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# ECTest ID: 161276

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1

10

711040

## Electronics and Communication Engineering

1

80

10

11

0.057

12

8000

13

14

15

16

110.88

17

18

19

54

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

-10.6

27

29

30

31

102

32

33

34

36

37

30

38

39

40

43

18.02

44

437.9

45

4.11

46

66.85

47

50

2600

51

52

53

10

54

6.23

1.187

28

35

-1

41

42

48

49

-5.333

55

Explanations:General Aptitude

4.

## If we let the original probability be x, we get:

x(1/2)(1/2)(1/2) = 1/64
x(1/8) = 1/64
x = (1/64)(8/1) = 8/64 = 1/8.

5.

We know the smallest number we can make is 1111 and the largest number we can make is
4444.
We also know that our numbers will be evenly distributed in the middle (i.e. 1112 is balanced
by 4443; 1113 is balanced by 4442). So, we can solve using the average formula.
Finally, we know that there are 4*4*4*4 = 256 numbers in our set.
Average = sum of terms/# of terms
sum of terms = average * # of terms
sum of terms = (1111+4444)/2 * 256 = 5555/2 * 256 = 5555*128 = 711040

6.

Let's call the children A and B. We can't have AB in the first two, in the middle two or in the
final two slots. That's three restricted cases. But we also can't have BA in the first two, in the
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## ECTest ID: 161276

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middle two or in the final two slots. So, we need to multiply 3 by 2. In other words, to
account for order, you needed to multiply by 2.
Similarly, total number of cases is all the ways you can put A and B into any of the two slots:
4C2, but again you have to account for order, so: 4C2 *2.
Therefore,
Total = permitted + restricted
4C2*2 = permitted + 3*2
Permitted = 6.
7.

If x is the cost of each software license, the cost of each server is 10x.
The total cost of the purchase is
= 24(10x) + 10x= 240x + 10x= 250x
To determine the database software's percent of the total cost, divide the total cost of the
software by the total cost of the purchase. Thus,
= 10x/250x=0 .04 = 4%

8.

On dividing we get
88

9217
104
88
417
352
65

## Therefore required number 9217 88 65 9217 23 9240

Electronics and Communication Engineering

1.

d cos
Array factor, Af cos

45 ,

1 2

Af cos cos 45

2 2
1

cos cos 45
2

for Af 0
cos 3

3.

cos 1 3

A minimum current must flow through inductor always. For this purpose a bleeder resistor is
connected across output terminal of power supply. Such that even if RL is disconnected, It
will allow path for minimum current flow through inductor and for better voltage regulation.
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## ECTest ID: 161276

4.

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R
2k
Current gain (Ai ) 1 2 1
2k
R1
1

I0 2 10 2 103 4A
PL I02 R L 16 5 80W

5.

Required probability=p(X<0)

=p(Z<-2)
<0.5
Required probability is greater than 0

Z 2

6.

Z0

u 1 v
u v

r r
r

(1)

v 1 u
u
v
(2)

r
r
r

r
v
u
Also, f z e i i
r
r
v
1 v i u i i u
u v
f z e i

e i e i i

r r r

8.

XOR

Buffer

A
E-NOR

A
1

Inventor

1
th

## At the end of 24 gate output = output 0 + buffer =A= 0

9.

Here if t ;

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## ECTest ID: 161276

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y x 0

present value
Non causal

future value

Also x1 sin t
x1 sin t y1
x 2 sin t
x 2 sin t y 2
x1 sin t x 2 sin t
y3
y3 x1 sin t x 2 sin t y1 y 2
linear system.

10.

1. There is no coupling capacitor (CC), source capacitance are not there, Hence there is noattenuation at low-preference.
2.

A mid
f
1
fH

## Here A mid g m R C ( R C is variable here)

So, Amid is not constant.
3. At higher frequencies, due to internal capacitance, gain was decreased.

11.

f x, y dx dy 1 C 210

x,y

P x y 4

1
210

4 42

2x y dx dy 2 35
2

V 10
2.5V cm
L 4
& Vd n E
V
n d
E
2 104
n
2.5
n 8000cm 2 V S

12.

Since, E

13.

14.

## It represents trans-conductance amplifier.

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## ECTest ID: 161276

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R4 R2

R 3 R1

Here R 4 2R,

R 3 2R,

R 2 R,

R1 R

VI
2R
From Negative resistance circuit

So, I L

2R

VI

2R

R0
R 0 2R || 2R

R
R

V0

2R

2R

VI

2R

15.

H1 (s)

2
10

s 0.2 1 5s

H 2 (s)

5
10

s 0.5 1 2s

H 3 (s)

10
10

## ; its time cons tan t 3 1

s 1 1 s

1 2 3

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## ECTest ID: 161276

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and we know time constant is more means the system takes more amount of time to reach
Curve Z is slowest corresponds to H1 (s)
X is fastest correspond to H 3 (s)
Y is moderate.
16.

## fsi fs 2IF 1910kHz

fsi f s
1.386
f s fsi

IRR 1 Q 2 p 2 110.88

18.

## Whatever be the current, the voltage across the resistor is constant.

So power =

V2
42
=
= 8W
R
2
df
dt

19.

E
3

df
dt
dt

3
3

df

dt

E2

E1
9

E tt E1 E 2 2 3 9 54J.

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## ECTest ID: 161276

20.

x t u 1 t ; t 0

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xt

u 1 t ; t 0
F.T

width
Area Sa .
;
2

width 2

2
x w 1 2 sa . 2sa
2
sin
xw 2

21.

## By Eulers method, we have

4x
yn 1 y n hf (x n , y n ); there f (x, y) 2cos
4 &x 0 0, y0 1, h 0.25
3
y1 y 0 hf (x 0 , y 0 )

4(0)
y1 1 0.25 2 cos
1 1 0.25(1) 1.25
3

y 2 y1 hf (x1 , y1 )

4(0.25)
y 2 1.25 0.25 2cos
1.25 1.25 0.25[0.25] 1.1875
3

23.

## For Nd>>ni we can assume n N d .

Now, n n i e

E F E i kT

n
E F E i kT log e
ni
2 1017
0.0259log e
10
1.5 10
E F Fi 0.424eV
The resulting band diagram is
EC
EF
0.424eV

Ei

EV
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## ECTest ID: 161276

TarGATE16

24.

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x n

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Period 4
3

2
x n C k .e jk0 n ; 0
;
4 2
k 0
1 3
C k x n e jk0 n
4 n 0

1
k 0;c0 ;
4
1
k 1;c1 ;
4
1
k 2;c2
4
1
k 3;c3 ;
4
1
c k ; K;
4

25.

B9FF AA00
0FFFH

## For last byte all address lines are 1.

No. of Address lines = 12
Memory size 212 8 bit 4k 8bits

26.

along ab
y 0, dl dl u x
b

F.dl 0, F.dl 0
a

Along bc
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## ECTest ID: 161276

x 2, dl dy u y

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3 2

## F.dl y 2 dy, F.dl y 2 dy

0

y
3

8
3

Along cd
y 2, dl dx u x
F.dl 4x 2 dx
a

4x 3
32
F.dl

4x
dx

b
2
3 0
3
2

Along da

x 0, dl dyu y

F.dl y 2 dy
a

2
F.dl y dy
b

So

8 32 8
10.6
3 3 3
A

27.

109
dr 9ln 2 6.238V
2(20 r)
B

VAB E.dl
B

28.

y3
8
3
3

ICD

I1 I2 I'0 I'3

4 :1

y AB x
A B x

x
x

MUX

y AB X

y ABCD

29.

dy
d
put y =x
x
dx
dx

A B

+x
d
2
2
2 2
x
1 2
dx x x + x + x

dx

d
1
dx
1 2
d =
(variable - seperable)
2
dx
1
x
y
By integrating Tan -1 = log x + c Tan -1 = lnx+c
x

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## ECTest ID: 161276

31.

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f 4 m 3,8,9
f 5 m 0, 2, 4,5,6,11,12,13,14,15
f m 0, 2,3, 4,5,6,8,9,11,12,13,14,15
a i 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 102

32.

## The given circuit is a triangular wave oscillator using two OP Amps.

The frequency of oscillation is given as
Fr

1
4R1C

R2
1
33K

Fr 8.25kHz

To make f 20kHz
R1

33.

1
4fC

R2
1

R
4
20K
0.01f
3

33K

4.125k
10K

## x1[n] = x[n] + 4x(n-3)

y1[n] = y[n]+4y[n-3] [LTI system property]
y1 0 y 0 4y 3 0.5

y1 1 y 1 4y 2 0.5

y1 2 y 2 4y 1 0.5

y1 3 y 3 4y 0 0 4. 0.5

y1 4 y 4 4y 1 0 4 0.5

y1 5 y 5 4y 2 0 4. 0.5
y1 6 y 6 4y 3 0

34.

0.5 n
n 0,1, 2

n
32 0.5
n 3,4,5
y1 n

0
elsewhere

## Since the network is in T it is better to find z-parameter first. Then y=z-1

At input port (KVL) V1 I1 0.5V2 I1 I 2
V1 0.5V2 2I1 I 2

..(1)

0.5V2 I1 2I 2
V2 2I1 4I 2

..(2)

## Substitute (2)in (1)

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I1

I1 2I2 2I1 I2
3I1 3I2

...(3)

I2

0 .5 V 2

V1

## From (2)and (3)

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3 3
z

2 4

2
1 4 3 3
y z 1

6 2 3 1
3

1
2
1
2

35.

x1 = -x1 + u1
y = x1 +x 2
.

x 2 = -2x 2 + u 2

x
y = 1 1 1
x2

.
x1 1 0 x1 u1
. 0 2 x 2 u 2
x 2

System is observable
CT : A T CT

36.

1 -1
1 -2

37.

1
1
2s
5s
10

10 100s 2 5s 100s 2 5s 10

50s
50s

## Fundamental period of S(t) is 2 units.

t
t
period of S 6, period of S 10
3
5
Period of y(t) LCM(6, 10) 30

38.

Rule 1:

y p q r
x 0 0 0

0.9
Pe 0.1

## Pc Probability of correct reception

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## ECTest ID: 161276

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Pe Probability of error
Rule 2:

Rule 3:

Rule 4:

Rule 5:

Rule 6:

Rule 7:

Rule 8:

y p q r
x 0 0 1

y p q r
x 0 1 0

y p q r
x 0 1 1

y p q r
x 1 0 0

y p q r
x 1 0 1

y p q r
x 1 1 0

y p q r
x 1 1 1

0.86
Pe 0.14

0.57
Pe 0.43

0.53
Pe 0.47

0.47
Pe 0.53

0.43
Pe 0.57

0.14
Pe 0.86

0.1
Pe 0.9

## Optimum receiver is one where probability of error is minimum

Thus Rule 1 is decision rule for optimum receiver.
39.

## The voltage at node 1 will be

V1

15 1
5V
2 1

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## ECTest ID: 161276

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For, Vi 5.7V, v o Vi

V1 15 V1 VO Vi

0
2k
1K
1K
V1 15 2V1 2VO 2Vi 0
3V1 2VO 2Vi 15

(1)

And V0 V1 0.7

.(2)

## Solving Equation (1) & (2)

5V0 2Vi 15 2.1 17.9
So, v o 0.4Vi 3.42

40.

a11 a12
Consider the matrix A of order two be A =

a 21 a 22
If is the Eigen value of A then there exists a non-zero vector X such that A X = X .

a11 a12
We can write

a 21 a 22

1
1
1 1 1

a 21 a 22 1 1
a11 a12 1
1
6
a

4
21 a 22 4
a 21 4a 22 24 (2)
Solving (1) & (2); we get a 22 5 & a 21 4
The element a21 is 4
41.

## since x1[n] is of length 4

x2 [n] is of length 5
we need to pad one zero in x1[n]
x1 n 1, 2,3, 4,0
Now let us perform linear convolution
1 2 3 4 0
2 2 4 6 8 0
1 1 2 3 4 0
2 2 4 6 8 0
1 1 2 3 4 0
2 2 4 6 8 0

y n 2,5,10,16,14,15,10,8,0

fiveelement
Take next 4 elements and add them with four elements.
y ' n 17,15,18,16,14

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## ECTest ID: 161276

42.

div r 1 1 1 3
By Gauss divergence theorem,

r.Nds

43.

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divrdV 3dV 3V
v

## When one diode is connected the current across it is

i IS e V1 VT ..(1)
With two diodes the current will divide into two parts.
Now, current will flow i/2 instead of i
So, i 2 Is eV2 VT (2)
Divide (2) by (1)
i2
e V2 V1 VT
i
V2 V1 V
so, V VT ln 2 V 26 103 ln 2 V 18.02 mV

44.

## The total energy associated in a system equal to

1 n
We W1 W2 W3 W4 Qi Vi
2 i 1
2We Q1V1 Q 2 V2 Q3 V3 Q 4 V4
Because of symmetry of the system
2We 4Q1V1
Q3
Q2
Q4
3 109
1

11

72.98 V
4 0 r12 4 0 r13 40 r14
4 0
2
We 2Q1V1 2 3 109 72.98 437.9 nJ

V1

N N
Vbj VT ln a 2 d
ni

5.

5 1015 5 1016
Vbj 26 103 ln
0.72V
20
2.25 10

2 V N
1
X n s bi a
e N d N a N d
s 11.7 0

12

12

1
Xn

16
15
16
1.6 1019
5 10 5 10 5 10

X n 4.11 106 cm

46.

## With the charge in a line,

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L dl
40 109 108
, L

C/m
40 R
2(2)

(108 / )(2)d

4(10
0

/ 36) 29

## From fig, R 29m,dl (2m)d

48.

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R
2

66.85V

When poles are on real axis no damping we have to calculate k at break away period
Break away point
dk
0
ds

x s s 2 s 4

dk d 3

s 6s 2 8

ds ds

3s 2 128 8 0

12 144 96 12 48

6
6
s 0.845, 3.63
s

## Gain at this point

k
1 K 3.1
0.845 0.845 2 0.845 3

On imaginary axis
Characteristic equation s3 6s 2 8s K 0 48 K
So root locus leaves real a B when k = 3.1 and move forwards imaginary axis till k < 48
stable, at k =48 marginally stable at when K > 48 unstable.
49.
A B C TA B D B C SC B R C B A B C
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0

1
1
0
0

0
0
1
1

0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0

1
1
0
0

1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0

1
1
0
0

0
0
1
1

1
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

1
1
0
0

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## ECTest ID: 161276

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The sequence at the output C for the next seven clock pulses is 1100110.
50.

## Among 99users, there are

12 complete group of 8users and 1 complete group of 3users
Each group requires a bandwidth of 200 kHz.
Thus total bandwidth required is

51.

x t .x t 1
2B
x t 2
B 2
x 3t
3B

## Addition of above signal will have bandwidth of 3B

Thus sampling rate needed is 6B.
52.

53.

Potential difference across the depletion width is calculated by area under the electric
1
AW
field so it is given by A .W
2
2
so for unit step ess 0

Type of system: 2

s 2 10 s 2
t2
10 2
for
k a Lt 2

2
t

0
2
s s 1 s 10
10
ess

54.

1
0.5
ka

for

t2
ess 0.5
2

So,

t2
ess 20 0.5 10
2

## From given figure

G s

As B 5
s 1 s 4

The root locus passes through point 4 2i, it must satisfy angle condition.

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## ECTest ID: 161276

A 4 2 j B

3 2 j 2 j

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180o

2A
1
0
Tan 1
90 180 Tan 2 3 180
B

4A

2A
1
o
Tan 1
Tan 2 3 90
B 4A
2 2A
1 .
0
3 B 4A
4A
3
B 4A
3B 12A 4A
16A 3B
B 16

A 3

So, zero is S

B
5.333
A

55.

1
j
xt
A .e .e jt d

2
0

1
1
A 0 e j 2 .e jt d

2 2 B
2

2 B

A .e

j 2 jt

A 0 2 B j t 2
A 0 2 B j t 2
e
d

e
d
2 0
2 0

A0

2 B

e d

cos t 2 d
0

A 0

2 B

sin t d
0

A0
cos 2 Bt 1 .
t

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