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SBT 101: Survey of the Plant

Kingdom
Dr. E. Wabuyele

Course Outline
Classification of the kingdom.
General characteristics and life cycle of major plant groups

Bacteria
Algae
Fungi
Lichens
Bryophytes
Pteridophytes
Gymnosperms &
Angiosperms

Economic importance of the major groups

Origin of Life & Bacteria

ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE


Universe formed 15 billion years ago (Big
Bang)
Galaxies formed from stars, dust and gas

Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago


Life began~ 3.5 bya!!!

O2 came in 1.5 bya


Autotrophic Organisms: photosynthesis

Another environmental change -Result


in evolution

Origin of the Atmosphere


0.5 billion years ago; Atmosphere O2 to 1%
current

Compare to present: 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.04%


CO2, + trace gasses
Relatively small, most single cell
Start of multicellularity; Increase in cell
complexity

Current Biological Classification


Five kingdom system:
Monera

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Six kingdom system:


Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Three domain system:


Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Archaebacteria

Chromista

Eubacteria

Archezoa

Eight kingdom system:


Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Modern prokaryotic classification

Monera
Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Eubacteria

Archeabacteria (Cyanobacteria and

Thermophiles

Animalia

Introduction to Bacteria
When most people think of bacteria, they think of disease-causing
organisms,
While pathogenic bacteria are notorious for such diseases as cholera,
tuberculosis, and gonorrhea, such disease-causing species are a
comparatively tiny fraction of the bacteria as a whole.
Bacteria are so widespread that it is possible only to make the most
general statements about their life history and ecology.
They may be found on the tops of mountains, the bottom of the
oceans, in the guts of animals, and even in the frozen rocks and ice of
Antarctica.
One feature that has enabled them to spread so far, and last so long is
their ability to go dormant for an extended period.

Kingdoms Archaebacteria & Eubacteria


(Monera)
Prokaryotic, single-celled organisms.
Have diverse energy types:

Heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, and chemoautotrophic species.


- Purple sulfur bacteria- chemoautotrophic
- Blue-green algae (cyano)- photoautotrophic
- E. coli- heterotrophic
Some with cell walls, but cell walls composed of peptidoglycan, not cellulose (as in
higher plants).

Asexual and sexual reproduction


Two Divisions

Eubacteria
(Bacteria & Cyanobacteria)
Archaebacteria

Kingdom Monera

Eubacteria

pneumonia

cyanobacteria

anthrax

Cyanobacteria
Also known as Blue-green algae
About 200 species known
In different conditions
they grow differently
Lots of colors
Photosynthetic
7,500 ? species

Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria were the first
organisms on Earth to do modern
photosynthesis and they made the
first oxygen in the Earth's
atmosphere
.

Archaebacteria
Archaebacteria are CHEMICALLY DISTINCT from
other BACTERIA in several ways:
1. The Cell Walls, Cell Membranes, and Ribosomal
RNA are different from those of other
BACTERIA. No PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
2. Extremophiles
3. The PREFIX "ARCHEA" means ANCIENT.
4. Archaebacteria live in conditions similar to when
life first appeared and began to evolve.

Structure of bacteria

Bacteria structure: some common features


Cell Wall: Protect cells against osmotic shock (most important) and
physical damage
Cytoplasmic membrane: Regulation of substance transport into and out
of cells.
Chromosome: Contain genome.
Plasmid: Contain supplemental genetic information such as resistance to
antibiotics, production of toxins and tolerance to toxic environment.
Ribosome: Take part in protein synthesis.
Flagella : Movement of cells.
Inclusion body : Mineral storage of cells.
Pili: Attachment to host, bacterial mating.
Endospore: Tough, heat resistance structure that help bacteria survive
in adverse conditions.

Characteristics of Bacteria
There are 3 types of bacteria based on their shapes such as: Bacteria
grow in number not in size, but they make copies of themselves by
dividing into half. There are three basic shapes of bacteria:
Rod shaped bacteria called as bacilli.
Spherical shaped bacteria called as cocci.
Curved shaped bacteria called as spirilla.

ROD-SHAPED

SPHERICAL

SPIRILLA

BASIC SHAPES OF EUBACTERIA

Bacterial Reproduction

Reproduction in bacteria
When conditions are favourable bacteria can reproduce every 20
minutes
In 48 hours a single bacterial cell could become culture 4000 times
the mass of the earth
Bacteria reproduction is controlled by various factors including :
temperature and food availability

Binary Fission
When a cell has almost doubled in size it will replicate its
DNA and divide in half
This produces 2 identical daughter cells
Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction does not invovle the exchange of
genetic material

Conjugation

Is a form of sexual reproduciton


Genetic Information is exchanged between individuals
A long bridge of proteins forms between two bacterial cells
DNA is transferred from one cell (donor) to another (recipient)

Spore Formation
Bacteria form spores during unfavourable conditions
One type is called an endospore
Cell forms a thick internal wall the encloses its DNA

Spores can remain dormant for months until conditions improve

Archaebacteria Types: ecology

Methanogens
sewage

Thermoacidophiles
Hot springs
Great salt lakes

Extreme Halophiles

Classification of Bacteria
Bacteria grow in number not in size, but they make copies of themselves by dividing into half.
Classification utilizes the bacterial morphology and staining properties of the organism, as
well as O2 growth requirements of the species combined with a variety of biochemical tests

Bacteria have traditionally been identified and classified on the


basis of their biochemistry and the conditions under which they
grow
- Aerobic bacteria thrive in the presence of oxygen and require it
for their continued growth and existence.
- Anaerobic bacteria cannot tolerate gaseous oxygen, such as
those bacteria which live in deep underwater sediments, or
those which cause bacterial food poisoning.
- Facultative anaerobes prefer growing in the presence of
oxygen, but can continue to grow without it.

Bacterial Classification
Classified by the source of their energy, bacteria fall into two
categories:
- Heterotrophs derive energy from breaking down complex organic
compounds that they must take in from the environment -- this
includes saprobic bacteria found in decaying material, as well as
those that rely on fermentation or respiration.
- Autotrophs, fix carbon dioxide to make their own food source; this
may be fueled by light energy (photoautotrophic), or by oxidation
of nitrogen, sulfur, or other elements (chemoautotrophic).
- chemoautotrophs are uncommon; photoautotrophs are common
and quite diverse. They include the cyanobacteria, green sulfur
bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur bacteria. The
sulfur bacteria are particularly interesting, since they use hydrogen
sulfide as hydrogen donor, instead of water like most other
photosynthetic organisms, including cyanobacteria.

Classification
Morphology (shape, color, gram specificity) :
Classifying bacteria on the basis of their morphology is
extremely difficult; bacteria are generally quite small and
have simple shapes; some bacteria, notably the
cyanobacteria have sufficiently complex morphology to
permit classification by shape

There are three basic shapes of bacteria:


Rod shaped bacteria called as bacilli.
Spherical shaped bacteria called as cocci.
Curved shaped bacteria called as spirilla.

Growth Requirements: Oxygen


Microorganisms can be grouped on the basis of their need for oxygen to
grow.
Facultatively anaerobic bacteria can grow in high oxygen or low oxygen
content and are among the more versatile bacteria.
In contrast, strictly anaerobic bacteria grow only in conditions where there is
minimal or no oxygen present in the environment.
Bacteria such as bacteroides found in the large bowel are examples of
anaerobes. Strict aerobes only grow in the presence of significant quantities
of oxygen.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, is an example of a
strict aerobe.
Microaerophilic bacteria grow under conditions of reduced oxygen and
sometimes also require increased levels of carbon dioxide.
Neisseria species (e.g., the cause of gonorrhea) are examples of
micraerophilic bacteria.

Phylogenetic classification
Scientists interested in the evolution of microorganisms are more
interested in taxonomic techniques that allow for the comparison of
highly conserved genes among different species.
As a result of these comparisons a phylogenetic tree can be
developed that displays the degree of relatedness of different
organisms.
A relatively new application of this technology has been the
recognition and characterization of noncultivatable pathogens and
the diseases that they cause.
This is based on Molecular techniques Forensics, DNA
finger prints, RNA, protein analysis

Phylogenetic Classification of Bacteria

Distinguishing Features between Gram Positive and


Negative Bacteria
Gram positive bacteria have a large peptidoglycan structure. As noted
above, this accounts for the differential staining with Gram stain.
Some Gram positive bacteria are also capable of forming spores under
stressful environmental conditions such as when there is limited availability
of carbon and nitrogen.
Spores therefore allow bacteria to survive exposure to extreme conditions
and can lead to re-infection (e.g., pseudomembranous colitis from
Clostridium difficle)
Gram negative bacteria have a small peptidoglycan layer but have an
additional membrane, the outer cytoplasmic membrane. This creates an
additional permeability barrier and results in the need for transport
mechanisms across this membrane.

Comparative Characteristics of Gram-Positive


and Gram-Negative Bacteria

Characteristic
Gram reaction

Gram-positive
Retain crystal violet dye and stain dark
violet or purple
Thick (multilayered)
Present in many
Absent
Absent
Virtually none

Peptidoglycan layer
Teichoic acids
Periplasmic space
Outer membrane
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
content
Lipid and lipoprotein content Low (acid-fast bacteria have lipids
linked to peptidoglycan)
Flagellar structure
2 rings in basal body
Toxins produced
Primarily exotoxins
High
Resistance to physical
disruption
Inhibition by basic dyes
High
High
Susceptibility to anionic

Gram-negative
Can be decolorized to accept
counterstain (safranin); stain red
Thin (single-layered)
Absent
Present
Present
High
High (due to presence of outer
membrane)
4 rings in basal body
Primarily endotoxins
Low
Low
Low

Economic importance of bacteria

Bacteria Caused Diseases


Bacteria can cause the
following diseases:

Tuberculosis
Pneumonia
Strep throat
Staph infections
Scarlet fever
Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Chlamydia
Boils
Tetanus
Lyme disease
Ear infections

Many sexually
transmitted
diseases (STDs)
are caused by
bacteria.
Gonorrhea
Syphilus
Chlamydia

salmonella

Helibacter pilori

E. coli

anthrax

Antibiotics
Antibiotics are drugs that combat bacteria by interfering with
cellular functions

Penicillin interferes with cell wall production


Tetracycline interferes with protein production
Sulfa drugs produced in the laboratory
Broad-spectrum antibiotics will affect a wide variety of organisms

Bacteria arent all Bad!

Root Nodules
Atmospheric N2
N fixer
Plant roots

50% to 70% of the biological


nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen Cycle

Bacteria make Vitamin K

Bacteria are used in


making yogurt and
bread (fermentation).
Saprobes help to
break down dead
organic matter.

Bacteria make up the


base of the food web
in many
environments.

Streptococcus thermophilus in yogurt

Sewage treatment

Oil Spills

The Plant Kingdom


The plant kingdom has organisms that are:
multi-cellular,
have cell walls
have chlorophyll,
produce their own food, and
dont physically move from one place to another.

Course Outline
Classification of the kingdom.
General characteristics and life cycle of major plant groups

Bacteria
Algae
Fungi
Lichens
Bryophytes
Pteridophytes
Gymnosperms &
Angiosperms

Economic importance of the major groups

ALGAE

Current Biological Classification


Five kingdom system:
Monera

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Six kingdom system:


Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Three domain system:


Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Archaebacteria

Chromista

Eubacteria

Archezoa

Eight kingdom system:


Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Introduction to algae
Phycology, the study of algae; also known as algology
Algae are primitive plants with a long geological history behind them
Among the algae we include all the seaweeds, but these form only
part of the group
Algae are also found in freshwater, where they form part of the green
scum which can be seen on the surface of almost every pond.
Algae are also found in damp soil, on tree-trunks and old palings.
A few algae are parasitic, some are symbiotic; some combine with
fungi to form lichens.

Geological Time Scale and plant evolution

2/7/2016

ALGAE???

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Introduction to algae
Vary in size from nanoplankton (< 2 m
cyanobacteria ) to Giant kelps (> 70 m
long). Possess a cell wall.
Contain pigments
chlorophylls a, and many often have
another chlorophyll, like b, c, or d and
accessory red, blue and brown
photosynthetic pigments

Introduction to algae
Algae may be Unicellular or multicellular.
The main unifying characteristic that determines if a species is
considered an algae is that all algae contain or have a very recent
ancestor that contained chlorophyll a.
Algae differ from plants in not having any tissue differentiation; they
are composed of cells that are generally all the same; Plants can
differentiate their tissues into roots, trunks, and leaves, all very
different tissue types.
The undifferentiated body of algae is referred to as thallus- Thallus,
from Latinized Greek (thallos), meaning a green shoot or twig, is an
undifferentiated vegetative tissue (leaves, roots, and stems) of some
non-mobile organisms.

Thalus
Thallus, from Latinized Greek (thallos), meaning
a green shoot or twig, is an undifferentiated
vegetative tissue (leaves, roots, and stems) of
some non-mobile organisms.

ALGAE Vs PLANTS

Plant Characteristics
Waxy cuticle on stems and leaves.
Leaves: for photosynthesis
Roots: absorb water and minerals
Stem: provides support, transports food
Stems contain vascular tissues: tube-like cells by which water and
food is transported
Nonvascular plants dont have vascular tissues (e.g. liverworts);
Nutrients travel by way of osmosis and diffusion.
Plants reproduce via alternation of generations.

What do algae and plants share in common?


Both undergo photosynthesis.
Which means: they both contain chlorophyll and
they both can make their own food.
Which means they are both autotrophic (auto=self, trophic=feeding)

Anything else in common?


They have the same life cycle called alternation of
generations.

Differences between algae and plants


Algae can either be unicellular or multi-cellular while all plants are
multi-cellular organisms.
Algae typically live underwater while plants thrive on land.
Algae are non-vascular. They dont have structures such as connective
tissues, leaves, stems and roots unlike plants.

What makes a plant better adapted to live on land than Algae?

Plants are able to store and regulate water loss because of waxes and oils
called lipids.
The leaves are able to carry out photosynthesis.
In order to provide nutrients to those leaves plants must be able to
transport water and nutrients to different parts of the plant.
Plants have roots to take in water and nutrients from the ground.
Plants have reproductive strategies, like the ability to produce seeds; these
allow plants to live out of water.

Is this a Plant or Algae?

Is this a Plant or Algae?

Structure of algae

BASIC CELLULAR ORGANIZATION


Flagella=organs of locomotion.
Chloroplast=site of photosynthesis. Thylakoids are
present in the chloroplast. The pigments are present in
the thylakoids.
Pyrenoid-structure associated with chloroplast. Contains
ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase, proteins and
carbohydrates.
Eye-spot=part of chloroplast. Directs the cell towards
light.

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Forms of Algae
MICRO ALGAE

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Forms of Algae
MACROALGAE

66

Summary of algal forms:

Unicellular

Multicellular

1. Colonies
2. Aggregations
Palmelloid
Dendroid
Amoeboid
3.Filaments
4. Coenocytic
5.Parenchymatus
6. Psedoparenchymatus

Forms of Algae
Unicells: single cells, motile with
flagellate (like Chlamydomonas and
Euglena) or nonmotile (like Diatoms)
- Are microscopic

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Types of Unicellular Algae

1. Euglenoids

Plantlike in that most have chlorophyll and photosynthesize.

Lack a cell wall made of cellulose: made of a protein called a


pellicle.

They use their flagella to move.

Types of Unicellular Algae


2. Diatoms

Composed of silica.
Contain chlorophyll and carotenoids which give them an orange
color.
Food they make is stored as oil not starch.

Types of Unicellular Algae


3. Dinoflagellates

Cell wall composed of thick cellulose plates.


Have 2 flagella.
Most live in salt water.
Cause red tides: toxic algae

Multicellular forms: the vegetation forms are in six forms:


- Are macroscopic

a. Colonies:
Assemblage of individual cells with variable or constant number of
cells that remain constant throughout the colony life in mucilaginous
matrix. These colonies may be motile (like Volvox and Pandorina) or
nonmotile (like Scendesmus and Pediastrum)
500-5000 cells per colony.
- Colonies spherical up to 1.5 mm diameter.
- Individual cells surrounded by a mucilaginous sphere
- marine and freshwater
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Coenobium:
Colony with constant number of cells, which cannot survive
alone; specific tasks among groups of cells is common (is a
colony containing a fixed number of cells, with little or no
specialization)

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b. Aggregations: is aggregation of cells that have ability


to simple division (so, its colony but not constant in
form and size), the aggregations are in several types:
Palmelloid form: non-motile cells embedded in
mucilage (like Tetraspora).

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Dendroid form: resembling a tree in form


or in pattern of growth (Dinobryon).

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Amoeboid or Rhizopodial form such as


Chlorarachnion.

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c. Filaments: daughter cells remain attached after cell


division and form a cell chain; adjacent cells share cell
wall; maybe unbranched or branched.

Cladophora

Pithophora

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d. Coenocytic or siphonaceaous forms: one large,


multinucleate cell without cross walls eg Vaucheria sp.

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e. Parenchymatous (eg Ulva ) and algae: mostly macroscopic algae with tissue of undifferentiated cells and
growth originating from a meristem with cell division in
three dimensions

79

Pseudoparenchymatous (eg Batrachospermum)


pseudoparenchymatous superficially resemble
parenchyma but are composed of apprised filaments

80

f. Erect thallus forms: Thallus, from Latinized Greek


(thallos), meaning a green shoot or twig, is an
undifferentiated vegetative tissue (leaves, roots, and
stems) of some non-mobile organism.

Chara

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STRUCTURE

Summary of algal forms


Unicellular

Multicellular

1. Colonies
2. Aggregations
Palmelloid
Dendroid
Amoeboid
3.Filaments
4. Coenocytic
5.Parenchymatus
6. Psedoparenchymatus
7. Erect thallus

Classification

MODERN (Biological)CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM:


KINGDOM
PHYLLUM (Division)
CLASS
ORDER
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES

Regulation of classification
All plants and algae are classified in accordance with the recommendations
and prescriptions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi,
and plants (ICN.
Applies to angiosperms, Gymonsperms, Pteridophytes, Bryophytes, Algae,
Fungi, Cyanobacteria, Photosynthetic protists, Fossils and hybrids
This code recognizes the individual organism as belonging to a species, the
species to a genus, the genus to a family, the family to an order, the order to
a class and the class to a division.
The following suffixes have been recommended by the International Code of
Nomenclature;
Division-phyta
Class-phyceae
Sub-class-phycideae
Order-ales SpeciesSub-order-inales

Family-aceae
Sub-family-oideae
Genus-a Greek name
a Latin name

KINGDOMS

The Kingdom System is based on the following


criteria:
1. Presence or absence of a nuclear
membrane
2. Unicellularity versus multicellularity
3. Type of nutrition

Classification of algae

Classification of algae
In eighteenth century, Linnaeus (1707-1778) proposed his artificial
sexual system of classification.
He divided the plant kingdom into twenty five orders or classes.
In his last order Cryptogamia, he placed plants with concealed
reproductive organs (flower, etc.).
Linnaeus divided his order Cryptogamia into four suborders, i.e.,
Filices (Pteridophytes),
Musci (mosses and leafy liverworts),
Algae, (algae, lichens and thallose liverworts),
Fungi.

Features used in classification of algae


Like all plants, the algae are classified in accordance with the
recommendations and prescriptions of the International Code of Botanical
Nomenclature.
Occurrence/Distribution
Cell Wall
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Flagella
Colour and Pigments
Chloroplasts
Reserve food and nutrition
Growth
Life history and Reproduction
Duration

Cell wall
Majority of algae have 2-layered wall; inner is firm and contains
mocrofibrils, outer is gelationous and amorphous
Wall is composed of carbohydrates such as cellulose, pectin, mucilage
or proteins
May be impregnated with calcium, iron, silicon or chitin
Composition of cell wall varies from phylum to phylum as well as
within phylum
Cellulose takes to forms- Cellulose I and Cellulose II;
Ornamentation of the cell wall is often used in classification (pores
etc)

Cytoplasm
Occurs within the cell wall, bounded by a plasma membrane
Mitochondria are detectable in several groups, and are important in
cell physiology as the originators of enzymes which oxidise
carbohydrates and synthsise proteins
Enzymes are involved in transfer of electrons in photosynthesis, a
process called the tricaboxylic acid cycle

Nucleus
The nucleus in algae is surrounded by a double membrane nuclear
envelope - as in other eukaryotic organisms - and contains DNA.
Chromosomes are of varied shape; are formed during mitosis
Algae that reproduce sexually have meiotic division, usually with the
formation of spores at the end of the diploid phase of the life cycle
Rarely, gametes (sex cells) are produced through meiosis.
In algae which are dioecious (separate male & female), reduction
division results in two kinds of spores- female gametophyte and
female gametophyte spores, indicating the presence of sex
chromosomes

Eye Spot
Also known as the pigment spot; found in motile algae and in
reproductive elements of non-motile algae
Is light sensitive and directs the movement of swimming cells
Eye spot varies in structure from group to group; it may be a simple,
cup-shaped plate a network of droplets

Flagella
Are organs of locomotion
Varies from 1 to 3 (rarely 4 or more) and may be apical, subapical or lateral in point of
origin
Flagella are said to be isodynamic if they have a single movement (propulsion) and
heterodynamic if one (or two) is used for lateral vibration or for turning movements,
attachment, etc
Often have a granule at the base of each flagellum
May be apical, subapical, lateral or posterior
in location. Four general typessimple- a slender, smooth whip
Acronematic- smooth whip which abruptly terminates in fibril
Pleuronematic-with lateral fibrils
Pantonematic- flimmers (hairs) arise on opposite sides of the flagellum

Pigments
Algae pigments of variable colour and chemistry- each phylum has its
particular combination of pigments, and in general, a characteristic
colour
Include five chlorophylls, 20 xanthophylls, 5 carotenes and 7
phycobilins
Only chlorophyll a is found in algae, b occurs in chlorophyta and
Euglenophyta
Red and blue rays are absorbed by chlorophylls whereas blue and
green rays are absorbed by carotenes and xanthophylls
Pigments are contained in the chloroplasts

-Chlorophyta Contain
Chlorophyll a + b. So green
wavelengths reflect. They store
their products of photosynthesis
as starch.
- Phaeophyta Contain
Chlorophylls a + c as well as an
accessory pigment Fucoxanthin.
So yellow and brown
wavelengths reflect. Store food
as starch and as oil.
Rhodophyta - Contain
Chlorophyll a + (d) as well as
accessory pigment Phycobillins.
These phycobillins are
specialized for absorbing blue
light, which allows them to
inhabit the deepest depths.

Reserve food and nutrition in algae


The nature of reserve food material is also another important criterion
used in classification.
Algae are autotrophic in their mode of nutrition. However, other
nutritional methods may be employed
The carbohydrate reserves of algae are various forms of starch;
in Chlorophyta, the reserve food is starch
in Rhodophyta it is Floridean starch,
in Phaeophyta it is laminarian starch
in Euglenophyceae it is paramylon.
Members of Phaeophyta store mannitol in addition to carbohydrate.
Members of Bacillariophyta store fats, oils and lipids.

Summary characteristics of some algal groups


Photosynthetic
product(s)

Cell wall

Flagellum

Green chlorophyll a and b, , algae


carotene, lutein
(Chlorop
hyta)

starch

cellulose

biflagellate;
equal in
length;
apical

Yes

unicellular, Widely distributed; both


colonies or terrestrial and marine,
multicellular
ca.1,200 species
worldwide.

Brown
chlorophyll a and c,
algae fucoxanthin, -carotene,
(Phaeop
lutein
hyta)

laminaran,
mannitol

cellulose,
alginate

biflagellate;
not equal
in length;
lateral or
not
flagellum

Yes

multicellular 99.7% marine, ca. 2,000


species worldwide.

floridean starch

Cellulose,
carrageenan or
agarose

No

Yes

glycogen,
cyanophycean
starch

glycoprotein
cellulose

No

No

Phylum

Red
algae
(Rhodop
hyta)
Bluegreen
algae
(Cyanoph

Pigment

chlorophyll a,d; a,
phycoerythrin,
phycocyanin, , carotene
Chlorophylla;
phycocyanin,
phycoerythrin, carotene, lutein

Cell
nucleus

Form

Uni- or
multicellular

Note

98% marine, ca. 6,000


species worldwide.

unicellular; Mostly freshwater (75%),


colonies
some marine.

Algae
Prokaryotic
Kingdom Monera
Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)
Eukaryotic
Kingdom Protista
Dinophyta (Dinoflagellates)
Raphidophyta (Raphidophytes)
Bacillariophyta (Diatoms)
Chrysophyta (Golden Algae)
Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
Rhodophyta (Red Algae)

Microalgae

Macroalgae

Prokaryotic bacteria
i) Cyanophyta

Also known as blue-green algae. These


are the simplest of the algae.
They have no nucleus, and no
chloroplast
Blue green algae very similar to bacteria
in terms of biochemical and structural
characteristics.
The majority of blue-greens are aerobic
photoautotrophs: their life processes
require only oxygen, light and inorganic
substances.

Eukaryotic algae
Green Algae: Phylum Chlorophyta
Green algae belong to phylum (or division)
Chlorophyta
Most green algae live in freshwater and terrestrial
environments; only ~10% of the estimated 7,000
species are marine
Nonetheless, many species of green algae dominate
bays and estuaries and isolated tidal pools on rocky
coasts

Phylum Chlorophyta (Green algae).


7000 diverse species
Land plants are believed to have evolved from green algae;
considered by many taxonomists as belonging to Kingdom Plantae!
Both green algae and land plants have chlorophyll a and B as well
as carotenoids and store food as starch
Both have walls made of cellulose

Green Algae: Phylum Chlorophyta.


Chlorophyll in both green algae and plants are not normally masked
by other pigments

Chlorophyta: Green Algae

Halimeda opuntia
Codium edule
Caulerpa sertularioides

Caulerpa racemosa

Dictyosphaeria cavernosa

Phylum Phaeophyta
1500 species of Brown algae
Mostly marine and include
seaweed and kelp
All are multicellular and large
(often reaching lengths of 147
feet)
Individual alga may grow to a
length of 100m with a holdfast,
stipe and blade
Used in cosmetics and most ice
creams

Phylum Phaeophyta
Translated, the name means swarthy plants, because majority of brown
algae are dark-coloured, chocolate or olive-coloured.
They are the most complex forms of algae
Some are branched filaments and microscopic, the majority are
parenchymotous thalli that are large, tough or rubbery
Especially in the brown algae called kelps, there is great specialization of
cells
Pigments of phaeophyta include Chlorophyl-a, and c, B- can c-carotene,
flavoxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein and violaxanthin
Food is stored mainly as mannitol, laminarin and rarely, some fats
The zoospore is peculiar; it may be reniform or pyriform with two laterally
attached flagella-One flagellum is pleuronematic, the other simple and of
different length.

Phylum Phaeophyta.
The cell wall is in two layers, the inner made of cellulose; the outer of gelatinous
and pectic material
In majority of thalloid brown algae, the general construction includes a hold-fast,
a long and short stipe and an expanded blade
The blade is the primary photosynthetic and spore-producing portion of the algae
The blades may be perforated, ruffled or equipped with longitudinal costae
Growth may be by an apical cell(s) or an apical meristem
Thalli in Phaeophyta are either annual or perennial. Some specimens are known
to live as long as 24 years
Fragmentation is used universally in vegetative reproduction; zoospores are
commonly employed in sexual reproduction

Phaeophyta: Brown Algae

Padina japonica

Hydroclathrus
clathratus
Turbinaria ornata

Sargassum polyphyllum

Sargassum echinocarpum

Rhodophyta: Red Algae

Ahnfeltia concinna
Acanthophora spicifera

Hypnea chordacea
Galaxaura fastigiata

Asparagopsis
taxiformis

Phylum Rhodophyta
4000 species of RED Algae
Most are marine
Smaller than brown algae and are often found at a
depth of 200 meters.
Contain chlorophyll a and C as well as phycobilins
which are important in absorbing light that can
penetrate deep into the water
Have cells coated in carageenan which is used in
cosmetics, gelatin capsules and some cheeses

Pyrrophyta: Dinoflagellates,
The division Pyrrophyta (from the Greek
"pyrrhos" meaning flame-colored)
comprises a large number of unusual
algal species of many shapes and sizes.
There are about 130 genera in this group
of unicellular microorganims, with about
2000 living and 2000 fossil species
described so far. Transverse flagellum
The name "dinoflagellate" refers to the
forward- spiraling swimming motion of
these organisms.
They are free-swimming with two
flagella, a nucleus with condensed
chromosomes, chloroplasts,
mitochondria, and Golgi bodies.
Dinoflagellates primarily exhibit asexual
cell division, some species reproduce
sexually, while others have unusual life
cycles.

Their nutrition varies from autotrophy (photosynthesis;


in-nearly 50% of the known species) to heterotrophy
(absorption of organic matter) to mixotrophy (autotrophic
cells engulf other organisms, including other
dinoflagellates).

Bacillariophyta: The Diatoms


Characteristics

They are mainly autotrophs


They use photosynthesis to feed
themselves.
They can live anywhere there is water
and light, including lakes, streams,
estuaries, oceans, puddles and wet rocks
or soil.
The brown scummy stuff that you see on
rocks is usually diatoms.
It can be used as a pest control when
mixed into soil.
A lot of pet litters as well as cosmetic
items contain diatoms.

Phylum Chrysophyta (Golden algae);


Class Chrysophyceae
Golden algae, are common in fresh water.
most of them free-swimming and unicellular, but there are filamentous and
colonial forms.
Some species are colorless, but the vast majority are photosynthetic; in they
are particularly important in lakes, where they may be the primary source of
food for zooplankton.
In the absence of adequate light, or in the presence of plentiful dissolved food
many chrysophytes become facultatively heterotrophic in the absence of.
When this occurs, the algae may turn predator, feeding on bacteria or diatoms
There are more 1000 described species of golden algae

Charophyta: stoneworts
Plant like, erect; formerly in Chlorophyta, now warrants phylum
status

Shallow, freshwater lakes and ponds


Often precipitate calcium salts on their surfaces
Axis with short lateral branches in whorls.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
Multicellular antheridia

Can form dense growths, mats

Chara vulgaris

Nitella tenuissima

Alternative classification in algae


Algae can be classified according to duration in time of the two
generations
Annual- Found the year round; producing several generations a year;
reproductive elements develop without a resting period
Perennial-Entire algae perennial, erect

Phylum chlorophyta: Representative orders


Chlorophyll predominant; food reserve starch
1. Order Volvocales
Motile in vegetative state and with motile reproductive cells (spores and
gametes)
Isogamous (sex cells similar), anisogamous (gametes slightly differentiated),
oogamous or heterogamous (egg and sperm)
Have 2 (rarely four or eight) flagella; in a few genera, flagella are
pleuronematic, in most, flagella are simple
There are at least 6 families, about 45 genera, over 400 species
All volvacales are fresh water in habitat

Families of order Volvacales


i)

Family Polyblepharidaceae (eg genus Pyramimonas, Pedinomonas,


Stephanoptera)
Composed of unicellular, oval or lobed organisms which have one to as many
as eight flagella
Is unique in that cells have no cell wall but only a firm membrane which is the
outer boundary of the cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is a parietal cup
Mostly occur in fresh water

Families of order Volvacales


ii) Chlamydomonadaceae (eg genus chlamydomonas, Carteria,
Platymonas)
Composed of unicellular, two or four equal flagella and have cell wall
A few genera lack chlorophyll
Usually have an eyespot

Genus Chlamydomonas
Contains hundreds of species occurring in watering troughs, rain barrels,
laboratory aquaria (opaque green colour). Species rarely occur in salty water
Cell wall may be smooth or may have one or two apical papillae
Asexual reproduction occurs by division of nucleus, followed by longitudinal
division of protoplast

Families of order Volvacales


iii) Family Sphaerellaceae
Are biflagellated, unicellular
Commonly seen member is Haematococcus lacustris occurring in rock
pools, bird-births
Cells encyst when the water becomes warm, and when oxygen content
is low

Families of order Volvacales


iv) Family Volvacaceae (eg genus Pandorina, Gonium, Edorina, Volvox)
All members are colonial
Reproduction occurs by cells dividing internally to form a daughter colony
Sexual reproduction is by iso-, or anisogametes

Order Zygnematales
Includes two families-Maugeotiaceae and Zygnemataceae
Zygnemataceae is a family of up to ten genera, all of which are truly
filamentous with cylindrical cells that have no pores in the wall nor
external markings.
Examples of Zygnemataceae include Zygnema, Sirogonium,
Sirocladium and Spirogyra
Most genera form floating or partly submerged mats or clouds of
filaments
Zygonium (family Maugeotiaceae) forms wefts of yellowish-green
filaments on soil and over dripping rocks

Further reading on representative


algal groups recommended

Reproduction in major groups


of Algae

Reproduction in algae

Algae reproduce in three different ways, with variations in certain species;


SEXUALLY AND
ASEXUALLY by spores
Vegetative
Vegetative is common in all algae and refers to any method that uses only vegetative
cells and does not employ any specialized structure, whether cell or organ;
Vegetative reproduction in algae involves multiplication by cell division or
fragmentation- This Fragment(s) then develops into thallus.

Reproduction in algae.zoospores
Asexual reproduction is accomplished by use of differentiated or specialized cells or organs
capable of directly multiplying the plant without uniting with any other cells
Many different kinds of spores are involved in asexual reproduction, particularly the
swimming zoospore
Zoospores possess 1, 2, 4 or many flagella and often contain some chloroplast and a
pigment spot. They are produced frequently and in large numbers so very effective in
multiplying the algae
Motility of Zoospores (by flagella) enables them to distribute the species; and the eyespot
enables sensitivity to environment so that and germination gives rise to new individuals.
Zoospores are haploid in most cases and give rise to haploid sexual generations

Sexual reproduction in algae.


Sexual reproduction in algae comes at the end of a growing season, or may be induced by
unfavorable or critical changes in the environment
In sexual reproduction, specialized elements are produced either in unspecialized
vegetative cells or in the male sex organ (antheridium) or female sex organ (oogonium).
These sex (gametes) cells are incapable ordinarily of producing a new plant by themselves
but must unite (syngamy) with another cell to form a zygote
When the uniting gametes come form the same individual, the algae is said to be
homothallic; when they come form different individuals, the species is said to be
heterothallic
When the two uniting gametes are similar is size, shape and behavior and do not show
recognizable maleness or femaleness, they are called isogametes
When there is enough degree of maleness or femaleness, they are called anisogametes
When sexuality is clearly evident, gametes different in size, shape and/or behavior ie when
egg and sperm are clearly defined, they are called heterogametes (oogamous
reproduction)

Sexual Reproduction fusion of two gemets

1. Isogamous Flagellated similar in size


e.g. chlamydomonas
- Non-flagellated but similar in
size e.g. spirogyra.
2. Anisogamous two gemets dissimilar in size
e.g. chlamydomonas.
3. Oogamous
- Fusion between one large, Anisogamous
non-motile female gemete.
smaller motile- male gamete
e.g. Volvox, Fucus.

Isogamous

Oogamous

Life history and Alternation of Generations


The phenomenon occurs in some protists, certain lower animals
(e.g. parasitic flatworms), and in plants.
The alternation of generations (gametophyte with sporophyte) which
characterizes the life plants has its beginnings among the algae
Various degrees of life history complexity in algae but basic plan is the
same; a sexual plant (gametophyte) produces gametes which unite to
form a diploid asexual generation; the latter forms spores by meiosis
and these in turn grow into new gametophytes.
The two generations may be similar in form (isomorphic) or different
in size and shape (heteromorphic);
Hence, algae may be said to belong to Isogeneratae or
Heterogeneratae, depending on their life history. Such knowledge is
important in understanding classification and physiology of algae

A Basic Life Cycle Structure


Spores
n

Mitosis

Gametes (?)
HAPLOID
Meiosis

Fusion (syngamy)
DIPLOID
Zygote
2n
Mitosis

Reproduction in Phylum Chlorophyta


Chlorophyta exhibit a lot of variation in reproduction; many reproduce by
cell division, others make use of spores
Vegetative reproduction occurs by Fragmentation
Asexual Reproduction occurs via flagellated zoospores
Sexual reproduction may include isogamous, anisogamous or
heterogamous methods, with or without special sex organs
Most of the green algae have an alternation of generations involving a
unicellular or a multicellular gametophyte and a single-celled diploid stage
(the zygospore).

The zoospores grow into mature


haploid cells, completing
the asexual life cycle.

These daughter cells


develop flagella and
cell walls and then
emerge as swimming
zoospores from the wall
of the parent cell that
had enclosed them.

Asexual
Reproduction

A mature cell of Chlamydomonas


is a haploid

reproduces asexually by producing ZOOSPORES


It resorbs its flagella and then divides twice
by mitosis, forming four cells (more in
some species)

When the zygote breaks dormancy,


Meiosis produces four haploid
Individuals (two of each mating type)
That emerges from the coat.

They eventually grow into mature cells.

MEIOSIS

This diploid zygote


secretes a durable
coat that protects
the cell against
harsh conditions

A mature cell of
Chlamydomonas is a
Haploid cell.

Sexual
Reproduction
MITOSIS
Fusion of the
isogametes occurs slowly,
forming a diploid zygote.
After their release, gametes from
opposite mating types (designated
+ and - ) pair off and cling together.
Reproduces sexually by producing ZYGOTES

Within the wall of the parent cell,


mitosis produces many haploid
Gametes.

Important life cycle features of Chlamydomonas


Sexual
reproduction
induced by
environmental
conditions

Mitosis

Spores
n

Gametes (?)

+ and - gametes

Mitosis
HAPLOID

look the same

Meiosis

Fusion (syngamy)
DIPLOID

In Chlamydomonas the diploid


phase is a resting stage no mitosis of
the diploid phase Mitosis

Zygote
2n

The life cycle of Ulva

How does this suit Ulvas


niche?

Important Feature
Both the spores and the zygote develop into a multicellular thallus

Spirogyra reproduce sexually by conjugation


Spirogyra is the commonest genus in
Zygomataceae.
Spirogyra reproduces by CONJUGATION- process
of sexual reproduction in certain algae and fungi
in which temporary or permanent fusion occurs,
resulting in the union of the male and female
gametes.
Accomplished by tubes between cells of filaments that
allow contact between cells

Reproduction in Phylum Phaeophyta


Vegetative reproduction occurs by fragmentation
Asexual Reproduction occurs by two unequal biflagellate spores
Sexual Reproduction may be Isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous. Union of gametes takes
place in water or within the oogonium
Life histories in Phaeophyta are varied and may include:
i) Isomorphic alternation: An alternation of diploid and haploid generations which are
morphologically similar;
ii) An alternation of similar generations (Isomorphic) but with the production of heterogametes;
egg and sperm
iii) Alternation of morphologically dissimilar (heteromorphic) generation, in which the sporophyte
is small, the gametophyte dominant, producing anisogametes
iv)Alternation of generations morphologically dissimilar in which the sporophyte is dominant, the
gametophyte recessive, producing isogametes
v)Alternation of a dominant sporophyte and a minute gametophyte, producing egg and sperm
vi) No true alternation, but with a diploid sporophyte, producing heterospores by meiosis; spores
metamorphose directly to act as gametes

Reproduction in Phylum Rhodophyta; e.g. Polysiphonia, porphyra


Rhodophyta exhibit highly refined and many times unexplainable behavior in
reproduction
Some like Porphyridium employ cell division as the only multiplication process
Asexual Non-motile spores
A few of them employ fragmentation (vegetative reproduction)
Vegetative Reproduction Fragmentation
Asexual reproduction occurs through Non-motile spores
All sexual reproduction is oogamous, with the male cell drifting to bring about
fertilisation rather than swimming
Simple Gametagia are always formed in the production of sex cell; the Antheridia may be
metamorphosed vegetative cells, or cells produced on special branches
Non-motile male gamete is called spermatium and the cell which produces it a
spermatangium
The female organ is called a carpogonium, and may be only a metamorphosed vegetative
cell, or an organ produced on a special branch called a carpogonial branch.

Important notes
ISOGAMY literally means a marriage of equals
SPOROPHYTE diploid individual that produce individual cells called spores
(zoospores)
GAMETOPHYTE haploid individual that produces gametes
HETEROMORPHIC Generations sporophytes and gametophytes are
structurally different
ISOMORPHIC Generations sporophytes and gametophytes look alike,
although they are different in chromosome number.

Spirogyra reproduce sexually by conjugation

Ulva Reproduces by Alternation of Generations


Two distinct multicellular phasesone is haploid and the other is
diploid
Gametophyte is haploid
Sporophyte is diploid

Ecology of algae

Ecology of algae
Filamentous algae and seaweeds have an extremely wide range of
environmental requirements, which vary according to species and
location.
Ecologically, algae are the most widespread of the photosynthetic
organisms, constituting the bulk of carbon assimilation through
microscopic cells in marine and freshwater.
the most important parameters regulating algal growth are nutrient
quantity and quality, light, pH, turbulence, salinity and temperature.
Macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate and silicate) and micronutrients
(various trace metals and the vitamins thiamine (B1), cyanocobalamin
(B12) and biotin) are required for algal growth (Reddy

Light intensity plays an important role, but the requirements greatly vary
with the depth and density of the algal culture.

Where do Algae live?


Marine habitats:
seaweeds, phytoplankton

Freshwater habitats:
streams, rivers, lakes and ponds

Terrestrial habitats:
stone walls, tree bark, leaves, in
lichens, on snow

Marine Biomes

Freshwater habitats

Terrestrial habitats

Summary of ecological/habitat forms of algae


In the aquatic ecosystems we can find algae as :
Attachment:
o Epipelic / on the clay
o Epipzamic / on the sand
o Epilithic / on the rocks.
o Epiphytic / on the plants
o Epizoic / on the animals
o Endozoic / in the animals body
o Endophytic / in the plants body

As Plankton:
o Euphytoplankton / all the life cycle is plankton
o Tychophytoplankton / some of the life cycle is plankton
149

Summary of ecological/habitat forms of algae


According to environments we can subdivide Algae in to :
Halophyts: in region with high salinity.
Thermophyts: in region with high temperature.
Cryptophyts: in the region with low temperature.
In the terrestrial environments:
Algae have adapted to life on land and occur as cryptobiotic crusts in desert
and grassland soils or endocryptolithis algae in rocks. Terrestrial algae can be
classified as:

Lithophyts- on rocks
Epidaphics-on soil
Endodaphics-in soil
150

IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE

Why are ALGAE important?


Ecological importance of algae
a) Production of Oxygen as by-product
of photosynthesis:
All aerobic heterotrophic organisms
require O2,
e.g. fungi and animals need O2, to run
cellular respiration to stay alive
b) Production of biomass:
autotrophic organisms
- represent the base of the food
chain/web, particularly in aquatic
environments.

Why are algae important?...


Primary producers, basis of food webs,
FORESTS/GRASSES OF THE SEA
Pioneer Species: on rocky shores, mudflats, hot
springs, lichen communities, 'snow algae'
O2 production and carbon fixation in aquatic
habitats.
Rare autotrophic organisms in extreme habitats.

Algae as food for humans and animals:


Algae species have proteins, vitamins (A, B, C and E), lipids, and minerals. Algae
species are used as food in several countries in several forms.
Macroscopic marine algae (seaweeds) for human consumption, especially nori
(Porphyra spp.), wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and kombu (Laminaria japonica),
are widely cultivated algal crops.

Algae also form a component of periphyton, which not only provides natural food
for fish and other aquatic animals but is actively promoted by fishers and
aquaculturists as a means of increasing productivity.
The most widespread application of microalgal culture has been in artificial food
chains supporting the husbandry of marine animals, including finfish,
crustaceans, and molluscs

Uses of Algae
Algae as fodder for cattle:
Rhodymenia palmate is used as food for sheeps in Narvey. Laminaria
saccharina, Pelvitia, Ascophyllum, etc. species are used as food for
cattle.
Algae as fertilizers:
Blue-green algae are treated as bio-fertilizers from olden days. Nostoc,
Oscillatoria, Scytonema, Spirulina, etc. are used as fertilizers in rice
fields.

Uses of algae
Algae in Pisi culture:
Sea algae are used as food for fishes. So they play an important role in
Pisi culture. Some green-algae, Diatoms, some blue-green algae are
used as food material to fishes.
Algae in reclamation of alkaline or Usar soils:
Our country has more number of alkaline soils or sterile soils. Bluegreen algae like Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Scytonema, Spirulina are
modified the soils in to fertile soils.

Uses of algae
Algae in industry:
Iodine industry is mainly depended upon algae. Algae belonging to
Phaeophyta, like Laminaria, Ecklonia, Eisenia, etc. are used in the
industry to prepare Iodine.
Alginates:
Alginates are the salts of alginic acid found in the cell wall of
phaeophyta.
Alginates are extracted from Fucus, Laminaria, Macrocystis and
Ecklonia.
Alginates are used in the preparation of flame-proof fibrics, plastics, paints,
gauze material in surgical dressing, soups, ice creams etc.
It is used in treatment of latex for manufacturing rubber tires; also used in
paints

Uses of algae
Agar-Agar:
Agar-agar is a jelly like substance of great economic value. It is obtained
from certain red algae like Gelidium, Graciliaria, and Gigartina
(Rhodophyta).
Agar is used as a culture medium for growing callus in tissue culture.
Agar-producing species are gathered from rocks at low tide or by diving.
Algae are dried, washed and bleached and cleared before further
processing
Mostly harvested from Japan and North America and South East Asia. Used
as a universal base in handling bacteria and fungal media
Commercial Uses- Laxative base, Culture medium, baking, confections, in
dentistry, meat industry, emulsifier (in dairy products), cosmetics

Carragheen
Carragheen or Carragheenin:
It is a polysaccharide esterified with sulphate.
It is extracted from cell walls of red algae like Chondrus crispus and
Gigartina spp.
It is used as emulsifier in pharmaceutical industry and also in textile,
leather, cosmetics and brewing industries. Tooth pastes

Uses of algae
Diatomite:
Diatoms deposits at marine and fresh water areas. They are rich with
silica. It is used in the preparation of Dynamite in olden days. But now
it is used in different industries like glass, metal polishing, paints,
tooth pasts, soups, etc.
Funori:
It is a type of glue obtained from a red alga Gloipeltis furcata. It is
used as an adhesive as well as sizing agent for paper and cloth.
Chemically it is similar to agar-agar except that there is no sulphate
ester group.

Uses of algae..
Minerals:
The brown sea weeds popularly called as kelps yield potash, soda, and
iodine. Some sea weeds are rich source of iron, zinc, copper, manganese
and boron. Bromine is extracted from red algae such as Polysiphonia and
Rhodymenia.
Antibiotics and Medicines:
Seaweeds have beneficial effect on gall bladders, pancreas, kidneys, uterus
and thyroid glands.
Antibiotic Chlorellin, obtained from Chlorella is effective against a number
of pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from Cladophora, Lyngbya can kill
pathogenic Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium.
Laminaria is used as one of the modern tools for abortion.

Uses of algae.
Role of Algae in Sewage Disposal:
Some species like Chlamydomonas, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Pondorhina,
Euridina, etc are living in sewage water. They are mainly useful to clean the
water by releasing Oxygen.
They also modify the carbonate material in the water into N, P, K fertilizers.
Algae as research material:
In biological research algae are useful because of their rapid growth, brief life
span and easy mode of cultivation. Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Anacystis are
used in investigations in photosynthesis. Blue-green algae are used in studies
on nitrogen fixation. Researches in Genetics and Cytology are carried out on
Acetabularia.

Detrimental Aspects of Algae


Phytoplankton blooms, micro-algal blooms, toxic algae, red tides, or
harmful algae, are all terms for naturally occurring phenomena.
About 300 hundred species of micro algae are reported at times to
form mass occurrence, so called blooms.
Nearly one fourth of these species are known to produce toxins.
These are referred to with a generic term, Harmful Algal Bloom
(HAB), recognising that, because a wide range of organisms is
involved and some species have toxic effects at low cell densities, not
all HABs are algal and not all occur as blooms.

Detrimental Aspects of Algae


Proliferations of microalgae in marine or brackish waters can cause
massive fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, and alter
ecosystems in ways that humans perceive as harmful.
A broad classification of HABs distinguishes two groups of organisms:
the toxin producers, which can contaminate seafood or kill fish, and
the high-biomass producers, which can cause anoxia and indiscriminate kills
of marine life after reaching dense concentrations.
Some HABs have characteristics of both.

Detrimental impacts of algae


The impact of harmful microalgae is particularly evident when marine
food resources, e.g. aquacultures, are affected. Shellfish and in some
cases finfish are often not visibly affected by the algae, but
accumulate the toxins in their organs. The toxins may subsequently
be transmitted to humans and through consumption of contaminated
seafood become a serious health threat
In addition to posing serious health risks to consumers of seafood,
some microalgae may have devastating effects on fish and other
marine life, both in wild and aquacultures. Several species of micro
algae belonging in different taxonomic groups can produce toxins
which damage fish gills by hemolytic effects. This has resulted in
extensive fish kills with major economic losses

Detrimental Aspects of Algae


Blooms of freshwater and marine red tides
Damage to cave paintings and other works of art
Fouling of ships and other submerged surfaces
Fouling of the shells of commercially important bivalves