Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

2/4/2016

TheRepairofReinforcedConcrete­JohnBroomfield

HOME DIRECTORY ARTICLES BOOKSHOP WHAT'SON
HOME
DIRECTORY
ARTICLES
BOOKSHOP
WHAT'SON

TheRepairofReinforcedConcrete

JohnBroomfield

Recentdevelopmentsintherepairofreinforcedconcreteincludemodernelectrochemicaltechniquesthatcan

minimisetheinterferencewiththestructure,animportantfactorinbuildingrestoration.

TheHooverBuilding,Perivale,London(built1932­35):aspectacularexampleofreinforcedconcrete

construction,nowoccupiedbyTesco

Wegenerallythinkofconcreteasamodernbuildingmaterial,yetitisoneoftheoldestandmostdurablebuildingmaterials.

ItsearliestknownusewasforahutfloorinformerYugoslavia,datingfrom5600BC:later,morenotableexamplesincluded

theGreatPyramidatGizaandtheParthenoninRome.

AlthoughtheRomansexperimentedwithbronzereinforcement,reinforcedconcreteasweknowittodaydatesfromthemid

19thcenturyfollowingtheintroductionofPortlandcementconcretein1854whenitwaspatentedbyJosephAspedenin

Wakefield.Steelreinforcedboatsandplanttubsweremadeinthe1850s,andapatentwastakenoutin1854byWilliam

Wilkinsonforamethodofbuildingfireproofbuildingsusingstripsofironembeddedinmassconcrete.Wilkinsonshowed

thatheunderstoodwheretensionsteelwasneededinhisflatceilings,wherewireropeswereembeddedfollowingtheline

oftensionintheupperpartsofbeamsoversupportsandinthelowerpartsinthemid­span.

Steelhastheadvantageofhavingthetensilestrengththatconcretelacks,andishighlycompatibleinitschemicaland

physicalcharacteristicsaswewillseelater.Thematchingofthermalexpansioncoefficientsiscriticaltotheversatilityof

reinforcedconcrete.

DETERIORATIONMECHANISMS

Likemasonryandbrick,reinforcedconcretestructuresdeteriorateunderattackfromexternalelementssuchasfreeze­thaw damage(theexpansionoffrozenmoisturewithinthestructureasitthaws),anderosion.Inacompositeman­madematerial suchasconcretethereareadditionalmechanismscausedbythegreatercomplexityofitscomposition.Ofparticular concerntodayisthealkalisilicareactionintheconcreteandthecorrosionofthereinforcingsteel,bothofwhichare affectedbythealkalinityofPortlandcementconcrete.Portlandcementismadebyburningconstituentswhichincludelime inakilnandgrindingtheresulttoafinepowder.Thisproducesahighlyalkalinematerialwhichreactswithwaterand hardens.Whenitisaddedtocoarseandfineaggregateandmixedwithwater,thecementcombineswiththeaggregateand hardenstoformconcrete.Thehardeningprocess(hydrationreaction)iscomplexandcontinuesovermanymonthsifnot years,dependingontheamountofwaterinthemix.Theremustbeexcesswaterforworkabilityandaporenetwork thereforedevelopsasitdriesout.Excesscalciumhydroxideandotheralkalinehydroxidesarepresentintheporesanda

solutionofpH12.0to14.0develops(pH7.0isneutral;valuesbelowindicateacidity,andalkalinityabove).Itisthispore

networkandthesolutionsitcontainsthatarecriticaltothedurabilityoftheconcrete.

ALKALISILICAREACTIVITY(ASR)

Thisarticleisreproducedfrom TheBuildingConservation

Directory,1996

Author

DRJOHNBROOMFIELDisan independentconsultant specialisinginthecorrosionof steelinconcrete.Hehas workedwiththeStrategic HighwayResearchProgramme (SHRP)inWashingtonDC

(1987­1990)andTaywood

EngineeringLimited,withwhom hedesignedsomeofthefirst cathodicprotectionsystemsto beinstalledonconcrete structuresintheUKandtheFar East.Heisanactivemember ofanumberofcorrosion standardsbodiesinEuropeand theUSandhaspublishedover

20papersinthefield.

Furtherinformation

RELATEDARTICLES

RELATEDPRODUCTSAND

SERVICES

RELATEDPRODUCTSAND SERVICES Concreterepairs SiteMap ©CathedralCommunications Limited2010

©CathedralCommunications

Limited2010

ASRoccursifthewrongaggregatesareusedinthemix.Somesilicaceousminerals,includingquartzesandopals,react

withwaterinahighalkalineenvironmenttoformsilicagel,amaterialusedtoabsorbmoisture.Assilicagelswellswhenit

absorbsmoisture,thematerialcancauseconcretetocrack,andwhite,weepingdepositsofsilicaappear.Inmanycases

ASRissuperficialandharmless,butitisunattractiveanddifficulttotreat.Themosteffectiveremedyistodryoutthe

structure.

ManyifnotmosttypesofconcreteincorporatesomematerialwhichissusceptibletoASR.Howeververyfewstructures

showsignsofsignificantASRdamage,asthereactiveaggregatecomponentswhichcausetheproblemareconsumedin

theprocess.ThoseareasoftheUnitedKingdomwhereASRisprevalentarenowwellknownandthequarriesresponsible

havebeenidentified.

CORROSIONOFREINFORCINGSTEEL

2/4/2016

TheRepairofReinforcedConcrete­JohnBroomfield

AlthoughthealkalinitywithintheconcreteporestructurecanleadtoASR,thehighpHvaluealsoprovidesaprotective

coatingofoxidesandhydroxidesonthesurfaceofthesteelreinforcement.Withoutthislayer,whichisknownasa

'passive'film,thesteelwouldbeexposedtotheairandmoistureinthepores,leadingtorapidcorrosion.Itisthemain

chemicalreasonwhyreinforcedconcreteisadurableconstructionmaterial.Thelayerisdurableandselfrepairing,andit

canlastforhundredsofyearsifthealkalinityismaintained.However,thepassivelayeritselfcanbeattackedbychlorides

insaltandthealkalinityoftheconcretecanbereducedbyreactionwithatmosphericcarbondioxide,aprocessknownas

'carbonation'.

DETERIORATIONTHROUGHCARBONATION

Carbondioxide,whichispresentintheairinproportionsofaround0.3percentbyvolume,dissolvesinwatertoforma

mildlyacidicsolution.Unlikeotheracidsthatmaychemicallyattackandetchthesurfaceoftheconcrete,thisacidforms withintheporesoftheconcreteitselfwherethecarbondioxidedissolvesinanymoisturepresent.Hereitreactswiththe

alkalinecalciumhydroxideforminginsolublecalciumcarbonate.ThepHvaluethendropsfrommorethan12.5toabout8.5.

Thecarbonationprocessmovesasafrontthroughtheconcrete,withapHdropacrossthefront.Whenitreachesthe

reinforcingsteel,thepassivelayerdecayswhenthepHvaluedropsbelow10.5.Thesteelisthenexposedtomoistureand

oxygenandissusceptibletocorrosion.

Concreteinsidethebuildingfrequentlycarbonatestotallywithoutanysignofdeteriorationastheconcretedriesout,leaving

thesteelexposedtoairbutnotmoisture.Problemsareseenexternallywhereconcreteisexposedtotheelementsandin

certainsituationsinternally,suchaskitchensandbathrooms,wheretheconcreteissusceptibletocondensationorwater­

leakage.Externalfacadesareparticularlyvulnerable,especiallywherecladdingpanelshavepoorlyplacedhandlingsteel

thatisnearthesurface.Carbonationdoesnothavetopenetratefarandtheconcretequalitymaybeofpoorquality.

DETERIORATIONDUETOCHLORIDE

Saltcausescorrosionbyadifferentmechanism.Whendissolvedinwatersodiumchlorideformsaversatile,highly corrosivesolutionofsodiumions(Na+)andchlorideions(Cl­).Saltisusedforde­icingroadsanditspresenceinseawater isamajorproblemforreinforcedconcretestructures.Theverymobilechlorideionsdispersethroughconcreteporesin solutionandwheretheycomeintocontactwiththereinforcingsteeltheyattackthepassivelayer.Steeloxidisesinthe

presenceofairandwatertoformrustwhichhasavolumeofupto10timesthatofthesteelconsumed.Asconcretehasa

lowtensilestrengthitwillcrackwhenaslittleasatenthofamillimetreofsteelhasbeenconsumed.Horizontalcracks

form,causingcornersto'spall'andsurfacesto'delaminate'asthereinforcement'sconcretecoverbecomesdetachedand

fallsawayinsheets.Theconsequencecanbeseenontheundersideofroadbridgesandmanybuildingsandstructures

besidethesea.

besidethesea. REPAIRTECHNIQUES THECORROSIONMECHANISM

REPAIRTECHNIQUES

THECORROSIONMECHANISM

Corrosionofsteelreinforcementoccursbyanelectrochemicalprocess whichinvolvesexchangesofelectronssimilartothatwhichoccursina battery.Theimportantpartofthemechanismistheseparationofnegatively chargedareasofmetalor'anodes'wherecorrosionoccursandpositively chargedareasor'cathodes'whereaharmlesschargebalancingreaction

occurs(Figure1).Attheanodetheirondissolvesandthenreactstoform

thesolidcorrosionproduct,rust.Therustisformedatthemetal/oxide

interface,forcingpreviouslyformedoxideawayfromthesteeland

compressingtheconcrete,causingittospall.

Ifcorrosionofsteelinconcreteissuspected,adeteriorationsurveymustbecarriedouttoidentifythecause,mechanism

andextentofcorrosion.Aninadequateinvestigationcanleadtohighercostsandinadequaterepairs.Therearecertain

testswhicharespecifictothecorrosionassessmentofsteelinconcrete,relyingontheelectrochemicalnatureofthe

corrosionprocess.Thesearehalf­cellpotentialmeasurement,resistivitymeasurementandcorrosionratemeasurement.

Furtherexaminationofthesetechniquesisbeyondthescopeofthisarticle,andareadinglistisprovidedbelowforfurther

reference.

PHYSICAL

Theobviousthingtodowhenconfrontedwithcorrosiondamageistocutoutthedamagedareas,replaceanysteel

weakenedbysectionlossandputbackgoodqualityconcrete.Howeverthereareseveralproblemswiththisapproach:

cuttingouttheareaofdamagemayleavemanyareasthatareabouttocrackandspall

asaresultoftheelectrochemicalnatureofthecorrosionprocess,repairscanactuallyleadtoanaccelerationof

corrosioninadjacentareas,especiallywithchloride­inducedcorrosion,astheremovalofthecorrodinganodealso

causethelossoftheprotectivecathodesarounditandnewanodesformwhenthematerialisrenewed

therepairsmaybevisuallyintrusiveasitisverydifficulttomatchtheconcreteusedforrepairtothecolourandtexture

oftheoriginal,anditisalmostimpossibletogetthenewmaterialtoweatherinthesameway

extensiveconcreteremovalrequiressubstantialtemporarysupport,addingtothecomplexityoftheprojectaswellas

expense

coatingsandbarrierscanbeveryeffectiveiftheamountofchlorideatthedepthofthereinforcementisbelowthe

chloridethresholdorifthedepthofcarbonationislessthanthecoverdepth.Penetratingsealerssuchassiloxysilanes

havebeenshowntohelptodryoutconcreteifleaksarerepairedandtheamountofdirectwaterontheconcreteis

reduced.Thesearecolourlessandpenetratethesurfaceleavingtheappearanceunaffected.

However,silanesarenotsuitableforcarbonatedconcrete.Anti­carbonationcoatingsmustbecrack­bridgingsurface

coatingstokeepoutcarbondioxide.However,coatingsmembranesandsealersarealluselessifcorrosionhasalready

begunanddirectwaterimpingementisnotminimised.Coatings,penetratingcoatingsandbarrierscanalsobeeffectivein

slowingorstoppingASRbydryingouttheconcrete.

ELECTROCHEMICAL

Themovementofchargedionsandtheseparationof

2/4/2016

TheRepairofReinforcedConcrete­JohnBroomfield

anodesandcathodesalongthesteelcreatessomeofthe problemsbutalsooffersussomesolutionstothecorrosion

anodesandcathodesalongthesteelcreatessomeofthe problemsbutalsooffersussomesolutionstothecorrosion ofsteelinconcrete,ascorrosioncanbestoppedby

makingallthesteelacathode(Figure1).Thisisdoneby

puttinganexternalanodeonthesurfaceorembeddingitin

theconcrete(Figure2).TheDCpowersupply,knownasa

transformerrectifier,willthenpasscurrentbetweenthe

anodeandthereinforcingsteel.

Thiselectrochemicalrehabilitationapproachcanbeusedin

threedifferentways:cathodicprotection;electrochemical

chloridemigrationor'desalination';andre­alkalisation.

CATHODICPROTECTION(CP)

Inthisprocesstheanodes,powersupplyandcontrol systemsarepermanent,andarangeofanodescanbe

used(Figures3and4).Theaggressiveanodicreactionis

isolatedtoacorrosionresistantanodewhiletheharmless

cathodicreactionoccursatthesurfaceofthesteel

reinforcement.Thisprocesscreatesadditionalhydroxyl

ions,rebuildsthepassivealkalinelayerandrepelschloride

ions.

CPhasbeenusedonhundredsofreinforcedconcrete

structuresaroundtheworldandhaspotentialforthe

conservationofhistoricbrickandstonemasonry,terracotta

andstatuarywheresteelandironhasbeenusedtoprovide

reinforcementorastructuralframe.

ELECTROCHEMICALCHLORIDEMIGRATION

(DESALINATION)

Thisprocessusesatemporaryanode,powersupplyand

monitoringsystemtoapply50voltsdirectcurrenttothe

steel.Thepositivechargerepelsthenegativelycharged chlorideionsandrebuildsthepassivelayeroveraperiodof fourtosixweeks.AlthoughlesswellproventhanCP,the techniquehasbeenusedtosuccessfullytreatmorethan

50structuresintheUK,continentalEuropeandNorth

America.

RE­ALKALISATION

Thissystemistheequivalentofdesalinationfor

carbonatedstructures.Itreliesontheprinciplethatthe

hydroxylionsproducedatthecathodere­alkalisethe

concretefromthereinforcementoutwards.Thisislinked

withawetanodeatthesurfacethatcontainscalcium

carbonate,whichmovesunderelectro­osmoticpressure

andre­alkalisestheconcretefromthesurfaceinwards.

Therearemorethanonehundredre­alkalisationprojects completedintheUKandonthecontinent.Oneofthe earliestwastherenovationoftheHooverFactorybeside

theM40atPerivale,NWLondon(seeillustrationattopof

page).

Thesespecialisttreatmentsrequireexpertadvicetocheck

thatthestructureissuitableandthatthebestsystemis

applied.Theremustbesteelcontinuity,separationbetween

steelandanodesandreasonableconcretequalitybefore

thesetechniquescanbeconsideredascosteffectiveand

technicallysoundforaparticularstructure.

CORROSIONINHIBITORREPAIR

TECHNIQUES

Arecentdevelopmentistheimpregnationwithchemical

corrosioninhibitorswhicharewidelyusedinthepower

generation,chemicalandmanufacturingindustries.

Recently,attemptshavebeenmadetointroducethese

chemicalsintohardenedconcrete.Ifsuccessful,then

thesecouldbegood,relativelysimplemethodsof

increasingthelifespan,reducingmaintenanceand

providinga'minimumintervention'methodofslowingor

stoppingcorrosion.

SUMMARY

Corrosionofsteelinconcretecanbeseentobea

significantproblemformanyreinforcedconcretestructures

ifmoistureispresent.Ifthereisnosalttocausecorrosion

intheshortterm,carbonationwillaffectmoststructures

2/4/2016

TheRepairofReinforcedConcrete­JohnBroomfield

overthecenturies.Ifthestructurecannotbekeptdrythen thereisarangeoftechniquesthatcanbeuseddepending

overthecenturies.Ifthestructurecannotbekeptdrythen

thereisarangeoftechniquesthatcanbeuseddepending

onthestructure,itsconditionandthecauseandextentof

theproblem.

Electrochemicaltechniquescanreducetheamountand

extentofpatchrepairs,andleavetheappearance

unchangedwithprobesembeddedintheconcreteora

surfacecoating,dependingonrequirementsandconditions.

Chemicalimpregnationwithcorrosioninhibitorsisalso

underinvestigationasafurtheroption.

Alkalisilicareactionisachemicalattackoftheaggregates

inthepresenceofthealkalinityoftheconcreteand

moisture.IftheconcretecanbekeptdrythenASRwillbe

minimised.MostASRdamageisunsightlyratherthan

structurallydangerous.

RecommendedReading

JPBroomfield,'AssessingCorrosionDamageon ReinforcedConcreteStructures'inCorrosionandCorrosion ProtectionofSteelinConcrete,EditedbyRNarayan

Swamy,SheffieldAcademicPress,1994

CathodicProtectionofReinforcedConcrete­Status

Report,ReportNo.SCPRC/001.95,Societyforthe

CathodicProtectionofReinforcedConcrete,London,1995

CCStanley,HighlightsintheHistoryofConcrete,British

CementAssociation,Crowthorne,Berks,1986

ConcreteSocietyTechnicalReports:

No26RepairofConcreteDamagedbyReinforcement

Corrosion,1994

No36CathodicProtectionofReinforcedConcrete,1989