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Research & Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind turbine

Project Report
Under the guidance of
Dr. Samuel Landsberger a.k.a Uncle Sam
Dr. Mauricio Castillo

Department of Mechanical Engineering


California State University Los Angeles
By
Team Quasar
Summer 15

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Aksharkumar Patel - 304397215 - ME-416, ME-503, TECH-454L - akshar102@gmail.com


Neda Lasheydaee - 305110668 - ME-503, TECH-454L - nlashey@calstatela.edu
Sarthak Dhekar - 304391131 - ME-503, TECH-454L - sarthak1227@gmail.com
Kawser Hossain - 304396006 - ME-503 khossain2@calstatela.edu
Tirth Ashokkumar Patel - 304389103 - ME-416, ME-503, Tech-454L - Patel.tirth@yahoo.com
Kejalkumar Patel - 304384878 - ME-503, TECH-454L - kejalpatel24@gmail.com

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Abstract
It has been time to use renewable energy sources because fossil fuels are becoming intensively
hazardous to the atmospheric conditions. Gases like CO2, SO2 are becoming reasons why ozone
depletion has started. We have choices like solar, wind, tidal, ocean, biomass and geothermal energy to
avoid air pollution. Wind energy is the one that we are going with; Horizontal axis wind turbine will be
used as one of the applications of non-conventional energy sources. It will be used as an exhibition
model of science projects for inventor mobile to motivate students towards science as a part of their
higher education. It will help students to understand the principles and dynamics of wind turbine. The
working will be explained with the help of appliances such as DC motor, Heat resistor, etc. Mounting the
wind turbine on red truck for exhibition purpose has been done in such a way that wind turbine remains
stable when driven on truck. Furthermore, protective shield will be useful to keep the danger away, and
it will give more power output as it will get more concentrated wind.

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INDEX
Subject

Page No.

Cover page

Abstract

Introduction

Chapter 1: Invention proposal

Chapter 2: Brainstorming

Chapter 3: Troubleshooting

Chapter 4: Designing & fabrication of supporting stand & shield

10

Chapter 5: Analysis & Research

11

Chapter 6: Conclusion

19

Chapter 7: Reference

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Introduction
The first electricity-generating wind turbine was invented in 1888 in Cleveland, Ohio by Charles
F. Brush. The turbine's diameter was 17 meters (50 feet), it had 144 rotor blades made of cedar wood,
and it generated about 12 kilowatts (kW) of power. Wind turbines, which rotate on axis parallel to
horizon are called Horizontal axis wind turbine. HAWT uses renewable energy source wind energy as
its power source. HAWT consists of blades, rotor, generator, DC controller/rectifier, protective shield,
and supporting stand. We have HAWT that claims to give power output of 400 Watt while facing wind
at 28 miles/hr. We have done research and analysis work on wind turbine at different speeds of wind,
and different loads. Troubleshoot has been done thoroughly for performance tweak-up. Protective
shield has been attached to make the HAWT working much safer. Protective shield has been chosen to
be truncated cone not only for safety reason, but also for higher efficiency of HAWT. HAWT would be
getting around 160% of power output than the regular power output after implementation of protective
shield designed by team quasar.

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Chapter: 1
Invention Proposal
21st century has pollution as its biggest threat; it is even bigger threat than world war. Increasing
use of fossil fuels is increasing the pollutions such as air, water and land pollution. It can be solved only if
conservative approach will be taken by world. Using non-conventional energy sources can be the
answer. We have chosen to do study and analysis of application based on wind energy. What could be
better than a wind turbine? It has always been a debate, which wind turbine design is better, either
vertical axis wind turbine or horizontal. Horizontal axis wind turbines are noisy though they are being
accepted widely for industrial purposes. Although, HAWT requires more start-up speed than VAWT, it is
well-known for its higher potential of power generation, we have adopted that idea and as a conclusion
we chose HAWT prototype to work with. Two major objectives of working with HAWT were, to tweak
the performance of HAWT, and to equip protective shield for safety reason.

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Chapter 2
Brainstorming

Troubleshooting HAWT:
To tweak the performance of HAWT, we have different aspects to look after like:

Electrical short-circuit

Faulty wiring

Blades fitting

Insufficient wind

Hours of operation

Mechanical problems
o

Blades shape

Bearing

Generator/alternator

Mounting & shield designs:


-

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Mounting designs:
o

Fastening the HAWT on red truck with help of Strings

Mounting HAWT on red truck with help of wooden stand

Aspects considered while choosing shield


o

Material of shield

Shape of shield

Size of shield

Weight of shield

Weight Analysis

Shape

Material

Round

3/8 round
rod

Total
Round 3/8
round
rod
weight
rod
mass/unit
Mass/unit (lbs)
length
length
(lbs/ft)
(lbs/ft)

296

96

0.0578

0.1301

2.4665

Steel

296

96

0.167

0.3758

7.1254

Hot rolled

296

96

0.1521

0.3424

6.491

552

96

0.0578

0.1301

3.6996

Steel

552

96

0.167

0.3758

10.6884

Hot rolled

552

96

0.1521

0.3424

9.7358

rod
(Length in
inches)

Rectangular Lens
Al

Iron

Truncated cone lens


Al

Iron

Cost analysis for truncated cone lens


Material
Round
3/8 round
rod ($/ft.)
rod ($/ft.)
Al
$ 0.4/ft.
$ 0.79/ft.
Steel
$ 0.52/ft.
$ 1.23/ft.
Hot rolled
$ 0.36/ft.
$ 0.85/ft.
iron

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Available
Length
8
8
20

Total
cost($)
24.72
33.76
23.36

Total
Weight(lbs.)
3.6996
10.6884
9.7358

Cost/weight
($/lbs.)
6.682
3.1586
2.3994

Chapter 3
Tweaking up the performance of HAWT
Troubleshooting steps:

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Chapter 4
Designing and fabrication of Supporting stand & Shield
Designing of supporting stand to mount HAWT on red truck:

Fig.is showing mounting


stand made initially, fits
on sides and needs to be
fastened from four
corners due to the
clearance between front
and rear. The initial
stand was made 48-1/2
X 30
Fig. showing Red trucks bed dimensons in inches.

Fig. shows supporting frame


for the mounting stand (20 X
10) block.

Final Design of mounting stand which only requires two straps on sides.
Mounting has hypotenuse as supporting frame, so securement has been
increased.
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Designing of shield:
Two major design concepts:
Rectangular lens

Truncated Cone

Comparison between rectangular lens and truncated cone lens


Features
Rectangular Lens
Truncated Cone Lens
Swept Area
1.36944 m2
1.82322 m2
Construction
Easy
Hard
Weight
6.042 lbs
9.383 lbs
Protection
Good
Optimal
Performance increase %
N/A
60%
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After analyzing all the different aspects, we came to conclusion that, although weight of
truncated lens cone will be more and construction would be much difficult it is still
advisable to go with that shape, as the protection & efficiency of wind turbine are our
major concerns. The power output will be increased by 60% at higher wind speeds and the
protection against blades will be superior to rectangular shaped lens design.
How we designed truncated cone lens shield?
We had a rectangular aluminum sheet to make a truncated cone out of it,

Design Template for Wrapping up the Shield rings


Striped area should be wrapped up with the help of aluminum sheet.

D = 60 inch

R = 30 inch

d = 52 inch

r = 26 inch

l = 7 inch
R r = 4 inch
Now
sin =

= 7 = 0.5714

=sin1 0.5714
=34.85
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2 = ( )2 + 2
72 = (4)2 + 2
2 = 49 16 = 33
h = 5.744 inch
sin =
L=

30
sin 34.85

30

= 52.499

L = 52.5 inch

2 = 2 + 2
52.52 = 2 + 302
2 =2756.25 900 = 1856.25
H = 43.08 inch

Fig. explains, how to cut the sheet to make


truncated cone and how much angle we need to create cone.
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= 2
360
30

= (52.5) 360
= 205.7
We need to draw two circles of radius L=52.5 inches, and L-l = 45.5 inches covering
circumference for angle = 205.7. We obtain the as the width required to cover the two rings as
truncated cone lens.

Truncated shield HAWT flow simulation for air blowing at 28 miles/hrs. There is no significant
pressure increase, less thrust force has been exerted on shield but more concentrated air has been
added to the blades due to larger swept area.

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Chapter 5
Analysis & Research
5.1 Analysis & research without shield:
While riding the HAWT on red truck without using the protective shield, the power output
we have received can be given as following:
Practical Result:
Practical Result (Power v/s speed)
Voltage(V)
Current(A)
14
2.4
10
4.902
19
3.9
17
6.34
17
8.976

Speed (miles/hr.)
10.3
15.3
19.8
25.6
27.9

Power(wattage)
33.66
49.02
74.55
107.8
152.6

Power (watt)
200

Power (W)

Power (watt)
150
100
50
0

10

20

30

Speed (miles/hr.)

Theoretical Result:
Betzs Law: no turbine can capture more than 16/27 (59.3%) of the kinetic energy in
wind.
Wind power:
Power that can be obtained by generator:
Co-efficient of power: CP = 0.593; which is the maximum power coefficient for any wind
turbine, but optimum power coefficient for any wind turbine is as low as 0.35
What would be the power generation by HAWT at 28 miles per hour?
Here, we have Cp (power coefficient) = 0.35, (density of air) = 1.03 kg/m3, A(swept
area) = d2 /4 = 1.1304 m2 V(velocity of air) = 28 miles/hr. = 12.5717 m/s
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Po = Cp * P
Po = Cp * AV^3
Po = 0.35 * 0.5 * 1.03 * 1.1304 * (12.5717^3)
Po = 399.5936 Watt
Manufacturers data:
Power generation would be at max. 400 watts if HAWT gets wind at speed of 28
miles/hr.
Efficiency of Actual model:
= Cp = Pout/Pin = Pout/ ( AV^3)
= 152.6/ (0.5 * 1.03 * 1.1304 * (12.5717^3))
= 152.6 / 1156.7017
= 0.1319
= 13.19 %
Usually, conventional wind turbines get efficiency/ power coefficient around 0.35 but,
we are getting power coefficient of 0.1319.
Analysis conclusion:
As per the practical results the power generated by HAWT would be nearly around 150
Watts for 28 miles per hour speed of wind turbine. The expected power generation by
Theoretical data is 400 watts same as manufacturers data. But, we suspect that the
HAWT hasnt been used for more than 80-100 hours. There is a big chance of
performance increase when generator bearing joint will be roused enough. Plus, shield
implementation will bring performance increase by 60%.

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5.2 Analysis & research with shield & addition in tail:

Tail addition is useful for wind turbine to get the face of blades in the same direction as
the direction of wind.
Shield is covering more swept area as shown in the image above:
New swept area: Anew = d2 /4 = 1.82322 m2
Theoretical Result after equipping shield:
Po = Cp * P
Po = Cp * AV^3
Po = 0.35 * 0.5 * 1.03 * 1.82322 * (12.5717^3)
Po = 644.5037 Watt
Manufacturers Data:
Manufacturer has got specific generator which has power generation limit of 400 watt.
The power output even after shield implementation wont be as high as 644 watt.
Although, there will be some improvement in power generation.
Practical Data:
Speed (miles/hr.)
10.6
15.8
20.4
25
28
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Practical Result (Power v/s speed)


Voltage(V)
Current(A)
15
3.366
13
5.467
18
5.674
17
8.6828
45.2
5.3699

Power(watt)
50.46
71.09
102.3
147.608
242.72

Power (W)
300

Power (W)

250
Power (W)

200
150
100
50
0
0

10
20
Speed (miles/hr.)

Analysis conclusion:
Approx. Speed
(miles/hr.)
10
15
19
25
28

Power(watt)
without shield
33.66
49.02
74.55
107.8
152.6

Power(watt) with
shield
50.49
71.079
102.1335
147.608
242.72

Percentage
increase (%)
50
45
37
36
59

Power increase at optimum speed of 28 miles per hour:


Power increase = 1 (Power output with shield/ power output without shield)
= 1 (242.72/152.6)
=0.59
% Power increase= 59 %

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30

Conclusion
The wind turbine has been modified from what it was initially, changes are made after
inspecting all different aspects. Troubleshooting had been done thoroughly so that we could increase
the performance of wind turbine. Mounting stand has been built in such a manner that we dont need to
fasten more than two straps while riding the truck for exhibition, after implementation of supporting
stand the securement of HAWT has been superior. Shield design has been chosen as truncated cone lens
to provide enough safety and increase swept area. The material of truncated cone has been chosen to
keep the shield weight minimal. The truncated cone shield design turned out to be power efficient, it
increases power output as it gets more power input after increment of swept area. There is no efficiency
increase although. The Power input has tremendously increased because of the shield design, shield is
capturing more concentrated air, and more air carries more power. The input power has been increased
by 60% with help of more swept area. Although efficiency remains same due to more input power now
we can get more power output at the same speed of wind.

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References

nd

2 edition - Energy efficiency and renewable energy handbook by D. Yogi Goswami & Frank
Kreith
Energy self sufficiency newsletter - a magazine by A Rebel Wolf Energy Systems Publication
http://www.thirdplanetwind.com/energy/history.aspx
http://www.scrapmsc.com/our-pricing/
http://www.infomine.com/investment/metal-prices/
http://www.onlinemetals.com/calculator.cfm
http://www.bostoncenterless.com/resources-metal-weight-calculator.htm
http://www.raeng.org.uk/publications/other/23-wind-turbine
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwe/2014/527198/
http://www.dongrays.com/burningman2008/windbasics.html
Industrial pipes and Steel Co. rush street, South el Monte
Elias iron works rush street, South el Monte

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