and the backside faced Rinjani Mountain. Here has another 2
villages that also located at the side of road, north side faced Kuta and south side faced
Mataram. This village is paddy field but more fertile located at south side. Furthermore, this
village also has own tradition with combination of Islam and Hindu culture which is
uniqueness of their society. Thats why too much of tourists visited Sade Village with nonstop even some of them overnight at here, make research and shooting also.
Residents house also narrow builder of its distance that make family relationship and
between residents relationship at here very close and help each other. Only walk in is able if
want to round the whole Sade Village. Here, 715 peoples or 250 families live at 3 Sade
Village but at spot study especially around 150 families or 200 peoples only. Live at there is
very peace and harmony.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Myth Story & History
According to Urdak Selaka (2015), Sade Village has own history, where contained its myth
story which supposedly from King of Kayangan generation, named as Raja Amaratu Kamaci,
namely at Rinjani Mountain. Although that, he lost immediately until lost year to be made
Sakra ceremony that located at Kayangan Mountain where assumed as power of worship with
Allah swt.
Village Planning Theory
Village planning is activity that needed in drafting village welfare. Rural planning is one of
action that purposely for creating Astuti (1997) village life within peace, healthy and
economy. Rural planning is very important because large part of Indonesia resident live at
rural while they need attention towards relative regional development which now is very little
compared with town building.
Determination to become tourist village by government, like at Sade Village need to follow
its condition:
1. Good accessibility, until easily visited by tourists using a lot of transport alternative.
2. Has interest object or things in form of nature, culture art, legends, and local food and
so on to extend as tourist area.
3. Society and village head accept and give high support towards tourist village with
tourists who come to their village.
4. Peaceful at village guaranteed.
5. Provided accommodation, telecommunication and enough labour.
6. Cold or fresh climate.
7. Easily to access with others tourist area where well-known.
Tourist village development has double benefits in economy, social, politic and others
field. Double benefits from tourist village development, which is:
1. Economy: Increase country economy, area and local society.
2. Social: Open field work and be trying the best for village society.
3. Politic:
a. International: Link international peaceful at the world.
b. National: Strengthen race society and avoid disintegration.
4. Education: Extend vision and thinking way village peoples and also teach ways to live
healthy and clean.
5. Knowledge and technology: Increasing knowledge and technology in tourist field.
6. Culture society: Disclose and extend art and nature regional culture that nearly lost to
preserve again.
7. Area: Enlighten society important of preserve area for live today and coming soon.

Culture Formation
Culture of each race or society included from big until small element which is a part of
roundness that character as unity. For example in Indonesia culture Khoirul Aman (2013)
founded big element like People Consultative ceremony, besides has small elements like cat
or others that very small its influence towards culture.
A few of scholar already try to conclude main culture elements. For example, Melville J.
Herskovits proposed four main elements in culture formation:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Technology tool.
Economy system.
Family.
Politic power.

However, Malinowski who known as one of pioneer of functional theory in anthropology


said main culture element:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Norm system that possibly cooperation between society.


In ability to dominate surrounding environment.
Economy organization.
Power organization.
Tools or education officer and need to remind that family are main educational
institution.

Each from these formation can grouped until scientific nature and classify inside big
culture element, that always known as cultural universal. Culture elements that assumed as
cultural universal as follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Language (verbal and written)


Art (fine art, sound art, movement art and so on).
Knowledge system.
Relief system.
Society system (consanguineous system, political organization, law system and
marriage system).
6. Economy system (agriculture, livestock, manufacture and so on).
7. Human life tools (house, cloth and so on).

METHODOLOGY
Below will explained two methods and steps that already used to disclose everything about
culture and lifestyle of society at Sade Village:
Observation Method
In mobility programme in Indonesia, Sade Village is chosen place to make fieldwork. In this
method, we directly went to that village on nearly noon. At here, we made observation
together with one of tourist guide at this village who duty bring tourists around that village.
In the same time, video recording and camera already used to record and take scenery
photo and surrounding society life while heard explanation from that tourist guide and written
those results inside a notebook. We also brought enter inside selected houses and made
review while focus that house building. Video recording and camera used by rotate that
recording to residents house and all of them.
Furthermore, this video recording and camera also focus towards weaving products and
local making product in Lombok version with also handicraft making process to know
livelihoods of society at there.
Interview Method
Then, interview method made towards village header of Sade by using recording of hand
phone one of our group mobility programmes. Before that, background questions about that
village header asked first. After that, interview ran until one hour later by ask all questions
about Sade Village in term of all sociology question, which is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Marriage way
Total of family over there and that village background.
History and myth story.
Religion and Belief.
Culture: Dance and Food.
Ceremony and activities.
Society life over there.
Occupation and economy activities.
Residents opinion about federal government.

Analysing Method
Finally, all interview recording and video recording with camera combined to edit video by
using Sony Professional Studio software by edit technical part and interview background
sound to make sure volume increased, hence it easily to hear recording.
After that, final technical editing video product analysed together. While that video
recording heard, all result and sociology aspects that heard and saw written inside a notebook.
Final report about sociology aspects at Sade Village made.
RESULT & DISCUSSION
House Building & Main Hall
As overall, this village complete with main hall, which is gathering place of Sasak tribe
residents for any ceremony, customs or marriage ceremony. This hall made from bamboo
woods that made as that main hall and its location is at the in front of that village faced main
road.
Traditional building or Sasak tribe house consist of two types that known as Bale Tani
(house) and Lumbung. Bale Tani space or house is a building used as residence which
measured 7 x 5m. This house made from wood and its walls that made from bamboo webbing
and roofed sago palm trees or dry leaves. Its floor made mixed elements such as clay, rubber
wood and thatched ash (buffalo dropping). Why its floor has buffalo dropping mixed? This is
because this mixed can flue dust and avoid from mosquito enter because that floor warm and
assumed as holy if has any ritual, namely worship mostly prayers. If do not has that mixed
element, worship of occupant of house is not assumed as holy.

House divided into two, Bale Luar section and Bale Dalam section. Inside space is
special for women family and girls bedroom and linked with kitchen for cooking purpose.
Furthermore, girls bedroom also used as childbirth room if not using midwife service only,
not to clinic. While Bale Luar section is special for others family (men) and linked with
living room. Between inside and outside part separated with three stairs that made from rock
slide. It means by the most top need to be respected is God, second mother and third father.
That three elements need to be respected as in Islam teaching. Why houses build like that?
This is meant by girl need to stay up in the house and need to ask permission from husband
before go out.

At inside part, namely cooking room has two fireplace that unite with floor that made from
clay where used for cooking. Residents at this village normally cook by wood as fuel. This
inside part has only one door as path the way go out and in at outside part and overall, and do
not has window at that house. Although that, door formation builds lower same as adult chest.
Thats why for those who will enter need to bend as symbol need to respect each other and
appreciate between guest with host (Bale). Therefore, storied building of house not build like
that even has own meaning towards us how to run our life as social humanities by respect and
give priority where supposedly follow Islam teaching as mention previous paragraph.
In front of house has building known as Lumbung that functions for keep paddy that
harvested and keep all things need by family. Lumbung made because of paddy outcome
need rain water catchment once a year only. Furthermore, there are still has others building at
Sade Village like Sambi and Alang. Sambi is keeping place of agriculture outcomes like
paddy and vegetables. Alang has same function as Sambi but Alang design special,
namely building roofed reed with radius oval circles and the end side is sharp towards up.

Still also has building known as Barugag/sekepat which is building part that function to
accept guests because normally Sasak tribe assuming not all can enter the house.
Furthermore, it also functions as place for accepting marriage for those has own girl. While
Sekenam functions as learning place for teaches manners, culture cultivation and as meeting
family internal or relax chatting after work.
These houses divided into three types, first Bale Tani, main house that consist 5-6
bedrooms for big family. While second house is kodong where completed one bedroom only
and small house used for wedding session and honeymoon room at least for a month.
Normally, married couple will choose others place for honeymoon at the oversea, but
residents at here have own house and very rare to honeymoon at others place. Finally, there
are has third house, pelintar house where its house consist of 3-4 bedrooms and special for
small family. Distance between houses is very near until social interaction close.

Ceremony
Here, much culture ceremony is very interesting to explain. Most of ceremony that they done
have no element of shirk and fulfil Islam teaching although certain these ceremonies have
Hindu element or Islam in Telu time because here also has Hindu residents or very little.
Some of events like, Awal Muharram, Maulidur Rasul also practice as many Islam people
doing but some of events/ceremonies which are interest and unique will explain as below:
1. Baunyale
Baunyale is an event or sacral tradition that full with legend story about that ritual
ceremony. In ancient time, lived a beautiful princess and be seized by more crown princes
from kings in Nusantara. A beautiful princess named Puteri Mandalika. She is son of Raja
Tonjang Baru who his government located at region that resided by Sasak tribe nowadays.
Due to her beautiful, many crown princes wanted ask for her hand until Puteri Mandalika
became more confused to accept or reject one of them. This is because if one of crown
princes proposals rejected, it will happen war as usual in that time where rejection proposal
assumed as degrading and self-regard. Because of her worrying will cause war just because
one of proposal rejected, she decided to kill herself by dive to the sea and finally die and then
reincarnate as spirit who residence that place.
This basis belief then becomes practice among Sasak tribe to practice Bau Nyale ritual
daily. Sasak tribe believe Nyale is incarnation from Puteri Mandalika that needs to give
special respect first before take its benefit. Nyale itself is actually type of sea animal breed by
laying eggs, sex between boy and girl. This ceremony runs every year on the end of Februari
and Mac. For Sasak tribe, Nyale used for a lot of necessity like repast (Emping Nyale),
sprinkled towards field for paddy fertility, side dishes, strong medicine and others which
character magic suitable with each confidence.
2. Periseian
Periseian is actually a daily tradition every year by Sasak tribe where inside Periseian held
fighting between two people at the court by a cane with bitumen layer and broken glass that
smoothed, while armour (Ende) made by cow or buffalo skin. Every its player completed
with head tying and long cloth.
Periseian itself at the early was a sword training and armour by government soldiers in
Lombok before they faced war at war court. But, in the journey, this Periseian then extended
and still ran until today by Sasak tribe as fight event at court with judges as tournament
manager. Sasak tribe know that this event will cause both of them bleed stroked by cane but
at the outside court, they did not revenge each other. Now, it is only used to entertain tourists
who comes their village.
3. Ketupat War (Topat War)
Topat War ceremony run by workers who work as farmer as a symbolic of grateful to Allah
due to His bounty that gave and at once from expectation towards blessing God in hope
coming year soon they gave enough rain, fertile soil to plant and a rich harvest. Technically,
this ceremony is throwing ketupat each other in a court that named as kemalig. In this
ceremony can dub until days with various channel inside it.

4. Legeh Hujan
This ceremony normally held to ask request from Allah to drop rain when draught season
long-standing. It make by botot pelaka tradition way, which is beat bamboo between
housing block A & B. In the same time, all residents at here gather at the middle of Sun while
request Allah to drop rain.
5. Ayu-ayu
It is one of homage ceremony towards deceased ancestor heredity of each family who already
die. After that, they held that event every Saturday by visit grave. Then, residents make food
dish like paddy or cegeing sekerang, ketupat and roast chicken and show in front of
ancestor grave.
Culture: Dance, Game & Food
Dances that done by residents at Sade Village different and have own meaning and event
itself. The famous dance is Oncer and Gendang Beleq dance. Oncer dance consist of
three sections, which is describe war, movement to open door and lastly kadal nengos
(sometime see/careful).
While Gendang Beleq (Beleq Drum) consists of ceng-ceng, suling, rincik, gong,
reong and small drum. According to history, Gendang Beleq functioned to escort
government team who will be fight in the war even return from war court. But for today,
Gendang Beleq is use as dance to welcome guests.
In addition, it also has Peresehan tradition, which is fighting between two peoples by a
long cane and long squared armour that made from cattle skin. This dance is earlier as war
but for todays, it only used to entertain tourists also.
For food, here explained famous food which become custom and tradition of residents
here, which is vegetables type like Mi Kolan where mixed off corn and white rice. Then,
there are also has coconut milk leaf, pelecek leaf, coconut milk and virgin meat placed and
functioned as any ceremony held at that time.
Wedding Ceremony
Almost all the youngsters here married with cousin, relative or local people. This is because it
became tradition if marriage with outside village or not relative will charged expensive
payment, which is price same as two buffalos and cannot live at this village again. But, if
married with local village people only charge 2-3 million rupiah (RM 800-RM 1000). Hence,
youngsters at this village more prefer to choose girls at here compared outside girl.
In addition, marriage kidnapping tradition also practice replaced proposal or melamar
where cannot practice and this tradition become custom not only peoples here, but also it
come custom towards the whole of Lombok Island which consist 85% Sasak tribe. Every
young people who want married must kidnap his woman selection candidate for one night,
and then on tomorrow, one of representative from man selection candidate party comes to girl
selection candidate family house as an envoy. By that kidnap way, hence family or woman of
parents candidate party will feel honoured and admired. Normally, during discussion process
or spy, if that people not suitable or dont agree to marry, man party need to pay to woman
family around 200K rupiah (RM 80).

However, every girl who wants married with a man, a man need clever and able in
ploughing and rice cultivation at field. Likewise sex vice-versa where a girl doesnt matter
outside or residents here need to be able and clever in weaving cloth. If they dont fulfil that
condition, they cannot marriage.

After marriage, of course they will make wedding ceremony. That ceremony is very
rousing because they celebrate and enjoy until afternoon side will be held nongkolan
festival, where that husband need to go to his wife or family in-law. Normally, village header
which also is custom functionary accompanies this wedding couple.
Religion & Relief
In ancient time, Sasak tribe and Lombok is nature resident and practiced aninisme teaching.
After that, they embraced Hindu religion during Majapahit government time that holded
nearly whole of Southeast Asia. Nearly 16th century, nine peoples of Wali Songo Jawa group
came to Lombok to spread Islam religion and finally succeed embracing more Islam people at
this village and Lombok.
Hence, it produced Islam Telu time where Islam was not perfectly towards Sasak tribe
residents. Telu time is result of their confidence with assimilation of mixed relief of Hindu
and aninisme. Why it named as Islam during Telu time? This is because residents at here only
prayed three times per day.
After Wali Songo die and buried at south of this village, every Wednesday they will visit
saints grave. At that time, Islam perfectly reached towards heart of residents here and prays
five times per day as usual in Islam teaching until now. A mosque still exist at this village
where located at in front of Sade Village.
Punishment
There are has two punishments bears for those violator made crime or mistake which reflect
their Islamic is correctly practice by avoid from make sin. Among punishment that famous
until today is stealing where they need to pay for damages or steal either in money form or
things itself to owner. Ways to know who steal is all residents must drink Wali Songo grave
water. For those who not able to do like that, pay for damages bear which shown he/she is
thief.

If see man shake hands with non-mahram woman, they will punish by pay money towards
them. Sometime if happen couple in love with non-mahram without any good reasons,
sometime they bear isolated and expulsion punishment from this village for 10 years for their
mistake. After 10 years, they allow to make choice whether to stay back at this village by
celebrated with Arafah ceremony, which is ceremony indicate meeting Prophet Adam and
Hawa after they separated punishment different country for 40 years after expulse from
paradise because of they eat forbidden fruit. Residents here will make 44 dishes or food with
main menu, which is goat meat.
The more extreme punishment, a man who cheat or make affair relationship with others but
he/she already marriage, that man will punish beheaded by man family party while a woman
who involve in affair relationship run away. So, heavy punishment bears towards them. This
story might happen around 10-12 years ago where after man who cheat beheaded, a woman
ran away to protect under federal government in Jakarta to avoid from punishment or
ridicule. After that, nobody does like that till now.
Education
Dont forget that most of son at here also educated. Some of them are still in primary and
secondary school. Just only in the time, they need to learn survival skills, such as boys son
learn how to involve in rice cultivation while girls learn weaving since 10 years old. Some of
small of youngsters over there already work around Lombok in any profession field and some
of them further study at university.
What make benefit for residents is woman who already work as gynaecologist normally
will become modern midwife if birth happen. Although that, majority of residents at here is
sellers who sell various souvenirs and involve in rice cultivation.
Occupation & Economy Activities
Majority of men work as a farmer who plants vegetables or sekerang paddy. Just their most
peoples who plant at paddy area is located at south that village because that area is very
fertile. Since 10 years old, boys son must learn all techniques in planting. Normally, paddy
only collects rain and plant once a year because of their difficulties that face although they
are already tried.
To add their income, some of men work as a tourist guide who accompanies tourists comes
their village. This is because this village always visited by tourists from whole the world
mostly Eropah tourists who like visit Indonesia until some of tourists make shooting or
travelling show at here because of this village is easily access and interest. Working as a
tourist guide is bearable because normally outside tourists will be give wage to them and
donate inside fund box provided at in front of that village for their welfare.

Women normally make weave cloth by start with spin yarn from cotton till weave yarn
until become cloth by using traditional weave tools and sell to tourists with affordable price
but still can offered until obtain cheap price if lucky. Weave cloth making need to finish
around 1-4 weeks or a month. Some of weave cloth sell around 250,000-300,000 rupiah
(RM 80-RM 100) and some of cloth is very cheap or expensive depend on complexity
making.
Furthermore, some of them make pearl to become bracelet, keychain, decorative sculpture
and so on because cheaper and promotion price. That pearl took from sea shell around beach
nearby. Since 10 years old, girls compulsory to learn weave and make products.
Their Opinion towards Federal Government
Finally, their opinion towards their federal government when asked, they said today federal
government is just okay because of one of it is federal government help a lot of Sade
residents to promote and give allocation for tourist and development of their village purpose.
Just they give opinion that they are have oblique view towards federal government which is
their tribe and Lombok residents had difficulty to hold high position in cabinet position or so
on because they assumed as do not know on Jawa politic. Normally, ministers and high
position more dominated by ministers from Jawa and Sumatera.
When asking about Jokowi, todays Indonesia president, they are have positive view
towards him and todays federal government with various aid sources or them. This is
different with towns in Sumatera and Jawa where majority of them do not like Jokowi mostly
by Jakarta residents.
For additional information, residents here not like Jawa Island where Sade residents help
each other and mutual assistance soul still practice although this village is located in the
middle of Lombok modernization and some of them highly educated. These things can
become good example for Malaysia citizen to take example from them.
CONCLUSION
We can concluded that residents at here have own principle to determine position of room in
some house and its stair describes their social position that need to be respected include its
floor covered by buffalo dung which brings symbol of purity. House divided into Bale
Dalam and Bale Luar with houses at Sade Village divided into three types. Majority of
residents is Islam and 100% of them are Sasak tribe, but their culture still has Bali Hindu
element. According to history, their Islamic spread by Wali Songo Jawa but that time,
residents practiced Telu time, which is pray three times, but today already perfect their

Islamic where they practiced pray five times per day. Besides, they also practice ceremony
like legeh hujan, ayu-ayu and so on. Their sons are most of them educated and some of
their parents involve in rice cultivation, weaving and made various types of products and
some of men become tourist guide to generate extra income. Finally, they still run beheaded
punishment for husband cheat and compensation for those who steal.
In conclusion, Sade Village is too unique in culture aspect and their lifestyle. They still
maintain their building and local culture in the middle of Indonesia modernization. Therefore,
it gives useful inspiration for our society in our country that need to maintain our local culture
and lifestyle that already available in Malaysia for our children and grandchildren one day
because our country culture is various types and races. So, lets together maintain our country
uniqueness and take care race unity so our country more pace and viable.
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