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- Assignment No 1
- Foundry &Forging viva 3&4th sem vtu
- Chapter 3
- Sampling Water Table Contents
- Kinetic Theory
- Chemeca2012
- Sampling Probe
- Physics Test 1
- EHB_en_7-Sizing
- sample06
- Thermo Toolbox
- LP Flare Design Gas Loading
- 6 Multiple Phases
- 01-Ideal and Real Gas Equation
- Michelsen the Isothermal Flash Problem 2 Phas
- Form 4 Chem Chapter 5
- Gross_2001
- phenol_water_system-libre.pdf
- ideal gas entropy
- chemical engineering thermo Lecture 1

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Triple point and critical point

Sub cooled liquid

Saturated liquid, mixture of saturated liquid and vapor

Saturated vapor and superheated vapor states of a pure substance with water as

example.

Enthalpy of change of phase, dryness fraction, T-S and H-S diagrams.

Representation of various processes on these diagrams.

Steam tables and its use.

Throttling Calorimeter, Separating Calorimeter.

Throttling and Separating Calorimeter.

Introduction:

A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and in variable chemical

composition. It may exist in more than one phase, but the chemical composition is

the same in all phases. Thus liquid water, a mixture of liquid water and water vapor,

and a mixture of ice and liquid water are all pure substance: every phase has the

same chemical composition. On the other and mixture of liquid air and gaseous air is

not a pure substance. Because of the composition of the liquid phase is different

from that of the vapor phase.

Some times a mixture of gases such as air is considered a pure substance as long

as there is no change of phase. Strictly speaking this is not true.

Fig 1: Constant pressure change from liquid to vapor phase for a pure

substance

arrangement as shown in the figure. Suppose that the piston and weight maintain a

pressure of 0.1 MPa in the cylinder and that initial temperature be 20 0C. As the heat

is transferred to the water the temperature increases appreciably, the specific

volume increases slightly under constant pressure. When the temperature 99.6 0C,

additional heat transfer results in a change of phase. I.e. some of the liquid becomes

vapor. During this process both temperature and pressure remain constant where as

sp. Volume increases considerably. When the last drop of liquid has vaporized

further transfer of heat results in an increase in both temperature and sp. volume of

the vapor.

The term saturation temperature designates the temperature at which

vaporization takes place at a given pressure. Or the pressure is called saturation

pressure corresponding to the saturation temperature. Thus for water 99.6 0C the

saturation pressure is 0.1MPa, and for water at 0.1MPa the saturation temperature

is 99.60C. Thus there is a definite relation between saturation pressure and

saturation temperature.

Pressure

Vapor-pressure curve

Temperature

Fig 2: Vapor Pressure curve of a pure substance

If the substance exists as liquid at the saturation temperature and pressure it

is called saturated liquid. If the temperature of the liquid is lower than the saturation

temperature for the existing pressure it is called either a sub cooled liquid or a

compressed liquid.

When the substance exists as a part liquid and part vapor at the saturation

temperature a dryness fraction comes into picture. It is also called as quality and it is

defined as the ratio of mass of vapor to the total mass. It is denoted by the symbol

x. Quality has meaning only when the substance is in saturated state. I.e at the

saturation pressure and temperature. The quality x is an intensive property.

saturated vapor or dry saturated vapor with x=1. When the vapor is at a temperature

greater than the saturation temperature at the saturation pressure, it is said to exist

as superheated vapor. After that the temperature increases as heat is added at

constant pressure.

It is clear from the figure that constant pressure lines are ABCD, EFGH, IJKL

etc. the peak point of the figure indicated by N is the critical point of water. Thus the

critical pressure 22.089 MPa and corresponding critical temperature is 374.14 0C.

A constant pressure process at a pressure greater than the critical pressure is

represented by curve PQ. Thus water at 40 MPa, 20 0C is heated in a constant

pressure process, there will be never be two phases present at the state shown.

Instead there will be continuously in density at all the times and there will be only

one phase present. The question arises is: when do we have a liquid and when do

we have a vapor? The answer is that this is not a valid question at super critical

pressures. We simply term the substance as fluid. However rather arbitrarily at

temperatures below the critical temperatures we usually refer to it as a compressed

liquid and at temperatures above the critical temperatures as superheated vapor. It

should be noted that however at pressures above the critical pressures we never

have a liquid and vapor phase of pure substance existing in equilibrium.

Critical

Temperature, 0C

Water

374.14

Carbon dioxide

031.05

Oxygen

-118.35

Hydrogen

-239.85

Critical

Pressure, MPa

22.089

07.39

05.08

01.30

Critical Volume,

m3/kg

0.003155

0.002143

0.003438

0.032192

Consider another experiment with piston cylinder arrangement. Suppose that the

cylinder contains one kg of ice at 200C and one bar. When heat is transferred to the

ice the pressure remains constant the specific volume increases slightly and the

temperature increases until it reaches 0 0C, at which point the ice melts and

temperature remains constant. This state is called saturated solid state. For most

substances the specific volume increases during this melting process. But for water

specific volume of the liquid is less than the specific volume of the solid.

Sublimation: If the initial pressure of the ice at 200C is 0.26 kPa, heat transferred

to the ice results in an increase in the temperature to 100C. At this point however

the ice passes directly from the solid phase to the vapor phase. This process is

known as sublimation. Further heat transfer results in superheating of the vapor

Triple Point: Consider the ice at 0.6113 kPa and temperature of 200C. Through

heat transfer let the temperature increase until it reaches 0.01C. At this point

however further heat transfer may cause some of the ice to become vapor and some

to become liquid. At this point it is possible to have three phases in equilibrium. This

point is called the triple point. Triple point is defined as the state in which all three

phases may be present in equilibrium. The pressure and temperature at the triple

point for a number of substance is given in following table.

Table 2:Triple Point Data

Temperature, 0C

Hydrogen

-259

Oxygen

-219

Nitrogen

-210

Carbon Dioxide

-56.4

Mercury

-39

Water

0.01

Zinc

419

Silver

961

Copper

1083

Pressure, kPa

7.194

0.15

12.53

520.8

0.00000013

0.6113

5.066

0.01

6.000079

Consider a solid state as shown in the figure, when the temperature increases

with constant pressure the substance passes directly from solid to vapor phase.

Along the constant pressure line EF the substance passes from solid to liquid phase

at one temperature and then from liquid to vapor phase at higher temperature.

Constant pressure line CD passes through the triple point and it is only at the

triple point the three phases exists together in equilibrium. At a pressure above

critical pressure such as GH line there is no sharp distinction between liquid and

vapor phases. The triple point temperature and critical temperature vary greatly from

substance to substance. For ex: critical temperature of helium is 5.3K. Therefore

absolute temperature of helium at ambient conditions is over 50 times greater than

the critical temperature. On the other hand water has a critical temperature 374.14

0C (647.29K) and at ambient conditions the temperature of water is less than the

critical temperature.

Allotropic transformation

It should be pointed out that a pure substance can exist in a number of different solid

phases. A transition from one solid phase to another is called an allotropic

transformation. This can be well understood by the following figure.

Temperature

Fig 4: P-T Diagram for water.

One important reason for introducing the concept of pure substance is that

the state of a simple compressible pure substance is defined by two independent

properties. For ex: if the specific volume and temperature of a super heated steam

are specified the state of the steam is determined.

To understand the significance of the term independent property, consider the

saturate liquid and vapor state of a pure substance. These two states have the same

pressure and temperature but they are definitely not the same state. In a saturation

state therefore pressure and temperature are not independent properties. Two

independent properties such as pressure -specific volume, pressure and quality,

temperature-specific volumes are required to specify a saturation state of a pure

substance.

substance:

From the experimental observations it has been established that the equation

of state under low-density gases is given by PV=RuT. The ideal gas equation of state

and compressibility factor equation are good approximations at low-density

conditions. Therefore ideal gas equation of state is very convenient to use in

thermodynamic calculations. The question comes what is low density? Or what

range of density will the ideal gas equation of state hold with accuracy?

The analysis gives the pressure temperature deviations from ideal gas

behavior. To answer5 the question the concept of compressibility factor Z is

introduced and is defined by the relation Z= PV/R uT. For ideal gas Z=1 and the

deviation of Z from unity is a measure of the deviation of actual relation from the

ideal gas equation of state.

made from this chart.

All the temperature Z

1 as P

0. i.e. as the pressure approaches zero the P-VT behavior closely approaches that predicted by the ideal gas equation of state.

Note also that at temperatures of 300K and above i.e. above room temperature the

compressibility factor is near unity up to a pressure of 10MPa. This means that the

ideal gas equation of state can be used for nitrogen over this range with

considerable accuracy.

Now suppose we reduce the temperature from 300K but keep the pressure constant

at 4MPa, the density will increase and we note a sharp decrease below unity in the

value of compressibility factor. Values of Z <1 mean that the actual density is greater

than would be predicted by ideal gas behavior. As the temperature reduced from

300K and pressure remains constant at 400MPa the molecules are brought closer

together, there is an attractive force between the molecules. The lower the

temperature the greater is the intermolecular attractive force. Thus more attractive

force more density, which is greater than, would be predicted by the ideal gas. (Ideal

gas intermolecular attraction is negligible)

On comparison of various compressibility charts for other pure substances it is

observed that the diagrams are all similar in the characteristics described above for

nitrogen at least in qualitative sense. Quantitatively the diagram are all different sine

critical temperature, critical pressure of different substances vary over a wide range.

There is a way to put all these substances on a common basis called reduced

properties w.r.t. the values at critical point like

Reduced pressure = Pr = P / Pc and reduced temperature Tr = T / Tc

These equations state that the reduced property for a given state ids the value of

this property on this state divided by the value of the same property at the critical

point.

Tables of thermodynamic properties of many substances are available and in

general these tables have the same form. The steam table is specially selected

because they are a vehicle for presenting thermodynamic tables and steam is used

extensively in power plants and industrial purposes. The table consists of four

separate tables namely:

1) Saturated steam table

2) Saturated water table

3) Temperature basis table and

4) Pressure basis table.

It contains values of enthalpy, internal energy, specific volume and entropy. If the

values of T and P are given other all values can be directly taken from the table.

Therefore we should first learn how to use the table. We note that all these are

independent variables.

To finding the correct table other nuisance of everyday use of the table in the

interpolation. I.e. when one of the stated values is not exactly equal to a value listed

in the table. Recently computerized tables are in use, which eliminates these

problems. But the students nevertheless must learn to understand the significance,

construction and limitations of the tables.

The actual steam table as presented in various books is a summary table based on

complicated curve fit to the behavior of water. Here we concentrate three properties

namely T,P and v and note that other properties listed namely u, h, s are presented.

It is further noted that the separation of phases in terms of values of P and T is

actually described by the relation illustrated in the pressure-temperature diagram.

The specific volume of a substance having given quality can be found out by the

definition of quality. The volume is the sum of volume of liquid and vapor.

V= Vliq + V vap.

In terms of masses: mv = mliq * vf + m vap* vg

By introducing the quality x we have v = (1-x) vf + x vg

We know that

vfg = vg - vf

We can write the specific volume equation for wet steam as v = vf + x vfg

In superheated region pressure and temperature are independent properties and

therefore for each pressure a large number of temperature is given and for each

temperature four thermodynamics properties are listed namely specific volume,

enthalpy, entropy and internal energy.

Figure shows a T-v plot for water with an indication of percent error in

assuming ideal gas behavior along the saturated vapor curve and also in several

area of superheated region. Generally a slight decrease and only a small error is

made if one same that the volume of a compressed liquid is equal to the specific

volume of the saturated liquid at the same temperature. It is generally accepted

procedure particularly when compressed liquid data are not available.

In the modern scenario computerized table are available. The main program

operated with a visual interface in the window environment on a PC which is

generally user friendly. The program operates on DOS environment, which covers

not only the tables of water, but it covers most of the pure substances used in

engineering industries. The generalized chart with compressibility factor is also

included so it is possible to get the value of Z a more little accurately than reading

the graph. It is useful in the case of two-phase mixture, like saturated liquid and

vapor values are needed.

Thermodynamic Surfaces:

The matter discussed in this chapter can be well summarized by a consideration of a

pressure, specific volume, temperature surface (PVT surface). Two such surfaces

are shown in the figure for a substance such as water in which the specific volume

increases during freezing and the other in which a substance, its specific decreases

during freezing.

In these diagrams the pressure, specific volume and temperature are plotted on a

mutually perpendicular coordinates and each possible equilibrium state is thus

represented by a point on the surface. This follows directly from the fact that a pure

substance has only two independent intensive properties. All points along a quasi

equilibrium surface lie on the PvT surface since such a process always passes

through equilibrium states.

The regions of the surfaces that represent a single surface- the solid, liquid and

vapor faces are indicated. These surfaces are curved. The two phase regions the

solid-liquid, solid-vapor, liquid-vapor regions are ruled by surfaces. It is understood

that they are made up of straight lines parallel to the specific volume axis. This of

course follows from the fact that in the two-phase region lines of constant pressure

are also lines of constant temperature, although the specific volume may change.

The triple point actually appears as the triple line on the PVT surface, since the

pressure and temperature of the triple point are fixed but the specific volume may

vary depending upon the proportion of each phase.

It is also of interest to note that the pressure temperature and pressure volume

projections of these surfaces. We have already considered the P-T diagram for

water. It is on this diagram we observe the triple point. Various lines of constant

temperature are shown on the P-v diagram and corresponding constant temperature

sections are identically seen on the P-v-T surfaces. The critical isotherm as a point

of intersection at the critical point.

One notice that for a substance such as water which expands on freezing, the

freezing temperature decreases with an increase in pressure. For a substance that

contracts on freezing, the freezing temperature increases as the pressure increases.

Thus as the pressure of the vapor is increased along the constant temperature line a

substance that expands on freezing first becomes solid and then liquid. For

substance that contract on freezing, the corresponding constant temperature line

indicates that as the pressure of the vapor increases, it first becomes liquid and then

solid.

Consider the heating of 1 kg of ice at 50C to steam at 2500C. The pressure being

maintained at 1 atm. It is observed that the entropy of steam increases in different

regimes of heating namely

1) Entropy increase of ice to saturated freezing temperature

2) Entropy increase of ice as it melts into water.

3) Entropy increase of water as it is heated from 0Oc to 100OC.

4) Entropy increase of water as it is vaporized at 100 OC absorbing latent heat of

vaporization.

5) Entropy increase of vapor as it is heated from 100 OC to 250OC.

These entropy changes are shown in T-S graph. It is a constant pressure process. If

during heating process the pressure had been maintained constant at 2 atm, a

similar curve would be obtained. If these states for different pressures are joined the

phase equilibrium diagram of a pure substance on the T-s coordinate would be

obtained as shown below.

Most often liquid vapor transformation only are of interest, the following figure the

liquid, the vapor and the transition zones only at a particular pressure, sf specific

entropy of saturated water and sg - specific entropy of saturated vapor. The entropy

change of the system during the phase change from a liquid to vapor at that

constant pressure is sfg. (= sg sf). The value of sfg decreases as pressure

increases. And becomes zero at the critical point.

From the first and second law of thermodynamics following property relations are

obtained.

Tds = dh v dp

and ( h / s )p = T

These equations form the basis of h-s diagram of a pure substance. The slope of an

isobar on the h-s coordinates is equal to the absolute temperature. If the

temperature remains constant the slope will remain constant. If the temperature

increases the slope of the isobar will increase.

Consider once again the heating of ice at 5OC to steam at 250OC the pressure

being maintained constant at 1 atm. The slope of the isobar of 1 bar on the h-s

coordinates first increases as the temperature of the ice increases from 5OC to

0OC. the slope then remains constant as ice melts to water at 0 OC. Te slope of

isobar again increases as the temperature of water rises from 0OC to 100OC. the

slope again remains constant as water vaporizes at constant temperature. Finally

the slope of the isobar continues to increase as the temperature of steam increases

to 250OC and beyond (as shown in the figure below.

Similarly the isobars of different pressures can be drawn on h-s diagrams as shown

in the figure below.

This figure shows the phase equilibrium diagram of a pure substance on the h-s

coordinate indicating the saturated solid line, saturated liquid line saturated vapor

line, the various phases and the transition zones.

This figure is the Mollier diagram indicating only the liquid and vapor phases. As the

pressure increases the saturation temperature increases, slope of the isobar

increases. Hence the constant pressure lines diverge from one another and the

critical isobar is at a tangent to the critical point. In the vapor region the states of

equal slopes at various pressures are joined by lines as shown, which are the

constant temperature lines. Here at a particular pressure h f is the specific enthalpy of

saturated water and hg is specific enthalpy of saturated vapor and h fg (= hg - hf) is

the latent heat of vaporization at that pressure. As the pressure increases h fg

decreases and at the critical pressure hfg becomes zero.

Dryness fraction is defined as the ratio of mass of dry steam to total mass of steam.

It is denoted by x and is also called as quality of steam.

x = mv / (mv +ml ) where mv and ml are the masses of vapor and liquid respectively.

Let V be the toal volume of a liquid vapor mixture of quality x in which Vf volume of

saturated liquid and Vg volume of saturated vapor, the corresponding being m, mf,

mg respectively.

We have m = mf + mg and V= Vf +Vg

Therefore mv = mf * vf + mg*vg

v= (1-x) vf + x vg.

Similarly s = (1-x) sf + x sg

h= (1-x) hf + x hg

u= (1-x) uf + x ug.

Same equations are written as

v = vf + x vfg,

h = hf + x hfg

u = uf + x ufg

s = sf + x sfg

If the condition of the steam is superheated then we have Degree of superheat,

which is difference between the superheated temperature to the saturation

temperature.

super = Tsuper Tsaturation

The other properties are calculated as v super = vsat * Tsuper / Tsat

hsuper = hg + Cp (Tsuper-Tsat)

ssuper = sg + Cp log(Tsuper/Tsat)

The state of a pure substance gets fixed if two independent properties are given.

Thus the pure substance is said to have two degrees of freedom.

Figure shows the values of pressure and temperature would fix up the state. But

when the substance is in the saturation state or two phase region the measured

values of pressure and temperature could apply equally well to saturated liquid point

f and saturated vapor point g. or two mixtures of any quality points x1, x2 or x3. of the

two properties, P and T only one is independent; the other is a dependent property.

If the pressure is given the saturation temperature gets automatically fixed for the

substance. In order to fix up the state of the mixture one more property such as

specific volume, enthalpy or composition of mixture or internal energy is required to

be known. Since it is relatively difficult measure the specific volume of the mixture

devices such as calorimeters are used for determining the quality or the enthalpy of

the mixture.

In the measurement of quality, the object is always to bring the state of the

substance from the two phase region to the single phase region or superheated

region where, the pressure and temperature are independent and measured to fix

the state, either by adiabatic throttling or e3lectric heating.

There are four types of calorimeter are common in use namely

1) Separating Calorimeter

2) Throttling Calorimeter

3) Combined separating and throttling calorimeter.

4) Electrical calorimeter.

is very wet then separating calorimeter gives the quality of the steam. A known

quantity of steam is passed through a separating calorimeter as shown. The steam

is made to change direction suddenly, the water being denser than the dry steam is

separated out. The quantity of water, which is separated out, is measured at the

separator. The dry steam coming out of the separator is sent through a condenser

where it is condensed separately.

The dryness fraction of the steam is calculated by weighing the mass of the water

and mass of dry steam after condensation separately.

from the steam main through a perforated sampling tube as shown in the figure.

mercury manometer and temperature T2 so that after throttling the steam is in the

superheated region. The process is shown on T-s and H-s diagram.

The steady flow energy equation gives the enthalpy after throttling as equal to

enthalpy before throttling. It is a irreversible process hence joined by a dotted line.

Thus the initial state of the steam is p 1 , t1 and its dryness fraction is x1 and the final

state of the superheated steam is p 2 x2.

Now h1 =h2

hf1+x1 hfg1 = h2

x1 =( h2 hf1 ) / hfg1

With P2 and T2 being known, h2 can be found out from the superheated steam table.

The values of hf, hfg are taken from saturated steam table., thus quality of the wet

steam x1 can be calculated.

When the steam is very wet and the pressure after throttling is not low enough to

take the steam to the superheated region then a combined separating and throttling

calorimeter is used for the measurement of quality. Steam from the main is first

passed through a separator as shown in the figure, where some part of the moisture

separates due to sudden change in direction and falls by gravity and partially dry

vapor is then throttled and taken to the superheated region.

As shown in the figure process 1-2 represents moisture separation from the wet

sample of steam at constant pressure P1 and process 2-3 represents throttling to

pressure P2 withP2 and T3 being measured, h3 can be found out from the

superheated steam table.

h3= h2 = hf1 + x2 hfg1

Therefore x2, the quality of the steam after partial moisture separation can be

evaluated. If m kg of steam is taken through the sampling tube in y seconds, m 1 kg is

separated and m2 kg is throttled and then condensed to water and collected, we

have

m=m1+m2.

The mass of dry vapor will be at state2 is x2m2.

Therefore the quality of the sample of the steam at state1 which ids x1 is given by

x1= x2m2 / (m1 + m2)

There is one more method of measurement of quality of wet steam by using electric

calorimeter as shown in the figure. The sample of steam is passed in steady flow

through an electric heater. Electrical energy input Q should be sufficient to taken the

steam to the superheated region where pressure P 2 and temperature T2 are

measured. If I is the current flowing through the heater in amperes and V the

voltage across the coil at steady state Q=VI. If m is the mass of steam taken in t

seconds under steady flow condition then the steady flow energy equation for heater

is given by m1h1 + Q = m1h2

Hence h1 + Q / m1 = h2. With h2,Q and m1 =being known h1 can be computed. Thus

h1= hf1 + x1 hfg1.

Hence x1 can be calculated.

1) A steam boiler initially contains 5 m3 of steam and 5 m3 of water at 1 MPa.

Steam is taken out at constant pressure until 4 m3 of water is left. What is the

heat transferred during the process?

Solution:

hg=2778.1 kJ/kg

uf = 761.68 , ufg = 1822 , ug = 2583.6 kJ/kg

The initial mass of saturated water and steam in the boiler = (Vf /vf) + (Vg / vg) =

[(5/0.001127) + (5/0.1944) ] = [(4.45 * 103) + (25.7) ] kg

103) + 30.8] kg

Mass of steam taken out of the boiler, ms = [4.45 * 10 3 + 24.7] - [ (3.55 * 103) + 30.8]

= 894.9 kg

Making an energy balance we have initial energy stored in saturated water and

steam + heat transfer from external source = final energy stored in saturated water

and steam + energy leaving the steam or

U1 + Q =U1 + ms*hg

Assuming that the steam taken out is dry.

Hence 4.45 * 103 * 761.68+27.7*2583.6+ Q = 3.55 * 103 *761.68 +30.8 *2583.6

+894.9 * 2778.1

Q = 2425000-685500+13176

Q = 1752676 kJ.

2) Steam flows in a pipeline at 1.5Mpa. After expanding to 0.1MPa in a

throttling calorimeter, the temperature is found to be 120 o C. Find the quality

of steam in the pipe line. What is the maximum moisture at1.5 MPa that can be

determined with this set-up if least 5 o C of superheat is required after

throttling for accurate readings?

Fig 24 : h s Diagram

Solution.

At state 2 when p = 0.1 MPa and t = 120 o C by interpolation,

h2 = 2716.2 kJ/kg and

p = 1.5 MPa hf = 844.89 and hfg = 1947.3 kJ/kg

and h1 = h2 hf1+ x1 hfg1 = h2

x1 = 1871.3 / 1947.3 = 0.963

Ans.

When p = 0.1MPa and t = 99.63 + 5 = 104.63 oC,

h3=2685.5 kJ/kg

Since h3=h4 2685.5 = 844.89 + x4 *1947.3

x4 = 1840.6 / 1947.3 = 0.948

The maximum moisture that can be determined with this set up is only 5.2% Ans

3) The following data were obtained with a separating and throttling

calorimeter:

Pressure in pipeline :1.5 MPa

Condition after throttling:0.1 MPa.110 o C

During 5 min moisture collected in the separator:0.150 litre at 70 oC,

Steam condensed after throttling during 5 min

Find the quality of steam in the pipeline

Solution :

AT 0.1 MPa, 110 oC, h3 = 2696.2 kJ/kg

Now h3=h2 = hf2 + x2 hfg2

2696.2=844.89 + x2 1947.3

x2 = 1851.31/1947.3 = 0.955

If m1 = mass of moisture collected in the separator in 5 min and

m2= mass of steam condensed after throttling in 5 min then

x1 = (x2 m2) / (m1 + m2)

at 70oC vf = 0.001023 m3/kg

m1= 0.1462 kg

and m2 = 3.24 kg

Hence x1= 0.955*3.24 / (0.1462 +3.24) = 0.915 Ans.

mixture in equilibrium at a pressure of 600 kPa. Calculate a) The volume and

mass of liquid b) The volume and mass of vapor.

v =(0.4/2 ) = 0.2 m3/kg

The quality of steam can now be calculated

0.2 = 0.001101 + x * 0.3146, x = 0.6322

Therefore mass of liquid is 2.0*(1 - 0.6322) = 0.7356 kg

Mass of vapor is 2.0(0.6322) = 1.2644 kg

Volume of liquid is ml vf

= 0.7356(0.001101) =0.0008m3

Volume of vapor is mvvg = 1.2644(0.3157)=0.3992 kg

5) Steam at 1 bar and a dryness fraction of 0.523 is heated in a rigid vessel

until it becomes saturated vapor. Calculate the heat transferred per kg steam.

Solution:

From the steam table at 1 bar pressure, t s = 99.62oC,

vf =0.001043m3/kg,vfg=1.69296m3/kg,

uf =417.33 kJ/kg, ufg =2088.72kJ/kg,

Volume of one kg of given state of vapor = vf + x vfg

= 0.001043 + 0.523 * 1.69296 = 0.8864 m 3/kg

Enthalpy correspond to the state of steam,

u= uf + x ufg = 417.33 + 0.523 * 2088.72 =1509.73kJ/kg

v (0.8864 m3/kg ) correspond to the saturated condition of the steam, from steam

table, which is vg,

The pressure found to be 2 bar and u g =2529.49kJ/kg

Heat added = 2529.49 1509.73 = 1019.76 kJ/kg Ans

.

6) A rigid vessel contains one kg of mixture of saturated water and saturated

steam at a pressure of 0.15MPa. When mixture is heated the state passes

trough the critical point. Determine,

a) Volume of the vessel

b) The mass of the liquid and vapor

c) The temperature of the mixture when the pressure rises to 3 MPa.

d) The heat transfer required to produce the final state.

Solution. Vc: Critical volume = 0.003155 m3/kg (From the steam table.)

v = vf + x X vfg

0.003155 = 0.001035 + x1 * 1.15828 ,

x1 = 0.00183

Hence, mass of vapor = x = 0.00183 kg

Mass of liquid = (1-x1) = 0.998 kg.

u1 = uf + x1 X ufg ;

u1 = 466.92 + 0.00183 X 2052072 = 470.68 kJ/kg

Saturation temperature correspond to 3 MPa, is 233.9 OC, the temperature of the

mixture

x2 = (0.003155 0.001216)/0.06546 = 0.02962

Heat transfer in constant volume process = u 2 u1,

u2 = 1004.76 + 0.02962 X 1599.34 = 1052.13 kJ/kg

Heat transfer = 1052.13 470.68 = 581.45 kJ/kg.

i) At what temperature will the steam become saturated vapor?

ii) What is the quality at 80OC? What is the heat transferred per kg of steam in

cooling from 250 OC to 80OC?

Solution:

At 300kPa, 250 OC, from the steam table , it is a superheated condition.

v = 0.79636 m3/kg , u = 2728.69 kJ/kg

vg = 0.79636 m3/kg , Ps = 225 kPa, ts = 124 OC

at 80 OC

0.79636 = 0.001029 + x 3.45612

x = (0.79636 - 0.001029) /3.45612 = 0.23

u2 = 520.45+0.23(2013.1) = 483.463 kJ/kg

Heat transfer = change in internal energy as the process is const. volume,

Heat transfer = u1 u2 = 2728.69 983.463 = 1745.227 kJ/kg

8) State whether the following samples of steam are wet, dry or superheated:

Justify your answer.

I)

Pressure = 1 MPa absolute enthalpy = 2880 kJ/kg

II)

Pressure=500kPa absolute, volume =0.35m 3 /kg

III)

Temperature = 200oC Pressure = 1.2 MPa.

IV)

Temperature = 100oC, entropy =6.88kJ/kg K.

V)

Pressure= 10 kPa, enthalpy = 2584 kJ/kg.

Try as homework.

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