Introduction
I
Geometrical Foundations
The nature of geometry. Plane surfaces. Angles and
their measurement. Geometrical theorems; lines
and triangles. Quadrilaterals. The circle. Solid
geometry. Angles of elevation and depression.
2 Using your Calculator
Arithmetic and algebraic calculators. Rounding or
truncating calculators. Differing calculator displays.
Using your calculator for simple calculations. The
clear keys. Handling minus signs and negative
numbers. Calculations involving brackets. Using the
memory. Using other mathematical functions.
Functions and their inverses. Changing degrees to
degrees, minutes and seconds. Changing degrees to
radians. Finding trigonometrical functions. Finding
inverse trigonometrical functions.
3 The Trigonometrical Ratios
The tangent. Changes of tangents in the first
quadrant. Tables of tangents. Uses of tangents. The
sine and cosine. Changes of sines and cosines in the
first quadrant. Uses of sines and cosines. The
cosecant, secant and cotangent. Using your
calculator for other trigonometncal ratios. Graphs
of trigonometrical ratios. Uses of other
trigonometrical ratios. Solution of rightangled
triangles. Slope and gradient. Projections.
viii
1
28
39
VI
Contents
Relations between the Trigonometrical Ratios
tan
sin e
e = cos e
tarr'
sur'
e+
e+1=
cos~
sec'
e=
cor' 0 + I = cosec2 0
s Ratios of Angles in the Second Quadrant
Posinve and negative Imes
Direcnon of rotation of angle
The sign convention for the hypotenuse
To find the ratio of angles m the second quadrant
from the tables
To find an angle when a ratio rs given
The inverse notation
Graphs of the sine, cosine and tangent between 0
and 360
6 Trigonometrical Ratios of Compound Angles
sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sm B, etc
sin (A  B) = sin A cos B  cos A sin B, etc
tan (A + B) and tan (A  B) Multiple and submultiple formulae Product formulae
7 Relations between the Sides and Angles of a Triangle
The sme rule The cosine rule The halfangle
formulae Formula for sin
72
15
87
100
A
2 m terms of the sides
A
2 m terms of the sides
A
2 in terms of the sides
11~
127
Contents
v11
10 Circular Measure
141
11
147
12
164
Trigonometrical Equations
Types of equations
The form a cos 0  b sin 0
171
Answers
186
lN
Introduction
Two major difficulties present themselves when a book of this kind
is planned.
In the first place those who use it may desire to apply it in a
variety of ways and will be concerned with widely different
problems to which trigonometry supplies the solution.
In the second instance the previous mathematical training of its
readers will vary considerably.
To the first of these difficulties there can be but one solution.
The book can do no more than include those parts which are
fundamental and common to the needs of all who require
trigonometry to solve their problems. To attempt to deal with the
technical applications of the subject in so many different directions
would be impossible within the limits of a small volume.
Moreover, students of all kinds would find the book overloaded
by the inclusion of matter which, while useful to some, would be
unwanted by others.
Where it has been possible and desirable, the bearing of certain
sections of the subject upon technical problems has been indicated, but, in general, the book aims at putting the student in a
position to apply to individual problems the principles, rules and
formulae which form the necessary basis for practical applications.
The second difficulty has been to decide what preliminary
mathematics should be included in the volume so that it may be
intelligible to those students whose previous mathematical equipment is slight. The general aim of the volumes in the series is that,
as far as possible, they shall be selfcontained. But in this volume
it is obviously necessary to assume some previous mathematical
training. The study of trigonometry cannot be begun without a
knowledge of arithmetic, a certain amount of algebra, and some
acquaintance with the fundamentals of geometry.
Introduction ix
It may safely be assumed that all who use this book will have a
sufficient knowledge of arithmetic. In algebra the student is
expected to have studied at least as much as is contained in the
volume in this series called Teach Yourself Algebra.
The use of an electronic calculator is essential and there can be
no progress in the application of trigonometry without having
access to a calculating aid. Accordingly chapter 2 is devoted to
using a calculator and unless you are reasonably proficient you
should not proceed with the rest of the book until you have
covered this work. Ideally a scientific calculator is required, but
since trigonometric tables are included at the end of the book, it
is in fact possible to cover the work using a simple four rule
calculator.
No explanation of graphs has been attempted in this volume. In
these days, however, when graphical illustrations enter so generally into our daily life, there can be few who are without some
knowledge of them, even if no study has been made of the
underlying mathematical principles. But, although graphs of
trigonometrical functions are included, they are not essential in
general to a working knowledge of the subject.
A certain amount of geometrical knowledge is necessary as a
foundation for the study of trigonometry, and possibly many who
use this book will have no previous acquaintance with geometry.
For them chapter 1 has been included. This chapter is in no sense
a course of geometry, or of geometrical reasoning, but merely a
brief descriptive account of geometrical terms and of certain
fundamental geometrical theorems which will make the succeeding chapters more easily understood. It is not suggested that a
great deal of time should be spent on this part of the book, and
no exercises are included. It is desirable, however, that you make
yourself well acquainted with the subjectmatter of it, so that you
are thoroughly familiar with the meanings of the terms employed
and acquire something of a working knowledge of the geometrical
theorems which are stated.
The real study of trigonometry begins with chapter 3, and from
that point until the end of chapter 9 there is very little that can be
omitted by any student. Perhaps the only exception is the 'product
formulae' in sections 86 88. This section is necessary, however,
for the proof of the important formula of section 98, but a student
who is pressed for time and finds this part of the work
troublesome, may be content to assume the truth of it when
studying section 98. In chapter 9 you will reach what you may
x Introduction
consider the goal of elementary trigonometry. the 'solution of the
triangle' and its many applications, and there you may be content
to stop.
Chapters 10. 11 and 12 are not essential for all practical
applications of the subject, but some students, such as electrical
engineers and, of course, all who intend to proceed to more
advanced work, cannot afford to omit them. It may be noted that
previous to chapter 9 only angles which are not greater than 180
have been considered, and these have been taken in two stages in
chapters 3 and 5, so that the approach may be easier. Chapter 11
continues the work of these two chapters and generalises with a
treatment of angles of any magnitude.
The exercises throughout have been carefully graded and
selected in such a way as to provide the necessary amount of
manipulation. Most of them are straightforward and purposeful;
examples of academic interest or requiring special skill in
manipulation have, generally speaking, been excluded.
Trigonometry employs a comparatively large number of formulae. The more important of these have been collected and printed
on pp. 171173 in a convenient form for easy reference.
Geometrical Foundations
2 Trigonometry
theorems which will be stated. The student who has not previously
approached the subject of geometry. and who desires to acquire
a more complete knowledge of it, should turn to any good modern
treatise on this branch of mathematics.
Fig. 1.
3 Plane surfaces
Geometrical
Foundations
Angles
D
Fig. 2.
(1) In Fig. 2(a) two straight lines OA, OB, called the arms of the
angle, meet at 0 to form the angle denoted by AOB.
0 is termed the vertex of the angle.
The arms may be of any length, and the size of the angle is
not altered by increasing or decreasing them.
.+
Trigonometry
The 'angle AOB' can be denoted by LAOB or AOB. It
should be noted that the middle letter. in this case 0, always
indicates the vertex of the angle.
(2) In Fig. 2(b) the straight line AO is said to meet the straight
line CB at 0. Two angles are formed, AOB and AOC, with
a common vertex 0.
(3) In Fig. 2(c) two straight lines AB and CD cut one another at
0. Thus there are formed four angles COB, AOC, DOA,
DOB.
The pair of angles COB, AOD are termed vertically
opposite angles. The angles AOC, BOD are also vertically
opposite.
Adjacent angles
Angles which have a common vertex and also one common arm
are called adjacent angles. Thus in Fig. 2(b) AOB, AOC arc
adjacent, in Fig. 2(c) COB, BOD are adjacent, etc.
I
I
A'
Fig. 3.
e:
A
Fig. 4.
Geometrical Foundations
'
I
'
A'
' ~ ...
.._
1
I
   .,..
Fig. 5.
Measurement of angles
Trigonometry
D
...
)'
I
A'
'
'
E'
'
"' ...
',C
,,
Fig. 6.
Geometrical Foundations
Thus 37 15' 27" means an angle of
=
=
100 grades.
100 minutes.
100 seconds.
Trigonometry
In doing this an angle AOB is formed which is the unit of
measurement. It is called a radian. The size of this angle will be
the same whatever radius is taken. It is absolute in magnitude.
In degrees I radian = 57' 17' 44.8" (approx.) or 57.29578. This
method of measuring angles will be dealt with more fully in
chapter 10. It is very important and is always used in the higher
branches of mathematics.
8
Fig. 7.
Geometrical Theorems
Theorem 1
Geometrical
Foundations
D
Fig. 8.
Take a set square PRQ (Fig. 9) and slide it along the edge of a
ruler.
Let P1R1Q1 be a second position which it takes up.
p
P1
B
Fig. 9.
LP101B
10
Trigonometry
Direction
Parallel straight lines in a plane have the same direction.
If a number of ships. all sailing north in a convoy are ordered
to change direction by turning through the same angle they will
then follow parallel courses.
Terms connected with parallel lines
In Fig. 10 AB, CD represent two parallel straight lines.
Transversal
A straight line such as PQ which cuts them is called a transversal.
p
Fig.10.
Corresponding angles
On each side of the transversal are two pairs of angles, one pair
of which is shaded in the figure. These are called corresponding
angles.
Alternate angles
Two angles such as AEF, EFD on opposite sides of the transversal
are called alternate angles.
Theorem 2
If a pair of parallel straight lines be cut by a transversal
(a) alternate angles are equal,
(b) corresponding angles on the same side of the transversal are
equal,
(c) the two interior angles on the same side of the transversal are
equal to two right angles.
Thus in Fig. 10:
Alternate angles: LAEF
LEFD; LBEF
LEFC.
Geometrical Foundations
11
10
Triangles
Kinds of triangles
A rightangled triangle has one of its angles a
right angle. The side opposite to the right angle
is called the hypotenuse.
An acuteangled triangle has all its angles
acute angles (see section 7).
Trigonometry
12
Fig. 12.
11
Theorem 3
In an isosceles triangle
(a) The sides opposite to the equal angles are equal,
( b) A straight line drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the
opposite side bisects that side and the vertical angle.
A
A
B~
Fig. 13.
Fig. 14.
In Fig. 13, ABC is an isosceles 6. and AO is drawn perpendicular to the base from the vertex A.
Then by the above LABC = LACB
BO= OC
LBAO
= LCAO.
Equilateral triangle
The above is true for an equilateral triangle, and since all its sides
are equal, all its angles are equal.
Note, in an isosceles 6. the altitude, median and bisector of the
vertical angle (see section 10) coincide when the point of intersec
Geometrical Foundations
13
tion of the two equal sides is the vertex. If the !::::. is equilateral
they coincide for all three vertices.
12
Theorem 4
If one side of a triangle be produced, the exterior angle so formed
is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.
Thus in Fig. 14 one side BC of the !::::. ABC is produced to D.
LACD is called an exterior angle.
Then by the above
LACD
LABC
+ LBAC
Notes
(1) Since the exterior angle is equal to the sum of the opposite
interior angles, it must be greater than either of them.
(2) As each side of the triangle may be produced in turn, there
are three exterior angles.
Theorem 5
The sum of the angles of any triangle is equal to two right angles.
Notes
It follows that:
13 Congruency of triangles
Triangles which are equal in all respects are said to be congruent.
Such triangles have corresponding sides and angles equal, and
are exact copies of one another.
If two triangles ABC and DEF are congruent we may express
this by the notation !::::. ABC = !::::. DEF.
Conditions of congruency
Two triangles are congruent when
Theorem 6
Three sides of one are respectively equal to the three sides of the
other.
14
Trigonometry
Theorem 7
Two sides of one and the angle they contain are equal to two sides
and the contained angle of the other.
Theorem 8
Two angles and a side of one are equal to two angles and the
corresponding side of the other.
These conditions in which triangles are congruent are very
important. The student can test the truth of them practically by
constructing triangles which fulfil the conditions stated above.
Fig.15.
Geometrical
Foundations
15
14 Rightangled triangles
Theorem of Pythagoras (Theorem 9)
In every rightangled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal
to the sum of the squares on the sides containing the right angle.
In Fig. 16 ABC is a rightangled triangle, AB being the
hypotenuse. On the three sides squares have been constructed.
Then the area of the square described on AB is equal to the sum
of the areas of the squares on the other two sides.
This we can write in the form
AB2
AC2
+ BC2
//\\
\
c
a
B
A
b
Fig. 16.
15 Similar triangles
Definition. If the angles of one triangle are respectively equal to the
angles of another triangle the two triangles are said to be similar.
Trigonometry
The sides of similar triangles which are opposite to equal angles
in each are called corresponding sides.
16
Fig. 17.
=
=
=
LDEF,
LEDF,
LDFE.
also
LOCD
LODC
=
=
LOEF
LOFE.
Fig.18.
Geometrical
Foundations
17
CD
OC
EF
OE ' etc.
16
Quadrilaterals
Fig.19.
18
Trigonometry
17
The Circle
c
0
__,a
P ,.__
B
Fig. 20.
Fig. 21.
Geometrical Foundations
19
The angle ADB is also said to subtend the arc AB and the LAOB
is said to be the angle subtended at the centre by the arc AB of
the chord AB.
Concentric Circles are circles which have the same centre.
18
Theorem 11
If a diameter bisects a chord, which is not a diameter, it is
perpendicular to the chord.
Theorem 12
Equal chords in a circle are equidistant from the centre.
Theorem 13
The angle which is subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc is
double the angle subtended at the circumference.
In Fig. 23 LAOB is the angle subtended at 0 the centre of the
circle by the arc AB, and LADB is an angle at the circumference
(see section 17) as also is LACB.
Then
and
LAOB
LAOB
=
=
2LADB
2LACB.
Theorem 14
Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal to one another.
In Fig. 23
LACB = LADB.
D'
Fig. 22.
Fig.23.
20 Trigonometry
Theorem 15
The opposite angles of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are
together equal to two right angles.
They are therefore supplementary (see section 7).
Note A quadrilateral
concyclic quadrilateral.
Then
+ LADC
+ LBCD
= 2 right angles
= 2 right angles.
Theorem 16
The angle in a semicircle is a right angle.
In Fig. 25 AOB is a diameter.
The LACB is an angle in one of the semicircles so formed.
LACB is a right angle.
Theorem 17
Angles at the centre of a circle are proportional to~
they stand.
In Fig. 26,
LPOQ
LQOR
ll1'CS
on which
arc PQ
arc QR.
Fig. 24.
Fig. 25.
Geometrical
Foundations
21
Tangent to a circle
A tangent to a circle is a straight line which meets the circumference
of the circle but which when produced does not cut it.
In Fig. 27 PQ represents a tangent to the circle at a point A on
the circumference.
Q
p
Fig. 26.
Fig. 27.
Theorem 18
A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius drawn from the
point of contact.
Thus in Fig. 27 PQ is at right angles to OA.
19
Solid geometry
22
Trigonometry
Fig. 28.
21
Geometrical Foundations
23
A
Fig. 29.
Ag.30.
Trigonometry
Draw the line OQR on the board.
OQ is called the projection of OP on the plane ABCD.
The angle POQ between OP and its projection on the plane is
called the angle between OP and the plane.
If you were to experiment by drawing other lines from 0 on the
plane you will see that you will get angles of different sizes
between ON and such lines. But the angle POQ is the smallest of
all the angles which can be formed in this way.
Definition. The angle between a straight line and a plane is the
angle between the straight line and its projection on the plane.
24
'
'
______.
,. ,.
(b}
(a}
..__"' _
I
I
Fig. 31.
(a}
(b)
(c)
Fig. 32.
Geometrical Foundations
25
(2) Pyramids
In Fig. 32 (a). (b), (c), are shown three typical pyramids.
(a) is a square pyramid, (b) is a
triangular pyramid, (c) is a hexagonal
0
pyramid.
Pyramids have one base only, which,
as was the case with prisms, is some
geometrical figure.
The sides, however, are isosceles
triangles, and they meet at a point
called the vertex.
The angle between each side and the
base can be determined as follows for a
D square pyramid.
In Fig. 33, let P be the intersection of
Fig. 33.
the diagonals of the base.
Join P to the vertex 0.
When OP is prependicular to the base the pyramid is a right
pyramid and OP is its axis.
Let Q be the midpoint of one of the sides of the base AB.
Join PQ and OQ.
Then PQ and OQ are perpendicular to AB (Theorem 11).
It will be noticed that OPQ represents a plane, imagined within
the pyramid but not necessarily the surface of a solid.
Then by the definition in section 20, the angle OQP represents
the angle between the plane of the base and the plane of the side
OAB.
Clearly the angles between the other sides and the base will be
equal to this angle.
Note This angle must not be confused with angle OBP which
students sometimes take to be the angle between a side and the
base.
Sections of right pyramids
If sections are made parallel to the base, and therefore at right
angles to the axis, they are of the same shape as the base, but of
course smaller and similar.
26 Trigonometry
or partly plane and partly curved. Three wellknown ones can be
mentioned here. the cylinder. the cone and the sphere. Sketches
of two of these are shown below in fig. 34(a) and (b ).

(a)     
(b)
Fig. 34.
(a) The cylinder (Fig. 34(a) ). This has two bases which are equal
Geometrical Foundations
p
27
~;7\/ ~;
~~~I~
Depression
///
/
0
Fig. 35.
2
Using your Calculator
25 Introduction
It is assumed in this book that you have access to a calculator. If
this is not the case then you will need to be able to use logarithms
or a slide rule instead.
Ideally you need a scientific calculator, that is one which has
keys labelled sin, cos and tan, but it is possible to complete the
work in this book even if you only have the simplest calculator.
The first thing that you must be aware of is that not all
calculators work in the same way. In fact two different calculators
can give different results for the same calculation! This can be
disconcerting unless you realise what is happening. The two main
differences are explained in the next section.
29
then add the 2 to give 14 as the result. This is known as using
algebraic logic.
Most scientific calculators are designed to use algebraic logic.
Where brackets are not used a definite order of priority is given
to the various operations. Firstly powers are carried out. then
divisions followed by multiplications. subtractions and finally
additions.
Using your Calculator
+6
i
= 20 + 3 = 23
26: 2
13
27
30
Trigonometry
4
find 7 is displayed.
get  1 or 1 get 12
get 0. 75.
i
Note that providing that you finished your sequence of key presses
with the = sign there was no need to clear away the last result
before starting the next calculation.
31
31
32
Trigonometry
+ 67)
33
34
Trigonometry
35
on display then pressing INV first and then the square root key is
likely to give the square of the number on the display. Squaring
is the opposite or the inverse of finding a square root.
Using your Calculator
'
"~)
38
Trigonometry
3
The Trigonometrical Ratios
40 The tangent
One of the earliest examples that we know in history of the
practical applications of geometry was the problem of finding the
height of one of the Egyptian pyramids. This was solved by Thales,
the Greek philosopher and mathematician who lived about 640 BC
to 550 BC. For this purpose he used the property of similar
triangles which is stated in section 15 and he did it in this way.
Fig.36.
Trigonometry
represents the length of the shadow of the pyramid, and BC that
of the stick. Then he said The height of the pyramid is to the
length of the stick, as the length of the shadow of the pyramid is
to the length of the shadow of the stick.'
40
LACB
These angles each represent the altitude of the sun (section 24).
As Ls PQB and ABC are right angles
L,s PQB, ABC are similar.
PQ
AB
QB  BC
or as written above
PQ
AB
QB
BC.
41
PO
QB x 2.05.
Tangent of an angle
and
BE
OE
CF
OF
.
(Theorem 10, section 15)
Fig. 37.
This is true for any angle; each angle has its own particular ratio
and can be identified by it.
This constant ratio is called the tangent of the angle.
The name is abbreviated in use to tan.
42
Trigonometry
Thus for LPOQ above we can write
AD
tan POQ =OD
42 Rightangled triangles
Before proceeding further we will consider formally by means of
the tangent, the relations which exist
A between the sides and angles of a
rightangled triangle.
b
Let ABC (Fig. 38) be a rightangled
triangle.
Let the sides opposite the angles be
B"a'C
denoted by
Fig. 38.
ab
a tan B = b
and
b
a = tan B
43
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
50
1.2
1 .1
1.0
0.9
40
0.8
0.7
0.6
30
0.5
0.4
20
0.3
0.2
10
0.1
0
44
Trigonometry
Then
tan BOA= BA
OA
tan 0 is 0;
as the angle increases, tan 0 increases;
tan45= 1;
for angles greater than 45, the tangent is greater than I;
as the angle approaches 90 the tangent increases very rapidly.
When it is almost 90 it is clear that the radiating line will meet
AM at a very great distance, and when it coincides with OY
and 90 is reached, we say that the tangent has become
infinitely great.
This can be expressed by saying that as () approaches 9(1',
tan () approaches infinity.
This may be expressed formally by the notation
when
0 ~ 90, tan 0 ~
oo ,
45 A table of tangents
Before use can be made of tangents in practical applications and
calculations, it is necessary to have a table which will give with
great accuracy the tangents of all angles which may be required.
It must also be possible from it to obtain the angle corresponding
to a known tangent.
A rough table could be constructed by such a practical method
1:"
ec
O'
6'
0.1
12'
0.2
18'
0.3
24'
0.4'
30'
0.5
36'
0.6
42'
0.7
48'
0.8
54'
0.9
25
26
27
28
29
0.4663
0.4877
0.5095
0.5317
0.5543
4684
4899
5117
5340
5566
4706
4921
5139
5362
5589
4727
4942
5161
5384
5612
4748
4964
5184
5407
5635
4770
4986
5206
5430
5658
4791
5008
5228
5452
5681
4813
5029
5250
5475
5704
4834
5051
5272
5498
5727
4856
5073
5295
5520
5750
c"
Mean Differences
1
4
4
4
4
4
7
7
7
8
8
11
11
11
11
12
14
15
15
15
15
18
18
18
18
19
0.4748.
46
Trigonometry
Thus if we want tan 26 38', this being 2' more than
26 36'. we look under the column headed 2 in the line of
26. The difference is 7. This is added to tan 26 36', i.e.
0.5008.
Thus
bg
= tan 38.25
PQ = OQ x tan 38.25
= 168 x tan 38.25
= 168 x 0.7883364
= 132.44052
PQ = 132 m approx.
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
38.25 TAN x 168 =,giving 132.44052, or 132.44 mas the result.
Example 2: A man, who is 168 cm in height, noticed that the
length of his shadow in the sun was 154 cm. What was the altitude
of the sun?
47
,,
,
,,
,
,,
,
,,
, p
R'Q
Fig. 40.
Now
t an
Fig. 41.
PQ = 168 cm
PRO = QR
154 cm
= 1.0909 (approx.)
= tan 47.49
the sun's altitude is 47.49 or 47 29'
Example 3: Fig. 42 represents a section of a symmetrical roof in
which AB is the span, and OP the rise. (Pis the midpoint of AB.)
If the span is 22 m and the rise 7 m find the slope of the roof (i.e.
the angle OBA).
Fig. 42.
48
Trigonometry
n = 0.6364 (approx.)
32.47 or 32 28'
(2) 43
(5) 14 18'
(3) 56
(6) 34 48'
Check your results on your calculator, i.e. enter the angle and
press the TAN key.
4 Write down the tangents of:
(1) 9 17'
(4) 52.45
S
(2) 31.75
(5) 64 40'
(3) 39 5'
(2) 1.8265
(5) 0.6707
(3) 2.8239
(6) 0.2542
49
tan ABC.
liries AC and BC
Fig. 44.
to the hypotenuse.
This ratio is also constant, as was the tangent, for the angle
ABC, i.e. wherever the point A is taken, the ratio of AC to
AB remains constant.
50
Trigonometry
This ratio is called the sine ol the angle and is denoted by
sin ABC.
BLl B~:
a
(a)
(b)
Sin 0
Cose
Fig.&
!~ ,
nuse.
This ratio is also constant for the angle and is called the
cosine. It is denoted by cos ABC.
Be careful not to confuse these two ratios. The way in which
they are depicted by the use of thick lines in Fig. 45 may help you.
If the sides of the 6ABC are denoted by a, b, c in the usual way
and the angle ABC by 0 (pronounced theta) .
Then in 45(a)
.
sm
= b
c
(1)
45(b)
cos
= ~
c
(2)
b = c sine
a= c cos e
.'. LA + LB = 90
LA and LB are complementary (see section
sin A=~
7).
51
cos B = ~
c
and
sin A= cos B.
The sine of an angle is equal to the cosine of its complement,
and vice versa.
This may be expressed in the form:
sin 0 = cos (90  0)
cos 0 =sin (90  0).
90
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
80
I
:70
r..
60
<,
<,
I I I/
I I I/ /
I /
I I II / /
/ /
II
I I I /// :
1/1 ~ / ... ....../
/
~
;.....
 
80
8'40
~I\
\30
\
,,_/
//
......
0.1
50
)""
70
60
Fig.46.
"'
...
_.........
c 
50
 29
\J
__ 1
40 30 2010
52
Trigonometry
Then
sin BOC=
g~
e increases,
oc
cos BOC= OB
The Trigonometrical
51
Ratios
53
Trigonometry
: . AO the perpendicular to the base BC, from the vertex
bisects the vertical angle BAC, and also the base.
54
:.
BO= OC = 1 m
c
Fig. 48.
Fig. 47.
Now'
sin BAO=~~
1
= 2.5 = 0.4
= sin 23.58 (from the tables)
But
LBAO = 23.58
LBAC = 2 x LBAO
LBAC = 2 x 23.58
=47.16
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
1 : 2.5 = INV SIN x 2, giving 47.156357, or 47.16 as the
result.
Example 2: A 30 m ladder on a fire engine has to reach a window
26 m from the ground which is horizontal and level. What angle,
to the nearest degree, must it make with the ground and how far
from the building must it be placed?
Let AB (Fig. 48) represent the height of the window at A above
the ground.
Let AP represent the ladder.
To find LAPB we may use its sine for
.
AB
26
Sm APB = AP = 30
55
0.8667
= sin 60.07 (from the tables)
APB= 60.07
= 60 (to nearest degree).
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
26 : 30 = INV SIN. giving 60.073565, or 60.07 as the result.
To find PB we use the cosine of APB
PB
cos APB= AP
for
PB = AP cos APB
= 30 x cos 60.07
= 30 x 0.4989
= 14.97
PB = 15 m (approx.)
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
30 x 60.07 COS=, giving 14.968247, or 14.97 mas the result.
Example 3: The height of a cone is 18 cm and the angle at the
vertex is 88. Find the slant height.
.:.:.:::.J____ __ C
p
B
Fig. 49.
Now
OP
cos POC = OC
OP= OC cos POC
OC = OP: cos POC
= 18 : cos 44
56
Trigonometry
18: 0.7193
== 25.02
OC == 25 cm (approx.).
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
18: 44 COS=. giving 25.022945, or 25.02 cm as the result.
Example 4: Fig. 50 represents a section of a symmetrical roof
frame. PA = 28 m, AB = 6 m, LOPA = 21; find OP and OA.
Fig. 50.
Now
PB
OP= cos OPB
57
g~
=sin
OPB
OB = OP sin OPB
= 32. 75 x sin 33.38"
= 32.75 x 0.5502
= 18.02
OA =OB  AB
= 18.02  6
= 12.02 m.
and
Exercise 2
1
4
5
(3) 69 17'
(2) 47.43
(2) 0.5115
are:
(3) 0.7906
(2) 44 22'
(3) 62 39'
Trigonometry
58
(.+) 38.83
(5) 79.27
(6) 57.38
(1) 0.5332
(4) 0.2172
(3) 0.3546
(6) 0.5140
(2) 0.9358
(5) 0.7910
53
From the reciprocals of the sine, cosine and tangent we can obtain
three other ratios connected with an angle, and problems
frequently arise where it is more convenient to employ these
instead of using the reciprocals of the original ratios.
These reciprocals are called the cosecant, secant, and cotangent
respectively, abbreviated to cosec, sec and cot.
Thus
cosec e = .e
sm
sec
1
e = cos e
cote=
1
tan
59
BC
AB
AB = cos e. BC = sec e
AC
BC
BC = tan 0, AC= cote
Fig. 51.
AC
tan ABC= BC
and
AC
cot BAC = BC
tan e
cot (90  0)
60
Trigonometry
1 000 000
is 1 000 000
0 ~ 90, sec 0 ~
oo
e decreases'
e increases,
The Tngonometncal
Ratios
61
Trigonometry
62
09
09
08
08
07
07
06
06
05
05
04
04
03
03
02
02
0 1
01
00
0 10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Fig. 52.
Graph of sin 0.
Fig. 53.
Graph of cos 0.
OB =x
Then
2~0 = cot 11
x
x
x
=
=
260 cot 11
260 i tan 11
260 ; 0.1944
1338
1338 m (approx.).
(1)
>+++++++++H+++t++++++++++t++Hc+++++++++++++H
2.8mmmmmmmammm
25
s:mmammammamasnnm
2 .4 t++t+H++t++++++++++++t+H++t++++++11+++++<>+++<
2.2 t++t+H+++++++++++++++t+H++++++++it+++t+Hf+++1
m:amm:amm:amm:amemnm
1.8 mEMmEMWEmta:mna:emnm
2.0
1.6>++1+Ht+H++++++++++++t+H++++.++++++HHi+++<
1 .4 t++t+H++t++++++++++++t+H++<oH+++++++++++<>+++<
1 . 2 t++t+H+++++++++++++++t+H++++++++++++t+Hf+++1
1.0
s:mwm:awamwamaa:mnm
0.8 1+H++t+++++++++t+HH.H++++++++++++1+H++t+++i
0.6 t++t+Ht+H++++++++++++t+H++++++++++++t+Hf+++1
0.4 mmmmmmmmmm
02
mftmtimHmHmHmimimimi
Ott!!:tttt::ttt:tttJ::ttt:tttJ::tttttt!::tttttt!:tttttt!!:J:l
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Fig. 54.
Graph of tan 0.
o~:
Fig. 55.
63
Trigonometry
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
260: 11 TAN= (or 260 x 11 TAN l/X =)
64
b  c
A
Example 3: Find the value of b + c cot
2 , when b = 25.6.
11.2, A
57.
Since
and
:.
b=
c =
b+ c =
b c =
25.6
11.2
36.8
14.4
~ =
57 : 2
Let
b  c
A
b + c cot 2
Then
14.4 cot 28 . 50
36_8
14.4 x
1
36.8
tan 28.5
=
=
0.7207
0.7207.
and
28.5
The Trigonometrical
6
7
Ratios
65
= 42
(b) b
lt
when a=
50, b = 27, B = 66
(a) sec/ 43
(b) 2 cos2 28
sin 53.45
tan 68.67
11
12
239
397
(2) When 8
= 59"
x 25
x 133 find 0
13
If tan
14
. d t h e va I ue o f 2 sin
. A +2 B cos A 2 B w h en A = 57 . 23
F in
and B = 22 .48
sin 0
tfind when
co O'.
e=
15
If
16
10.42 and
O'.
a = 28.5,
28.12
b = 46.7
and
Trigonometry
66
61
angles are given we require to find the remaining sides and angles.
Rightangled triangles can be solved:
(1) by using the appropriate trigonometrical ratios,
(2) By using the Theorem of Pythagoras (see Theorem 9,
section 14).
We give a few examples.
(a) Given the two sides which contain the right angle
To solve this:
(1) The other angles can be found by the tangent ratios,
(2) The hypotenuse can be found by using secants and cosecants,
or the Theorem of Pythagoras.
Example I: Solve the rightangled triangle where the sides
containing the right angle are 15.8 m and 8.9 m.
Fig. 56 illustrates the problem.
To find C, tan C =
To find A, tanA =
18
1
5~8=
i.:
cosec C
AC = 8. 9 cosec C = 89 + sin C
= 18.13
AC= 18.1 m (approx.).
(b) Given one angle and the hypotenuse
Example 2: Solve the rightangled triangle in which one angle is
27.72 and the hypotenuse is 6.85 cm.
89:~
B
15.Sm
B~
Fig. 56.
In Fig. 57
C
Fig. 57.
c=
A
=
=
27.72
90  C
62.28
90  27. 72
To find AB and BC
AB
BC
=
=
=
=
AC sin ACB
6.85 x sin 27. 72
3.19 cm
AC cos ACB
6.85 x cos 27.72
6.06 cm
a
Then DB= 2"
AD
= Y AB2
=
1~
ya  4
DB2
(Theorem
9)
68
Trtgonometrv
A
a
4501 __
BL...;_;:__.__
__. C
Fig 58
Fig 59
v'3
AD
ax T
v'3
sin 600 = AB =
a
= 2
o
CO'>
BO
60 = AB =
2
a =
Similarly
o
BO
a
sm 30 = AB =
2
a =
flJ'
AB' = AC2
+ BC2
AB= aV2
a
= BC
and
(Theorem 9)
= a2 + a2
= 2a2
AC
sm 450 =AB=
by using
aV2 = V2
The Tngonometrtcal
cos 45
BC
AB
69
Rattos
= av'2 = v'2
tan 45 = AC = ~ = I
BC
a
It xhould be noted that LABC represents half a square of which
AB rs the diagonal
c
A~B
Fig 60
LCAB, denoted bye, rs the angle between the plane of the path
and the horizontal
Then LCAB rs called the angle of slope of the path or more
briefly LCAB rs the slope of the path
Now
tan 0
CB
AB
) we take ;~
70
Trigonometry
63 Projections
In Chapter I, section 22, we referred to the projection of a
straight line on a plane. We will now examine this further.
~C
I
~<
_,,,,,.""" 0 I
p __ O....::__='E'...._F_
Fig. 61.
LBAC = LBOF = 0
EF =AC
AC = AB cos 0
EF =AB cos 0
(Theorem 2)
(section 47)
71
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
IO
11
12
13
14
Fig. 62.
.
AC
sin 0 =AB
BC
cos 0 =AB
a point A on
73
sin 0 _AC..:... BC
cos 0  AB . AB
_AC..:... AB
 AB . BC
AC
=BC
0
=tan
sin 0
t
cos 0 = an 0
(1)
65
sin2
e+
cos2
= 1
From Fig. 62
AC2
BC2 = AB2
AC2
AB2
(sin 0)2
BC2
AB2 = 1
(cos 0)2 = 1
or as usually written
sin2 0
cos2 0 = 1
(2)
sin2 0 = 1  cos2 0
sin 0 =
Similarly
cos 0 =
v' 1
v' 1
 cos2 0
 sin2 0
becomes
tan 0 = sin 0
cos 0
sin 0
tan 0 =
sin" 0
VI 
This form expresses the tangent in terms of the sine only. It may
74 Trigonometry
similarly be expressed in terms of the cosine
thus
66
tan
1
1
e = V1 
cos
cos2 e
e
e
+ tarr' e = sec2
+ cot" e = cosec" e
sin2 0 + cos2 0 = I
+ I
1
cos2
sec2 0
+ cot2 e = cosec2 e
tan2
cot2
e = sec2 e  1
e = cosec2 e 
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
5
Trigonometrical Ratios of Angles
in the Second Quadrant
67 Extending the ratios
In chapter 3 we dealt with the trigonometrical ratios of acute
anges, or angles in the first quadrant. In chapter 1, section 5, when
considering the meaning of an angle as being formed by the
rotation of a straight line from a fixed position, we saw that there
was no limit to the amount of rotation, and consequently that
angles could be of any magnitude.
We must now consider the extension of trigonometrical ratios
to angles greater than a right angle. At the present, however, we
shall not examine the general question of angles of any magnitude,
but confine ourselves to obtuse angles, or angles in the second
quadrant, as these are necessary in many practical applications of
trigonometry.
76
Trigonometry
Fig. 63.
the net result is that he has travelled (46) miles, i.e.  2 miles
from 0. The significance of the negative sign is that the man is
now 2 miles in the opposite direction from that in which he
started.
In such a way as this we arrive at the convention by which we
agree to use + and  signs to indicate opposite directions.
If we now consider two straight lines at right angles to one
another, as X'OX, Y'OY, in Fig. 64, such as are used for coordinates and graphs, we can extend to these the conventions used
for one straight line
y
as indicated above.
The lines OX, OY
are called the axes of
p
coordinates.
OX
measures the xcoordinate, called the
y
O
x
abscissa, and OY
X measures the ycoN
ordinate, called the
ordinate. Any point
P (Fig. 64), has a
pair of coordinates
(x, y). Each pair
determines
a unique
Y'
point.
The area of the
Fig. 64.
diagram, Fig. 65, is
considered to be divided into four quadrants as shown. Values of
x measured to the right are + ve , and to the left are  ve. Values
of y measured upwards are + ve , and downwards are  ve. This
is a universally accepted convention.
P 1 lies in the first quadrant and N 1 is the foot of the
~
~
perpendicular from P 1 to OX. ON 1 is in the direction of OX and
~
is +ve; N1P is in the direction of OY and is +ve. Thus the coordinates of any point P 1 in the first quadrant are ( +, +).
P2 lies in the second quadrant and N2 is the foot of the
)('+~
77
y
2nd.quad
t st. quad
P1
P2
+
N3 u N2
+
+
N4 N1
P4
P3
3rd. quad
4th. quad
Fig. 65.
+
+
78
Trigonometry
B
,
.     + ve direction
''
'
'
'
'
'~'A
I
I
I
'

, ,, '  ve direction
Fig. 66.
Fig. 67.
79
Fig. 68.
OE is ve and EB is
EOB) is obtuse.
Also
OB2
= OE2 + EB2
= (  ve )2 + ( + ve )2
ACUTE ANGLE
OBTUSE ANGLE
SIN
+
+
+
cos
TAN
Fig. 69.
x~~~~_._~~~~~....o.L~..__.._~~_.__~~~~~x
E
Fig. 70.
80
Trigonometry
sin XOA
DA
OA
= +V = +
sin XOB
EB
OB
= +y = +
cos XOA
OD
OA
= +V = +
cos XOB
OE
OB
= +y =
tan XOA
DA
OD
= += +
tan XOB
EB
OE
(see Note)
=+ = 
= 
= sm (180  0)
0 =  COS (180  0)
tan 0 =  tan (180  0)
CO'>
e.g.
sin 100
cos 117
tan 147
sm 80
= = 
cos 63
tan 33
e.g.
Ratios of Angles
in
Second Quadrant
81
Example I Find from the tables sin 137 and cos 137
We first find the supplement
of 137 which is
180  137
. . by section 70 sin 137
From the tables
sin 43
sm 137
Again
cos 0
cos 137
43
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
sm 43
0 6820
0 6820
 cos ( 180  0)
 cos ( 180  137)
cos 43
0 7314
Also
 0)
 162)
 0)
 162)
sin 180
cos 180
tan 180
=
=
=
0
1
0
82
Trigonometry
+ 0.5577
180  56.1
= 123.9
tan 54
tan 0
 1.3764
= + 1.3764
=  tan (180"  9)
= tan (180  54)
= tan 126
83
74 Inverse notation
The sign tan :'  1.3674 is employed to signify the angle whose
tangent is 1.3674.
And, in general
sin 1x means the angle whose sine is x
cos=' x means the angle whose cosine is x
Three points should be noted.
(1) sin1x stands for an angle: thus sin1 ~ = 30.
(2) The  l ' is not an index, but merely a sign to denote inverse
notation.
(3) (sin x)': 1 is not used, because by section 31 it would mean the
reciprocal of sin x and this is cosec x.
75
We are now able to tabulate the values of the sine, cosine and
tangents of certain angles between 0 and 180. The table will also
state in a convenient form the ratios of a few important angles.
They are worth remembering.
oo
30
45
60
900
1
2
v3
v'2
v3
v'2
v3
v3
150
180
v3
v'2
1
2
135
120
1
2
1
v3
 v'2 2
I
\13
I
\13
84
Trigonometry
~
~
[.;'
!'...
,,I'
.....
I/
'
"' .....
.....
I'I'\
I/
oo
goo
60
30
Fig. 71.
150
120
r,
180
Sin 0.
done by using the values given in the above table or, more
accurately, by taking values from the tables.
An inspection of these graphs will illustrate the results reached
in section 73 (second example) .
.....
,
I'
"
I"
"
oo ::30
::::60
""
.t.so~
.,
120= 150= 18
I'
'
I'
"
1
Fig. 72. Cos 0.
....
oo
85
I
I
v
J
/
I/
:/
I/
I/
'r
oo ~~30
'.:::'.:::60
I,
rr sor
120= 1501/ l2 1 80
I/
I,
'
II
I
1
I/
2
11
3
Fig. 73.
Tan 0.
It is evident from Fig. 71, that there are two angles, one in each
quadrant with a given sine.
From Figs. 72 and 73, it will be seen that there is only one angle
between 0 and 180 corresponding to a given cosine or tangent.
86
Trigonometry
Exercise 6
Write down from the tables the sines. cosines and tangents of
the following angles:
(a) 102
(d) 145.27
(c) 109.47
(b) 149.55
(e) 154 36
(b)  0.8131
(e) 0.7917
(c) 0.1788
(J)  0.9154
.
tan A
Find the value of 8when A = 150, B = 163.28.
sec
6
Trigonometrical Ratios of
Compound Angles
77
78
and
LXOZ = (A
+ B)
88
Trigonometry
In OZ take any point P.
Draw PO perpendicular to OX and PM perpendicular to OY.
From M draw MN perpendicular to OX and MR parallel to OX.
Then
MR= ON
Proof
But
LRPM = 90  LPMR
= RMO
LRMO = LMOZ
=A
LRPM =A
(Theorem 2, section 9)
PR
OP
=MN+
OP
PR
OP
z
p
Fig. 74.
Ratios of Compound
Angles
89
. o f .mtrod ucmg
. OM
N ote t h e d evice
MO an d PM
PM . eac h o f whire h .rs
unity. into the last line but one.
Again
cos (A
+ B) =cos XOZ
00
 OP
ON  NO
OP
ON
NO
=OP  OP
ON
RM
 OP  OP
g~ x ~~)
= (
 (~~ x ~~)
79
XOZ =A  B
90
Trigonometry
Fig. 75.
Now
sin (A  B) = sin XOZ
PQ
=OP
RQ RP
=OP
RQ
RP
=OP  OP
MN
RP
=OP  OP
= (~~ x
= sin A cos B
Again
cos (A  B)
 cos A sin B
cos XOZ
OQ
=OP
=ON+ QN
OP
=ON+
OP
QN
OP
Ratios of Compound
ON
=OP+
Angles
91
RM
OP
ON
OM)
(RM
PM)
= ( OM x OP + PM x OP
80
These formulae have been proved for acute angles only. but
they can be shown to be true for angles of any size. They are of
great importance. We collect them for reference:
sin
cos
sin
cos
(A
(A
(A
(A
+
+

B)
B)
B)
B)
=
=
sin A cos B +
cos A cos B sin A cos B cos A cos B +
cos
sin
cos
sin
A
A
A
A
sin
sin
sin
sin
B
B
B
B
81
sin (A + B)
cos (A+ B)
sin A cos B + cos A sin B
cos A cos B  sin A sin B
tan (A + B)
sin A
cos A
cos A
cos A
sin A +sin B
OOsA
COsB
_ sin A sin B
1
cos A. cos B
tan (A + B)
tan A + tan B
1  tan A tan B
tan A  tan B
1 + tan A tan B
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
for
92
Trigonometry
82 Worked Examples
Example I: Using the values of the sines and cosines of 30 and
45 as given in the table in section 75. find sin 75.
Using
sin (A
+ B)
= vin A cos B
CO!>
A sin B
and substituting
A = 45, B = 30
sin 75 = sin 45 co!>30
we have
+ ( ~ x ~)
x ~)
= (~
+ cos 45 sin 30
= V3 +'
2\/2 2\/2
V3 + 1
2v'2
V1= cos
= Yl  (0.6)2
= YI  0.36
= \/0.64
= 0.8
sin f3 = 0.6.
sin
Similarly we find
et
+ 13) =
=
=
Also cos (o: + 13) =
sin (
(0.8 x 0.8)
0.64 + 0.36
1
+ cos A sin B
+ (0.6 x 0.6)
Obviously
+ ~=
93
Exercise 7
If cos A = 0.2 and cos B = 0.5, find the values of
sin (A + B) and cos (A  B).
2 Use the ratios of 45 and 30 from the table in section 75 to
find the values of sin 15 and cos 75.
3 By using the formula for sin (A  B) prove that:
sin (90  0)
cos 0.
= 
tan A.
(
11
b)
1
tan 64  tan 25
+ tan 64 tan 25
+ 45) =
0 + 1
+ 45) = tan
1 _ tan 0
Trigonometry
There have been no limitations of the angles.
:. let
B =A.
Substituting
94
or
(1)
If 2A is replaced by 6
ei
then
sm
2.0sm
2 cos 20
(2)
(4)
sin2 A + cos2 A
sin2 A
cos2 A
=
=
=
1
1  cos2 A
1  sin2 A
(section 65)
(5)
(6)
1  cos 2A
1 + cos 2A
2 sin2 A
2 cos2 A
(7)
(8)
cos 0
cos/ ;  sin2
(10)
84
cos 0
1  2 sin2
cos 0
2 cos2
95
(11)
(12)
~ 
Since
tan (A
+ B) = tan A + tan B
1  tan A tan B
Let B =A
Then
tan 2A
2 tan A
1 _ tan2 A
(3)
or replacing 2A by 0
2 tan
tan 0
=
1  tan
(14)
0
= ~ (1
 cos 0)
=
=
=
+ B)
(6) tan (A _ B)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5) tan (A
tan A  tan B
+ tan A tan B
A
A
A
A
sin
sin
sin
sin
B
B
B
B
96 Trigonometry
(7) sin 2A
= 2 sin A cos A
(8) cos 2A
= cos2 A  sin2 A
= 1  2 sin2 A
= 2 cos2 A  1
(9) tan 2A
2 tan A
1  tan2 A
Exercise 8
1 If sin A = ~. find sin 2A, cos 2A and tan 2A.
2 Find sin 20, cos 20. tan 20, when sin 0 = 0.25.
3 Given the values of sin 45 and cos 45 deduce the values of
sin 90 and cos 90 by using the above formulae.
4 If cos B = 0.66, find sin 2B and cos 2B.
5 Find the values of (1) 2 sin 36 cos 36.
(2) 2 cos2 36  1.
6 If cos 2A = ~. find tan A.
(Hint Use formulae from section 83.)
Prove that
. 0_+1ftcos0
sm 2   V
2
0  + d1+cos0
cos2v
2
If cos 0
(Hint
9 If 1 10 Prove
(Hint
12
.
.,,/ 1  cos 30
Find the value of y 1 + cos 300 .
(Hint
cos
~r 
11
sin 0.
Ratios of Compound
Angles
97
86 Product formulae
The formulae of section 80 give rise to another set of results
involving the product of trigonometrical ratios.
We have seen that:
sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
sin (A  B) = sin A cos B  cos A sin B
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B  sin A sin B
cos (A  B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
Adding (1) and (2)
sin (A + B) + sin (A  B) = 2 sin A cos B
Subtracting
sin (A + B)  sin (A  B) = 2 cos A sin B
Adding (3) and (4)
cos (A + B) + cos (A  B) = 2 cos A cos B
Subtracting
cos (A + B)  cos (A  B) =  2 sin A sin B
These can be written in the forms
2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A  B)
2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B)  sin (A  B)
2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A  B)
2 sin A sin B = cos (A  B)  cos (A + B)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
87
Let
and
Adding
Subtracting
A+B=P
AB=Q
2A = P + Q
2B= P  Q
A=P+Q
PQ
B=2Substituting in (5), (6), (7) and (8)
. p + sm
. Q = sin P+Q
22.
PQ
cos 2
(9)
. p
. Q
P+Q.
PQ
sm  sin
= 2 cos 2 sm 2
(10)
sin
Trigonometry
98
P+Q
PQ
cos p +cos Q = 2 cos 2cos 2
(11)
. P+Q.
PQ
cos Q  cos P = 2 sin 2 sin 2
(12)
The formulae (5), (6), (7), (8) enable us to change the product
of two ratios into a sum.
Formulae (9), (10), (11), (12) enable us to change the sum of
two ratios into a product.
Again note carefully the order in (12).
88
Worked examples
ratios
+ B) + sin (A  B) on substi
+ 20)}
+ sin 18.
Using
. p
sin
.
. 25
sm 25 + sin 18 = 2 sin
+ 18 cos 25  18
2
2
+ 70 sin
. 70  30
2
2
. 30
2 sm
2 sin S0 sin 20
Exercise 9
Express as the sum or difference of two ratios:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
sin 30 cos 0
sin 3S cos 4S
cos S0 cos 30
cos S0 sin 30
cos (C + 20) cos (2C + 0)
cps 60 sin 30
2 sin 3A sin A
cos (3C + SO) sin (3C  SO)
0
15
sin 30 + sin 60
cos 30  cos 60
16
sin o:
cos 0:
+ sin ~
+ cos ~
99
89
Fig. 76(a).
Fig. 76(b).
101
BC
(1)
(2)
sin ACB
sin C
ca
Similarly
sin B
sin C
sin A
sin B
c=
sin A
sin C
b
a
and
b sin C
sin B
a= sin A
b =a sin B
sin A
9.8 x sin 70.43
sin 52.25
b
=
=
11.68
11.7 (approx.)
c = sin
sin A
C
S 1m1
Trigonometry
Exercise JO
102
91
8'.._______.
D
c
Fig. 77(b).
Fig. 77(a).
Let
Then
and
In 6ABD,
BO=
CD =
CD=
AD2 =
In 6ACD,
c2  x2
AC2  CD2
= b2  (a  x)2 in Fig. 77(a)
or
= b2  (x  a)2 in Fig. 77(b)
Also
(a  x)2 = (x  a)2
equating ( 1) and (2)
b2  (a  x )2 = c2  x2
b2
AD2
x
a  x in Fig. 77(a)
x  a in Fig. 77(b)
AB2  BD'1
a2
2ax  x2 = c2
:.
But
2ax
x
2ac cos B
=
=
cos B
x2
a2  c2  b2
c cos B
a2 + c2  b2
a2 + c2  b2
2=ac
(1)
(2)
Similarly
b2
c2  a2
2bc
a2
b2  c2
2ab
cos A=
cos C =
103
+
+
+
c2 = a2
a2 = b2
b2 = a2
b2  2ab cos C
c2  2bc cos A
c2  2ac cos B
Worked example
Find the angles of the triangle whose sides are
a=
Using
m, b = 9 m, c = 12 m.
cos C =
+ b2 
a2
c2
2ab
82
+ 92  122
2 x 8 x 9
64
+
2
81  144
x 8 x 9
1
= 144
= 0.0069
whence
Again,
c = 89.6
b2
92
cos A=
2
c2  a2
2bc
122  82
12
x9x
81 + 144  64
2 x 9 x 12
161
216
whence
= 0.7454
= 41.8
104
Trigonometry
Similarly, using
cosB=
a2
+ c2  b2
2ac
B = 48.6
we get
Check
=
=
A+B+C
41.8 + 48.6 + 89.6
180
Exercise 11
cos A
1
b2 + c2  a2
2bc
1  2 sin2 ~
 2 . 2 A  b2 + c2  a2
sin 2 2bc
. 2 A  1  b2 + c2  a2
2 sin 2 2bc
(section 83)
105
b + c  a2bc
0
0)
2bc  b2  c2 + a2
2bc
_ a2

{b2
 2bc + c2)
2bc
_ a2

(b  c)2
2bc
(A)
The 's' notation. To simplify this further we use the 's' notation,
as follows:
Let 2s = a
Then
2s  2a = a + b + c = 2a
=b+ca
2s  2b = a + b + c  2b
=ab+c
2s  2c = a + b  c
Again
Similarly
(I)
(2)
(3)
(4)
+ c)
. A
2 sin 2 2
2(s  c) x 2(s  b)
2bc
(s  cb~s  b)
106
Trigonometry
sin A= '\/(s  b)(s  c)
2
V
be
or
. B _
sm 2 
Similarly,
sin~
2
/(s  a)(s  c)
ac
..f(s  a)(s  b)
V
ab
but
cos A=
Zbc
b2
1 + cos A
1 +
1 + cos A
2cos2
2 cos2
A 1+
2 
c2  a2
Zbc
b 2 +ca2
2bc
a2
+ c)2  a2
2bc
_ (b + c  a)(b + c + a)
2bc
(on factorising the numerator)
but
and
b + c  a
a + b + c
2(s  a)
2s
Substituting
2 cos
and
cos
cos
A _ 2(s  a) X
2 
2bc
A _ s(s  a)
2 
be
A _ ds(s  a)
2  V
be
2s
I 07
B _ ds(s  b)
ac
cos
2 V
cos
2  V
C _ ds(s  c)
ab
Since
tan
sin
2 = :;\
cos 2
we can substitute for sin ~ and cos ~ the expressions found above.
y(s  b)(s  c)
be
a)
be
Then
tan
vs(s 
Similarly
!! =
d(s  a)(s  c)
V s(s  b)
d(s  a)(s  b)
V s(s  c)
tan~
2
and
sm
A _
 2
/(s  b)(s  c) x
be
/s(s  a)
be
108
Trigonometry
:.
on
sim
plifying.
Similarly
sin B =
2
v's(s
ac
 a)(s  b)(s  c)
and
sin C =a~ v's(s  a)(s  b)(s  c)
97 Worked example
The working involved in the use of all these formulae is very
similar. We will give one example only: there are more in the next
chapter.
The sides of a triangle are a
greatest angle.
264, b
435, c
s =
s  a=
s  b =
s  c =
and
Check
2s
1172
586
322
151
113
1172
Note s + (s  a) + (s  b) + (s  c) = 4s  (a + b + c)
2s
Any of the half angle formulae may be used, but the tangent
formulae involves only the 's' factors.
Using
tan~
2
tan
2 =
d(s  c)(s  b)
V s(s  c)
322 x 151
586 x 113
and
~=
40.59
c=
81.19
109
Using the formula for tan ~ , find the largest angle in the
triangle whose sides are 113 mm, 141 mm, 214 mm.
tn
the
triangle whose sides are 483 mm, 316 mm, and 624 mm.
3
221 m, c
find
when
a = 115 m,
286 m.
bc
A
= b + c cot 2
sin B
sin C
b c
(1)
(2)
+ c)
(3)
Trigonometry
Subtracting (2) from ( 1)
sin B  sin C
Dividing (4) by (3)
110
sin B  sin C
sin B + sin C
k(b  c)
b  c
b + c
(4)
b  c
sin B  sin C
b + c  sin B + sin C
or
b _ c
We get
b + c  2.
. BC
sm 2
B+C
BC
. cos 2
sm 2
. B  C
.B+C
smsm2
. .:. .
2
BC.
B+C
cos 2cos 2BC
tan2
t an2B + C
Since
(B
.
C) = 180  A
B+C=90o_A
2
BC
tan2
b+c
tan ( 90 
b
A)
BC
tan2A
cot2
...
or
BC
tan 2cot
 b c
+c
 b
BC
tan 2
bc
A
b + c cot 2
111
Similarly
AC
tan 2
=a+
AB
tan 2
=a+
a  c
c cot
a  b
b cot
2
C
Worked example
In a triangle A = 75.2, b = 43, c = 35. Find B and C.
Using
BC
tan=
2
bc
cotb + c
A
2
and substituting
B  C 43  35
tan 2 =
+
cot 37 .6
43 35
=
=
7~
7~
cot 37.6
: tan 37 .6
= 0.1332
= tan (7 .59)
On your calculator the sequence of key presses should be:
(43  35) : (43 + 35) : 37.6 TAN= INV TAN
whence
and
B;
C = 7.590
BC=15.l7
112 Trigonometry
Also
(I) Adding
and
B + C = 180  75.2
= 104.8
28 = 119.97
B = 59.98
B = 60 (approx.)
2C = 89.63
c = 44.86
(2) Subtracting
and
c
B "a
D...___ _, C
Fig. 78(a).
In Fig.78(b)
BC=
a =
=
=
since
cos (180  B) =
: . in each case
a =
Similarly
b =
and
c =
s~~....._ __ _...;
a
Fig. 78(b).
BD  DC
c cos B  b cos A CD
c cos B  b cos (180  C)
c cos B + b cos C
 cos B
(see section 70)
b cos C + c cos B
a cos C + c cos A
a cos B + b cos A
113
Exercise 13
Use the formula provided in section 98 to find the remaining
angles of the following triangles.
I
2
3
4
5
6
a =
a =
c =
a =
a =
a=
171.
786,
175,
185,
431,
759,
c
b
b
b
b
c
= 288, B =
= 854, C =
= 602, A=
= 111, C =
= 387, C =
= 567, B =
108
37.42
63.67
60
29.23
72.23
8
The Solution of Triangles
I
Three sides
II Two sides and an included angle
III Two angles and a side
IV Two sides and an angle opposite to one of them
This last case is the ambiguous case (see section 13) and under
certain conditions, which will be dealt with later, there may be two
solutions.
102
Formulae employed
(I) The cosine rule
The formula
cos A=
b2
+ c2 
a2
2bc
formula, viz.
t an
A _ d(s  b)(s  c)
s(s  a)
2  V
Worked example
Solve the triangle in which a = 269.8, b
235.9, c
= 264.7.
116
Trigonometry
Data
a= 269.8
b = 235.9
c = 264.7
2s
s =
s  a =
s  b =
s  c =
Check
770.4
385.2
115.4
149.3
120.5
2s = 770.4
To find A
A
y<s  b)(s  c)
Formula to be used tan  =
2
s(s  a)
= '\ /149.3 x 120.5
385.2 x 115.4
= 0.6362
= tan 32.46
~ = 32.46
and
A = 64.93
= 26.18
and
B = 52.37
117
=
=
= 31.35
c = 62.70
and
Check
c=
A+ B + C
62.70
180
Exercise 14
Solve the following triangles:
1
2
3
4
5
a=
a =
a =
a =
a =
103
252,
20,
206.5,
402.5,
95.2,
b = 342,
b = 11,
b = 177,
b = 773.5,
b = 162.4,
Case II
c
c
c
c
c
=
=
=
=
=
486.
12.
295.
1001.
117.6.
(1) The cosine rule may be used. If, for example, the given sides
are b and c and the angle A, then
a2 = b2
+ c2
2bc cos A
will give a.
Hence, since all sides are now known we can proceed as in
Case I.
(2) Use the formula
BC
tan 2
bc
A
= b + c cot 2
Trigonometry
Solve the triangle when
118
Formula used:
CB
tan 2Data
cb
A
c + b cot 2
b = 294
c = 406
c + b = 700
* c  b = 112
A = 35.4
17.7
C + B = 144.6
=
=
=
112
700 x tan 17.7
0.5013
tan 26.63
26.630
C  B
C + B
2C
Cl
Also
53.25
144.6
= 197.85
c = 98.92
2B = 91.35
B = 45.68
Also
To find a
Formula used:
a
b
sin A= sin B
a=
b sin A
sin B
238 (approx.)
119
Exercise 15
Solve the following triangles:
1 b = 189,
2 a = 94,
3 a= 39.6,
4 a=266,
5 a= 230.1,
c = 117.7,
b = 159.4,
c = 71.1,
b=175,
c = 269.5,
A = 60.6.
C = 80.97.
B = 65.17.
C=78.
B = 30.47.
If two angles are known the third is also known, since the sum of
all three angles is 180. This case may therefore be stated as given
the angles and one side.
The best formula to use is the sine rule.
Worked example
Solve the triangle in which B = 71.32, C = 67.45 and b = 79.06.
Required to find, A, a and c.
Now
A = 180  71.32
= 41.23
+ 67.45
To find c
c
sin C
Formula used b = ,8
Sin
whence
b sin C
c = sin B
= 79.06 x sin 67.45 + sin 71.32
c
= 77.08
= 77.08
Trigonometry
To find a
120
Using
sin A
b  sin B
a=
b sin A
sin B
79.06 x sin 41.23 + sin 71.32"
= 55.00
55.00
The solution is
= 41.23
a = 55.00
c = 77.08
Exercise 16
Solve the triangles:
1
2
3
4
5
105
Lf\,,
B
C ,

Fig. 79.
  ... C'
121
LACC'
AC'
AC'C.
sin C
sin B
c b
whence
Sin
. C
8.7, b
c sin B
b
7.6, B
25
. C _ 8.7 sin 25
sm 7.6
=
0.4838
Trigonometry
(1) If this arc touches BX in C, we have the minimum length of b
to make a triangle at all (Fig. 80(a) ). The triangle is then
rightangled, there is no ambiguity and
122
b
(2) If b is > c sin B but
C' (Fig. 80(b)).
nb
c sin B
~,
s~6.x
Fig. BO(a).
Fig. BO(b).
\
\
,"'
,,,.""
.:
c"",BCI
,
Fig. BO(cl.
I
I
(3) If b > c. BX is cut at two points C and C' (Fig. 80(c) ), but
one of these C' lies on BX produced in the other direction
and in the 6 so formed, there is no angle B, but only its
supplement. There is one solution and no ambiguity .
. . There are two solutions only when b, the side opposite to
the given angle B, is less than c, the side adjacent, and greater
than c sin B.
Ambiguity can therefore be ascertained by inspection.
Exercise 17
In the following cases ascertain if there is more than one solution.
Then solve the triangles:
1
2
3
4
b
b
a
a
=
=
=
=
30.4, c = 34.8, B = 25
70.25, c = 85.3, B = 40
96, c = 100, C = 66
91, c = 78, C = 29.45
106
123
Area of a triangle
h = b sin C
6 =~ab sin C
Similarly using other sides as bases
6 =~be sin A
= ~ ac sin B
Trigonometry
It may be expressed as follows:
The area of a triangle is equal to half the product of two sides
and the sine of the angle contained by them.
124
6 =~be sin A
2
Worked examples
(1) Find the area of the triangle solved in section 103, viz. b
294, c = 406, A = 35.4.
Using the formula:
6 =~be sin A
6 = ~ x 294 x 406 x sin 35.4
6 = 34570 sq. units
(2) Find the area of the triangle solved in section 102, viz.
a = 269.8, b = 235.9, c = 264.7.
Using the formula and taking values of s, s  a, etc., as in
section 102:
:.
I
2
8
9
10
11
125
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
126
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Trigonometry
In a quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 4.3 rn, BC= 3.4 m, CD =
3.8 m, LABC = 95. LBCD = 115. Find the lengths of the
diagonals.
From a point 0 on a straight line OX, OP and OQ of lengths
5 mm and 7 mm are drawn on the same side of OX so that
LXOP = 32 and LXOQ = 55. Find the length of PQ.
Two hooks P and Q on a horizontal beam are 30 cm apart.
From P and Q strings PR and QR, 18 cm and 16 cm long
respectively, support a weight at R. Find the distance of R
from the beam and the angles which PR and QR make with
the beam.
Construct a triangle ABC whose base is 5 cm long, the angle
BAC = 55 and the angle ABC = 48. Calculate the lengths
of the sides AC and BC and the area of the triangle.
Two ships leave port at the same time. The first steams S.E.
at 18 km h1, and the second 25 W. of S. at 15 km h1
Calculate the time that will have elapsed when they are 86 km
apart.
AB is a base line of length 3 km, and C, D are points such
that LBAC = 32.25, LABC = 119.08, LDBC = 60.17,
LBCD = 78.75, A and D being on the same side of BC.
Prove that the length of CD is 4405 m approximately.
ABCD is a quadrilateral. If AB = 0.38 m, BC = 0.69 m,
AD = 0.42 m, LABC = 109, LBAD = 123, find the area
of the quadrilateral.
A weight was hung from a horizontal beam by two chains 8 m
and 9 m long respectively, the ends of the chains being
fastened to the same point of the weight, their other ends
being fastened to the beam at points 10 m apart. Determine
the angles which the chains make with the beam.
9
Practical Problems Involving the
Solution of Triangles
107 It is not possible within the limits of this book to deal with
the many practical applications of trigonometry. For adequate
treatment of these the student must consult the technical works
specially written for those professions in which the subject is
necessary. All that is attempted in this chapter is the consideration
of a few types of problems which embody those principles which
are common to most of the technical applications. Exercises are
provided which will provide a training in the use of the rules and
formulae which have been studied in previous chapters. In other
words, you must learn to use your tools efficiently and accurately.
108 Determination of the height of a distant object
This problem has occupied the attention of mankind throughout
the ages. Three simple forms of the problem may be considered
here.
(a) When the point vertically beneath the top of the object is
accessible
In Fig. 81 AB represents a lofty object whose height is required,
and B is the foot of it, on the same horizontal level as 0. This
being accessible, a horizontal distance represented by OB can be
measured. By the aid of a theodolite the angle of elevation of AB,
viz. LAOB, can be found.
128
Trigonometry
Fig. 81.
Then
AB == PB tan AOB
Fig. 82.
Practical Problems
129
AB
AB
=
=
AP sin APB
AO sin AOB
Q
Fig. 83.
At P measure
(1) LAPB, the angle of elevation of A,
(2) LAPO, the bearing of Q from A taken at P.
At Q measure LAOP, the bearing of P from Q, taken at O.
Then in .6APQ.
PO is known.
LAPQ is known.
LAQP is known.
6APQ can be solved as in Case III, of section 104.
Thus AP is found and LAPB is known.
:.
AB = AQ sin AQB
130
Trigonometry
Alternative method.
Instead of measuring the angles APO, AQB, we may, by using a
theodolite, measure
LBPQ at P
LPQB at Q
and
Then in 6 PQB.
PQ is known.
Ls BPO, BQP are known.
6 PQB can be solved as in Case III, section 104.
Thus BP is determined.
Then LAPB being known
AB
PB tan APB
109
p
Fig. 84.
Practical Problems
131
B~iC
Q
Fig. 85.
110
Triangulation
Trigonometry
the method employed in surveying a district, obtaining its area,
etc. In practice there are complications such as corrections for sea
level and, over large districts, the fact that the earth is approximately a sphere necessitates the use of spherical trigonometry.
Over small areas. however, the error due to considering the
surface as a plane, instead of part of a sphere, is, in general, very
small, and approximations are obtained more readily than by using
spherical trigonometry.
The method employed is as follows:
A
132
a
Fig. 86.
Practical Problems
133
112
Worked examples
Fig. 87.
21.25
158.75
18
3.25
134
Trigonometry
whence
also
PO
sin PAO
1000
sin 3.25
= 1000 x sin 1S8.7S + sin 3.25
= 6393.02
AP= 6393
AB = PA sin 18
= 6393 sin 18
= 1975.55
AB= 1976 m
=
=
=
33.2
21.45
53.42
Fig. 88.
Practical Problems
135
AQ
sin ABQ
AQ
AB
sin AQB
=
=
AQ
1000
sin 21.45 =sin 11.75
AQ = 1796
PQ = AQ tan PAQ
PQ = 1796 tan 53.42
PQ = 2420 m
whence
Now
whence
Fig. 89.
51.33, LPBA
180  51.33
PB _ sin 51.33
AB  sin 66.47
62.2
+ 62.2 = 66.47
136
Trigonometry
PB _ 150 x sin 51.33
sin 66.47
Again
whence
PB = 127.7
PQ = PB sin 66.2
PQ = 113 m
Fig. 90.
+ LBPQ
+ 31 = 80
LPAQ = 180  (80 + 62) = 38
LAPQ
LAPB
= 49
Practical Problems
137
AP
sin 62
Using the sine rule PO = sin 38
0
AP =
=
=
AP=
BP
sin 122
PO = sin 27
0
BP =
=
=
BP=
b
c
AP = 1578 ( = c say)
BP= 2055 (= b)
LAPB = 49 (= A)
b + c = 3633
b  c = 477
B + C = 180  49"
Formula used.
BC
tan 2
bc
A
b + c cot 
Substituting
B  C
477
tan 2 =
cot 24.5
3633
B ; C
16.07
BC=32.14
2055
1578
131
138
Trigonometry
Also
+ C = 131
2B = 163.14
B = 81.57
2C = 98.86
c = 49.43
LPAB = 81.57
LPBA = 49.86
(4) To find AB use the sine rule
AB
AP
sin 49
sin 49.43
AB _ 1578 x sin 49
sin 49.43
AB= 1568 m
This can be checked by solving 6AQB and so obtaining AO
and QB.
Exercise 20
A man observes that the angle of elevation of a tree is 32.
He walks 8 m in a direct line towards the tree and then finds
that the angle of elevation is 43. What is the height of the
tree?
2 From a point Q on a horizontal plane the angle of elevation
of the top of a distant mountain is 22.3. At a point P, 500 m
further away in a direct horizontal line, the angle of elevation
of the mountain is 16.6. Find the height of the mountain.
3 Two men stand on opposite sides of a church steeple and in
the same straight line with it. They are 1.5 km apart. From
one the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 15.5 and
the other 28.67. Find the height of the steeple in metres.
4 A man wishes to find the breadth of a river. From a point on
one bank he observes the angle of elevation of a high building
on the edge of the opposite bank to be 31. He then walks
110 m away from the river to a point in the same plane as the
previous position and the building he has observed. He finds
that the angle of elevation of the building is now 20.92. What
was the breadth of the river?
5 A and Bare two points on opposite sides of swampy ground.
From a point P outside the swamp it is found that PA is
l
Practical Problems
139
B.
10
11
12
13
Trigonometry
AB is a base line 0.5 km long and B is due west of A. At B
a point P bears 65. 7 north of west. The bearing of P from
AB at A is 44.25 N. of W. How far is P from A?
15 A horizontal bridge over a river is 380 m long. From one end,
A, it is observed that the angle of depression of an object, P
vertically beneath the bridge, on the surface of the water is
34. From the other end, B, the angle of depression of the
object is 62. What is the height of the bridge above the
water?
16 A straight line AB, 115 m Jong, lies in the same horizontal
plane as the foot of a church tower PQ. The angle of elevation
of the top of the tower at A is 35. LQAB is 62 and LQBA
is 48. What is the height of the tower?
17 A and B are two points 1500 metres apart on a road running
due west. A soldier at A observes that the bearing of an
enemy's battery is 25.8 north of west, and at B, 31.5 north
of west. The range of the guns in the battery is 5 km. How
far can the soldier go along the road before he is within range,
and what length of the road is within range?
140
14
10
Circular Measure
113 In chapter 1, when methods of measuring angles were
considered, a brief reference was made to 'circular measure'
(section 6(c)), in which the unit of measurement is an angle of
fixed magnitude, and not dependent upon any arbitrary division
of a right angle. We now proceed to examine this in more detail.
114
t t
a cons an
115
142
Trigonometry
Hence since
rr
circumference = rr x diameter
or
c
2rrr
c = circumference and r = radius.
where
3.1415927
which is roughly
rr
3.1416
22
=7
p
It is not possible to find any arithmetical fraction which exactly represents the value of 'TT. Hence rr is called
'incommensurable'.
116
Fig. 91.
Circular Measure
143
i.e.
or
117
As shown above
1T
radians = 180
.
180
1 radian= 1T
= 57.2958 (approx.)
1 radian = 57 17' 45" (approx.)
Most scientific calculators have a facility (possibly a DRG key)
which allows you to change angles in radians to degrees and viceversa. (For more details of this feature, see section 37 on page 36.)
118
In a circle of radius r, Fig. 92, let AOD be any angle and let
LAOB represent a radian .
. . length of arc AB = r.
Number of radians in LAOD =
~1g~
144
Trigonometry
then
Fig. 92.
180 =
lo
and
1T
radians
1T
180
ra dirans
0 = ( 0 x 1~0) radians
a = length of arc
0 = number of radians in angle
Ta !US
and
(section 118)
a= r0
Circular Measure
145
.!!
60
'TT  30
6'TT is not usually evaluated in such cases, except for some special
purpose.
Exercise 21
1
(a) sin
(d) cos
3
(b) cos
3;
'TT
8
(e) sin(}
. 'TT
(c) sm
10
i)
=
=
=
=
2.4 mm
2.2 cm
146
Trigonometry
Express the following angles in degrees and minutes:
(a) 0.234 radian
(b) 72
(c) 66
(d) 105
=
=
2.3 cm, 0
12.5 rn, 0
=
=
2.54 radians
1.4 radians
11
Trigonometrical Ratios of Angles
of any Magnitude
We will first deal with angles in the third and fourth quadrants,
and thus include all those angles which are less than 360 or a
complete rotation.
Before proceeding to the work which follows you are advised
to revise section 68, in chapter 5, dealing with positive and
negative lines.
In section 70 it was shown that the ratios of angles in the second
quadrant were defined in the same fundamental method as those
of angles in the first quadrant, the only difference being that in
obtaining the values of the ratios we have to take into considera
Trigonometry
tion the signs of the lines employed, i.e. whether they are positive
or negative.
It will now be seen that, with the same attention to the signs of
the lines, the same definitions of the trigonometrical ratios will
apply, whatever the quadrant in which the angle occurs.
In Fig. 93 there are shown in separate diagrams, angles in the
four quadrants. In each case from a point P on the rotating line a
perpendicular PO is drawn to the fixed line OX, produced in the
cases of the second and third quadrants.
Thus we have formed, in each case, a triangle OPO, using the
sides of which we obtain, in each quadrant, the ratios as follows,
denoting LAOP by 0.
Then, in each quadrant .
PO
sm 0 =OP
148
00
cos 0 = OP
tan 0
PO
OO
II
111
IV
Fig. 93.
149
PO is ve
sine is ve
cos e is+ ve
tan e is ve
Note The cosecant, secant and tangent will, of course, have the
same signs as their reciprocals. These results may be summarised
as follows:
Quadrant II
sine +
{ sin, +ve
cos,  ve
tan, ve
Quadrant III
tan +
{ sin, ve
cos,  ve
tan, + ve
Quadrant I
sin, +ve }
cos, + ve
all +
tan, + ve
Quadrant IV
sin, ve }
cos,+ ve
cos+
tan, ve
Trigonometry
examine the changes in the third and fourth quadrants.
Construct a circle of unit radius (Fig. 94) and centre 0. Take
on the circumference of this a series of points P., P2, Pl ...
and
draw perpendiculars to the fixed line XOX'. Then the radius being
of unit length, these perpendiculars, in the scale in which OA
represents unity, will represent the sines of the corresponding
angles.
y
150
Y'
Fig. 94.
is
151
In quadrant II
sin 0 is
In quadrant III
sin 0 is ve
Now the actual lengths of the perpendiculars is increasing, but
as they are  ve, the value of the sine is actually decreasing, and
at 270 is equal to  1.
The sine decreases in this quadrant from 0 to  I
In quadrant IV
sin 0 is ve
The lengths of the perpendiculars are decreasing, but as they
are ve, their values are increasing and at 360 the sine is equal
to sin 0 and is therefore zero .
. .
125
126
From Fig. 94 you will see that the distances intercepted on the
fixed line by the perpendiculars from P1, P2 , viz. 00" 002
... will represent, in the scale in which OA represents unity, the
cosines of the corresponding angles. Examining these we see
(I) In quadrant I
The cosine is
152
Trigonometry
4
3
2
oo
goo
13oo
270
360
1
2
3
4
Fig.95.
Graphs of sin 0 and cosec 0.
(Cosec 0 is dotted.)
(2) In quadrant II
The cosine is alwaysve aad deacases from 0 to 1
(3) In quadrant III
The cosine is ve and always increasing from 1 to 0 and
cos 270 = 0
(4) In quadrant IV
The cosine is + ve and always increasing from 0 to
cos 360 = cos 0 = 1
+ 1 since
153
3
2
90
11
oo
270
31
1
2
3
4
Ag.96.
Graphs of
cos 9
154
Trigonometry
P3
P2
II
P1
P4
X'
P5
Pa
IV
P5
Fig.17.
PA'
_~A'
oo
at 90 to 0 at 180
155
3
\
2
I
~
,
,,
,,
, ....
....
oo
Ir
180
,,
1
27
~ 60
,,
"
v
2
I
3
Graph of
tan 0
Fig. 98.
and cot 0 (dotted line)
129
oo
oo
at 271' to 0 at
In Fig. 98 are shown the graphs of tan 0 and cot 8 (dotted curve)
for values of angles between 0 and 360.
156 Trigonometry
be the same as 0, so that sin (211' + 0) = sin 0, and so for the other
ratios.
Similarly if further complete rotations are made so that angles
were formed such as 411' + 0, 611' + 0, etc., it is evident that the
trigonometrical ratios of these angles will be the same at those of
0.
Fig. 99.
131
Trigonometrical ratio of  0
157
Fig. 100.
Then
PM
P'M
sm (  0) = OP =  OP
PM
.
OP= sm 0
but
Similarly
OM
OM
cos (0) = OP =OP'=
Similarly
tan ( 0) =  tan 0
cos 0
132
1so + e
0
1T
+ 0 is an angle
158
Trigonometry
In Fig. 101 with the usual construction let LPOO be any acute
angle, 0.
Let PO be produced to meet the circle again in P'.
Draw PO and P'O' perpendicular to XOX'.
Then
and
LP'OO'
LAOP'
Fig. 101.
and
PQ
00
. 0
PQ
sm =OP
Now
and
=
=
sin (180
+ 0) = sin AOP'
P'O'
PO
.
= OP' = OP = +sm
similarly
and
133
sin 0
cos 0
tan 0
=  sin (180 + 0)
=  cos (180 + 0)
= tan (180 + 0)
159
In Fig. 102 if the acute angle AOP represents 0 then the reentrant angle AOP, shown by the dotted line represents 360  0.
The trigonometrical ratios of this angle may be obtained from
the sides of the 6 OMP in the usual way and will be the same as
those of  0 (see section 131).
using the results of section 131 we have
sin (360  0) =  sin 0
cos (360  0) = cos 0
tan (360  0) =  tan 0
Fig. 102.
135 It is now possible, by use of the above results and using the
tables of ratios for acute angles, to write down the trigonometrical
ratios of angles of any magnitude.
A few examples are given to illustrate the method to be
employed.
Trigonometry
Example /: Find the value of sin 245
160
sin (180
65)
sin ('TT
+ 0)
Consequently
sin (180
+ 65) =  sin 65
0.9063
cos 35
(section 133)
= 0.8192
Example 3: Find the value of tan 392
This angle is greater then 360 or one whole revolution.
tan 392
=
=
=
tan (360
tan 32
0.6249
+ 32)
=
=
=
Now
161
Exercise 22
I
(b) 201.22
(d) 343.13
(b) cos(42)
( d) cos (  256)
Trigonometry
These two sets include all the angles which have the given sines.
They can be summarised as follows:
162
+ (1)" 0
+ ( 1)" 0
As in the case of the sine for angles greater than 360 or for
negative angles, there will be two angles with the given sine in the
section corresponding to each additional 360.
There will therefore be two sets:
(1) 0, 2ir + 0, 4ir + 0, ...
(2) Zrr  0, 4ir  0, 6ir  0, ...
These can be combined in one set, viz.:
(any even multiple of rr)
:.
(or
0 and 180 + 0
0 and
'TT+ 0
12
Trigonometrical Equations
137 Trigonometrical equations are those in which the unknown
quantities, whose values we require, are the trigonometrical ratios
of angles. The angles themselves can be determined when the
values of the ratios are known.
The actual form which the answer will take depends on whether
we require only the smallest angle corresponding to the ratio,
which will be obtained from the tables, or whether we want to
include some or all of those other angles which, as we have seen
in the previous chapter, have the same ratio.
This can be shown in a very simple example.
Example: Solve the equation 2 cos 0
0.842.
2 cos 0
cos 0
0
= 0.842
= 0.421
= 65 .1
(2) The angles between 0 and 360 which satisfy the equation may
be required.
As we have seen in section 136(b) there is only one other such
angle, in the fourth quadrant.
It is given by 2ir  0 or 360  0
This angle = 360  65.1 = 294.9
: . The two solutions are 65 .1 and 294. 9
+ 21 = 0
From (1)
.
The only other angle less than 360 with this sine is
From (2)
180  0 = 138.18
sin 0 = 0.5
.'. 0=30
(1)
(2)
166
Trigonometry
150"
2 cos2 6.
The best plan here is to change cos2 6 into its equivalent value
of sin 6. This can be done by the formula
sin2 6
whence
Substituting
cos2 6 = 1
cos2 6 = 1  sin2 6
3 sin 6
= 2(1  sin2
6)
Factorising,
whence
or
From (1)
(2 sin 6  l)(sin 6 + 2) = 0
sin 6 + 2 = 0
2 sin 6  1 = 0
sin 6 = 2
This is impossible,
the given equation.
(1)
(2)
From (2)
:.
2 sin 6 = 1
sin 6 = 0.5
+ (1)" 6
Trigonometrical Equations
16 7
iT
nrr + (1)" (i
cos2 0
From (2)
2 sin 0 = cos 0
2 tan 0 = l
tan 0 = 0.5
0 = 26.57
tan 0 = tan (180
and
whence
Also
0)
26.57 or 206.57
139
+ b sin 0
= c
= v' 1
 sin2 0
168
Trigonometry
tan a
= ba
as the tangent is capable of having any value (see graph, Fig. 98).
Let ABC (Fig. 103) be a rightangled 6. in which the sides
containing the right angle are a and b units in length.
A
a
B
b
Fig. 103.
Then
tan ABC=
LABC
=a
Ya2
AB=
a
;::::::==~
and
Va
+ b2
;:===
Va2
+ b2
+ b2
.
sm a
cos
C(
in the equation
a cos
Divide throughout by
;:===
V~+~
Ya2
cos a
sin
C(
cos
e+
e=
b sin
b2
V~+~
sm a
e+
sin
cos
C(
sin (0
a) =
;;:::::==:::;
V~+~
Va2
Va2
+ b2
+ b2
Trigonometrical Equations
Now
Va2
+ b2
169
provided it is less than unity it is the sine of some angle. say 13.
0+o:=13
0 = 13  o:
and
In this case
Ya2
+ 4 sin 8
a = 3, b =~4~+ b2 =
+ 16
V9
= 3.5
+ ~. sin 0
35
5
0 + 0: = 44.42
+ 36.87 = 44.42
0
=
=
139
44.42  36.87"
7.55
+ b2 {sin (0 + o:)}
170
Trigonometry
Exercise 23
Find the angles less than 360 which satisfy the following
equations:
(1) sin 0 = 0.8910
(3) 2 tan 0 = 0. 7
=
=
0.4179
2.375
Find the angles less than 360 which satisfy the following
equations:
(1) 4 cos 20  3
(2) cos 0
(4) sec 0
(2) 3 sin 26
1.8
Find the angles less than 360 which satisfy the following
equations:
(1) 6 sin 0 = tan 0
(3) 3 cos2 0 + 5 sin2 0
(2) 4 cos 0
( 4) 4 cos 0
=
=
3 tan 0
3 sec 0
4 Find the angles less than 360 which satisfy the following
equations:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
5
2 tan2 0  3 tan 0 + 1 = 0
5 tan2 0  sec2 0 = 11
4 sin2 0  3 cos 0 = 1.5
sin 0 + sin2 0 = 0
Find general formulae for the angles which satisfy the following
equations:
(1)
(2)
(3)
( 4)
2 cos 0  0.6578 = 0
~sin 20 = 0.3174
cos 20 + sin 0 = 1
tan 0 + cot2 0 = 4
Summary of Trigonometrical
Formulae
Complementary angles
sin 6 = cos (90  6)
cos 6 = sin (90  6)
tan 6 = cot (90  6)
2 Supplementary angles
sin 6 = sin (180  6)
cos 0 =  cos (180  6)
tan 6 =  tan (180  6)
sin2 6 + cos2 6
tan2 6 + 1
cot2 6 + 1
=
=
4 Compound angles
sin (A + B) =
sin
sin (A  B) = sin
cos (A + B) = cos
cos (A  B) = cos
tan (A
B) =
A
A
A
A
cos
cos
cos
cos
sin 6
cos 6
I
sec2 6
cosec2 6
B +
B B B +
cos
cos
sin
sin
tan A + tan B
1  tan A tan B
A
A
A
A
sin
sin
sin
sin
B
B
B
B
172 Trigonometry
tan (A _ B)
. p
sin
.
sin
cos p
cos
tan A  tan B
+ tan A tan B
. Q
P+Q
+ sm
= 2. sm 2. Q
 sm
cos
P+O.
P0
2 sin 22 cos P+O
0 = 2
0  cos P
P0
cos 2
P0
cos 2
cos 2
. P+O.
P0
2 sin 2 sm 2
S Multiple angles
sin 20
cos 20
=
=
=
=
2 sin 0 cos 0
cos2 0  sin2 0
2 cos2 0 1  2 sin2
cos2 0 = ~ (1 + cos
sin2 0 = ~ (1  cos
or
tan 20
1
0
20)
20)
2 tan 0
1  tan2 0
Solutions of a triangle
Case 1
cos A =
tan A
b2
= ../(s
y
c2  a2
2bc
 b)(s  c)
s(s _ a)
cos 2 sin A
Summary of Formulae
173
bc
tan 2
= b + c cot
sin B
b
sin C
c
Ratios of 0 and  0
sin 0 =  sin (  0)
cos 0 = cos (  0)
tan 0 =  tan ( 0)
10 Circular measure
1 radian = 57 17' 45" (approx.)= 57.2958
l~O) radians
Length of an arc
a =
re
(0 in radians)
ntlGs as
NATURAL SINES
o
er o <XXXJ
Proportional
Parts
6'
01
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
30'
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
54'
09
I'
2'
3'
4'
5'
I
2
3
4
0 0175
0 0349
0 0523
0 0698
0017
0192
0366
0541
0715
0035
0209
0384
0558
0732
0052
0227
0401
0576
0750
0070
0244
0419
0593
0767
0087
0262
0436
0610
0785
0105
0279
0454
0628
0802
0122
0297
0471
0645
0819
0140
0314
0489
0663
0837
0157
0332
0506
0680
0854
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
14
5
6
7
8
9
0
0
0
0
0
0889
1063
1236
1409
1582
0906
1080
1253
1426
1599
0924
1097
1271
1444
1616
0941
1115
1288
1461
1633
0958 0976
1132 1149
1305 1323
1478 1495
1650 1668
0993
1167
1340
1513
1685
IOI I
1184
1357
1530
1702
1028
1201
1374
1547
1719
3 6
3 6
3 6
3 (6
3 1.16
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
II
II
14
14
14
14
14
0872
1045
1219
1392
1564
10
II
12
13
14
0 1736
01908
0 2079
0 2250
0 2419
1822
1994
2164
2334
2504
1840
2011
2181
2351
2521
1857
2028
2198
2368
2538
1874
2045
2215
2385
2554
1891
2062
2232
2402
2571
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
8
8
II
II
II
II
II
14
14
14
14
14
15
16
17
18
19
0 2588
0 2756
0 2924
0 3090
0 3256
2605
2773
2940
3107
3272
2622
2790
2957
3123
3289
2639
2807
2974
3140
3305
2656
2823
2990
3156
3322
2672
2840
3007
3173
3338
2689
2857
3024
3190
3355
2706
2874
3040
3206
3371
2723
2890
3057
3223
3387
2740
2907
3074
3239
3404
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
5
8
8
8
8
8
II
II
II
II
II
14
14
14
14
14
20
21
22
23
24
0
0
0
0
0
3420
3584
3746
3907
4067
3437 3453
3600 3616
3762 3778
3923 3939
4083 4099
3469
3633
3795
3955
4115
3486
3649
3811
3971
4131
3502
3665
3827
3987
4147
3518
3681
3843
4003
4163
3535
3697
3859
4019
4179
3551
3714
3875
4035
4195
3567
3730
3891
4051
4210
3
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
8
8
8
8
8
II
II
II
II
II
14
14
13
13
13
25
26
27
28
29
0
0
0
0
0
4226
4384
4540
4695
4848
4242
4399
4555
4710
4863
4258
4415
4571
4726
4879
4274
4431
4586
4741
4894
4289
4446
4602
4756
4909
4305
4462
4617
4772
4924
4321
4478
4633
4787
4939
4337
4493
4648
4802
4955
4352
4509
4664
4818
4970
4368
4524
4679
4833
4985
3
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
8
8
8
8
8
II
10
10
10
10
13
13
13
13
13
30
31
32
33
34
0 5000
0 5150
0 5299
0 5446
0 5592
5015
5165
5314
5461
5606
5030
5180
5329
5476
5621
5045
5195
5344
5490
5635
5060
5210
5358
5505
5650
5075
5225
5373
5519
5664
5090
5240
5388
5534
5678
5105
5255
5402
5548
5693
5120
5270
5417
5563
5707
5135
5284
5432
5577
5721
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
5
5
8
7
7
7
7
10
10
10
10
10
12
12
12
12
12
35
36
37
38
39
0
0
0
0
0
5736
5878
6018
6157
6293
5750
5892
6032
6170
6307
5764
5906
6046
6184
6320
5779
5920
6060
6198
6334
5793
5934
6074
6211
6347
5807 5821
5948 5962
6088 6101
6225 6239
6361 6374
5835
5976
6115
6252
6388
5850
5990
6129
6266
6401
5864
6004
6143
6280
6414
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
5
4
7
7
7
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
II
II
40
41
42
43
44
0 6428
0 6561
0 6691
0 6820
0 6947
6441
6574
6704
6833
6959
6455
6587
6717
6845
6972
6468
6600
6730
6858
6984
6481
6613
6743
6871
6997
6494
6626
6756
6884
7009
6508
6639
6769
6896
7022
6521
6652
6782
6909
7034
6534
6665
6794
6921
7046
6547
6678
6807
6934
7059
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
7
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
8
8
II
11
II
II
10
6'
12'
18'
24'
30'
36'
42'
48'
54'
I'
2'
4'
5'
NATURAL SINES
Proportional
Parts
o:
6'
0 I
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
30'
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
54'
09
45
46
47
48
49
0
0
0
0
0
7071
7193
7314
7431
7547
7083
7206
7325
7443
7559
7096
7218
7337
7455
7570
7108
7230
7349
7466
7581
7120
7242
7361
7478
7593
7133
7254
7373
7490
7604
7145
7266
7385
7501
7615
7157
7278
7396
7513
7627
7169
7290
7408
7524
7638
7181
7302
7420
7536
7649
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8
10
10
10
10
9
50
51
52
53
54
07~
0 7771
0 7880
0 7986
0 8090
7672
7782
7891
7997
8100
7683
7793
7902
8007
8111
7694
7804
7912
8018
8121
7705
7815
7923
8028
8131
7716
7826
7934
8039
8141
7727
7837
7944
8049
8151
7738
7848
7955
8059
8161
7749
7859
7965
8070
8171
7760
7869
7976
8080
8181
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
3
3
6 7
5 7
5 7
5 7
5 7
9
9
9
9
8
55
56
57
58
59
0
0
0
0
0
8192
8290
8387
8480
8572
8202
8300
8396
8490
8581
8211
8310
8406
8499
8590
8221
8320
8415
8508
8599
8231
8329
8425
8517
8607
8241
8339
8434
8526
8616
8251
8348
8443
8536
8625
8261
8358
8453
8545
8634
8271
8368
8462
8554
8643
8281
8377
8471
8563
8652
2
2
2
2
I
3
3
3
3
3
5 7
5 6
5 6
5 6
4 6
8
8
8
8
7
60
61
62
63
64
08~
0 8746
0 8829
0 8910
0 8988
8669
8755
8838
8918
8996
8678
8763
8846
8926
9003
8686
8771
8854
8934
9011
8695
8780
8862
8942
9018
8704
8788
8870
8949
9026
8712
8796
8878
8957
9033
8721
8805
8886
8965
9041
8729
8813
8894
8973
9048
8738
8821
8902
8980
9056
I
I
1
I
I
3
3
3
3
2
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
5
5
5
7
7
7
6
6
65
66
67
68
69
0
0
0
0
0
9063
9135
9205
9272
9336
9070
9143
9212
9278
9342
9078
9150
9219
9285
9348
9085
9157
9225
9291
9354
9092
9164
9232
9298
9361
9100
9171
9239
9304
9367
9107
9178
9245
9311
9373
9114
9184
9252
9317
9379
9121
9191
9259
9323
9385
9128
9198
9265
9330
9391
1
I
I
I
I
2
2
2
2
2
4
3
3
3
3
5
5
4
4
4
6
6
6
5
5
70
71
72
73
74
0 9397
0 9455
0 9511
0 9563
0 9613
9403
9461
9516
9568
9617
9409
9466
9521
9573
9622
9415
9472
9527
9578
9627
9421
9478
9532
9583
9632
9426
9483
9537
9588
9636
9432
9489
9542
9593
9641
9438
9494
9548
9598
9646
9444
9500
9553
9603
9650
9449 I
9505 I
9558 1
9608 I
9655 I
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
4
4
3
3
3
5
5
4
4
4
75
76
77
78
79
0 9659
0 9703
0 9744
0 9781
0 9816
9664
9707
9748
9785
9820
9668
9711
9751
9789
9823
9673
9715
9755
9792
9826
9677
9720
9759
9796
9829
9681
9724
9763
9799
9833
9686
9728
9767
9803
9836
9690
9732
9770
9806
9839
9694
9736
9774
9810
9842
9699
9740
9778
9813
9845
I
1
1
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
4
3
3
3
3
80
81
82
83
84
0 9848
0 9877
0 9903
0 9925
0 9945
9851
9880
9905
9928
9947
9854
9882
9907
9930
9949
9857
9885
9910
9932
9951
9860
9888
9912
9934
9952
9863
9890
9914
9936
9954
9866
9893
9917
9938
9956
9869
9895
9919
9940
9957
9871
9898
9921
9942
9959
9874
9900
9923
9943
9960
0
0
0
0
0
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
I
2
2
I
1
I
2
2
2
2
I
85
86
87
88
89
0
0
0
0
0
9963
9977
9987
9995
9999
9965
9978
9988
9995
9999
9966
9979
9989
9996
9999 0
9968
9980
9990
9996
9999 I
9969
9981
9990
9997
0000
9971
9982
9991
9997
0000
9972
9983
9992
9997
0000
9973
9984
9993
9998
0000
9974
9985
9993
9998
0000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
I I
0 I
0 I
0 0
0 0
I
I
I
0
0
6'
12'
18'
24'
30'
36'
42'
48'
54'
I'
5'
9962
9976
9986
9994
9998
O'
Proporuonal
Pans
Subtract
NATURAL COSINES
o
er
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
0000
9998
9993
9984
9973
0000
9997
9992
9983
9972
30'
05
36'
06
48'
08
6
0 I
42'
07
I
2
3
4
I 0000
0 9998
0 9994
0 9986
0 9976
0000
9998
9993
9985
9974
5
6
7
8
9
0 9962
0 9945
0 9925
0 9903
0 9877
9954
9936
9914
9890
9863
9952
9934
9912
9888
9860
9951
9932
99!0
9885
9857
9949
9930
9907
9882
9854
IO
II
12
13
14
0 9848
0 9816
0 9781
0 9744
0 9703
9845
9813
9778
9740
9699
9842
98!0
9774
9736
9694
9839
9806
9770
9732
9690
9836
9803
9767
9728
9686
9833
9799
9763
9724
9681
9829
9796
9759
9720
9677
9826
9792
9755
9715
9673
15
16
17
18
19
0 9659
0 9613
0 9563
0 9511
0 9455
9655
9608
9558
9505
9449
9650
9603
9553
9500
9444
9646
9598
9548
9494
9438
9641
9593
9542
9489
9432
9636
9588
9537
9483
9426
9632
9583
9532
9478
9421
9627
9578
9527
9472
9415
20
21
22
23
24
0 9397
0 9336
0 9272
0 9205
0 9135
9391
9330
9265
9198
9128
9385
9323
9259
9191
9121
9379
9317
9252
9184
9114
9373
9311
9245
9178
9107
9367
9304
9239
9171
9100
9361
9298
9232
9164
25
26
27
28
29
0
0
0
0
0
9063
8988
89!0
8829
8746
9056
8980
8902
8821
8738
9048
8973
8894
8813
8729
9041
8965
8886
8805
8721
9033
8957
8878
8796
8712
9026
8949
8870
8788
8704
9018
8942
8862
8780
8695
9011
8934
8854
8771
8686
30
31
32
33
34
0 8660
0 8572
0 8480
0 8387
0 8290
8652
8563
8471
8377
8281
8643
8554
8462
8368
8271
8634
8545
8453
8358
8261
8625
8536
8443
8348
8251
8616
8526
8434
8339
8241
8607
8517
8425
8329
8231
35
36
37
38
39
0
0
0
0
0
8192
8090
7986
7880
7771
8181
8171 8161
8151
8141
8039
7934
7826
7716
40
41
42
43
44
0
0
0
0
0
7660
7547
7431
7314
7193
7649
7536
7420
7302
7181
7638
7524
7408
7290
7169
7627
7513
7396
7278
7157
7615
7501
7385
7266
7145
6'
12'
18'
24'
54'
09
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 I
1 I
0
0
I
I
I
9947
9928
9905
9880
9851
0
0
0
0
0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
2
2
I
2
2
2
2
9823
9789
9751
9711
9668
9820
9785
9748
9707
9664
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
I
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
9622
9573
9521
9466
9409
9617 1
9568 I
9516 1
9461 1
9403 I
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
9003
8926
8846
8763
8678
8996 I
8918 I
8838 I
8755 I
8669 1
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
8599
8508
8415
8320
8221
8590
8499
8406
83!0
8211
8581
8490
8396
8300
8202
I
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
8
8
8131
8028
7923
7815
7705
8121
8018
7912
7804
7694
8111
8007
7902
7793
7683
8100
7997
7891
7782
7672
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
7
7
7
7
7
8
9
9
7604
7490
7373
7254
7133
7593
7478
7361
7242
7120
7581
7466
7349
7230
7!08
7570
7455
7337
7218
7096
7559
7443
7325
7206
7083
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8
9
IO
IO
IO
IO
30'
36'
42'
48'
54'
5'
Proportional
Parts
Subtract
NATURAL COSINES
O'
6'
0 I
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
30'
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
S4'
09
I'
2'
3'
4'
5'
45'
46
47
48
49
0
0
0
0
0
7071
6947
6820
6691
6561
7059
6934
6807
6678
6547
7046
6921
6794
6665
6534
7034
6900
6782
6652
6521
7022
6896
6769
6639
6508
7009
6884
6756
6626
6494
6997
6871
6743
6613
6481
6984
6858
6730
6600
6468
6972
6845
6717
6587
6455
6959
6833
6704
6574
6441
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
6
6
6
6
7
8
8
9
9
9
10
II
II
II
II
50
51
52
53
54
0
0
0
0
0
6428
6293
6157
6018
5878
6414
6280
6143
6004
5864
6401
6266
6129
5990
5850
6388
6252
6115
5976
5835
6374
6239
6101
5962
5821
6361
6225
6088
5948
5807
6347
6211
6074
5934
5793
6334
6198
6060
5920
5779
6320
6184
6046
5906
5764
6307
6170
6032
5892
5750
2
2
2
2
2
4
5
5
5
5
7
7
7
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
II
II
12
12
12
55
56
57
58
59
0
0
0
0
0
5736
5592
5446
5299
5150
5721
5577
5432
5284
5135
5707
5563
5417
5270
5120
5693
5548
5402
5255
5105
5678
5534
5388
5240
5090
5664
5519
5373
5225
5075
5650
5505
5358
5210
5060
5635
5490
5344
5195
5045
5621
5476
5329
5180
5030
5606
5461
5314
5165
5015
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
5
5
7
7
7
7
8
10
10
10
10
10
12
12
12
12
12
60
61
62
63
64
0
0
0
0
0
5000
4848
4695
4450
4384
4985
4833
4679
4524
4368
4970
4818
4664
4509
4352
4955
4802
4648
4493
4337
4939
4787
4633
4478
4321
4924
4772
4617
4462
4305
4900
4756
4602
4446
4289
4894
4741
4586
4431
4274
4879
4726
4571
4415
4258
4863
4710
4555
4399
4242
3
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
8
8
8
8
8
10
10
10
10
II
13
13
13
13
13
65
66
67
68
69
0
0
0
0
0
4226
4067
3907
3746
3584
4210
4051
3891
3730
3567
4195
4035
3875
3714
3551
4179
4019
3859
3697
3535
4163
4003
3843
3681
3518
4147
3987
3827
3665
3502
4131
3971
3811
3649
4115
3955
3795
3633
3486 3469
4099
3939
3778
3616
3453
4083
3923
3762
3600
3437
3
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
8
8
8
8
8
II
11
II
II
II
13
13
13
14
14
70
71
72
73
74
0
0
0
0
0
3420
3256
3090
2924
2756
3404
3239
3074
2907
2740
3387
3223
3057
2890
2723
3371
3206
3040
2874
2706
3355
3190
3024
2857
2689
3338
3173
3007
2840
2672
3322
3156
3990
2823
2656
3305
3140
3974
2807
2639
3289
3123
3957
2790
2622
3272
3107
3940
2773
2605
3
3
3
3
3
5
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
8
11
II
II
II
II
14
14
14
14
14
75
76
77
78
79
0
0
0
0
0
2588
2419
2250
2079
1908
2571
2402
2232
2062
1891
2554
2385
2215
2045
1874
2538
2368
2198
2028
1857
2521
2351
2181
2011
1840
2504
2334
2164
1994
1822
2487
2317
2147
1977
1805
2470
2300
2130
1959
1788
2453
2284
2113
1942
1771
2436
2267
2096
1925
1754
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
9
9
9
II
11
II
II
II
14
14
14
14
14
80
81
82
83
84
0
0
0
0
0
1736
1564
1392
1219
1045
1719
1547
1374
1201
1028
1702
1530
1357
1184
1011
1685 1668
1513 1495
1340 1323
1167 1149
0993 0976
1650
1478
1305
1132
0958
1633
1461
1288
1115
0941
1616
1444
1271
1097
0924
1599
1426
1253
1080
0906
1582
1409
1236
1063
0889
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
11
11
12
12
12
14
14
14
14
14
85
86
87
88
89
0
0
0
0
0
0872
0698
0523
0349
0175
0854
0680
0506
0332
0157
0837
0663
0489
0314
0140
0819
0645
0471
0297
0122
0802
0628
0454
0279
0105
0085
0610
0436
0262
0087
07(.7
0593
0419
0244
0070
0750
0576
0401
0227
0052
0732
0558
0384
0209
0035
0715
0541
0366
0192
0017
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
14
15
15
15
15
12
18'
24'
30'
36'
42'
48'
54'
l'
)'
O'
6'
Proportional
Parts
Subtract
NATURAL COSECANTS
36'
06
6'
0 I
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
(J'
ec
1
2
3
4
57 30
28 65
19 II
14 34
573 0
52 09
27 29
18 49
13 99
~86 5
47 75
26 05
17 91
13 65
191 0
4408
24 92
17 37
13 34
143 2
40 93
23 88
16 86
13 03
5
6
7
8
9
30'
05
114
38
22
16
12
6
20
93
38
75
42'
07
48'
08
54'
09
I'
2'
3'
4'
5'
95 49 81 85 71 62 63 66
35 81
22 04
15 93
12 47
33
21
15
12
71
23
50
20
31
20
15
11
84
47
09
95
30
19
14
11
16
77
70
71
pp cease
to be
sufficiently
accurate
728
324
276
464
816
10
II
12
13
14
5 759
5 241
4 810
4 445
4 134
702
194
771
412
105
647
148
732
379
077
593
103
694
347
049 14
386
931
549
222
941
337
890
514
192
915
288
850
479
163
889
9
7
6
5
4
15
16
17
18
19
3
3
3
3
3
864
628
420
236
072
839
606
401
219
056
814
584
382
202
041
790
563
363
185
026 13
766
542
344
168
011 12
742
521
326
152
996
719
500
307
135
981
695
480
289
119
967
673
460
271
103
952
650
440
254
087
938
4
3
3
3
2
8 12 16 20
7 10 14 17
6 9 12 15
5 8 11 14
5 7 10 12
20
21
22
23
24
2
2
2
2
2
924
790
669
559
459
910
778
658
549
449
896
765
647
538
439
882
753
635
528
430
869
741
624
518
421
855
729
613
508
411
842
716
602
498
402
829
705
591
488
393
816
693
581
478
384
803
681
570
468
375
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
3
3
7
6
6
5
5
9 II
8 10
7 9
7 8
6 8
25
26
27
28
29
2
2
2
2
2
366
281
203
130
063
357
273
195
123
056
349
265
188
116
050
340
257
180
109
043
331
249
173
103
037
323
241
166
096
031
314
233
158
089
025
306
226
151
082
018
298
218
144
076
012
289
210
137
069
006
I
I
I
1
I
3
3
2
2
2
4
4
4
3
3
6
5
5
4
4
9821
9249
8714
8214
7745
9762
9194
8663
8166
7700
9703
9139
8612
8118
7655
9645
9084
8561
8070
7610
9587
9031
8510
8023
7566
9530
8977
8460
7976
7522
9473 IO 19 29 39 49
8924 9 18 27 36 45
8410 8 17 26 34 42
7929 8 16 24 32 40
7478 7 15 22 30 37
35 I
36 I
37 I
38 I
39 1
7434
7013
6616
6243
5890
7391
6972
6578
6207
5856
7348
6932
6540
6171
5822
7305
6892
6502
6135
5788
7263
6852
6464
6099
5755
7221
6812
6427
6064
5721
7179
6772
6390
6029
5688
7137
6733
6353
5994
5655
7095
6694
6316
5959
5622
7054
6655
6279
5925
5590
7
7
6
6
6
40
41
42
43
44
5557
5243
4945
4663
4396
5525
5212
4916
4635
4370
5493
5182
4887
4608
4344
5461
5151
4859
4581
4318
5429
5121
4830
4554
4293
5398
5092
4802
4527
4267
5366
5062
4774
4501
4242
5335
5032
4746
4474
4217
5304
5003
4718
4448
4192
5273
4974
4690
4422
4167
5 10
5 IO
5 9
4 9
4 8
6'
12'
18'
24'
10'
36'
42'
48'
'i4'
I'
I
1
I
I
I
17
14
12
10
9
14
13
12
12
11
2'
26
22
18
16
14
21
20
19
18
17
35
29
24
21
18
43
36
30
26
22
7
7
6
6
5
28
26
25
24
22
35
33
31
2'1
28
16 21
15 20
14 19
13 18
13 17
26
25
24
22
21
,.
4'
5'
Proportional
Parts
Subtract
NATURAL COSECANTS
o
6'
0 I
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
30'
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
54'
09
I'
2'
3'
4'
5'
4~" I
46 I
47 I
48 I
49 I
4142
3902
3673
3456
3250
4118
3878
3651
3435
3230
4093
3855
3629
3414
3210
4069
3832
3607
3393
3190
4044
3809
3585
3373
3171
4020
3786
3563
3352
3151
3996
3763
3542
3331
3131
3972
3741
3520
3311
3112
3949
3718
3499
3291
3093
3925
3696
3478
3270
3073
4
4
4
3
3
8
8
7
7
7
12
II
II
IO
IO
16
15
14
14
13
20
19
18
17
16
50
51
52
53
54
I
I
I
I
I
3054
2868
2690
2521
2361
3035
2849
2673
2505
2345
3016
2831
2656
2489
2329
3997
2813
2639
2472
2314
3978
2796
2622
2456
2299
3900
2778
2605
2440
2283
3941
2760
2588
2424
2268
3923
2742
2571
2408
2253
3904
2725
2554
2392
2238
3886
2708
2538
2376
2223
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
5
5
9
9
8
8
8
12
12
II
II
10
15
15
14
13
13
55
56
57
58
59
I
I
I
I
I
2208
2062
1924
1792
1666
2193
2048
1910
1779
1654
2178
2034
1897
1766
1642
2163
2020
1883
1753
1630
2149
2006
1870
1741
1618
2134
1992
1857
1728
1606
2120
1978
1844
1716
1594
2l05
1964
1831
1703
1582
2091
1951
1818
1691
1570
2076
1937
1805
1679
1559
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
4
4
4
7 IO 12
7 9 12
7 9 II
6 8 10
6 8 10
60
61
62
63
64
I
I
I
I
I
1547
1434
1326
1223
1126
1535
1423
1315
1213
1117
1524
1412
1305
1203
1107
1512
1401
1294
1194
1098
1501
1390
1284
1184
I089
1490
1379
1274
1174
I079
1478
1368
1264
1164
I070
1467
1357
1253
1155
1061
1456
1347
1243
1145
1052
1445
1336
1233
1136
1043
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
3
3
3
6
5
5
5
5
8
7
7
6
6
9
9
9
8
8
65
66
67
68
69
I
I
I
I
I
0346
0946
0864
0785
0711
I025
0938
0856
0778
0704
IOl6
0929
0848
0770
0697
1007
0921
0840
0763
0690
0998
0913
0832
0755
0683
0989
0904
0824
0748
0676
0981
0896
0816
0740
0669
0972
0888
0963
0955
0880 0872
3
3
3
2
2
4
4
4
4
3
6
5
5
5
5
7
7
7
6
6
70
71
72
73
74
I
I
I
1
I
0642
0576
0515
0457
0403
0635
0570
0509
0451
0398
0628
0564
0503
0446
0393
0622
0557
0497
0440
0388
0615
0551
0491
0435
0382
0602
0539
5
5
5
75
76
77
78
79
1
1
I
I
I
0353
0306
0263
0223
0187
0348
0302
0259
0220
0184
0343
0297
0255
0216
0180
0338
0293
0251
0212
0177
80
81
82
83
84
I
I
I
I
I
0154
0125
0098
0075
0055
0151
0122
0096
0073
0053
0148
0119
0093
0071
0051
85
86
87
88
89
I
I
I
I
I
0038
0024
0014
0006
0002
0037
0023
0013
0005
0001
6'
0733
0662
0726
0655
0719
0649
I
I
I
I
I
0608
0545
0485
0429
0377
0595
0533
0480 0474
0424 0419
0372 0367
0589
0527
0468
0413
0363
0583
0521
0463
0408
0358
I
I
1
I
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
3
0334
0288
0247
0209
0174
0329
0284
0243
0205
0170
0324
0280
0239
0201
0167
0320
0276
0235
0198
0164
0315
0271
0231
0194
0161
0311
0267
0227
0191
0157
1
I
I
1
I
2
I
1
I
I
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
4
4
3
3
3
0145
0116
0091
0069
0050
0142
0114
0089
0067
0048
0139
Olli
0086
0065
0046
0136
0108
0084
0063
0045
0133
0106
0082
0061
0043
0130
OI03
0079
0059
0041
0127
OIOI
0077
0057
0040
0
0
0
0
0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
2
2
2
I
I
2
2
2
0035
0022
0012
0005
0001
0034
0021
0011
0004
0001
0032
0020
OOIO
0004
0001
0031
0019
0010
0003
0030
0018
0009
0003
0028
0017
0027
0016
0008 0007
0003 0002
0026
0015
0007
0002
()()()()
()()()()
()()()()
()()()()
()()()()
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
I
0
0
0
0
I
I
I
0
0
I
I
I
0
0
12'
18'
24'
30'
36'
42'
48'
54'
I'
2'
3'
4'
5'
~
I
NATURAL SECANTS
6'
01
(f
Proportional
Parts
10'
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
54'
09
I'
2'
<XKlO
0003
0008 0009
0017 0018
0028 0030
IXXX)
0001
0004
0010
0020
0032
0001
0004
0011
0021
0034
0001
0005
0012
0022
0035
0001
0005
0013
0023
0037
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
I
0
0
I
I
I
0
0
I
I
I
12'
02
18'
01
<XKlO
0002
0007
0016
0027
<XKlO
0003
24'
04
1'
5'
I
2
3
4
I
I
I
I
I
<XKlO <XKlO
0002 0002
0006 0007
0014 0015
0024 0026
5
6
7
8
9
I
I
I
I
I
0038
0055
0075
0098
0125
0040 0041
0059
0079
0103
0130
0043
0061
0082
0106
0133
0045
0063
0084
0108
0136
0046
0065
0086
0111
0139
0048 0050
0057
0077
0101
0127
0067
0089
0114
0142
0069
0091
0116
0145
0051
0071
0093
0119
0148
0053
0073
0096
0122
0151
0
0
0
0
0
I
I
I
1
1
1
1
I
1
I
I
1
2
2
2
I
2
2
2
2
10
II
12
13
14
1
1
1
I
I
0154
0187
0223
0263
0306
0157
0191
0227
0267
0311
0161
0194
0231
0271
0315
0164
0198
0235
0276
0320
0167
0201
0239
0280
0324
0170
0205
0243
0284
0329
0174
0209
0247
0288
0334
0177
0212
0251
0293
0338
0180
0216
0255
0297
0343
0184
0220
0259
0302
0348
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
15
16
17
18
19
I
I
1
I
1
0353
0403
0457
0515
0576
0358
0408
0463
0521
0583
0363
0413
0468
0527
0589
0367
0419
0474
0533
0595
0372
0424
0480
0539
0602
0377
0429
0485
0545
0388
0393
0398
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
20
21
22
23
24
I
I
I
I
I
0642 0649
0711 0719
0785 0793
0864 0872
0946 0955
0655
0726
0801
0880
0963
0662
0733
0808
0888
0972
0669
0740
0816
0896
0981
0676
0748
0824
0904
0989
0683
0755
0832
0913
0998
0690
0763
25
26
27
28
29
I
I
I
1
I
1034
1126
1223
1326
1434
1043
1136
1233
1336
1445
1052
1145
1243
1347
1456
1061
1155
1253
1357
1467
1070
1164
1264
1368
1478
1079
1174
1274
1379
1490
30
31
32
33
34
1
I
I
1
I
1547
1666
1792
1924
2062
1559
1679
1805
1937
2076
1570
1691
1818
1951
2091
1582
1703
1831
1964
2105
1594
1716
1844
1978
2120
35
36
37
38
39
I
1
1
1
I
2208 2223
2361 2376
2521 2538
2690 2708
2868 2886
2238
2392
2554
2725
2904
2253
2408
2571
2742
2923
40
41
42
43
44
1
I
I
I
I
3054 3073
3250 3270
3456 3478
3673 3696
3902 3925
3093
3291
3499
3718
3949
12'
6'
0003
0010
0019
0031
0503
0564
0628
0509
0570
0635
I
I
I
I
I
0697
0770
0840 0848
0921 0929
1007 1016
0704
0778
0856
0938
1025
I
I
I
1
I
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
1089
1184
1284
1390
1501
1098
1194
1294
1401
1512
1107
1203
1305
1412
1524
1117
1213
1315
1423
1535
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
1606
1728
1857
1992
2134
1618
1741
1870
2006
2149
1630
1753
1883
2020
2163
1642
1766
1897
2034
2178
1654
1779
1910
2048
2193
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
5
5
6 8
6 8
7 9
7 9
7 10
10
10
11
12
12
2268
2424
2588
2760
2941
2283
2440
2605
2778
2960
2299
2456
2622
2796
2978
2314
2472
2639
2813
2997
2329
2489
2656
2831
3016
2345
2505
2673
2849
3035
3
3
3
3
3
5
5
6
6
6
8
8
8
9
9
13
13
14
1)
15
3112
3311
3520
3741
3972
3131
3331
3542
3763
3996
3151
3352
3563
3786
4020
3171
3373
3585
3809
4044
3190
3393
3607
3812
4069
3210
3414
1629
3855
4093
3230
3435
3651
3878
4118
3
3
4
4
4
7
7
7
8
8
10
10
II
II
12
13 16
14 17
14 18
15 19
16 20
18'
24'
10'
l6'
42'
48'
~4
I'
2'
3'
0382
0435
0491
0551
0608 0615
10
II
II
12
12
s
NATURAL SECANTS
Proportional
Parts
O'
6'
0 I
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
30'
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
54
09
4293
4554
4830
5121
5429
I'
2'
4'
45
46
47
48
49
I
I
I
I
I
4142
4396
4663
4945
5243
4167
4422
4690
4974
5273
4192
4448
4718
5003
5304
4217
4474
4746
5032
5335
4242
4501
4774
5062
5366
4267
4527
4802
5092
5398
4318
4581
4859
5151
5461
4344
4608
4887
5182
5493
4370
4635
4916
5212
5525
4 8 13
4 9 13
5 9 14
5 10 15
5 IO 16
17
18
19
20
21
21
22
24
25
26
50
51
52
53
54
I
1
1
1
I
5557
5890
6243
6616
7013
5590
5925
6279
6655
7054
5622
5959
6316
6694
7095
5655
5994
6353
6733
7137
5688
6029
6390
6772
7179
5822
6171
6540
6932
7348
5856
6207
6578
6972
7391
6
6
6
7
7
II
12
12
13
14
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
25
26
28
28
29
31
33
35
7610
8070
8561
9084
9645
7655
8118
8612
9139
9703
7700
8166
8663
9194
9762
7745
8214
8714
9249
9821
7791
8263
8766
9304
9880
7837 7
8312
8
8818 8
9360 9
9940 10
15
16
17
18
19
22
24
26
27
29
30
32
34
36
39
37
40
42
45
49
5
6
6
7
7
60
61
62
63
64
2 0000
2 063
2 130
2 203
2 281
006
069
137
210
289
012
076
144
218
298
018
082
151
226
306
025
089
158
233
314
031
096
166
241
323
037
103
173
249
331
043
109
180
257
340
050
116
188
265
349
056
123
195
273
357
I
I
I
I
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
6
65
66
67
68
69
2 366
2 459
2 559
2 669
2 790
375
570
681
803
384
478
581
693
816
393
488
591
705
829
402
498
602
716
842
411
508
613
729
855
421
518
624
741
869
430
528
635
753
882
439
538
647
765
896
449
549
658
778
9IO
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
6 8
7 8
7 9
8 10
9 II
70
71
72
73
74
2 924
3 072
3 236
3420
3 628
938
087
254
440
650
952
103
271
460
673
967
119
289
480
695
026
185
363
563
790
041
202
382
584
814
056
219
401
606
839
2
3
3
3
4
5 7 10
5 8 II
6 9 12
7 10 14
8 12 16
75
76
77
78
79
3
4
4
4
5
889
163
479
850
288
915
192
514
890
337
941
222
549
931
386
967 13 994
253 284
584 620
973 5 016
436 487
049
347
694
103
593
077
379
732
148
647
105
412
771
194
702
4
5
6
7
9
80
81
82
83
84
5 759
6 392
7 185
8 206
9 567
85
86
87
88
89
11 47
14 34
19 11
28 65
57 30
11 71
14 70
19 77
30 16
63 66
11 95
15 09
20 47
31 84
71 62
12 20
15 50
21 23
33 71
81 85
o:
6'
12'
18'
864
134
445
8IO
241
468
816
464
276
324
728
14
875
935 l5
537
611
368
463
446
571
9 895 IO 068
996 b 059
687 765
561
661
700
834
248 433
12
15
22
35
95
47
93
04
81
49
24'
021
315
6$7
059
540
123
188
255 323
845 6 927 7 Oil 097
764
870 7 979 8 091
971 9 113 259 411
626 IO 826 II 034 249
12 75 13
16 38 16
22 93 23
38 20 40
14 6 h43
30'
03 13
86 17
88 24
93 44
2 191
36'
48'
54'
14
16
18
22
26
18
21
24
29
35
22
26
30
36
43
pp cease
to be
sufficiently
accurate
34 13 65 13 99
37 17 91 18 49
92 26 05 27 29
08 47 75 52 09
0 t286 5 1571 0
42'
9
IO
12
14
17
12
14
15
17
20
I'
2'
1' 4'
NATURAL TANGENTS
Proportion al
Pans
6'
0 1
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
30
05
36'
06
42'
07
48'
08
()"
1
2
3
4
0 CKXXl
0 0175
0 0349
0 0524
0 0699
0017
0192
0367
0542
0717
0035
0209
0384
0559
0734
0052
0227
0402
0577
0752
0070
0244
0419
0594
0769
0087
0262
0437
0612
0787
0105
0279
0454
0629
0805
0122
0297
0472
0647
0822
5
6
7
8
9
0
0
0
0
0
0998
1175
1352
1530
1709
54'
09
4'
5'
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
15
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
15
1'
2'
0140 0157
0314 0332
0489 0507
0664 0682
0840 0857
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
1016
1192
1370
1548
1727
1033
1210
1388
1566
1745
3
3
l
3'
IO
11
12
13
14
0 1763
01944
0 2126
0 2309
0 2493
1835
2016
2199
2382
2568
1853
2035
2217
2401
2586
1871
2053
2235
2419
2605
1890
2071
2254
2438
2623
1908
2089
2272
2456
2642
1926
2107
2290
2475
2661
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
16
15
16
17
18
19
0
0
0
0
0
2679
2867
3057
3249
3443
2698
2886
3076
3269
3463
2717
2905
3096
3288
3482
2736
2924
31 Vi
3307
3502
2754
2943
3134
3327
3522
2773
2962
3153
3346
3541
2792
2981
3172
3365
3561
2811
3000
3191
3385
3581
2830
3019
3211
3404
3600
2849
3038
3230
3424
3620
3
3
3
3
3
6 9
6 9
6 9
6 JO
6 JO
13
13
13
13
13
16
16
16
16
16
20
21
22
23
24
0
0
0
0
0
3640
3839
4040
4245
4452
3659
3859
4061
4265
4473
3679
3879
4081
4286
4494
3699
3899
4JO)
4307
4515
3719
3919
4122
4327
4536
3739
3939
4142
4348
4557
3759
3959
4163
4369
4578
3779
3979
4183
4390
4599
3799
4000
4204
4411
4621
3819
4020
4224
4431
4642
3
3
3
3
4
6
7
7
7
7
JO
JO
JO
JO
11
13
13
14
14
14
17
17
17
17
18
25
26
27
28
29
0
0
0
0
0
4663
4877
5095
5317
5543
4684
4899
5117
5339
5566
4706
4921
5139
5362
5589
4727
4942
5161
5384
5612
4748
4964
5184
5407
5635
4770
4986
5206
5430
5658
4791
5008
5228
5452
5681
4813
5029
5250
5475
5704
4834
5051
5272
5498
5727
4856
5073
5295
5520
5750
4
4
4
4
4
7
7
7
8
8
11
11
II
II
12
14
15
15
15
15
18
18
18
19
19
30
31
32
33
34
0
0
0
0
0
5774
6009
6249
6494
6745
5797
6032
6273
6519
6771
5820
6056
6297
6544
6796
5844
6080
6322
6569
6822
5867
6104
6346
6594
6847
5891
6128
6371
6619
6873
5914
6152
6395
6644
6899
5938
6176
6420
6669
6924
5961
6200
6445
6694
6950
5985
6224
6469
6720
6976
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
9
12
12
12
13
13
16
16
16
17
17
20
20
20
21
21
35
36
37
38
39
0
0
0
0
0
7002
7265
7536
7813
8098
7028
7292
7563
7841
8127
7054
7319
7590
7869
8156
7080
7346
7618
7898
8185
7107
7373
7646
7926
8214
7133
7400
7673
7954
8243
7159
7427
7701
7983
8273
7186
7454
7729
8012
8302
7212
7481
7757
8040
8332
7239
7508
7785
8069
8361
4
5
5
5
5
9
9
9
10
JO
13
14
14
14
15
18
18
18
19
20
22
23
23
24
24
40
41
42
43
44
0
0
0
0
0
8391
8693
9004
9325
9657
8421
8724
9036
9358
9691
8451
8754
9067
9391
9725
8481
8785
9099
9424
9759
8511
8816
9131
9457
9793
8541
8847
9163
9490
9827
8571
8878
9195
9523
9861
8601
89JO
9228
9556
9896
8632
8941
9260
9590
9910
8662 ~
8972 ~
9293 5
9623 6
9965 6
JO 15
10 16
11 16
11 17
11 17
20
21
21
22
23
25
26
26
28
29
6'
12'
18'
24'
30'
36'
42'
48'
54'
2'
4'
,.
NATURAL TANGENTS
6'
01
12'
02
18'
03
24'
04
45'
46
47
48
49
l
l
l
l
l
0392 0428
0761 0799
1145 1184
1544 1585
0105
0464
0837
1224
1626
0141
0501
50
51
52
53
54
l
l
l
l
l
1918
2349
2799
3270
3764
1960
2393
2846
3319
3814
2002
2437
2892
3367
3865
55
56
57
58
59
l
1
1
I
I
4281
4826
5399
6003
6643
4335
4882
5458
6066
6709
60
61
62
63
64
I
l
1
1
2
7321
8040
8807
9626
0503
65
66
67
68
69
2
2
2
2
2
30'
05
36'
06
42'
07
Proportional
Parts
54'
09
48'
08
126
1661
0176
0538
0913
1303
1708
0212
0575
0951
1343
1750
0247
0612
0990
1383
1792
0283
0649
1028
1423
1833
0319 6
0686 6
1067 6
1463 7
1875 7
12
12
13
13
14
18
18
19
20
21
24
25
25
27
28
30
31
32
33
34
2045
2482
2938
3416
3916
208l!
2521
2985
346'
3961!
2131
2572
3032
3514
4019
2174
2617
3079
3564
4071
2218
2662
3127
3613
4124
2261
2708
3175
3663
4176
2305
2753
3222
3713
3229
7
8
8
8
9
14
15
16
16
17
22
23
24
25
26
29
30
31
33
34
36
38
39
41
43
4383
4938
5517
6128
6775
4442
4994
5577
6191
6842
4491'
5051
5631
625'
690')
4550
5108
5697
6319
6977
4605
5166
5757
6383
7045
4659
5224
5818
6447
7113
4715
5282
5880
6512
7182
4770
5340
5941
6577
7251
9
lO
lO
II
II
18
19
20
21
23
27
29
30
32
34
36
38
40
43
45
45
48
50
53
57
7391
8115
8887
9711
0594
7461
8190
8967
9797
7675
8418
9210
2 0051
0965
7747
8495
9292
0145
0686
7532 7W
8265 8341
9047 912l'
9883 l 997(
0778 087,
taro
7820
8572
9375
0233
1155
7893
8650
9458
0323
1251
7966
8728
9542
0413
1348
12
13
14
15
16
24
26
27
29
31
3648
38 51
41 55
44 58
47 63
60
64
68
73
78
145
246
356
475
605
154
257
367
488
619
164
267
379
500
633
174
278
391
513
646
184
289
402
526
660
194
300
414
539
675
204
311
426
552
689
215
322
438
565
703
225
333
450
578
718
236
344
463
592
733
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
9
9
8
9
lO
II
12
70
71
72
73
74
2 747
2 904
3 078
3 271
3487
762
921
096
291
511
778
937
115
312
534
793
954
133
333
558
808
971
152
354
582
824
2 989
172
376
856
024
211
420
655
872
042
230
442
681
888
sos
840
3 006
191
398
630
251
465
706
3
3
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
8
9
lO
II
12
lO 13
12 14
13 16
14 18
16 20
75
76
77
78
79
3
4
4
4
5
732
Oil
331
705
145
758
041
366
745
193
785
071
402
787
242
812
102
437
829
292
839
134
474
872
343
867
165
511
915
396
895
198
548
4 959
449
923
230
586
5 005
503
952
264
625
050
558
981
297
665
097
614
5
5
6
7
9
9
l1
12
15
18
14
16
19
22
26
19
21
25
29
35
23
27
31
37
44
80
81
82
83
84
5
6
7
8
9
671
314
115
144
514 &
730
386
207
264
677 9
789
460
300
386
845 lO
850
535
396
513
019
912 5 976
612
691
495
596
777
643
0 199 lO 385
6 041
174
107
772
855 6 940 7
700
806 7 916 8
8 915 9 058
205
lO 579 lO 780 10 988 II
243
026
028
357
205
II
13
17
23
21
27
34
46
32
40
51
68
43
54
69
91
54
67
86
114
85
86
87
88
89
II
14
19
28
57
16
46
20
69
85
12
15
22
35
95
13
16
23
40
143
43
30
08
64
29
II 66
14 67
19 74
~14
~3 66
6'
II
15
20
31
71
91
06
45
82
62
12'
12
15
21
33
81
18'
087
43
89
02
80
49
24'
12
16
22
38
114
71
35
90
19
6
30'
00
83
86
92
2
36'
13
17
24
44
191
30
13
34
17
90 26
07 47
0 286
42'
48'
oeo
13
62
89 18
03 27
74 52
5 573
95
46
27
08
0
54'
pp cease
to be
sufficiently
accurate
I I I I
,. 2' 3' 4' 5'
Proportional
Parts
Subtract
NATURAL COTANGENTS
O'
er
6'
0 I
12'
02
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
9
8
7
6
JO
II
12
13
14
18'
03
191
44
24
17
13
0
07
90
34
30
24'
04
143 2
40 92
23 86
16 83
13 00
5 671
5 145
4 705
4331
4 011
614
097
665
297
3 981
588
050
625
264
952
15 3 732
16 3 487
17 3 271
18 3 078
19 2 904
706
465
251
060
888
681
442
230
042
872
655
420
211
024
856
20 2 747
21 2 605
22 2 475
23 2 356
24 2 246
733
592
463
344
236
718
578
450
333
225
25
26
27
28
29
2
2
I
I
I
1445
0503
9626
8807
8040
1348
0413
9542
8728
7966
30
31
32
33
34
1
1
I
1
1
7321
6643
6003
5399
4826
35
36
37
38
39
I
I
I
I
1
40
41
42
43
44
I
I
I
I
I
30'
05
114
38
22
16
12
6
19
90
35
71
36
06
95
35
22
15
12
49
80
02
89
43
42'
07
81
33
21
15
12
85
69
20
46
16
48'
08
71
31
20
15
II
62
82
45
06
91
54'
09
63
30
19
14
11
I'
2'
I
66
14
74
67
66
3'
I
pp cease
to be
sufficiently
accurate
91
69
54
43
Ill
86
67
54
26
22
19
16
14
35
29
25
21
19
44
37
31
27
23
16
14
13
12
JO
20
18
16
14
13
396
915
511
165
867
343
872
474
134
839
292
829
427
102
812
242
787
402
071
785
193
745
366
041
758
9
7
6
5
5
630
606
398
376
172
191
006 12 989
824
840
582
354
152
071
808
558
333
133
954
793
534
312
115
937
778
511
291
096
921
762
4
4
3
3
3
8 12
7 II
6 10
6 9
5 8
703
565
438
322
215
689
552
426
311
204
675
539
414
660
526
402
289
184
646
513
391
278
174
633
500
379
267
164
619
488
367
257
154
2
2
2
2
2
5
4
4
4
3
1251
0323
9548
8650
7893
1155
0233
9375
8572
7820
1060
0145 12
9292
8495
7747
0965 0872
0057 I 9970
92JO 9128
8418 8341
7675 7603
0778
09883
9047
8265
7532
0686 0594 16 31 47 63
9797 9711 15 29 44 58
8967 8887 14 27 41 55
8190 8115 13 26 38 51
7461 7391 12 24 36 48
78
73
68
64
60
7251
6577
5941
5340
4770
7182
6512
5880
5282
4715
7113
6447
5818
5224
4659
7045
6383
5757
5166
4605
6977
6319
5697
5J08
4550
6909
6255
5637
5051
4496
6842
6191
5577
4994
4442
6775
6128
5517
4938
4388
6709
6066
5458
4882
4335
II
II
JO
JO
9
23
21
20
19
18
34
32
30
29
27
45
43
40
38
36
57
53
50
48
45
4281
3764
3270
2799
2349
4229
3713
3222
2753
2305
4176
3663
3175
2708
2261
4124
3613
3127
2662
2218
4071
3564
3079
2617
2174
4019
3514
3032
2572
2131
3968
3465
2985
2527
2088
3916
3416
2938
2482
2045
3865
3367
2892
2437
2002
3814
3319
2846
2393
1960
9
8
8
8
7
17
16
16
15
14
26
25
24
23
22
34
33
31
30
29
43
41
39
31l
3o
1918
1504
1106
0724
0355
1875
1463
1067
0686
0319
1833
1423
J028
0649
0283
1792
1383
0990
0612
0247
1750
1343
0951
0575
0212
1708
1303
0913
0538
0176
1667
1263
0875
0501
0141
1626
1224
0837
0464
OJ05
1585
1184
0799
0428
0070
1544
1145
0761
0392
0035
7
7
6
6
6
14 21
13 20
13 19
12 18
12 18
28
27
25
25
24
34
33
32
31
30
6'
18'
24'
30'
36'
42
48'
54'
I'
2'
4'
12'
449
"959
586
548
230
198
923
895
5'
4'
503
ls 005
l3
300
194
18
15
12
II
9
7
6
6
5
5
1'
9 12
9 II
8 JO
7 9
7 8
Propomonal
Parts
Subtract
NATURAL COTANGENTS
O'
6'
0 1
12'
02
18'
24'
04
30'
05
36'
06
42
07
48'
08
54'
09
1' 2'
3'
4'
5'
9861
9523
9195
8878
8571
9827
9490
9163
8847
8541
9793
9457
9131
8816
8511
9759
9424
9099
8785
8481
9725
9391
9067
8754
8451
9691
9358
9036
8724
8421
6
6
5
5
5
17
17
16
16
15
23
22
21
21
20
29
28
27
26
25
45
46
47
48
49
0
0
0
0
9657
9325
9004
8693
9623
9293
8972
8662
9590
9260
8941
8632
0 '
9896
9556
9228
8910
8601
50
51
52
53
54
0
0
0
0
0
8391
8098
7813
7536
7265
8361
8069
7785
7508
7239
8332
8040
7757
7481
7212
8302
8012
7729
7454
7186
8273
7983
7701
7427
7159
8243
7954
7673
7400
7133
8214
7926
7646
7373
7107
8185
7898
7618
7346
7080
8156
7869
7590
7319
7054
8127
7841
7563
7292
7028
5 10 15 20
5 10 14 19
5 9 14 18
5 9 14 18
4 9 13 18
24
24
23
23
22
55
56
57
58
59
0
0
0
0
0
7002
6745
6494
6249
6009
6976
6720
6469
6224
5985
6950
6694
6445
6200
5961
6924
6669
6420
6176
5938
6899
6644
6395
6152
5914
6873
6619
6371
6128
5891
6847
6594
6346
6104
5867
6822
6569
6322
6080
5844
6796
6544
6297
6056
5820
6771
6519
6273
6032
5797
4
4
4
4
4
9
8
8
8
8
13
13
12
12
12
17
17
16
16
16
21
21
20
20
20
60
61
62
63
64
0
0
0
0
0
5774
5543
5317
5095
4877
5750
5520
5295
5073
4856
5727
5498
5272
5051
4834
5704
5475
5250
5029
4813
5681
5452
5228
5008
4791
5658
5430
5206
4986
4770
5635
5407
5184
4964
4748
5612
5384
5161
4942
4727
5589
5362
5139
4921
4706
5566
5339
5117
4899
4684
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
7
7
7
12
II
11
II
II
15
15
15
15
14
19
19
18
18
18
65
66
67
68
69
0
0
0
0
0
4663
4452
4245
4040
3839
4642
4431
4224
4020
3819
4621
4411
4204
4000
3799
4599
4390
4183
3979
3779
4578
4369
4163
3959
3759
4557
4348
4142
3939
3739
4536
4327
4122
3919
3719
4515
4307
4101
3899
3699
4494
4286
4081
3879
3679
4473
4265
4061
3859
3659
4
3
3
3
3
7
7
7
7
6
II
10
10
10
10
14
14
14
13
13
18
17
17
17
17
70
71
72
73
74
0
0
0
0
0
3640
3443
3249
3057
2867
3620
1424
3230
3038
2849
3600
3404
3211
3019
2830
3581
3385
3191
3000
2811
3561
3365
3172
2981
2792
3541
3346
3153
2962
2773
3522
3327
3134
2943
2754
3502
3307
3115
2924
2736
3482
3288
3096
2905
2717
3463
3269
3076
2886
2698
3
3
3
3
3
6 10 13 16
6 10 13 16
6 9 13 16
6 9 13 16
6 9 13 16
75
76
77
78
79
02679
0 2493
0 2309
0 2126
0 1944
2661
2475
2290
2107
1926
2642
2456
2272
2089
1908
2623
2438
22S4
2071
1890
2605
2419
2235
2053
1871
2586
2401
2217
2035
1853
2568
2382
2199
2016
1835
2549
2364
2180
1998
1817
2S30
2345
2162
1980
1799
2Sl2
2327
2144
1962
1781
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
16
15
15
15
15
80
81
82
83
84
0
0
0
0
0
1763
1584
140S
1228
1051
1745
1566
1388
1210
1033
1727
1548
1370
1192
1016
1709
1530
13S2
1175
0998
1691
1512
1334
1257
0981
1673
1495
1317
1139
0963
1655
1477
1299
1122
0945
1638
1459
1281
1104
0928
1620
1441
1263
1086
0910
1602
1423
1246
1069
0892
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
15
IS
IS
Vi
15
85
86
87
88
89
0
0
0
0
0
0875
0699
0524
0349
0175
0857
0682
0507
0332
0157
0840
0664
0489
0314
0140
0822
0647
0472
0297
0122
0805
0629
0454
0279
0105
0787
0612
0437
0262
0087
0769
0594
0419
0244
0070
0752
0577
0402
0227
0052
0734
0559
0384
0209
0015
0717
0542
0367
0192
0017
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
9
12
12
12
12
12
l'i
15
15
15
15
6'
12'
18'
24'
30'
42'
48'
'i4
11
11
11
10
10
2' 3'
4' 5'
Answers
AC
CD
CQ
DO
tan ABC= CB= DB= QD =QB=
AD
CD
CB
DB
QD
QB
CD
tan CAB = AC = CD = CQ = DO = AD
2
3
(5) 0.2549
(6) 0.6950
(5) 2.1123
(5) 33.85
(6) 14.27
8 19.54 m
11 37; 53 approx.
.
AC
DO
CD
CQ
AD
sin ABC = AB = DB = CB = CD = AC
.
srn CAB
CB
QB
DB
DO
CD
AB = DB = CB = CD = AC
CB
QB
DB
cos ABC = AB = DB = CB
DO
CD
CD = AC
AC
DO
CD
AB = DB = CB
CQ
AD
CD = AC
cos CAB
Answers
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0.9353
52.23
0.1863
0.5390
37.72
59.07
m approx.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
(1) 1.7263
(2) 1.1576
(1) 60.62
48.2 mm
22.62, 67.38
2.87 m
7.19 m
(a) 0.3465
(b) 0.4394
(a) 0.2204
(b) 2.988
(a) 0.7357
(b) 1.691
(5) 1.2045
(3) 1.3589
(6) 0.3528
(4) 1.6649
(2) 64.75
(3) 69.3
10 (a) 1.869
(b) 1.56 approx.
11 0.5602
12 (1) 0.2616
(2) 0.4695
13 37.13
14 1.2234
15 0.09661
16 553.5
0.68 cm
10
187
xv'3 . y'3 I
2'2'2
188
Trigonometry
11 2.60 cm; 2.34 cm (both approx.)
12 3.6
13 10.2 km W., 11.7 km N
14 31.83 W. of N; 17.1 km
1 0.7002
3 0.8827
5 0.6745, 0.8290, 0.5592
7 1.9121; 0.5230; 0.8523
8
v'l+t2; cos 0
sec 0 =
9 sin o.
= 0.8829, tan
o.
v'1+t2
; sin 0 = =t==
v'1+t2
= 1.8807
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
sines are
(a) 0.9781
(c)
(b) 0.5068
(d)
cosinesare
(a) 0.2079 (c)
(b)  0.8621 ( d)
tangentsare (a) 4.7046 (c)
(b) 0.5879 (d)
(a) 40.60 or 139.4
(c)
(b) 65.87 or 114.13
(d)
(a) 117
( c) 100.3
(b) 144.4
(d) 159.3
(a) 151
(c) 112.3
(b) 123.8
(d) 119.6
(a) 2.2812
(b) 1.0485
(a) 127.27
(d)
(b) 118
(e)
(c) 35.3 or 144.7
(f )
0.5530
(a) 69 or 111
(c)
(b) 65
(d)
0.9428
(e) 0.4289
0.5698
0.3333 (e) 0.9033
 0.8218
2.8291 (e) 0.4748
0.6933
20.3 or 159.7
45.42 or 134.58
( e) 142.35
(f) 156.25
(e) 144.47
(f) 130.38
c3)  3.3122
24 or 156
149
110.9
54
113
0.6630; 0.9485
Each is
2V'2
Answers
4
5
9
IO
62+V'3
7 3.0777; 0.5407
(2) 0.4848
(b) 0.8098
0.8545
0.8945;  2
(I) 0.5592
(a) 2.4751
6 0.5
8 0.5; 0.8660
9 0.6001 approx.
12 0.268 approx.
3
4
5 ~{cos 3(C + D) +cos (C  D)}
6 1 (1  sin 30) = !
7 cos 2A  cos 4A
9 2 sin 3A cos A
2 cos 3A sin 2A
11 2 sin 30 sin ( 0)
12 2 sin 3A sin 2A
13 2 cos 41 cos 6
14 2 cos 36 sin 13
15 cot 15
16 tan a ;
10
13
4
5
c = 7.88, b = 5.59
c = 17.3;a = 23.1
=
=
=
=
46.59,
57.9,
44.43,
32,
C
C
C
C
6
= 104.48
= 81.98
= 73.38
= 119.1
43.85
3 45.45
189
Trigonometry
5 65; 52.33; 62.67 (all approx.)
6 38.87
190
'
65.08; 42.68"
2
3
4
5
A =
A=
A =
A =
A =
29.4; B
51.32;B
43.32; B
21.77; B
35.38; B
=
=
=
=
=
41.73; C
59.17;C
35.18; C
45.45; C
45.67; C
=
=
=
=
=
108.87
69.52
100.3
112.78
98.95
=
=
=
=
=
38
66.33
81.42
36.7
90.92
=
=
=
=
=
81.4; C
32.7; B
33.43; C
65.3; B
58.63; C
B = 81.47
C = 42.68
B = 42.05
A = 97.68
C = 110.9
Two solutions:
2 Two solutions:
a = 4.96 or 58;
A = 126.07 or 3.93
C = 28.93 or 151.07
a = 21.44 or 109.2
A = 11.32 or 88.68
C = 128.68 or 51.32
Answers
3 One solution:
4 Two solutions:
191
1 19.05 m2
2 72.36 km2
3 39.42
4 2537 cm2
5 485 cm2
6 64.8 mm2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
IO
11
5.94 km
A = 88.07, B = 59.93, C = 52
B = 45.2, C = 59.57, a= 726
c = 56.1
16.35 m, 13.62 m
41
Two triangles: B = 113.17or66.83
C = 16.83 or 63.17
c = 9.45 or 29.1
267 m approx.
12 4.5 cm, 6 cm; 11 ~2
6.08 m, 5.71 m
13 4~ h
3.09 mm
15 0.3052 m2
16 49.47; 58.75
7.98 cm, P = 26.33,
a = 29.93
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
15.2 m
546 m
276 m
193 m approx.
889 m approx.
1.26 km
3700 m
11 990 m
2.88 km approx.
IO
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
2.170 km
500 m approx.
3.64 km; 45 W. of N.; 5.15 km
73 m; 51 m
1246 m approx.
189 m approx.
63.7 m approx.
1970 m and 7280 m approx.
192
Trigonometry
60.
(a)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(a) ~
(b) 2;
(1) 5.842 cm
35
1.57 approx.
4; 3; TI
6
7
11'
l l rr
30
(d)
(2) 17.5 m
ti radians;
11'
()
511'
9.9744;
 0.3619;
0.7030;
0.2901;
0.7771
0.7431
1.0576
2
 0.8387
0.7431
0.2250; 4.3315
 0. 9322; 0.3882
0.7112; 0.9884
0.9570; 0.3032
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(c)
(d)
0.6691
0.2419
1.2349
1.7434
1.2799
0.5878
2
3
(1)
(2)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(3)
( 4)
63, 117
(3) 19.3, 199.3
65.3, 294.7
(4) 65.1, 294.9
20.7, 159.3
(2) 18.43' 71.57
0, 180, 80.53, 279.58
43.87' 136.13
45, 135, 225, 315
30, 150, 210, 330
26.57, 45, 206.57, 225
60, 270, 300
60, 300
0' 120, 180' 240
i;
Answers
5
(1) 2n1T
(2) n'IT
cos1 70.8
+ (Ir~
1T
51T
+ 12
or nrr +TI
(1) 13.03
(2) 53.13
(3) 6.48
(4) 36.87
193
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