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Chapter 4

A cyclist rides her bike up a very steep hill. Pick from the following choices
the statement that properly describes this example in energetic terms. The
first and fourth answer choices are correct.
An electron in a photosynthetic pigment that is excited to a higher energy
state generally has one of two fates. The first option is the electron can
return to its resting, unexcited state and, in the process, energy is
released. Some of this energy can be transferred to a nearby molecule,
bumping electrons in that molecule to a higher energy state. What is the
other possible fate? The excited electron itself can be passed to another
molecule.
Animal fats and plant oils are sometimes used as sources of fuel for
automobile engines. How is energy harvested from these molecules? They
contain long chains of hydrogen and carbon that, when broken, release the energy
stored in the bonds linking the atoms together.
Concerning fermentation, pyruvate is to lactic acid in muscle cells as
__________ is to __________ in yeast. acetaldehyde; ethanol
During cellular respiration, most of the energy contained within the bonds
of food molecules is captured in: the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain.
During the Calvin cycle, you were introduced to a new molecule,
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Which of the following statements best
explains the role of G3P in this second stage of photosynthesis? G3P is a
small sugar molecule produced by the Calvin cycle, but it is also used by the Calvin
cycle to regenerate the original organic molecule with energy from ATP.
Every time a source of energy is converted from one form to another: some
of the energy is converted to heat, which is not a very usable form of kinetic energy.
How many phosphates do ADP & ATP each have? 2, 3
How many turns of the Krebs cycle are needed to fully breakdown the
energy in one glucose molecule? 2 turns
If ATP is being generated in the cytosol, which of the following processes
is responsible? Glycolysis
If photosynthesis produces cellular energy (ATP) from sunlight, why do
plant cells also need to perform cellular respiration, a process that
produces ATP from sugar? Plant cells cannot make cellular energy at night;
therefore, photosynthesis actually stores ATP energy as sugar, which can be then
converted back to ATP at night by cellular respiration
In the Krebs cycle, the pieces of the starting glucose molecule (now
pyruvate) are completely broken apart to produce carbon dioxide. What

Chapter 4
happened to all the energy that was contained in the bonds of the original
glucose molecule? It was transferred into NADH and FADH2 and some ATP.
Most plant leaves contain yellow and orange carotenoids as well as green
chlorophylls. Why then are most leaves greenish? There is a much greater
concentration of chlorophylls than carotenoids in plant leaves.
NADH: is the reduced form of NAD+.
The leaves of plants can be thought of as "eating" sunlight. From an
energetic perspective this makes sense because: light energy, like chemical
energy that is released when the bonds of food molecules are broken, is a type of
kinetic energy.
The word anabolism refers to constructive, build-up, or synthesis
reactions while the word catabolism refers to destructive, breakdown, or
digestive reactions. What does it mean to say that in a cell, catabolism
fuels anabolism? Cellular respiration (catabolism) forms the ATP that is used to
power anabolic reactions.
What is rubisco? an enzyme involved in the Calvin cycle
What is the difference between ATP and ADP? ADP contains only two
phosphates (adenosine diphosphate), whereas ATP contains three.
When a muscle cell metabolizes glucose in the complete absence of
molecular oxygen, all of the following substances are produced EXCEPT:
acetyl-CoA.
When amino acids are used in cellular respiration to make ATP, what part,
which often ends up in urine, must be removed? the amino group
Where does glycolysis take place inside of the cell? Cytoplasm
Which is NOT true about glycolysis? Both the second and fourth answer choices
are false.
Which of the following is FALSE? The thylakoid membrane lies outside of the
stroma.
Which of the following is NOT one of the major molecular changes that
occurs in glycolysis? Two molecules of pyruvate are converted into two molecules
of acetyl-CoA.
Which of the following statements about pigments is most accurate?
Pigments allow humans (and other animals) to actually see color.
Which of the following statements is FALSE? An apple does not have potential
energy because it cannot move on its own.