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# PH-6151-ENGINEERING PHYSICS

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PH-6151-ENGINEERING PHYSICS
TWO MARKS
II-SEMESTER
COMMON TO ALL BRANCHES
ANNA UNIVERSITY
REGULATIONS 2013

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PH-6151-ENGINEERING PHYSICS
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UNIT-I
CONDUCTING MATERIALS
1. Define Mobility of electrons.
It is defined as the velocity acquired by the electron per unit electric
field =v/E
2. Define Wiedemann- Franz law. Give the value of Lorentz number.
The ratio between the thermal conductivity and the electrical conductivity of a metal
is directly proportional to the absolute temp of the metal.
3. Define Fermi energy level and Fermi energy with its importance.
It is the highest reference energy level of a particle at absolute zero. It is the state
at which the probability of electron occupation is 50% at any temp.
4. Define electrical conductivity.
It is defined as the quality of electricity flowing per unit area per unit time maintained
5. What are the drawbacks of classical free electron theory?

It is a macroscopic theory.

## paramagnetic, ferromagnetism, etc.

The Lorentz number by classical theory does not have good agreement with the experimental value and
is rectified by quantum theory.

## 6. Write the Fermi- Dirac distribution function.

Fermi-dirac distribution function represents the probability of an
electron occupying a given energy level.
7. Define density of states and given an example and state its importance.
Density of states Z(E)dE is defined as the number of available energy states
per unit volume in an energy interval dE.
8. Define mean free path.
The average distance travelled between two successive collisions is called
mean free path. It is denoted by the letter. ( )
9. Define Drift velocity and give its formula.
It defined as the average velocity acquired by the free electron in a particular direction,
due to the application of electric field and is denoted by the letter vd
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UNIT-II
SEMI CONDUCTING MATERIALS

## They have negative temp coefficient of resistance.

-4
The resistivity lies between 10 to 0.5 ohm-meter.
At OK they behave as insulators.

## The mobility of charge carriers e and h

The sign of the current carrying charges.

## 3. What is meant by Hall Effect?

When a current carrying conductor is placed in a transverse magnectic field,
an electric field is produced inside the conductor in a direction normal to both the
current and the magnetic field.
4. Compare elemental semiconductors and compound semiconductor?
S.No

Elemental semiconductor

1.

## They are made of single

element Ge,Si
They are indirect band gap
semiconductors.
Heat is produced due to
recombination.

2.
3.

Compound
semiconductor
GaP,MgO
They are called as direct
bandgap semiconductors.
Photons are emitted during
recombination.

## 5. What is meant by intrinsic semiconductor and extrinsic semiconductor?

S.No

Intrinsic semiconductor

Extrinsic semiconductor

1.

2.

## They have low electrical

conductivity
They have low operating temp.

## Semiconductor which are doped

with impurity
They have high electrical
conductivity
They have high operating temp.

3.

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## 6. Compare n-type and p-type semiconductor.

S.No

n- type

p- type

1.
2.

Pentavalent impurity
Here electrons are majority
and holes are minority
Donar energy levels very to
conduction band

Trivalent impurity.
Here holes are majority and
electrons are minority
acceptor energy levels very to
valence band

3.

UNIT-III
MAGNETIC AND SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS
1. Compare type I and Type II super conductor.
S.No
1.

2.
3.

Type I

Type II

## Type I super conductor becomes a

normal conductor abruptly at critical
magnetic field
Here we have only one critical field
No mixed state

## Type II super conductor loses its

due to increase in magnetic field
Here we have two critical field
Vortex state is present.

## 2. Explain Meissner effect.

When a super conducting material is kept in an external magnetic field under
the condition when T Tc and H Hc the magnetic flux lines are completely excluded
from the material and this phenomenon is called meissner effect.
3. What are high temp super conductors?
High temp superconductors are the one which has the transition temp above 77K ,
because cooling can be made by liquid nitrogen instead of liquid helium which is
costly than nitrogen.
4. Give any two applications of super conductors

## It is used in computers transmission lines

It is used in NMR

It is used
in magneto hydrodynamic power generation to maintain plasma in the
body.

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## They have zero resistivity.

Perfect diamagnetism

## The super conducting property

can be destroyed due to the application of
magnetic and electric fields.

## 6. What is meant by persistent current?

When d.c current of large magnitude is once induced in a super conducting ring ,
then due to the diamagnetic property of the super conductor, the magnetic flux is trapped
inside the ring .
7. Define cooper pairs?
The pair of electrons formed due to the electron-lattice-electron interaction, with
equal and opposite momentum and spins having the wave vectors K-q and k+q are called
Cooper pairs.
8. Write a short note on SQUIDS.
Super conducting quantum interference devices. A small change in magnetic
field produces large variation in the quantum flux.
9. What are soft and hard magnetic materials?
S.No

Soft

Hard

1.

## They can be easily

magnetised and
demagnetized.
Movement of domain wall is
easy
Hysteresis loop is very steep

magnetised

2.
3.

not easy

## 10. What are ferrites?

They are made by two or more different kinds of atoms. Its general formula is given
2+
+
by X Fe23 O4.
11. Define energy product
The product of retentively and the coercivity is Known as energy product. It
represents the maximum amount energy stored in the specimen.
12. State the applications of ferrites.

## They are used in two port devices such as circulator

They are used in computers and data processing circuits.

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## 13. Define Bohr magneton.

The orbital magnetic moment and the spin magnetic moment of an electron in
an atom can be expressed in terms of atomic unit of magnetic moment
14. What are the four types magnetic domains?

Exchange energy
Anisotropy energy

## Magneto- strictive energy

UNIT-IV
DIELECTRIC MATERIALS
1. Define electronic polarization.
When a dielectric material is kept in external field , the positive and negative
charges in the dielectrics moves in opposite direction, thereby creating a dipole moment.
2. Define Local field (or) internal field.
Long range of coulombs forces which are created due to the dipoles are called
internal field or local field.
3. What is meant by dielectric loss?
The dielectric and certain amount of electrical energy is dissipated in the form of
heat energy, this loss in energy in the form of heat is called dielectric loss.
4. What is meant by dielectric break down?
When external field applied to a dielectric material is greater than the critical
field, the dielectric losses its insulating property and becomes conducting. Therefore a
large current flows through the material.

## It is used to produce ultrasonics.

It is used in SONAR

## 6. Define ionic polarization.

The process of displacement of cations and anions in the opposite directions, of a
dielectric material kept in external in external electric field.

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## 7. What is meant by ferro electricity?

When a dielectric material exhibits electric polarization even in the absence of
external field, it is known as ferro electricity and these materials are termed as ferroelectrics.
8. What are differences between polar and non-polar molecules?
S.No
1.

POLAR

NON POLAR

## Molecules have permanent dipole

moments
Molecules are highly temp
dependent.
HCl

2.
3.

## Molecules do not have permanent

dipole moments
Molecules are independent of
temperature.
CCl4

UNIT-V
MODERN ENGINEERING MATERIALS
1. What are metallic glasses?
Met glasses are the amorphous metallic solids which have high strength, good
magnetic properties and better corrosion resistance and wil possess both the properties of
metals and glasses.
2. What are shape memory alloys?
When material is heated above the transformation temp, then there will be some
change in the crystal structure. Such materials are called shape memory alloys.
3. What are nano materials? Give examples.
Nano materials are the materials in which the atoms size is in the order of 1 to 100
nano and these atoms will not move away from each other.
Ex: ZnO,Ni,Pt etc.
4. Mention properties of metglasses?

Metglasses have TCP structure rather than hexagonal closely packed structure.
Very strong in nature.

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## It is used in Eye glass frames. Toys, helicopter blades.

They are also used in fire safety valves, coffer maker.

## The energy bands in these materials will be very narrow.

In nano materials a large number of atoms will be present at the surface.

## It is used in ICs,optical switches, mass sensors etc.

Recently nano-robots
were designed, which are used to remove the damaged

cancer cells