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systems - PhD thesis - TECHNISCHE

UNIVERSITT GRAZ

THESIS MAY 2000

READS

187

1 AUTHOR:

Sonja Monica Berlijn

Statnett

36 PUBLICATIONS 111 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

Retrieved on: 10 February 2016

DISSERTATION

INSTITUT FR HOCHSPANNUNGSTECHNIK

MIT VERSUCHSANSTALT

to insulating systems

Sonja Berlijn

Dissertation

For the academic degree

Doctor of Technical science

Permitted by the

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

of the

Technical University Graz

Submitted by:

1. Expert & Supervisor: O.Univ.-Prof.Dipl.-Ing.Dr. Michael Muhr

2. Expert: Univ.-Prof.Dipl-Ing.Dr. Ernst Gockenbach

Arnhem, The Netherlands May 2000

Preface

This doctor thesis describes the theoretical and experimental

investigations performed at KEMA High-Voltage Laboratory and at

the Technische Universitt Graz. The PhD project was started in

November 1997. At this time I was involved in an European project

and in two international working groups which dealt amongst others

with the measurement and evaluation problems of lightning impulse

voltages.

The work performed in the framework of the European project was a

good start for a PhD project and therefore, together with my professor

M. Muhr and my colleague G. Roelofs, I decided to take my PhD in

the area of tests with lightning impulse voltages.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all

who were involved in my projects and my education, to all who

supported me in writing this doctor thesis and to all of my friends and

family who were there to talk or to e-mail to. Of course there are

some persons to whom I would like to express my gratitude in

particular they are listed here below in random order.

All my colleagues at KEMA High-Voltage Laboratory I would like to

thank for the creation of a fine working environment, helping me with

the experimental investigations and for the interest they showed.

Also other colleagues from KEMA TNK and KEMA HPL, I would

like to thank for their help. KEMA, in particular, G. Roelofs, H.

Kempen, T. Klomp and B. Verhoeven, I would like to thank for

making this PhD project possible. G. Roelofs I would like to thank

also for his help, inspiration, support and for the comments he gave to

my work.

During the experimental investigations performed at KEMA I was

helped by M. Kvarngren from KTH. I have learned quit a lot from

him, technically and scientifically, and he became a very good friend.

I would like to thank him for his criticism, for his help and support.

My friend H. Scheefhals, I would like to thank for his patience, his

support, for listening to me all the time and of course for his advice.

The members of CIGRE 33.03, the joint task force SC12/WG33.03

and all other persons involved in the European project (especially

F. Garnacho, P. Simon, E. Gockenbach, P. Werle, K. Hackemack,

J. Blackett, M. Watts and P. Wong). I would like to thank for their

input, their ideas and their co-operation. Without their help this

project would not have been so successful.

I would like to thank my special friend J. Benda, for his help, his

support and his friendship during all the years.

J. Wetzer, F. Pesgens, M. Bongaerts, G. Buhre, R. Verhoeven and

H. Obers I would like to thank for their contributions to this PhD.

I would like to thank Dr. Kachler from Siemens, for providing

samples. W. Lick and G. Puckel from TU Graz, I would like to thank

for performing the investigations on these samples.

sister and her husband, my uncle Eddie,

my grandparents and my uncle Douwe.

Bruin Miriam Ronald Diane

Hans BerryOma Ernst Toshiji

Kurt Jean JackTonnie Jeroen Bill

Tonnie

TUE Ger Peter Fernando

HannekeJean Patrick Toine Godert

Marcel

Fred Evert Patricia Eddie Malcolm

Hauke MatthiasHannie

Klaus Albert

Trudy Sara

Silvia

Werner

George

Hiske Romy Edwin

EC

Siemens

Jos Frank Mats Cor Anna

Dick

Wouter Kimlie Diny

Mark Herman KEMA Wim

Harrie OrsoHenkMichael Wijnand

Eberhart Pieter

Wolfgang

Cees Rob Ton MarttiPascual

Jet

Theodor Susan RobertHughSven-Erik

Hans-Erik Herbert Martijn Jari

Sanne Marja

John Leo

Anders Paolo Loes

Fried

Sadique

Lars-Olof Anouscka Terry

Andr Martien Bob All I forgot

Thanks

The EC is thanked for the financial

support

of

the

project

Digital

measurement of parameters used for

lightning impulse tests for high voltage

equipment, contract no. PL95120-SMT4CT96-2132.

Last but not least I want to thank my two dogs Romy and Orso for

always being there, keeping me company and making me laugh.

Kurzfassung

vi

Abstract

Abstract

Lightning strokes have caused a considerable number of failures of

high voltage equipment installed in medium and high voltage grids.

In order to prevent these failures several studies have been performed

and several measures have been taken. One of these measures is to

test high voltage equipment with lightning impulse voltages.

The measurement of the applied voltages and the evaluation of the

parameters characterising these lightning impulse voltages have to be

performed accurate and uniform all over the world, since high-voltage

equipment require large capital assets and they are exported all over

the world.

voltages oscillations or/and overshoot may occur at the front or near

the peak of a lightning impulse voltage. The measurement of

lightning impulse voltages without oscillations or overshoot can

nowadays be performed with sufficient accuracy. However, problems

arise with chopped lightning impulse voltages, in case the lightning

impulse voltage has some small overshoot or oscillation and even

bigger problems arise when the lightning impulse voltage is a nonstandard lightning impulse voltage. The cause for these measurement

problems is that when small oscillations or/and overshoot occur, the

rules for the evaluation of the parameters (as described in the present

standard) are ambiguous. In case of non-standard lightning impulses

no evaluation rules are given in the present standard. Although the

problems existed when the evaluation was performed manually, they

were not recognised. The introduction of digital equipment and

evaluation software showed very clearly the problems and made the

problems needed to be solved.

Several solutions for the problems with the evaluation have been

proposed. Most of the solutions given up to now, based on the

present definition in IEC 60060-1, do not taken into account the

possibilities of modern (measuring) equipment and do not consider

the introduction of new insulating materials as for instance SF 6.

Besides this, the problems with the evaluation of parameters of

standard and non-standard lightning impulse voltages are dealt with

separately.

To find an ideal solution for the evaluation problems that is based on

the breakdown physics and that is applicable to both standard and

non-standard impulses, theoretical and experimental investigations

have been performed by the author at KEMA and by others at other

institutes. Tests were performed on different insulating materials.

The results of these investigations showed that a new approach was

necessary and a new evaluation method, using the k-factor function is

introduced.

When using this method, lightning impulse

measurements can be performed with a better accuracy besides this, it

is possible to use the method for both standard and non-standard

impulses.

vii

Kurzfassung

Keywords

lightning impulse voltage, evaluation methods, standard and nonstandard lightning impulses, k-factor function, test with lightning

impulses, IEC 60060-1

viii

Abstract

Kurzfassung

Blitzeinschlge in Mittel- und Hochspannungsnetze haben in der

Vergangenheit zu einer groen Anzahl von Fehlern an

Hochspannungsgerten gefhrt. Um diesen Fehlern vorzubeugen,

wurden einige Studien und verschiedene vorbeugende Manahmen

durchgefhrt.

Eine dieser Manahmen ist die Prfung der

Hochspannungsanlagen oder -gerte mit einer Blitzstospannung.

Die Messung der angelegten Spannung und die Auswertung der

Parameter, die die Blitzstospannung charakterisieren, mssen sehr

genau und in der ganzen Welt gleich ausgefhrt werden, damit die

Ergebnisse vergleichbar sind.

Bei Blitzstospannungsprfungen an Hochspannungsgerten knnen

Oszillationen und/oder berschwingungen im Anstiegsbereich oder

nahe des Scheitelwertes des Blitzstoimpulses entstehen. Die

Messung

der

Blitzstoimpulse

ohne

Oszillationen

und

berschwingungen kann heute mit zufriedenstellender Genauigkeit

durchgefhrt werden. Probleme bei der Auswertung entstehen bei

abgeschnittenen Blitzstoimpulsen oder wenn der Blitzstoimpuls

kleine berschwingungen oder Oszillationen aufweist.

Noch

schwieriger wird die Auswertung, wenn es sich um einen nicht

standardisierten Blitzstoimpuls handelt. Die Ursache fr die

Probleme beim Auswerten ist darin begrndet, da fr

Blitzstoimpulse mit berlagerten Schwingungen oder Oszillationen

keine eindeutigen Meverfahren in den Standards definiert sind. Im

Fall von nicht standardisierten Blitzstoimpulsen gibt es gar keine

Lsungsanstze in den aktuellen Standards.

Probleme vorgeschlagen worden. Die meisten Lsungen basieren auf

den derzeitigen Definitionen in IEC 60060-1. Sie bercksichtigen

aber dabei nicht die Mglichkeiten der modernen Metechnik und die

Einfhrung neuer Isoliermedien, wie zum Beispiel SF6. Auerdem

werden die Probleme bei der Bestimmung der Parameter von

standardisierten und nicht standardisierten Blitzstoimpulsen bisher

separat behandelt.

Um einen optimierten Lsungsansatz fr die Bestimmung der

Parameter

zu

finden,

der

auf

den

physikalischen

Durchschlagsmechanismen beruht und der fr beide Impulsformen

Gltigkeit hat, wurden theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchen

bei der KEMA und anderen Instituten durchgefhrt. Dabei wurden

die Einfle unterschiedlicher Isoliermedien bercksichtigt. Die

Ergebnisse der Untersuchen haben gezeigt, da ein vllig neuer

Lsungsansatz und eine neue Berechnungsmethode, die eine k-Faktor

Funktion benutzt, bentigt wird. Mit dieser Berechnungsmethode ist

es mglich, hhere Genauigkeiten bei der Auswertung von

Blitzstospannungsprfungen zu erzielen. Gleichzeitig kann diese

Methode sowohl fr standardisierte als auch fr nicht standardisierte

Blitzstoimpulse angewendet werden.

Schlgwrter

Blitzstospannung, Auswertung, standardisierter und nicht

standardardisierter Blitzstoimpuls, k-Faktor Funktion, NennstehBlitzstospannungsprfung, IEC 60060-1

ix

Contents

Contents

1

Introduction _______________________________________________________________________ 1

2.1 Introduction ______________________________________________________________________ 3

2.2 Lightning ________________________________________________________________________ 3

2.3 Lightning impulse tests _____________________________________________________________ 4

2.4 Implementation of the standards _____________________________________________________ 12

2.5 International work ________________________________________________________________ 18

2.6 Current evaluation methods _________________________________________________________ 20

3.1 Introduction _____________________________________________________________________ 25

3.2 Insulation systems ________________________________________________________________ 25

3.3 Breakdown processes in materials ____________________________________________________ 27

3.4 Influence of lightning impulse voltage to the breakdown __________________________________ 34

Breakdown statistics and statistical techniques ______________________________________________ 39

4.1 Introduction _____________________________________________________________________ 43

4.2 Goals and expectations of investigations _______________________________________________ 45

4.3 Insulating systems to investigate _____________________________________________________ 46

4.4 Tests to perform on insulating materials _______________________________________________ 46

4.5 Translation of results to insulating systems _____________________________________________ 47

4.6 Questions/hypothesis ______________________________________________________________ 48

5.1 Introduction _____________________________________________________________________ 49

5.2 Generating circuit, combined generating circuit versus modified conventional circuit ____________ 49

5.3 Test set-up and test method used for the tests at KEMA ___________________________________ 53

5.4 Test set-up used of the tests at TU Graz _______________________________________________ 78

6.1 Introduction _____________________________________________________________________ 81

6.2 Test to be performed ______________________________________________________________ 81

6.3 Comparison measurements in air _____________________________________________________ 84

6.4 Investigations performed in oil at KEMA ______________________________________________ 89

Measurements performed in SF6 at NGC ___________________________________________________ 92

6.6 Measurements performed in PE at the Schering Institute __________________________________ 96

6.7 Measurements performed in air at LCOE ______________________________________________ 99

6.8 Measurements in oil-paper at TU Graz _______________________________________________ 102

6.9 Analysis of results, general discussion________________________________________________ 103

6.10

K factor hypothesis and linearity statement; influence of oscillation frequency and amplitude __ 104

7.1 Introduction ____________________________________________________________________ 113

7.2 Proposal for evaluation method _____________________________________________________ 113

7.3 Proposal for algorithms ___________________________________________________________ 119

7.4 Simulation with wave shapes that occur in testing _______________________________________ 119

7.5 Check of the proposal with the average k-factor function _________________________________ 121

7.6 K-factor in hardware versus k-factor in software ________________________________________ 125

7.7 Final proposal and discussion ______________________________________________________ 126

7.8 Open questions and experiments needed ______________________________________________ 127

xi

Contents

xii

Symbols

A

B

B

C

Ce

d

E

f

F

Fa

F(x)

H

k

K

k1

k2

Kt

L

O1

p

P

P

P(U)

R

R(t)

sr

ssa

ssg

td

tp

T

T

Tc

T1

T2

T30%

T90%

U

Um

Umc

Up

Urmc

Us

Ur

Ut

Semi-range value

Pressure [mbar]

Confidence limit [%]

Capacitance

Capacitance to earth

Overshoot duration

Electric field strength [V/m]

Frequency [Hz]

Force [N]

Assigned scale factor [1]

Distribution Function

Humidity [g/m3]

Factor by which the amplitude of the applied impulse should be

attenuated

Coverage factor

Air density correction factor

Humidity correction factor

Atmospheric correction factor

Inductance [H]

Virtual origin of a standard lightning impulse voltage

Pressure [bar or Pa]

Power [W]

Probability

Distribution function

Resistance [Ohm]

Residual Curve

Experimental standard deviation

Standard deviation of systematic contributions that have a

rectangular distribution

Standard deviation of systematic contributions that have Gaussian

distribution

Time delay between the origin of the impulse and the origin of the

superimposed oscillations [s]

Time to peak [s]

Temperature [C]

Students t factor

Time to chopping [s]

Front time of a lightning impulse voltage [s]

Time to half value of a lightning impulse voltage [s]

Time at which the lightning impulse is 30% of it peak value

Time at which the lightning impulse is 90% of it peak value

Overall uncertainty

Measured curve [V]

Mean curve [V]

Peak value of a lightning impulse voltage [V]

Reference mean curve [V]

Systematic contributions to the overall uncertainty

Random contributions to the overall uncertainty

Value of the test voltage [V]

xiii

U10

U20

U50

U50(peak)

U50(RMC)

dU/dt

W

Z

(x;,2)

(x;,2)

20% disruptive voltage [V]

50% disruptive discharge voltage. This is the prospective voltage

value which has a 50% probability of producing a disruptive

discharge on the test object [V]

50% disruptive voltage, taken from the peak voltage of the total

curve

50% disruptive voltage, taken from the peak voltage of the mean or

base curve

Impulse Steepness at each point

Kinetic Energy

Complex Impedance [Ohm]

Overshoot amplitude

Wave integral above a reference voltage

Density function

Distribution function

BL

Chopped lightning impulse voltage

CIGRE

Disruptive discharge

Flashover

IEC

Impulse

MLM

Non-standard lightning impulse

voltage

OPV

PE

PSM

Puncture

RMC

SD

SE

Sparkover

Standard lightning impulse voltage

Surge

TDG

VPV

XLPE

xiv

Base Line

a lightning impulse voltage during which a disruptive discharge

causes a rapid collapse of the voltage, which then falls to zero or

nearly zero, with or without oscillations

International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems

phenoma associated with the failure of insulation under electrical

stress, in which the discharge completely bridges the insulation

under test, reducing the voltage between the electrodes practically

to zero. It applies to electrical breakdowns in solid, liquid and

gaseous dielectrics and combinations of these.

a disruptive discharge over the surface of a dielectric in a gaseous

or liquid

International Electrotechnical Commission

intentionally applied aperiodic transient voltage or current which

usually rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls more slowly to

zero.

Multiple Level Method

lightning impulses with large overshoots or oscillations

overshoot peak value [V]

Polyethylene

Progressive Stress Method

Disruptive discharge in a solid medium

reference mean curve

Standard Deviation

Single Exponential of Tail

disruptive discharge in a gaseous or a liquid medium

the lightning impulse voltage as defined in IEC 60060-1

transient occurring in electrical equipment or networks in service

Test Data Generator

virtual peak value

Cross-linked polyethylene

Introduction

1 Introduction

Lightning strokes have caused a considerable number of failures of

high voltage equipment installed in medium and high voltage

networks. In order to prevent these failures much research has been

performed and several measures have been taken. One of these

measures is to test high voltage equipment with lightning impulse

voltages to verify the withstand capability.

Lightning impulse voltages represent surges i.e. transients occurring

naturally in high voltage systems under operation. A full lightning

impulse voltage (without oscillations or overshoot) is, currently in

IEC-60060-1 [1], defined by its peak value Up, its virtual origin O1,

and its time parameters, the front time T1 and the time to half value

T2. Tests with lightning impulse voltages are made using a standard

lightning impulse having a front time of 1,2 s and a time to halfvalue of 50 s, described as a 1,2/50 s lightning impulse voltage.

voltages, oscillations and/or overshoot may occur at the front or near

the peak of a lightning impulse voltage. It is being assumed that these

oscillations and/or overshoot can be of significance and right now a

maximum amplitude of 5% of the peak value is allowed [2].

The measurement of the applied voltages and the evaluation of the

parameters characterising these lightning impulse voltages have to be

performed accurate and uniform all over the world, since high-voltage

equipment require large capital assets and they are exported all over

the world. That is why a lot of effort is put into generating the

lightning impulse voltages as good as possible and into calibration

and maintenance of measuring systems used.

In the past the measurements of lightning impulse voltages were

performed with the aid of analogue oscilloscopes and the evaluation

of lightning impulse voltages was performed manually. The

achievable accuracy was influenced by the thickness of the trace of

the oscilloscope and the accuracy of the test engineer [3].

Nowadays the measurement of lightning impulse voltages is mostly

performed with digital oscilloscopes.

The evaluation of the

parameters is mostly done using computer programs.

The

measurement of lightning impulse voltages without oscillations or

overshoot can nowadays be performed with sufficient accuracy.

However, problems arise with chopped lightning impulse voltages, in

case the lightning impulse voltage has some small overshoot or

oscillation [4]. Even bigger problems arise when the lightning

impulse voltage is a non-standard lightning impulse voltage. The

cause for these measurement problems is that, when small oscillations

and/or overshoot occur, the rules for the evaluation of the parameters

(as described in the present standard) are ambiguous. In case of nonstandard lightning impulses no evaluation rules are given in the

present standard.

Several solutions for the problems with the evaluation have been

proposed. (see paragraph 2.6). Most of the solutions given up to now,

which are based on the present definition in IEC 60060-1, do not

taken into account the possibilities of modern (measuring) equipment

1

Introduction

and do not consider the introduction of new insulating materials as for

instance SF6. Besides this, the problems with the evaluation of

parameters of standard and non-standard lightning impulse voltages

are dealt with separately.

The most ideal solution for the evaluation problems will be a solution,

which is applicable to both standard and non-standard lightning

impulse voltages, which uses the possibilities of modern processing

techniques and which is founded on the breakdown behaviour of

insulating materials.

To find this most ideal solution or a solution based on the breakdown

behaviour of insulating materials or systems, theoretical and

experimental investigations were necessary.

Therefore this research was started. The main topics of the PhD

study of which the results are presented in this thesis are:

1. study of basic literature;

study towards tests with lightning impulses

study and evaluation of already existing evaluation methods

2. theoretical investigation towards the breakdown behaviour of

insulating materials and systems

3. experimental investigation towards the breakdown behaviour of

different insulating materials for different lightning impulse wave

shapes

4. proposal for a new evaluation method

Ad 1:

Besides a summary of the information found in the basic literature

also international developments will be explained. Because some of

the newest information is not available yet in official publications,

results will be presented of activities within CIGRE WG33.03 and

TC12/WG 33.03

Ad 2:

Besides the literature investigation performed at KEMA, also the

results are presented of a literature investigation performed in the

framework of the European project on Lightning Impulses.

Ad 3:

The experimental investigations on different materials were

performed at different locations and within different projects:

XLPE, SF6, air and oil were investigated.

configurations representative for transformer windings with

paper-oil insulation were studied.

Lightning Impulses

2 Lightning impulses

2.1

Introduction

In this chapter it is described why and how lightning impulse test are

performed. Attention is paid to the evaluation of parameters

characterising lightning impulse voltage, to the problems that arise

during evaluation and to the current state of the art to solve these

problems.

2.2

Lightning

It has always been the case that people are at the same time astonished

and afraid for lightning and thunder [5]. About 200 years ago (in

1754) it has been proved that lightning that occur during

thunderstorms is an electrical discharge. At this moment still not all

the aspects of thunderstorms are revealed although it is known that

they are caused by the complicated process of air flows. 60%-70% of

the lightning discharges occurs between or in clouds of different

charge. These cloud-cloud discharges can be dangerous to airplanes.

The most dangerous discharges for human beings and equipment are

the discharges between clouds and earth and earth and clouds (also

called lightning strokes) [6]. In Figure 1 a thundercloud is shown in

the stage before lightning occurs. In 90-95% of the cases, especially

in the Netherlands, the cloud is negatively charged at the bottom.

A lightning stroke is an impulse current. The voltage value and the

voltage shape of the stroke are determined by the impedance the

current meets on its way to ground and are therefore situation

dependant. Important factors of lightning strokes are the maximum

current value, the charge, the energy contents and the current

steepness (some typical values for the Netherlands are given in

Table 1) [6].

Table 1 Typical stroke parameters in the Netherlands

Parameter

Normal

High

Extreme

100

200

400

Charge in C

100

300

1000

Energy in MJ/Ohm

10

100

50

200

300

2

Figure 1 An example of a thundercloud

(rain is not necessarily present)

The number of lightning strokes, the number of damage cases and the

losses due to lightning strokes vary from country to country. In the

Netherlands thunderstorms occur on 107 days per year and on average

about 2 to 3 lightning strokes occur per km2 per year.

Some extreme cases of damage can be mentioned, for instance strokes

that occurred at 13 July 1997 in New York caused a damage of

1 billion US Dollar and it was the reason that 10 million people didnt

have electricity for 20 hours.

Detailed information about the process of lightning, atmospheric

overvoltages and the influence to power grids is given in [5].

Lighting Impulses

2.3

2.3.1

Background of lightning impulse tests

the first transformer was patented. The invention of this transformer

opened the door to efficient and effective power systems working at

high voltages [2]. After 1895, when it was used in combination with

power prime movers, the use of electricity became more widespread.

Within a few years the practical use of electricity increased and after

the First World War the demand for electricity rose spectacularly [7].

The development of the equipment needed for the transportation of

electricity was rapid up to UHV (Ultra High Voltage) levels (132 kV

in the 1920s, 400 kV in the 1950s, 1100 kV in the 1970s).

Unfortunately, the equipment at these higher voltages was introduced

before the principles were fully understood. The first equipment

installed at 132 kV was prone to fail due to lightning strokes. As

mentioned in the previous paragraph, lightning strokes can cause

black outs and considerable damage. The studies towards the

lightning stroke failures in the 1920s led to a better understanding of

transient voltage distributions within the windings of transformers and

to the introduction of lightning impulse tests [2].

2.3.2

Applicable standards

equipment to transients over a wide frequency range. Lightning

impulse voltages represent transients occurring naturally in high

voltage systems under operation.

To make sure that lightning impulse tests on high voltage equipment

are made in the most correct way and as uniform as possible, experts

have written several standards dealing with the details on lightning

impulse tests.

At least the following four general standards are applicable:

IEC 60060-1, High-voltage test techniques, part 1: General

definitions and test requirements, from 1989

IEC 60060-2, High-voltage test techniques, part 2: Measuring

Systems, from 1994

IEC 61083-1, Digital recorders for measurements in high-voltage

impulse tests, part 1: requirements for digital recorders, from 1991

IEC 61083-2, Digital recorders for measurement in high voltage

impulse tests, part 2: evaluation used for the determination of the

parameters of impulse waveforms, from 1996

IEC 60790, Oscilloscopes and peak voltmeters

In the next paragraphs the relevant parts of the standards applicable to

tests with lightning impulses will be explained in detail. A thorough

understanding of these subjects is necessary for understanding the

remainder of this thesis.

Lightning Impulses

2.3.3

voltages, a number of lightning impulse voltages of certain amplitudes

and shape are applied. A lightning impulse voltage is, currently in

IEC 60060-1 [1], defined by its peak value and its time parameters.

Figure 2 shows the standardised lightning impulse voltage with the

peak value Up (U=1.0), the virtual origin O1, the front time T1 and the

time to half value T2.

Figure 2 Standard lightning impulse

voltage

essentially of a number of capacitors that are charged in parallel from

a direct voltage source and discharged in series into a circuit that

includes the test object.

Most lightning impulse tests are made using a standard lightning

impulse, having a front time of 1,2 s and a time to half-value of

50 s, described as a 1,2/50 s lightning impulse voltage or a standard

lightning impulse, that may be chopped to simulate the effect of a

protective gap flashover.

When test are done with lightning impulse voltages, transient

recordings of the applied voltage are taken and in case of testing

transformers also transient recordings of the current at the neutral end

of the winding under test are taken. In general, the object passes the

test if there is no evidence of complete or incipient failure from

audible indications or changes in the voltage or current records [2].

Of course, when applying standard lightning impulse voltages, some

tolerances on the parameters are allowed. If not otherwise specified

by the relevant Technical Committee, the following differences are

accepted between specified values for the standard lightning impulse

and those actually recorded:

Peak value

3%

Front time

30%

Time to half-value 20%

Lighting Impulses

2.3.4

Tests procedures

tests. In IEC 60060-1, four tests procedures (A, B, C and D) are

described for withstand voltage tests. The recommended test

procedure depends on the nature of the test-object.

Procedure A

Three impulses of the specified shape and polarity at the rated

withstand voltage level are applied to the test object. The

requirements of the tests are satisfied if no indication of failure is

obtained, using methods of detection specified by the relevant

Technical Committee (This procedure is only recommended for tests

on degradable or non-self-restoring insulation.).

Procedure B

Fifteen impulses of the specified shape and polarity at the withstand

voltage level are applied to the test object. The requirements of the

tests are satisfied if not more than two disruptive discharges occur in

the self-restoring part of the insulation and no indication of failure in

the non-self-restoring insulation is obtained by the detection methods

specified by the relevant Technical Committee.

Procedure C

Three impulses of the specified shape and polarity at the withstand

voltage level are applied to the test object. If no disruptive discharge

occurs the tests object has passed the test. If more than one disruptive

discharge occurs the tests object has failed to pass the test. If one

disruptive discharge occurs in the self-restoring part of the insulation,

then nine additional impulses are applied and if no disruptive

discharge occurs the tests object has passed the test. If any detection

of failure in a non-self-restoring part of the insulation is observed

with the detection methods specified by the relevant Technical

Committee during any part of the test, the test object has failed to pass

the test.

Procedure D

U10 U 50 (1 1,3z )

Equation I Relation between U10 and U50

voltage, U10, may be evaluated by using statistical tests procedures

described in appendix A of IEC 60060-1. These test methods permit

either direct evaluation of U10 and U50 or indirect evaluation of U10. In

the latter case U10 is derived from the U50 value using the relationship

given in Equation I. The relevant Technical Committee shall specify

the value to be assumed for the conventional deviation z of the

disruptive discharge voltage. For dry tests on air insulation, without

any other insulation involved, the per-unit value z = 0,03 can be used.

The test object has passed the test if U10 is not less than the specified

impulse withstand voltage.

Lightning Impulses

The following test methods can be used to evaluate U50:

the multiple-level method with n 4 voltage levels and m 10

impulses per level

the up-and-down method with m = 1 impulse per group and n 20

useful applications

To evaluate U10, the up-and-down method, with m = 7 impulses per

group and at least eight useful groups can be used.

In all cases the voltage interval U between levels should be

approximately 1,5 to 3% of the estimated value of U50.

2.3.5

done with an Approved Measuring System. A Measuring System is a

complete set of devices suitable for performing high-voltage or

impulse-current measurements. An approved Measuring System is a

Measuring System that is shown to comply with one or more sets of

requirements set out in IEC 60060-2 by an initial Performance Test

and Acceptance Test, successive Performance Tests and Checks and

inclusion of these results in a Record of Performance.

General requirements

The general requirements for an Approved Measuring System are

given on the next page, more detailed requirements and the methods

for Performance Checks and Tests can be found in IEC 60060-2:

to measure the peak value of full impulses with an overall

uncertainty within 3%

to measure the peak value of chopped impulses with on overall

uncertainty which is depending on the time to chopping as follows:

for front chopped impulses (0,5 s Tc 2 s) within 5%

for tail-chopped impulses (Tc 2s) within 3%

to measure the time parameters which define the waveform with an

overall uncertainty within 10%

to measure oscillations which may be superimposed on an impulse

to ensure that they do not exceed the permitted levels given in

IEC 60060-1

the scale factor shall remain constant over long periods. More

specific, the scale factor of the converting device and the

transmission system shall not vary by more than 1% for the ranges

of the ambient temperature and clearances given in the Record of

Performance

the measuring instruments shall for oscilloscopes and peak

voltmeters comply with IEC 60790 and for digital recorders with

IEC 61083-1.

Evidence that the Measuring System meets the requirements is given

in its Record of Performance.

Lighting Impulses

A Measuring System for the measurement of lightning impulse

voltages comprises the following components:

lightning

impulse

according

to

IEC 60060-1

device to the test object and the connections to earth

transmission system connecting the output terminals of the device

to the indicating or recording instrument with its attenuating,

terminating and adapting impedances or networks

indicating or recording instrument together with any connections

to the power supply

software or the procedure for the evaluation of the parameters

In high-voltage laboratories world-wide different indicating or

recording instruments for the measurement of lightning impulse

voltage are being used, distinction can be made between the following

three types of instruments

peak voltmeters

analogue oscilloscopes

digital oscilloscopes or digital recorders

The evaluation of the parameters is done either manually or

automatic, depending on the type of indicating or recording

instrument and the availability of software. How the evaluation of the

three parameters (Up, T1, T2) is done precisely is explained in the next

paragraph.

impulse voltages

When the applied lightning impulse voltage has been measured, the

parameters characterising this lightning impulse voltage have to be

evaluated according to the evaluation guidelines given in

IEC 60060-1 [1]. The evaluation of parameters is different for full

standard lightning impulse voltage, for lightning impulse voltages

chopped on the tail or on the front for non-standard lightning impulse

voltages. In the next three paragraphs the definitions in IEC 60060-1

will be explained in detail.

impulse voltages

For full standard lightning impulse voltages the following parameters

have to be evaluated:

value of the test voltage, Ut (in some cases Ut is equal to Up, in

other cases not, see the explanation below)

front time, T1

time to half value, T2

Figure 4 Evaluation rules for lightning

impulses with overshoot or oscillation

voltage is its peak value, see Figure 3 or Figure 2.

Lightning Impulses

With some test circuits, oscillations or overshoot may occur at the

peak of the impulse, see Figure 4 a) to d). If the frequency of such

oscillations is not less than 0,5 MHz or the duration of overshoot not

more than 1 s, a mean curve should be drawn as in Figure 4 a) and

b). For the purpose of measurement, the maximum amplitude of this

mean curve is chosen as the peak value defining the value of the test

voltage.

Overshoot or oscillations in the neighbourhood of the peak, measured

by a system according to IEC Publication 60060-2, are tolerated

provided their single peak amplitude is not larger than 5% of the peak

value.

impulse chopped on the front

Front Time T1

The front time T1 of a lighting impulse is a virtual parameter defined

as 1,67 times the interval T between the instants when the impulse is

30% and 90% of the peak value Up, (points A and B, Figure 3).

Time to half-value T2

The time to half-value T2 of a lighting impulse is a virtual parameter

defined as the time interval between the virtual origin O1 and the

instant when the voltage has decreased to half the peak value.

impulse chopped on the tail

impulse voltages

For chopped lightning impulse voltages the following parameters

have to be evaluated:

value of the test voltage Ut

front time T1

time to chopping Tc

The value of the test voltage and the front time have to be determined

using the definitions given in the previous paragraph.

Time to chopping

The time to chopping Tc is a virtual parameter defined as the time

interval between the virtual origin O1 and the instant of chopping.

The instant of chopping is that at which the rapid collapse of voltage

which characterises the chopping first occurs.

The instant of chopping is different if the impulse is chopped in the

front or in the tail, see Figure 6 and Figure 5.

lightning impulse voltages

For other impulse shapes then the ones explained in the previous two

paragraphs (see for example Figure 7 e)-g)) the relevant Technical

Committee shall define the value of the test voltage taking into

account the type of the test and test object.

Figure 7 Examples of

lighting impulse voltages

non-standard

Lighting Impulses

2.3.7

evaluated automatically with the aid of software, this software has to

be validated according to IEC 61083-2. In IEC 61083-2 the test

procedures to be applied to assess the accuracy of software used to

process and read the records of impulses and calibration signals are

specified. More specific, it:

defines the terms specifically related to digital processing

establishes the tests which are necessary to show that the software

is compatible with the requirements of IEC 61083-1 and

IEC 60060-1

specifies limits on estimated values of parameters of the reference

waveforms

gives the requirements for the record of performance

The compatibility with the standard can be demonstrated with

software validation. The software is validated using the TDG (test

data generator). The TDG is a computer program that generates

reference waveforms with specified parameters.

Software may be validated for the evaluation of one or more sets of

impulse parameters (e.g. T1, Up). Any parameter for which the

software is validated shall be evaluated for all reference waveforms in

each selected waveform group. The values of the parameters

determined by the software under test are compared with the limits

given in IEC 81083-2, table 2. The software under test passes the test

for each set, if all values of that parameter set are within the specified

limits. For a full lightning impulse a deviation of around 1% is

allowed.

In the Record of Performance information about the software should

be given as well as the list of groups of impulses for which the tests

were performed and the list of parameters for which the software was

tested and passed.

2.3.8

Measurement uncertainty

voltage using approved Measuring Systems, have to be performed

within the uncertainty limits mentioned in IEC 60060-1 (3% or 5%

for the peak value and 10% for the time parameters).

In this paragraph it is explained how the measurement uncertainty of a

measurement made with a Measuring System should be calculated.

An example of a measurement with its

uncertainty is:

1080 kV 20 kV

Estimated confidence level not less

than 95%

10

2.3.8.1 General

Uncertainty is a statement of [9]:

the limits (U) of the range of values within which the true value

of a measurement is expected to lie in relation to the recorded

result and

the probability of the true value lying within these limits; this

probability is expressed as the confidence level (B)

Lightning Impulses

In most measurement, the overall measurement uncertainty will result

from a combination of several contributions that are classified into

two categories according to the method used to evaluate their

numerical values [8]:

systematic contributions

random contributions

The overall uncertainty is calculated from these contributions.

As a high-voltage laboratory, one has to comply with several

standards dealing with measurement uncertainty. These standards are:

IEC 60060-2 annex H [9]

STL-guide [10]

EAL-2

These standards are in general identical, however they differ on a few

points, mainly the calculation of the random contributions. At KEMA

High-Voltage laboratory the measurement uncertainty is calculated

with the method described in IEC 60060-2, since this is the most

precise. Therefore only this standard is explained here.

In this standard the two categories of contributions to the uncertainty

are also:

systematic contributions to the overall uncertainty, Us

random contributions to the overall uncertainty, Ur

The systematic and random contributions to the uncertainty are

calculated separately. The overall uncertainty is calculated from

these two contributions by the formula given in Equation IV.

U U s2 U r2

Equation IV Calculation of the overall

uncertainty out of the two contributions,

when Us and Ur are calculated at the same

confidence level

s sa

a

3

rectangular distribution

2

ss s sa2 ssg

systematic contribution

According to IEC 60060-2 annex H, systematic contributions are

those that are not evaluated statistically but are estimated by other

means. Two examples are the uncertainty of a calibration and the

resolution of an instrument.

2

2

U s k ss k ssa

ssg

rectangular (ssa); these systematic contributions have a rectangular

distribution, that is, any measured value between the estimated

limits (a, were a is the semi-range value) is assumed to be equally

probable.

Gaussian (ssg); it is assumed that these systematic contributions

have a Gaussian distribution

The standard deviation for all systematic contributions (s s) is

calculated from these two systematic contributions according to

Equation V.

uncertainty

by Equation III. In which k is the coverage factor. The coverage

factor k is 2 for a confidence level B of 95%.

deviation, where:

n is the number of measurements

xi are the measured values for i = 1 to n

xm is the mean of the measured values

sr

1 n

( xi xm ) 2

n 1 i 1

11

Lighting Impulses

Ur

t sr

n

Random contributions are those that are derived statistically from a

repetitive measurement and, being random, will usually be found by

measurement to tend a Gaussian distribution. Each random

contribution is characterised by the experimental standard deviation

(sr) of the sample of measured values, see Equation VI. The

contribution to the uncertainty is then given by Equation VIII. The

students t factor t is 2,26 for 10 measurements.

uncertainty, where:

t the students t factor

Ur

k sr

n2

for n220 with the uncertainty obtained

for n20

U k

U

1

ai2 i

3

ki

t sr

k n

measurements (e.g. n 20) for a measuring system to which no

significant change is made, then the uncertainty in a subsequent single

or repeated measurement (n2) is given in Equation VII.

The overall uncertainty is calculated from the random and systematic

contributions to the uncertainty using Equation IV. A more general

form for the overall uncertainty U is given in Equation IX.

This implies that the overall measurement for one measurement can

be calculated with Equation X.

calculation of the overall uncertainty

2.4

2.4.1

U k

U

1

ai2 i

3

ki

t sr

one measurement

Generation of lightning impulse voltages

generally done with a lightning impulse generator, also known as a

Marx generator. The principle of such a generator is parallel charging

and series discharging of its capacitors, see Figure 8. The peak value,

the front time and the time to half value of the generated lightning

impulse voltages are a function of the impedance of the load (object

under test), the inductance of the whole test circuit and the resistances

and capacitances of the generator [2].

For some arrangements, e.g. large generators, high inductive load or

low resistance of the test circuit, oscillations or/and overshoot occur

at the front or near the peak of an lightning impulse voltage. An

example of such a case is given in Figure 10. It is being assumed that

these oscillations and/or overshoot can be of significance and a

maximum amplitude of 5% of the peak value is allowed. Therefore

effort is put into generating lightning impulse voltages without

overshoot and/or oscillations [11].

For some test arrangements the oscillations and/or overshoot can be

reduced by adapting the test circuit. When adapting the test circuit, a

compromise have to be made between the amplitude of the

oscillations and/or overshoot and the permissible front time (tolerance

30%) and time to half value (tolerance 20%). For some test

arrangements a standard lightning impulse can not be generated [2].

generator

12

Lightning Impulses

2.4.2

lightning impulse voltages is performed using analogue oscilloscopes.

The evaluation of lightning impulse voltages was performed manually

using pencil and ruler. The achievable accuracy was influenced by

the thickness of the trace of the oscilloscope and the accuracy of the

test engineer and is limited [3], see also Figure 9. Since the

evaluation had to be performed manually, also the number of

parameters that can be evaluated is limited. The parameters described

in IEC 60060-1, are the most practical ones for manual evaluation.

According to IEC60060-1, the definitions of the parameter apply

either to impulses without oscillations or overshoot or to the mean

curve drawn trough the oscillations and overshoot. Because of the

natural filtering of the measurement system, only oscillation

and/overshoot of higher amplitude and low frequency could be seen.

Besides this, the thickness of the oscilloscope trace in conjunction

with the thickness of the line drawn as the mean curve makes it

almost impossible to discriminate between different possible mean

curves [12] in case of oscillations or overshoot within the tolerance

limits. In case of large oscillations or overshoot or non-standard wave

shapes (e.g. transformer tests) discussing took place between the test

engineers to draw the best mean curve. Over a period of sixty years

this manual procedure was the best way to evaluate the parameters of

impulses measured with an analogue oscilloscope.

2.4.3

transformer testing

performed using digital oscilloscopes and measuring systems with a

higher bandwidth. Disadvantage of this is that small overshoot and

oscillations can easily be made visible. Advantage of this is that the

evaluation of the parameters can be done using computer programs.

The advantage of using computer programs for the evaluation of

parameters is that the evaluation is performed more uniformly and

faster. However, software packages have difficulties with the

implementation of evaluation rules made for manual evaluation, since

they need more precise instructions. Because of that in some cases,

for instance non-standard lightning impulse voltage, still a manual

evaluation is used.

2.4.4

intercomparisons are organised.

A recent international

intercomparison (1995-1996) [4] showed that the requirements of IEC

60060-2 can be met for smooth standard lightning impulse voltages.

The values of all participating laboratories but one agreed to each

other within 1% for the peak value and within 5% for the time

parameters.

Slightly higher deviations of comparison results,

especially for T1 were obtained when short front (0,84 0,95 s)

impulses were compared. Although an attempt was made to define

the chopped impulses clearly, these comparison results were heavily

influenced by different impulse shapes used in different laboratories.

oscillogram and manual evaluation

13

Lighting Impulses

For front chopped impulses, measurement uncertainties in the peak

value and the time to chopping of larger than 6% were seen.

A comparison of software showed that, by using different methods a

large spread of some parameters determined from different mean

curves has been obtained [13]. In paper [17] different methods, all

acceptable to the standard, have been compared and differences from

each other up to 1,7% for the peak value, 18% for the front time and

3% for the time to half value have been obtained when case no 11 of

the TDG of IEC 61083-2 (see Figure 11) was analysed.

Figure 11 Case no. 11 of the TDG of

IEC 61083-2

Both comparisons showed that there are problems with the evaluation

methods given in IEC 60060-1. It seems right now that the hardware

is good enough for the accuracy required nowadays, but that the

software or evaluation methods are the major contribution to the

measurement uncertainty due to the ambiguous definitions

2.4.5

60060-1 is given in Figure 12. As can been seen from Figure 12 it is a

very complex and incomplete procedure. The evaluation guidelines,

are ambiguous for standard lightning impulse voltage or not given at

all for non-standard lightning impulse voltages, for both manual and

automatic evaluation.

procedure

Full Lightning

Impulse

Determination

of Mean Curve

No

Determine

Oscillations or

Overshoot ?

Non Standard

Lightning

Impulse

Yes

Special Case

T 1 and T 2

T 1 =1,2 s 30%

T 2 =50 s 20%?

No

Yes

Yes

Standard Lightning

Impulse

No

TC determines

Amplitude

> 5%?

Test voltage

Yes

Determine

T 1 and T 2

No

Dur. 1 s?

Yes

of mean curve

No

Test voltage = Peak voltage

14

Evaluate

T 1 and T 2

Lightning Impulses

One of the main problems with the evaluation of parameters

nowadays is the determination of the mean curve. The standard

allows different mean curves, resulting in different values for the

parameters characterising the same lightning impulse voltage [12].

The reason for the ambiguousness in the standard is that the

evaluation guidelines given in IEC 60060-1 were introduced in the

time there were mainly analogue oscilloscopes were available and the

evaluation of the parameters had to be done manually using pencil,

ruler and engineering judgement.

By eye it was decided if overshoot or oscillation appeared and in case

of overshoot and oscillation appeared outside the allowed limits, a

mean curve was drawn. The thickness of the oscilloscope trace in

conjunction with the thickness of the line drawn as the mean curve

made it impossible to discriminate between different mean curves

and therefore the problems with the evaluation guidelines did not

arise. Since then a lot has changed.

in 1994 a new standard, IEC 60060-2 ed. 1994, was introduced in

which the requirements towards measurement uncertainty for the

measurement of lightning impulse voltages are more strict than

they were before. The cause for this is that the interest of

manufacturers and purchasers of high voltage equipment are

higher and because the measuring technique has been improved,

the need for the reproducibility and traceability of the test results

has increased, because of the interest of manufacturers and

purchasers of high voltage equipment and because of the

introduction of EN 45001. The results of the evaluation of the

parameters should be person independent, it should not be possible

that the results are influenced by clients and one should be able to

calibrate the evaluation methods used,

digital recording instruments (digitizers and digital oscilloscopes)

have been introduced and nowadays the evaluation of the

parameters is mainly done by software. The software that

evaluates the parameters is used to save on the one hand time and

on the other hand to be sure that the evaluation of the parameters is

reproducible and traceable. A negative, but also positive side of

using software is that this software needs clear algorithms for the

evaluation of parameters. An advantage of using software for the

evaluation of parameters is that the engineering judgement and the

experience of engineers can be put into the computer (expert

systems) and that it permits a wider range of parameters than was

previously practical.

The three changes mentioned above, are the reason that the

requirements to the evaluation guidelines for standard lightning

impulse voltages have increased and that the need for evaluation

guidelines for non-standard lightning impulse voltages arose. They

are the reason that the problems with the interpretation of IEC 600601 have increased.

15

Lighting Impulses

2.4.6

there are some problems with the interpretation of IEC 60060-1. The

following list presents some of the problems associated with the

definitions and interpretation of the standard. This list certainly not

comprises all of the questions to be resolved, but most of them are

probably included [14].

What is the definition of the mean curve, especially for impulses

with both overshoot and oscillations?

How to determine the T30% and T90% when there are oscillations

close to these times (see case no. 11 in IEC 61083-2)?

For the calculation of the front time, T1, the peak value should be

used as reference for the 100% value of the impulse. When you

have overshoots or oscillations, which peak value shall be used,

the peak value of the original impulse or the peak value of the

mean curve?

How should the amplitude and duration or frequency of

overshoots and oscillations be calculated?

How should a non-standard wave shape, for instance those that

occur during real testing, Figure 7 or Figure 10, be evaluated?

How to know if they are inside the tolerances of IEC 60060-1?

What is the physical background that supports the magical

0,5 MHz value for the frequency of oscillations and the 1 s

value for the duration of the overshoot?

Are the parameters described in IEC 60060-1 really the

parameters that characterise the breakdown process? Could other

parameters describe this process better?

Should the same parameters be used for all materials (XLPE, SF6,

oil, vacuum, etc.)?

2.4.7

are facing the evaluation problems and to note which evaluation

methods are used, two different questionnaires (one for manufacturers

and testing laboratories and another one for calibration laboratories)

were prepared in the framework of the European project.

In the questionnaire questions are present about details of the test

circuit that are relevant when oscillations and overshoot are present.

Besides this, questions were asked how these laboratories evaluate

voltage and time parameters in the cases of full and chopped impulses

with oscillations superimposed (f 0,5 MHz) and/or overshoot

(d 1 s).

Only manufacturers and testing laboratories were asked about the

possible influence on the breakdown behaviour of dielectric materials

of these overshoots and/or high frequency oscillations with small

amplitude superimposed to the lighting impulse. In the following

paragraph the results of the questionnaire concerning the evaluation

are presented. In [14] more detailed information can be found.

16

Lightning Impulses

23 manufacturer laboratories, 8 testing laboratories and 12 calibration

laboratories all over the world answered the questionnaires. The main

conclusions are summarised in the next three paragraphs, detailed

information can be found in [15]. In general it can be stated that the

problems experienced in testing laboratories, laboratories of

manufacturers and calibration laboratories are greater than expected.

2.4.7.1.1

Manufacturers laboratories

use the maximum value as the test voltage (not in accordance with

IEC 60060-1), while the majority of manufacturers of other high

voltage equipment considers the peak value of the mean curve

the majority of the laboratories determine T1 from the original

curve, using the peak value of the mean curve as the 100% value

only some manufacturers of transformers determine T 1 from the

original curve, using the peak value of the original curve as the

100% value

For chopped impulses:

for the two methods to determine the test voltage (maximum

value, or the peak value of the mean curve) the majority of

laboratories uses the maximum value

For the questions to the possible influence of oscillations and

overshoot:

about 30% of the manufacturer laboratories supplied information

of the possible influence on the breakdown behaviour of different

dielectric materials, when overshoots and/or high frequency

oscillations are superimposed on the lightning impulse. There was

no agreement between the received answers.

2.4.7.1.2

Testing laboratories

all laboratories consider the peak value of the mean curve as the

test voltage, which is in accordance to the standard IEC 60-1

the majority of the laboratories use a mean curve that removes the

oscillations to determine the time parameters

For chopped impulses:

voltage

the majority of the laboratories consider the time to the point

when the voltage decreases suddenly as the time to chopping

The answers from testing laboratories are in a better agreement than

the ones of manufacturer laboratories, and are also in better

agreement with IEC 60060-1.

17

Lighting Impulses

2.4.7.1.3

Calibration laboratories

half of the laboratories consider the peak value of the mean curve

as the test voltage and the other half considers the maximum

value as the test voltage

the majority of the laboratories use a mean curve that removes

oscillations to determine the time parameters

Calibration laboratories propose also some following alternative

methods for evaluating lightning impulses:

Method 1:

Comparison of the wave shapes of the reference

measuring system and the approved measuring system being

calibrated.

Method 2:

Use of a tolerance band. The tolerance band is

determined taking into account the uncertainty of the reference

measuring system.

For chopped impulses:

2.5

the test voltage

there is no general agreement on how to determine the time to

chopping, although in the majority of the answers the time to

chopping is considered to be the time when the voltage decreases

suddenly

International work

In this paragraph the state of the art will be given of the international

work that is being carried out at this moment on the field of the

evaluation of parameters characterising lightning impulse voltages.

Basically there were two approaches, one approach tried to solve the

problems in the evaluation of the standard lightning impulse voltages

and the other one tried to solve the problems with the evaluation of

the non-standard lightning impulse voltages. The author introduced a

third one.

lightning impulse voltages

The problems with the evaluation of parameters have been recognised

by CIGRE WG 33.03 and within CIGRE WG 33.03 the evaluation

guidelines for parameters characterising standardised lightning

impulse voltages as given in IEC 60060-1 are being discussed for

several years now. Within the CIGRE WG 33.03, even a special task

force has been given the assignment to investigate the evaluation of

parameters.

The main problem is nowadays considered to be the definition of the

mean curve. When using manual evaluation the mean curve is

drawn by hand, when using software for the evaluation the mean

curve is some mathematical function.

One thought that when one was able to find an unambiguous

mathematical function for this mean curve the evaluation problems

of the parameters characterising standardised lightning impulse

18

Lightning Impulses

voltages would be solved. The definition of the mathematical function

of the mean curve is however not so simple and people have

proposed also different solutions (see Chapter 2.6). Besides new

methods for calculating the mean curve also other methods like the

tolerance band have been introduced. The disadvantage of most of

the proposals explained in Chapter 2.6 is that these do not solve the

problem for non-standard lightning impulse voltages.

2.5.2 Current status of evaluation guidelines for nonstandard lightning impulse voltages

In September 1996 CIGRE WG33.03 and IEC SC 12 proposed to

formate a joint task force with SC 12. The objectives of this joint task

force are:

to set the parameters to be measured and the limits of uncertainty

which should be achieved

to develop and evaluate a Test Data Generator, similar to the one

used in IEC 1083-2, but for lightning impulse voltages that

represent those which can occur in transformer tests

preparation of a report from CIGRE 33.03 to IEC TC42, providing

technical basis for a new IEC publication

At the first meeting of the joint task force a start was made to list the

parameters which are considered to be either essential, or useful, to

determine the result of a test with lightning impulse voltages on a

transformer (see Chapter 2.6). The consideration of these parameters

was based on the breakdown processes due to the effect of the applied

lightning impulse voltage. It was taken into account that the use of

digital recorders and the processing facilities now available permits

the measurement of a wider range of parameters than has been

practical before [16].

This proposal has been discussed in the relevant committees and a

Test Data Generator is being made. The join task force has been set

on hold, because it was found best to wait for the results from the

European research project, that is discussed in the next paragraph.

2.5.3

According to the author the two approaches were too much based on

mathematical models and assumptions. When maintaining these two

approaches a solution or two solutions that would be accepted by the

many parties would never be found. To solve the problems with the

evaluation for both standard and non-standard lightning impulse

voltages as discussed in CIGRE WG 33.03 and the joint taskforce

TC12/WG33.03, the relevancy of the parameters had to be proven.

This required research. Therefore the author, as an employee of

KEMA Nederland BV, initiated to propose, together with FFII/LCOE,

the Schering Institute and NGC, to the European community DG XII

in the SMT fourth framework, a research project. The title of this

project is Digital measurement of parameters used for lightning

impulse test for high voltage equipment. The project has started at

January 1 1997 and the author was the project leader and thought

about what to do in the project. The duration of the project was two

and a half years.

19

Lighting Impulses

The aim of this project was to:

define one or more sets of parameters to characterise lightning

impulse voltages

write a report in which the relevancy of the proposed parameters

are explained

establish unambiguous algorithms to calculate these parameters

write a proposal for the relevant parts of IEC 60060-1 and

IEC 61083-2

At KEMA the author was responsible for carrying out the work, she

was the supervisor of the students involved in the project, built the

test set-up together with M. Kvarngren and carried out most of the

investigations and tests herself.

Besides the work performed in the framework of this European

project, more work has been performed. The author made an

additional literature investigation and was responsible for and

evaluated the measurement results of the investigations on paper-oil

samples provided by Siemens made at TU-Graz.

All the work explained before in this paragraph is presented in this

thesis.

2.6

automatic/mathematical evaluation methods.

The current

mathematical evaluation methods and the developments in these can

be divided into two categories:

evaluation methods using IEC 60060-1 parameters and its

definitions

evaluation methods using other parameters and definitions

In [17] an overview is given from the methods available, which will

be summarised here and is supplemented there where necessary. At

the end of this paragraph some conclusions are drawn.

2.6.1

or overshoot and to the mean curve drawn through the oscillations or

overshoot. To decide whether or not the parameters have to be

evaluated from the original curve or the mean curve, a mean curve has

to be drawn and the frequency or the duration of the overshoot have to

be determined. In other words, the frequency or the duration of the

residual curve, R(t), has to be analysed. R(t) is the difference between

the original curve W(t) and the mean curve M(t). Another possibility

is to determine the main frequency directly by means of FFT.

The first step in the analysis is to detect and to remove oscillations,

second step in the evaluation is the detection and removal of the

overshoot. There are different methods available for determining

oscillations and overshoot. They will be explained separately.

20

Lightning Impulses

There are two types of mean curves that can be used for determining

whether or not the parameters shall be calculated from the mean

curve:

Global mean curves

Local mean curves

Regardless of the criterion applied it is necessary to use a numerical

method to calculate the mean curve. Many options have been

developed, the majority on the basis of fitting to mathematical models

and others by means of digital filtering.

2.6.1.1.1

U mc p1 t p2 t p3 t p4

3

Equation XI third degree polynomial

curves and some newly introduced ones are:

straight line

circumference arcs [18]

third degree polynomials, see Equation XI [19], [20], [21]

double exponential functions, see Equation XII [22], [23], [24],

[25]

quadruple exponential functions, [26], [27], [28]

double exponential functions with sin and/or cos terms, see

Equation XIV [29]

tension splines [30]

wavelet packett transform [31]

2.6.1.1.2

U mc A e t e t

Digital filtering

There are two methods of digital filtering which have been applied for

the evaluation of parameters of impulses:

moving window filtering [32], [33]

low pass FIR filtering [34]

2.6.1.1.3

F U m i U c i

i 1

Before analysing the R(t) it is clear that the best reference mean curve

should be chosen, preferably by a mathematical procedure.

the measured impulse Um and the mean

curve Umc

There are several methods for determining the best RMC (reference

mean curve), this is to minimise the:

absolute mean value of the residual curve within a specific time

interval (MP)

root mean square of the residual curve within a specific time

interval (RMSP)

least mean square error between the measured impulse and the

RMC (LMS), see Equation XIII [29]

Also generetic algorithm models have been used to select the

reference mean curve [35].

U mc A e t e t B 1 cost e t C sint e t

with sin and cos terms

21

Lighting Impulses

Before overshoot can be determined, it is useful or even necessary to

remove in advance any oscillation or superimposed noise. An

overshoot can be detected analysing the peak zone of the lightning

impulse voltage. There are two methods for detecting overshoot:

fit the tail with a single exponential function. If the impulse is

above the single exponential function that fits the tail of the wave

there is an overshoot, other wise there is no overshoot

compare the lightning impulse voltage with a specific mean curve.

If the lightning impulse voltage is above the reference mean curve,

there is an overshoot, otherwise there is no overshoot

Both method have some disadvantages, it is said that with the first

method an overshoot can exist below the single exponential function,

with the second method, the result depends on the specific mean

curve used.

The two methods result into three possibilities [36], as shown in

Figure 13. In [17] some alternative methods for determining the

duration of an amplitude of the overshoot are given, using the virtual

determine the overshoot duration

peak value.

2.6.2

Other methods

two different methods have been proposed:

the method using a tolerance band

introducing new parameters

The major problem with the method described in the previous

paragraph is, that in any case a mean curve has to be drawn and that

different mean curves can result in different values for the parameters.

A method that avoids the use of a mean curve is the tolerance band

method. Inside this tolerance band any real standard lightning

impulse voltage should be found. This band of a 1,2/50 impulse must

be obtained from the values for the tolerances given in IEC 60060-1.

In Figure 14 an example is given of a tolerance band for a 1,2/50

lightning impulse voltage. This tolerance band method can easily be

22

Lightning Impulses

Figure 14 Tolerance band for a 1,2/50 lightning impulse voltage (on the left the zoom of the full tolerance band on the right)

calculated with a computer and requires less computing time than the

calculation of reference mean curves.

During lightning impulse tests with transformer non-standard wave

shapes are measured, see Figure 10. For these wave shapes no

evaluation methods are given. Therefore within the joint taskforce

SC12/WG33.03, a possible set of parameters to be measured during

impulse test on transformers were specified and defined. This set of

parameters has to be proven relevant by the transformer industry and

by experimental investigations.

The set of parameters consists of parameters that are needed for tests

with other types of apparatus and parameters that are required for

transformer tests only [37].

parameters needed for tests on other types of apparatus

base level

origin

virtual origin

peak value

time to chopping

average rate of rise (front time)

parameters required for test with transformers

extreme value of a full impulse

extreme value of the undershoot of a chopped impulse

time to extreme value

time interval Tk

wave integral

average rate of voltage collapse during chopping

2.6.3

Conclusions

The present rules indicated in IEC 60060-1 are insufficient and many

different interpretations are possible. In addition, very high accuracy

is required for the present definition and for the set of the limit of the

overshoot or oscillation. Therefore there are two possibilities, either

to give better and more useful definitions of the parameters of interest

or to completely change the approach [17]. In case of the first option

better and clearer requirements should be included in the standard to

determine the parameters of an impulse. But independent of the

method chosen, more extensive discussion and experimental evidence

is needed to establish the requirements for the evaluation of

parameters characterising lightning impulse voltages to be included in

the revision of IEC 60060-1.

23

Lighting Impulses

24

Breakdown

3.1

Introduction

Before the goal of the investigations will be explained and the tests

performed and their results will be described, a theoretical

investigation towards the disruptive discharge behaviour of insulating

systems, or better materials, will be presented.

Disruptive discharges (also called breakdowns) are phenomena

associated with the failure of insulation under electrical stress, in

which the discharge completely bridges the insulation under test,

reducing the voltage between the electrodes practically to zero. It

applies to electrical breakdowns in solid, liquid and gaseous

dielectrics and combinations of these. The theoretical investigation

was also focussed mainly on the influence of the wave shape of a

lightning impulse to the discharge. At the end of this chapter

attention is paid to statistical techniques used when performing

breakdown tests.

3.2

3.2.1

Insulation systems

General

type, magnitude and the duration of the electric stress while

simultaneously considering the ambient conditions. The design and

construction of high-voltage equipment requires also experience in

the laws of electric fields.

Insulation arrangements for high voltage usually contain liquid, solid

or gaseous insulating materials which strength is many times that of

atmospheric air. For the practical application of these materials not

only their physical properties, but also their technological and

construction features must be taken into account [38]. The properties

of the insulating materials must be know, so that the optimum design

of the insulating system can be chosen. A particular problem in this

respect is that the determination of the properties of the insulating

materials is done with model samples under standardised conditions.

Extrapolation of these models to real insulating systems is not

unconditionally possible. For instance in case of transformers (which

will be explained in more detail in the next paragraph), the stress is

not evenly distributed and the samples used for testing are relatively

simple models. In any case, before the breakdown behaviour of

insulating systems or samples can be fully understood, the breakdown

behaviour of insulating materials should be known.

3.2.2

Transformers

One apparatus that is difficult to test with lightning impulse voltages

because of the superimposed oscillations and overshoot that occur is a

transformer. For the dimensioning of a transformer, the magnetic,

electric and thermal fields are important.

25

Breakdown

Particularly in the region of the windings, strong electric fields occur

in transformers, were high temperatures and short-circuit forces can

also act simultaneously.

of an oil-transformer

1 high-voltage winding

2 low-voltage winding

3 pressboard tubes

4 shielding rings

5 angle rings

6 spacer blocks

transformer are its windings.

In the insulation of windings,

essentially three characteristic insulation problems occur:

High-voltage winding against low-voltage winding

High-voltage winding against the yoke

High-voltage winding against high-voltage winding

An example for winding insulation is presented in Figure 15.

High voltage windings are intricate structures, being weakly damped

networks comprising capacitances, self and mutual inductances. If an

impulse voltage appears across the terminals of the transformer,

characteristic oscillations are excited which can result in

impermissable high local stress of the insulation inside the windings.

For this reason, extensive investigations have been performed to

determine the voltage distribution occurring in different types of

windings. [41]

A greatly simplified but still useful assumption is that in the first

instant of stress with a steep lightning impulse voltage only the

capacitances of the network are effective. A simple equivalent circuit

for the calculation of the initial distribution is shown in Figure 16. It

is a homogeneous iterative network containing only the main

capacitances C as well as the earth capacitances Ce of a high-voltage

winding.

calculate the initial distribution

impulses, the first winding section is overstressed compared with the

normal linear voltage distribution which reappears as the normal

operating condition after a transient mechanism has faded out.

The deviation of the initial distribution from the final distribution is

of great significance to impulse voltage stressing of a winding during

the subsequent transient mechanism. Since damping of the oscillation

is not possible because of low losses required during normal

operation, one must aim not to excite dangerous oscillations at all.

The less the initial and the final distribution differ from one another,

the smaller the possibility of oscillations occurring.

Because of the costs involved in experimenting with testing of real

transformers, element models and statistical techniques have been

developed to transfer the results of the tests on models to a real

transformer.

Many investigations performed towards the influence of the

frequency to the breakdown voltage are performed using oscillatory

waves (or damped sine waves) in the framework of this investigation

they are not so useful. However, one of the experiments performed

that is useful, are experiments performed on a turn to turn model with

high frequency oscillations superimposed on an impressed wave [39].

26

Breakdown

The goal of this investigation was to

find a method to transfer the

breakdown behaviour under standard

lightning impulse conditions to that

under restriking surge (Figure 17) and

intruding lightning surge voltages (Figure 18) as are occurring in

modern substations.

reactor current interruption

The result of this investigation was that the following method could

be used. Determine the time to peak (of the first peak) and the peak

voltage of the wave shape that occurs. In case of Figure 17 this would

be 0,42 s and 1129 kV. From the results presented in Figure 19 it

follows that the transfer factor is 1,27. This implies that the stress

caused by the surge presented in Figure 17 is equal to the stress

caused by a standard impulse with an amplitude of

1129/1,27 = 889 kV.

3.3

surge

discharge depends on many things like atmospheric conditions,

voltage type, polarity, gap distance and electric field distribution in

the gap [40].

The breakdown mechanisms are different for the different types of

insulating materials. Four types of insulating materials can be

distinguished: gases, liquids, solids and vacuum. The discharge

mechanisms will be discussed in general for the four types of

insulating materials in the next paragraphs. In paragraph 3.4 the

attention will be given to the influence of the wave shape of a

lightning impulse to a breakdown.

Figure 19 V-t characteristics

3.3.1

Gases

breakdown in gases are of principle significance to all types of

breakdowns. Therefore, they will be explained first, before the

breakdowns in other insulating materials will be discussed.

Gas discharges can be sustained by means of external influences as

irradiation or heating, or even by the discharge itself [41]. In the first

case one speaks of a non-self-sustaining discharge in the second case

of a self-sustaining discharge.

The resistance of a gas-filled gap collapses to low values once the

voltage for complete breakdown is reached. The type of discharge

that then occurs and its duration depend upon the yield of energising

current source [38].

3.3.1.1.1

Avalanche

(E), the Coulomb force on this electron is given by: F = qE. If this

electron traverses without collision, a distance x corresponding to a

partial voltage U, the increase in its kinetic energy is: W = qU.

Figure 20 Electron

homogeneous field

avalanche

in

27

Breakdown

For a sufficient long mean free path and appropriate field strength,

electrons can, in collision with other neutral molecules, have such a

large kinetic energy W, that the molecule is ionised with the release

of further electron. If the ionisation condition (E Wi/e) is fulfilled,

an independent multiplication process of the electrons by collision

ionisation sets in. This exponential increase of the electron number is

called an electron avalanche [41]. At the head of the avalanche the

electrons may be very densely packed. Behind the head of the

avalanche the positive ions remain, see Figure 20.

the Townsend mechanism

increased to the point where a breakdown occurs, i.e. a changeover to

a self-sustaining discharge. This differs from the non-self-sustaining

discharge in that the charge carriers required along the path are

created by the mechanism itself rather than liberated by external

ionisation.

3.3.1.2.1

Townsend Mechanism

described by the Townsend mechanism. Thereby electrons of

external origin accelerated by the field can form new charge carriers

by collision ionisation, provided their kinetic energy exceeds the

ionisation potential of the gas molecules concerned. An electron

avalanche is built up which travels from the cathode to the anode. If,

as a consequence of the avalanche, a sufficient number of new ions

are formed near the cathode, complete breakdown finally takes place

[38].

Figure 22 Formation of a streamer in a

parallel plate configuration

secondary initial electrons (no(es-1)) exceeds the number of original

initial electrons (no) the current in the configuration rapidly increases

and the gap breaks down. The condition for ignition is given by

(es-1)1. In electronegative gases has to be replaced by where

= - e, where e is a factor representing the loss of electrons by

attachment.

3.3.1.2.2

Streamer Mechanism

avalanche cannot be increased at will since the avalanche becomes

unstable at a critical length xk (measurements in a homogeneous field

have shown that for air the avalanche becomes unstable when

xk20). The original field becomes more and more distorted due to

space charges, particular in the front of the avalanche, causing further

ionisation.

The mechanism occurring is called the streamer

mechanism and will characterise the breakdown. Breakdowns in

gases at higher pressures and with larger spacings take place by the

streamer mechanism according to Raether, Loeb and Meek [38].

The streamer mechanism is characterised by the fact that photon

emission at the tip of an electrode avalanche induces new avalanches

and initiates the growth of a streamer at a very fast, abrupt rate,

compared to the primary avalanche.

28

Breakdown

The transition of a discharge from Townsend growth to streamer

growth can, for a given spacing, be promoted by several parameters

such as the product of pressure and gap distance, high field strengths

caused by steep fronted impulses, density of the gas, inhomogenity of

the field, ionising radiation [38].

A schematic description of the formation of a streamer is shown in

Figure 22 and Figure 23. In Figure 22 the following is illustrated: A:

and external photon triggers an avalanche, B: a positive ion strikes the

cathode and starts an avalanche C. D: the avalanche tip reaches the

anode. E: photons originating from the avalanche produce free

electrons both from the cathode and in the gas. F: the positive space

charge close to the anode increases the geometrical electrical field

and a streamer is bound to be formed. The sequence is followed in

Figure 23. G: plasma of positive ions and electrons forms the streamer

channel. H: streamer tip. I: production of free electron by photons, J:

streamer close to the cathode [40].

3.3.1.2.3

Leader

according

to

the

streamer-leader

mechanism

the gap. For short gaps (<2 m) the sparkover is usually caused by

streamers. The leader is usually one narrow irregular channel

propagating towards the cathode, but often at an angle to the applied

electric field [40]. Very large spacings, as they are unavoidable in

outdoor high-voltage installations, usually occur in combinations

having strong inhomogeneous electrical field. Particularly when the

electrode with the stronger curvation is stressed by a positive

switching impulse, a discharge process occurs which is denoted as the

streamer-leader mechanism. This mechanism leads to bridging of

large gaps at comparatively low mean field strengths [41].

The propagation of the leader for an impulse with critical time to peak

is continuous. At the leader tip, the leader corona is preceding the

leader. The leader channel is usually not luminous, except when the

voltage increase is lower than with critical time to peak. Then the

leader can stop and suddenly re-strike and light up. After the first

corona a dark period follows because of the divergent electric field

that stops the propagation of the streamers. When the second corona

starts, a leader can be formed from the streamer stem [40].

insulating oils in a dc field as function of

the duration

figures shows the voltage as function of the time, part b) the current

as function of the time and part c) shows the visualisation of he leader

as function of the time.

3.3.2

Liquids

insulating liquids have to satisfy further requirements. For example

they also serve to cool the windings and cores in transformers or to

extinguish the arc in circuit breakers. The behaviour of technical

insulating liquids in the electric field, differs fundamentally from that

of gases and solids. It is critically

Figure 23 Continued sequence of streamer governed by impurities, by the aging

condition as well as by space charges.

formation from Figure 22

29

Breakdown

As a consequence of this there is no unified breakdown theory,

although certain mechanisms are beyond doubt. [41] Two of the most

important types, the intrinsic breakdown and the breakdown by fibrebridging, will be described.

As in gases and solid insulating materials, an avalanche breakdown is

also possible in very pure liquids. Only the reduction of the mean

free path, should be compensated by a higher electric field [41]. The

breakdown in clean and dry oil can be described with the streamer

theory [43,44].

In an electrode configuration in a d.c. field a current density S appears

which only reaches a nearly constant value within a few minutes (see

Figure 25). The current density S is not only depending on the

duration of the applied voltage it is also a function of the electric field

strength (see Figure 26). Since the mobility of the charge carriers

doesnt change, the only reason for the increase in the current density

with the increase of the field strength can be the carrier density. The

presumption that, similar to a breakdown in liquefied gases, the

in the gaseous or vapour part of the liquid, leads to the description of

this breakdown as a masked gaseous breakdown.

Every technical liquid insulating material contains macroscopic

contaminants in the form of fibrous elements of cellulose, cotton, etc.

Particularly when these elements have absorbed moisture from the

liquid insulating material, forces act upon them, moving them to the

region of higher field strength as well as aligning them in the

direction of E. In this way fibre bridges come into existence. A

conducting channel is created which can be heated due to the

resistance loss to such an extent that the moisture contained in the

fibre-bridge formation is presented. Figure 26 Current density in technical

The breakdown that then sets in at insulating oils in a dc field as function of

the field strength

30

Breakdown

comparatively lower voltages, can be described as local thermal

breakdown at a defect. This mechanism is of such great technical

significance that in electrode arrangements for high voltages pure oil

sections have to be avoided. This is achieved by introducing

insulating screens perpendicular to the direction of the field strength.

In the extreme case consistent application of this principle leads to

oil-impregnated paper insulation, which is the most important at very

highly stressable dielectric for cables, capacitor and transformers.

[38]

3.3.3

Solids

technical insulating system since they are necessary to act as the

mechanical support of the electrodes against each other. Their

properties, as may be expected from their number, are very different.

The experimental determined values of the breakdown strength of a

solid insulating material are, owing to the many possible breakdown

mechanisms, strongly dependent upon the electrode configuration in

which they have been measured [38]. An important parameter for the

electric strength of solid insulating materials is the temperature. In

the following a few breakdown mechanisms will be explained shortly.

breakdown of solid insulating material

The mechanism which leads to sudden loss of insulating capability

even after a short period of stressing, without appreciable pre-heating,

and without partial discharge is called intrinsic breakdown. Except in

the case of strongly inhomogeneous field configurations, a complete

breakdown can occur in a few nanoseconds. Intrinsic breakdowns

must be anticipated in homogeneous, predominantly crystalline

materials and especially during short-period stressing [41]. At high

field strength a large conductivity is observed, which must lead to the

conclusion that there is an increase in free electrons in the conduction

band. If the field strength continues to increase, the electron current

density reaches such high local values that it leads to the heating of

the insulating material due to the Joule effect.

If the electrons are accelerated by the electric field as in gas, collision

ionisation can result. Under favourable conditions, an avalanche can

be created.

In solid insulating materials thermal

breakdown can be either total or local.

Figure 27 Model experiment showing

It can be explained by the temperature

fibre-bridge formation in insulating oils

dependence of the dielectric losses;

their increase can exceed the rise in the

heat being conducted away, Pab, and so can initiate a thermal

destruction of the dielectric. Figure 28 shows the curves of the power

Pdiel fed in at different voltages and the power Pab which can be drawn

from the test object, as function of the temperature which is

assumed constant throughout the entire dielectric. Thermal

breakdown then occurs when no stable point of intersection for the

31

Breakdown

curves of the input and output power exists. Point A represent a

stable working condition and point B, on the other hand, is unstable.

If the voltage is increased at a constant ambient temperature u, both

point of intersection move closer until, at U=Uk, they coincide in C.

This voltage is referred to as the critical voltage; or above Uk a stable

condition is impossible. [38].

Partial discharges can occur in gas-filled cavities of a dielectric, but

also at electrodes with small radius of curvation when these are not

completely imbedded in the solid insulating material. Partial

discharges can, through long period mechanisms, lead to a complete

breakdown of the insulating, particularly during stresses with

alternating voltages. In Figure 29 a sketch of a canal which arise due

to stressing with a chopped lightning impulse voltage is shown.

3.3.4

Vacuum

materials assume that the insulating material is made conducting by

the ionising process. In high vacuum (p10-5 mbar), the mean free

path is so large that collision processes in the rest of the gas become

meaningless for the breakdown mechanism. Rather the mechanisms at

the electrodes are critical to the breakdown behaviour. Many

breakdown hypotheses have been developed to explain the

mechanism in vacuum gaps (e.g. the cathodic breakdown, the anodic

breakdown and the clump hypothesis).

The cathodic breakdown mechanism [45] assumes that the field

emission current, at a micropeak on the cathode, above a critical

heating that the micropeak evaporates unfilled epoxy resin moulding

explosively. In the metal vapour then

formed ionising collisions processes

take place. If sufficient charge multiplication is achieved breakdown

of the vacuum gap occurs across the ionised metal vapour cloud.

32

Breakdown

In the anodic breakdown hypothesis it is assumed that the electrons

released from the cathode by field emission and accelerated in the

electric field, heat up the anode to such an extent that the anode

material vaporises. The metal vapour is ionised by collision

processes and reinforces the electron emission back at the cathode.

For a sufficiently high vaporisation rate at the anode, a gas breakdown

occurs within the metal cloud. [46]

According to the clump hypothesis, vacuum breakdown is initiated by

free metal particles residing on the electrodes that are torn and

accelerated by field forces and vaporise on collision with the opposite

electrode. [47]

breakdown voltage

As mentioned, the properties of the electrode material have a great

influence on the breakdown voltage in vacuum. In Figure 30 and

Figure 31 two examples are presented.

on the breakdown voltage with positive

and negative dc voltage in weakly

inhomogeneous field.

electrode temperature on the breakdown

voltage with alternating voltage

33

Breakdown

3.4 Influence

breakdown

of

lightning

impulse

voltage

to

the

explained. In this paragraph, attention is paid to breakdown processes

when lightning impulse voltages are applied and attention is paid to

the influence of the polarity and the wave shape of the lightning

impulse voltages to the breakdown voltage. Since they might be

different for different type of materials, they are explained separately.

3.4.1

Gases

The literature has been investigated with the goal finding as much

information as possible about breakdown behaviour under lightning

impulses in general for all types as gases. Especially for air and SF6 a

literature study has been performed towards the effect of polarity

and wave shape.

Experience has shown that the development of a breakdown requires

a finite time. This fact is important for

short-duration stresses, such as

Figure 32 Formation and shape of voltagelightning impulses. It is known that a

time curves

complete breakdown occurs after a

combined interval (td) of the statistical

time lag (ts) and the formative time lag (ta) [41]. (td = ts+ta)

The statistical time lag is the time between the reaching of the

breakdown field strength and the moment an initial electron appears

(this time varies from experiment to experiment). The formative time

lag is the time interval from the beginning of the first electron

avalanche to the formation of the highly conductive canal that leads to

a collapse of the voltage. The formative time lag is depending on the

applied voltage magnitude and the homogenity of the electric field.

If an electrode arrangement is stressed with a large number of

identical pulses, one obtains the values for the breakdown voltage

(Ud) and the time lag (td). If the measurement is repeated with

impulses of different steepness, one obtains the results that are

presented in Figure 32. The lower limiting curve (curve 1)

corresponds to a 0% breakdown probability, the upper curve (curve 2)

corresponds to the 100% breakdown probability.

Many thanks to LCOE, Fernando Garnacho and Pascual Simon, who have

contributed to the results presented here

34

Breakdown

For the calculation of the voltage-time curves, the equal area criterion

[48] has proven to be a useful assumption in many cases.

For weakly inhomogeneous fields, the reference voltage (Ud in

Figure 32, Ub in Figure 33) becomes equal to the inception voltage Ue.

If the reference voltage is known, the equal area criterion, therefore

permits an approximate calculation of the impulse voltage-time curve

of an electrode configuration for a few measured values.

Various approaches have been proposed to evaluate the strength

under non-standard overvoltages in air. The approaches may be

grouped into three main categories namely [49]:

Physical approaches, which, in general form, evaluate the time to

breakdown, Tb for a given applied voltage, as the sum of times

necessary for the development of the various phenomena involved

in the discharge (time to corona inception Ti, time necessary for

streamers propagation Ts, time necessary for leader propagation Tl)

Integration methods (e.g. constant area criteria) which considers

the time integral of the difference between the applied voltage and

a fixed voltage (in some cases this difference is raised to a power,

n, different from unity). Breakdown is assumed to take place when

the integral reaches a fixed value, depending on the configuration

and voltage polarity.

Simple formulae interpolating the various sets of data available.

It has to be seen if these approaches can be used to evaluate the

parameters.

Effect of polarity

For SF6; plate-plate, rod-plate and for needle plate configurations, the

breakdown voltage for negative lightning impulse voltage is higher

than the breakdown voltage for positive lightning impulse voltage (in

case of the rod-plate configuration and the needle-plate configuration,

the high voltage is applied to the rod) [50], [51].

Also for switching impulses and a non-uniform field, the breakdown

voltage is for negative impulses higher than for positive [51].

For SF6, the breakdown voltage in case of a steep fronted impulse (T 1

around 50 ns) is lower than for standard 1,2/50 lightning impulse

voltage [52]. In this coaxial electrode configuration this was valid for

both positive and negative impulses.

Tests performed in a strongly non-homogenous field in SF6, with a

gap distance of 60 mm under a pressure of 0,12 and 0,3 MPa, showed

that the breakdown voltage for oscillating impulses with a frequency

lower than 1 MHz is higher than that for a standard 1,2/50 lightning

impulse voltage [53]. Oscillations with a frequency of 1 to 8 MHz

have a similar breakdown voltage as standard 1,2/50 impulses.

Oscillations with a frequency above 8 MHz result in a lower

35

Breakdown

breakdown voltage as for a standard 1,2/50 impulse. In all cases the

damping of the oscillating wave was around 40%.

When there are oscillations of relevant amplitude (40%)

superimposed to lightning impulse voltages, the discharge mechanism

depends, at least for SF6, on the frequency of the oscillation and the

pressure of the gas. For instance for 1 bar and oscillation frequencies

in the kHz range up to 1 MHz all investigations have shown higher

breakdown levels compared to lightning impulse voltages. The

reason is an interrupted leader propagation during the negative cycle

of the oscillation. With rising frequency there is a reduction of the

breakdown voltage, for instance the breakdown voltage of the 10

MHz oscillation is lower than the lightning impulse oscillation. In

[54] the breakdown voltage as function of oscillation frequency and

gas pressure is presented.

3.4.2

in combination with cellulose in the form of paper of pressboard.

Oil-paper insulation was for a long time the most important highvoltage technical insulating material, without which the often used

concept of transformers, capacitors and cable would be inconceivable.

Therefore a literature investigation was made to the effect of the wave

shape to oil-paper insulation. But to be able to understand the

behaviour of the combined insulating materials, an investigation

the rod-rod configuration in oil for

negative impulses voltages

Besides depending on the impurities, the electric strength of liquids

depends on several other parameters, particularly on pressure and

stress duration. General properties of oil and oil-paper are described

in [41].

During impulse stressing the breakdown field strength is many times

the value for alternating voltages [55]. The impulse voltage-time

curve of an electrode configuration in transformer oil presented in

Figure 34 gives an idea of the effect of the stress duration.

36

Breakdown

Effect of polarity

For oil, the breakdown voltage in a strong non-uniform field is for

positive oscillating waves lower than for negative oscillating waves

[56]

In a highly non uniform field, the breakdown voltage of oil for

oscillating waves (frequencies of several Hertz to 100 kHz) is higher

than for standard 1,2/50 lightning impulse voltages. Furthermore it

was observed that the negative oscillatory wave has a higher

breakdown value than a positive one. [56].

When for oscillating waves of a frequency higher than 200 kHz, the

damping is decreased, the breakdown voltage will decrease.

The breakdown voltage (for different impregnants, heating of paper,

thickness of the paper) of oil-paper insulation is lower for steep

fronted lightning impulse voltage than for lightning impulse voltage.

Many investigations with oil-paper insulation have been performed

using damped sine waves, but for this investigation that is of no

relevance.

3.4.3

Solids

breakdown behaviour of polyethylene (PE) or cross-linked

polyethylene (XLPE) depends on several parameters. Besides the

quality, the age, the shape and the dimensions of the specimen also

the test arrangement concerning the field configuration and the shape

of the used test voltage as well as the pre-stress, the pre-conditioning

and the frequency and duration of the stress have an influence [57,58,

59 and 60]. Additional parameters like the temperature or the test

environment can also influence the breakdown strength. However,

less information could be found about the dependence of the

breakdown behaviour of PE or XLPE on standard lightning impulses

superimposed by oscillations or overshoots with various amplitudes

and frequencies or respectively overshoot duration.

Investigations using standard lightning impulses (1,2/50 s) have

shown that there is no significant difference in the impulse strength

between PE, XLPE and PE containing voltage stabilisers [61]. The

nominal value of the mean breakdown strength for these materials is

at least 100 kV/mm at room temperature [62], but the strength

decreases clearly for rising temperatures.

Investigations on the treeing inception of XLPE, which is a prestadium of the breakdown process, in a needle-plane arrangement

under lightning impulse voltages (1,2/50s) had the findings that

there is a strong dependence of the tree inception voltage on the

polarity of the needle-electrode, whereas the time between the

impulses as well as the shape of the lightning impulses show almost

no influence [63 and 64]. Varying the front time T1 from 0,6 s to

Many thanks to the Schering Institute Hannover, Peter Werle, Klaus Hackemack

and Ernst Gockenbach who performed this study.

37

Breakdown

2,3 s and the time to half value T2 from 6 s to 95 s does not

influence the tree inception voltage, which is similar for other solid

insulation materials like e. g. ceramic [65, 66 and 67].

The conclusion of the literature investigations about research

concerning the breakdown strength of polyethylene under lightning

impulse stresses allow the statements given in the next three

paragraphs concerning the main parameters of a breakdown test.

The field configuration has an influence on both treeing inception

voltage and the breakdown strength of polyethylene, whereas the

polarity only has an influence, if a non-homogenous field

configuration is used. The voltage strength using negative impulse is

higher than at for positive voltages.

The shape of the impulse voltage concerning the rise and fall time has

almost no influence on the impulse voltage strength as well as the

time between the impulses.

Maximum voltage

The maximum voltage of the lightning impulses is a decisive

parameter. For rising temperatures or different environmental test

conditions the maximum voltage of a lightning impulse that a

polyethylene specimen is able to withstand can be reduced.

About the influence of superimposed oscillations or overshoots at the

lightning impulse on the breakdown behaviour of polyethylene no

information is available. However, the investigations indicate that the

breakdown process depends like for other solid materials on the lifetime-law, which describes an exponential relation between the

breakdown strength and the time of the applied voltage stress.

3.4.4

Vacuum

Effect of polarity

For vacuum the negative impulse has a lower breakdown voltage than

the positive impulse. The difference between the breakdown voltage

for negative and positive impulses is larger for a lightning impulse

voltage than for a switching impulse. The difference between the

breakdown voltage for positive and negative impulses is also a

function of the gap distance. For a smaller gap distance the difference

is smaller. [68]

Effect of waveshape

In [69] breakdown voltage values are reported for different wave

shapes for a stainless steel hemispherical electrode configuration. A

summary of the results is presented in Table 2.

38

Breakdown

function of the breakdown voltage

F ( x) P( x x)

f (t )dt

Equation XV Distribution function,

probability and density function

T1/T2

1,2/50 s

250/450 s

0,75/4,5 ms

1/4,5 ms

2,6/15 ms

3,6/15 ms

2,0 mm gap

80 kV

70 kV

80 kV

95 kV

150 kV

150 kV

1,5 mm gap

75 kV

65 kV

70 kV

80 kV

140 kV

120 kV

1,0 mm gap

45 kV

45 kV

45 kV

45 kV

80 kV

105 kV

0,5 mm gap

20 kV

20 kV

20 kV

20 kV

3.5

3.5.1

Introduction

to statistical scatter. By applying statistical methods it is possible for

relative few measurements to make a statement about the behaviour of

an ensemble with a certain uncertainty. Comprehensive treatment of

this subject with emphasis to high-voltage tests is made in [78]. Here

only the headlines are presented.

Electric breakdowns belong to the second group (the physical

phenomena that are subject to statistical scatter) and therefore during

repeated measurements of a breakdown voltage one should expect a

certain scatter in the values. The values for the breakdown voltages

can be approximately determined by experiments.

39

Breakdown

If n identical samples will be subjected to a certain voltage stress, the

number of breakdowns nd will depend upon the voltage magnitude U.

The observed breakdown probability (P) nd/n is a function of U as

shown in Figure 35. Ud-0 or U0 is the withstand voltage. Ud-50 or U50 is

the 50% breakdown voltage, Ud-100 or U100 is the assured breakdown

voltage.

In technical set-ups in general the distribution function P(U) is not

known, but experience showed that the actual distributions, in case of

medium probabilities, are very well approximated by a normal

distribution function. For very small probabilities, the Weibull

distribution function has proven to be good.

The distribution function P(U) is often referred to as F(x). The

distribution function at a point x, indicates the probability with which

the variate X will assume a value below the boundary x. The

distribution function of continuous variates can be represented in the

form as given in Equation XV.

The normal distribution function and density function are given by the

formulas presented in Equation XVI and Equation XVII. In Figure 36

the normal distribution is presented in a graphical way.

3.5.2

f ( x)

Application

performed, one should be able to deduce the type and the function of

density and distribution function almost exactly. However in

practical applications, one has a limited number of measurements

available from which the distribution function has to be determined.

d

F ( x)

dx

uncertainty in the determined type of function and the values of the

function.

( x; ; 2 )

e ( x )

/ 2 2

normal distribution

distribution function will be suitable in most cases. For a normal

distribution function the (two-sided) confidence limits for the

parameters and 2 are given by two complex formulae presented in

[38]. This approximation for the confidence limits can also be

presented in a graphical format, this is presented in Figure 37.

Figure 36 Density ((x)) and distribution

function ( (x)) of standard normal

distribution, =0, 2=1

( x; ; )

2

1

2

(t )

e

2 / 2 2

dt

normal distribution

40

Breakdown

3.5.3

Independence

valid under the condition that the measurements represent a random

selection, i.e. they are independent from each other. When evaluating

the measurement results, one of the checks that has to be performed is

therefore the test of independence. There are several independence

tests, which are comprehensively treated in [78].

confidence limits of a normal distribution

function

41

Goal of investigations

4 Goal of investigations

In Chapter 2 of this thesis, lightning impulse tests, applicable

standards, their interpretation and implementation have been

described in detail. In Chapter 3 of this thesis, the breakdown process

in materials and statistical techniques to be used when performing

breakdown tests have been explained in detail. In this Chapter the

goal of the investigations, the insulating systems and the materials to

be investigated will be described. At the end of this Chapter, some

research questions and hypothesis are formulated.

4.1

Introduction

considerations about the development of the measuring techniques

will be given. These three paragraphs are an introduction to the need

for, the goal of and some expectations of the results of the

investigations carried out in this study.

interpretation

Tests with impulses are designed to demonstrate the response of the

equipment to transients over a wide frequency range. Lightning

impulse voltages represent transients occurring naturally in high

voltage systems under operation. There are at least four standards

that are applicable when tests with lightning impulse voltages are

performed, namely IEC 60060-1, IEC 60060-2, IEC 61083-1 and

IEC 61083-2. They deal with the wave shape of the lightning impulse

voltages to be applied, the parameters by which it is characterised, the

measurement of the lightning impulse voltages and last but not least

with how to evaluate the parameters characterising the lightning

impulse voltage.

As may have become clear from the detailed explanation in Chapter 2,

great difficulties (with measurement uncertainty and uniformity) are

experienced when either lightning impulse voltage with overshoot

and/or oscillations or non-standard lightning impulse voltage have to

be measured and evaluated. It appears that the rules for the evaluation

of the parameters are ambiguous, that even for some cases no

evaluation rules are given and that some laboratories use methods quit

far from the present standards.

When performing tests, the aim is always to generate standardised

lightning impulse voltages (without oscillations or overshoot).

However, during tests of high voltage equipment with lightning

impulse voltages, oscillations or/and overshoot may occur at the front

or near the peak of a lightning impulse voltage. This is due to the

interaction between the test object and the generator. Especially in

case of testing power transformers, so-called non-standard lightning

impulse voltages are generated. It is being assumed that oscillations

and/or overshoot can be of significance and right now a maximum

amplitude of 5% of the peak value is allowed [70].

Since power transformers are large capital assets, it is important for

this equipment to test and to measure the applied lightning impulse

43

Goal of investigations

voltage with a good accuracy. Precisely for these cases where nonstandard lightning impulse voltages occur, no evaluation rules are

given. Most of the time these measurements are carried out by

experienced engineers, who use engineering judgement to evaluate

the lightning impulse voltages. However two engineers may obtain

different measurement results. This assumption is being supported by

a questionnaire made amongst different laboratories. The result of

this questionnaire was quit surprising, many laboratories do not only

use very different evaluation methods, but also methods quit far from

the present standards (see Chapter 2.4.7).

Not only in the case of lightning impulse voltages with large

superimposed oscillations and/or overshoot differences between the

measurement results may occur even when using evaluation methods

according to present standards. Results of round-robin tests showed

that even large differences (up to 2% for full and 7% for chopped

impulses) occur when lightning impulse voltages with small

overshoot and/or oscillations are evaluated.

Up to now, several evaluation methods have been proposed, but as

may have become clear, no satisfactory solution has been found.

4.1.2

or fails a test with lightning impulse voltage, is the occurrence of a

complete or partial breakdown. New parameters or new evaluation

methods shall not be introduced before the relation to the breakdown

behaviour is known.

From the questionnaire made amongst

manufacturers it appeared that there is not a well-established physical

background about the relevancy of different parameters presently

used. The information supplied by the laboratories on this subject is

contradictory [71]. Therefore a literature investigation towards the

breakdown process of different materials was necessary.

In Chapter 3 the breakdown processes of materials and insulating

systems have been described in general. It was obvious that wave

shape and polarity are important parameters. However not so much

information was found about the breakdown behaviour for lightning

impulses with overshoot and/or oscillations. With the information

found it not possible to deduct the breakdown behaviour for lightning

impulses with overshoot and/or oscillations and from that determine a

suitable evaluation method.

For performing breakdown tests it is well know that one has to apply

certain statistical methods to evaluate the results.

4.1.3

performed using analogue oscilloscopes. The evaluation of lightning

impulse voltages was performed manually. The achievable accuracy

was influenced by the thickness of the trace of the oscilloscope and

the accuracy of the test engineer. Because of the natural filtering of

the measurement system, only oscillations and/overshoot of high

amplitude and low frequency could be seen. When oscillations or

44

Goal of investigations

overshoot could be seen, discussing took place between the test

engineers to draw the best mean curve.

Nowadays the measurement of lightning impulse voltages is mostly

performed using digital oscilloscopes and measuring systems with a

higher bandwidth. Because of this, small overshoot and oscillations

can easily be made visible. The evaluation of the parameters is

mostly done using computer programs, that have difficulties with the

implementation of evaluation rules made for manual evaluation, since

they need more precise instructions. Because of that in some cases

still a manual evaluation is used. The advantage of using computer

programs for the evaluation of parameters is that on the one hand

more parameters can be evaluated than were previously practical or

possible and on the other hand that the evaluation is performed more

uniformly.

The developments in the measuring technique have made it possible

to measure with more accuracy and so the requirements towards the

accuracy have increased.

Intercomparisons and questionnaires

however showed that the present evaluation rules are ambiguous,

causing large differences in the obtained measurement results. It

seems right now that the hardware is good enough for the nowadays

required accuracy, but that the software or evaluation methods are the

major contribution to the measurement uncertainty.

Some blame the computers and digital recorders for the problems

occurring nowadays, but the problems are not new. The introduction

of digital recorders and computers made it only possible to see and to

recognise the problems.

4.2

investigate the introduction of new parameters and evaluation rules of

these parameters. However, the introduction of new parameters and

evaluation rules or algorithms of new parameters cannot be done

without physical evidence that they are indeed the most relevant ones.

The deviations from the standard lightning impulse voltage are caused

by oscillations and overshoot. Therefore it should be investigated

what the influences are of oscillations and/or overshoot on insulating

materials and systems and what the most relevant parameters are.

One of the problems that arise today, is that one has to determine

whether it is a standardised or not standardised wave shape. Because

of this, algorithms that are applicable to all types of lightning impulse

voltage (standardised and non-standardised) are preferable to

algorithms specific for one specific type of impulse.

The goal of the investigations is therefore to find parameters and clear

evaluation rules, that are applicable to both standardised and nonstandardised lightning impulse voltages, taking into account the

possibilities and limitations of modern computers and that are proven

to be of physical relevancy for all types of practical insulating systems

in case lightning impulse voltages are applied.

45

Goal of investigations

4.3

impulse voltages occur in many different types of laboratories;

calibration laboratories, manufacturing laboratories and testing

laboratories. The problems can be categorised differently. For

calibration laboratories it is often possible to generate very smooth

and standardised lightning impulses. For these cases more simple

algorithms can be sufficient. It can be assumed that the type of

parameters used are of less importance as long as the evaluation

method is clear for people all over the world. For the two latter types

of laboratories, it is often not possible to generate smooth

standardised lightning impulse voltages. Besides this the parameters

must have a relation with the breakdown behaviour.

The majority of problems occur during the testing of high voltage

equipment (i.e. in manufacturers and testing laboratories).

Transformer manufacturers and laboratories who tests transformers,

complain the most about the present situation in the standards.

Apparently for them the need for new parameters, which they assume

to be relevant for transformer testing as well as clear evaluation rules

is high. Since transformers are also high capital assets, it seems to be

appropriate to investigate these insulating systems in this study.

Cables, switchgear and air insulation should not be forgotten, since

they are of importance too. It is important to introduce parameters that

are applicable to all types of insulating systems. However they will

not be investigated in the framework of this PhD study, but they will

be investigated in the framework of the European project. However

the results of the investigation performed in the European project will

be used for the introduction of new parameters.

One of the ways to prove the relevancy of parameters is to perform

breakdown tests. When breakdown tests are performed, it is not usual

perform them on insulating systems. One aspect is the costs of such

investigations and the other aspect is that the results of these

breakdown tests may depend on too many factors to draw conclusions

or to make relations towards other insulating systems. Therefore the

way to start this investigation is to study the insulating materials and

from the results make a translation to practical insulating systems. In

this projects the insulating materials XLPE, SF6, air, vacuum, oil and

oil-paper are chosen.

4.4

which parameters are relevant and which are not, it is important to

select carefully the measuring methods, the experimental parameters,

the test equipment and of course make a test planning [72].

The goal of the investigations is therefore to find parameters and clear

evaluation rules, that are applicable to both standardised and nonstandardised lightning impulse voltages, taking into account the

possibilities and limitations of modern computers and that are proven

to be of physical relevancy for all types of practical insulating systems

in case lightning impulse voltage are applied.

46

Goal of investigations

Right now, there are two problems with the evaluation of lighting

impulse parameters:

In the standard for some cases a mean curve has to be drawn for

the evaluation of the peak value.

Cable and transformer manufacturers do not agree that the peak

value of this mean curve is a relevant parameter. They claim that

the absolute peak value is a more relevant parameter.

Therefore the major problem is nowadays the definition and the

validity of the mean curve in case oscillations and overshoot occur.

For the international acceptance, one has to prove first whether a

mean curve is really relevant. Perhaps there are also other parameters

that are more relevant. When the present peak value of the mean

curve is proven to be a relevant parameter, then it is appropriate to

look into ways to define this parameter without having to draw a

mean curve. This is because it seems not to be possible to define a

mean curve which is valid for all lightning impulse voltage that occur

during testing of high voltage equipment.

As a way to prove which parameters are relevant and which are not,

breakdown tests and the determination of the U50% were chosen. A

list of parameters that were thought or assumed to be relevant was

made, see Chapter 5.3.5. In order to be able to prove whether the

mean curve is relevant, lightning impulse voltages with oscillations

and overshoot of different frequencies and amplitudes superimposed

have to be applied. Above all the wave shapes generated should

cover the wave shapes that occur during actual testing of

transformers.

There are several ways to design a generating circuit in which these

wave shapes can be generated. One of the important criteria is, that in

case different amplitudes or frequencies are applied the mean curve is

not varied. The only circuit for which this was possible is the circuit

described in Chapter 5.2.2, it is the generating circuit that consists out

of two generating circuits. One circuit generates the standard

lightning impulse voltage and the other generates the oscillations or

overshoot. This circuit has many advantages, one disadvantage might

be that the circuit has some influence to the result, so this should be

checked first

Since oil and oil paper are the insulating materials used, attention

should be paid to the statistical spread in the measuring results, due to

the properties of oil and oil-paper. This means that sufficient checks

and comparison measurements have to be made.

Detailed attention to the generating circuit, the test cell, the measuring

circuit and to the experimental parameters will be paid in Chapter 5 of

this thesis.

4.5

voltage of different shape is known, these results should be translated

to insulating systems. This might not be easy since the behaviour of

the materials can differ for homogenous and inhomogeneous fields.

The design of an insulating system is much more complex than simply

47

Goal of investigations

either homogeneous or inhomogeneous. One has to consider the

voltage distribution in a complex insulating system such as a

transformer in case a lightning impulse voltage is applied.

What at least will be done is to check the hypothesis on samples that

are representing some typical parts of transformers.

4.6

Questions/hypothesis

the hypothesis can be formulated:

are the present parameters the most significant ones?

is it indeed true that oscillations and/or overshoot with an

amplitude of more than 5% are of significance?

is it indeed the absolute peak value that is one of the most

important parameters when testing transformers and

cables?

is it true that the peak value of the reference mean curve

is one of the most important parameters when testing air?

how can the results on insulating materials be translated to

insulating systems?

is it possible to define a set of parameters applicable to both

standard and non-standard lightning impulse voltages?

is it possible to define a set of parameters applicable to all

insulating materials/systems?

is it possible to translate algorithms used for manual evaluation

into digital algorithms?

48

5.1

Introduction

The goal of this work is to find parameters and clear evaluation rules

that are applicable to both standard and non-standard lightning

impulse voltages, taking into account the possibilities and limitations

of modern computers.

The goal of the theoretical and experimental investigations is to prove

that the parameters chosen are of physical relevance for different

types of practical insulating systems in case lightning impul7se

voltages are applied. In previous Chapters the results of theoretical

investigations have been presented. The result of this theoretical

investigation was that experimental investigations were necessary.

several laboratories (KEMA, NGC, LCOE, Schering Institute and TU

Graz) on different materials and samples (oil, SF6, air, XLPE and

transformer winding models). The investigations performed in the

framework of this PhD-project are focussed on oil and oil-paper

insulation and are performed at KEMA and TU Graz. At KEMA, the

author was responsible for the test set-up and the measurements and

performed most work herself.

The relevancy of the parameters will be proven by breakdown tests.

For this purpose a test set-up comprising of a generating circuit, a test

cell, measuring- and evaluation systems had to be designed and built.

In this chapter the test set-ups used for the investigations are

described in detail. But before they are explained, first two possible

generating circuits, the modified conventional generated circuit and

the combined generating circuit will be explained.

modified conventional circuit

To generate the different lightning impulse voltages a generating

circuit was needed. Initially, it was the idea to build only a slightly

modified conventional lightning impulse generator. By varying the

different components of this generator, lightning impulse voltages of

different wave shapes, i.e. different front times, tail times,

superimposed overshoots and oscillations could be generated.

For reasons explained in paragraph 5.2.1, this modified conventional

generator had too many disadvantages to perform the first basic

investigations on insulating materials.

Because of the disadvantages it was decided to build a generating

circuit (further called combined generating circuit) comprising of two

generators. Generator 1 generates the standard lightning impulse and

the generator 2 the oscillations or overshoots. The two voltages are

superimposed in the test-cell. This circuit was much more suitable for

the first basic investigations, although some problems arose. The

combined generating circuit is explained in paragraph 5.2.2.

49

1

2 LC

5.2.1

5.2.1.1 Principle

The principle of the generating circuit based on a conventional

generator, called the modified conventional circuit, is shown in Figure

38. For this conventional circuit, simulations have been made to

dimension the components for the different lightning impulse voltage

to be generated. The circuit has been built and impulses have been

generated. The results are explained in detail in [73 and 74] and

summarised in this paragraph.

Rs

Cs1 and Cs2 charging capacitors

Cp

parallel capacitor

L

coil

Rs

series resistor

Rp

parallel resistor

Rf

front resistor

Cs2

Rf

Object Divider

Rp

Cp

Cs1

Trigger circuit

Computer, digitizer

and attenuator

By varying the front resistor Rf, the front time will mainly be varied.

A smaller front resistance will result in a smaller front time. By

varying the parallel resistor, Rp, the time to half value will mainly be

varied. By increasing the parallel resistance the time to half value

will increase.

The frequency of the oscillations or the duration of an overshoot can

be varied by varying the inductance and the capacitance, because in

general this frequency in given by Equation XVIII.

overshoot; L = 520 H, Cs = 150 nF,

Rp = 520 , Rf = 800

damping is mainly determined by the resistance of the circuit. To

keep the time to half value and the front time on a certain value, an

additional resistance Rs is introduced. The series resistance has

practically no influence on the front time and the time to half value,

but has influence on the damping of the oscillations.

Since the generating circuit had to be built with the components

available at the High-Voltage Laboratory of KEMA, the dimensioning

of the components in the circuit is somehow limited. Several

simulations have been made using the circuit shown in Figure 38.

The capacitance of the object will be in the range of 10 to 20 pF,

since this is so small, a capacitor, Cp, is placed in parallel. For Cp, the

values 500 pF, 1 nF and 2 nF can be chosen.

The value of the inductance L can be varied between 10 and 3000 H,

but not in indefinite steps. For Rp, Rs and Rf more or less any value

can be chosen between 0 and 2000 .

oscillation; L = 270 H, Cs = 150 nF,

Rp = 520 , Rf = 250

50

With the values of the components found with these simulations,

some real measurements were done. There was a small discrepancy

between the simulations and the measurements, caused by the nonideal behaviour of the components.

After some simulations and measurements it became clear that a test

circuit based on a conventional circuit had too many disadvantages

for the first investigation (see the list presented in the next paragraph).

Disadvantages of this modified conventional circuit are that:

the position of the oscillations superimposed cannot be varied, for

instance one cannot generate oscillations on the peak without

generating oscillations of the front too

it is difficult to generate overshoot and oscillation at the same time

it is impossible to generate oscillations or overshoot without

influencing the shape of the mean curve

it is practically impossible to generate oscillations of a certain

frequency with different amplitudes

Advantages of this conventional circuit are that:

the circuit is similar to the one used during normal testing

only one measuring circuit is needed

the construction is simple

5.2.2

lightning impulse; L = 10 H, Cs = 300 nF,

Rp = 230 , Rf = 430

5.2.2.1 Principle

One of the most important requirements for the generating circuit is

that the mean curve does not change when oscillations and

overshoot are generated and that oscillations of different frequencies

and amplitudes can easily be generated. Since the influences of the

oscillations and overshoot are expected to be small, one has to be

absolutely certain that the differences in measuring results are not

caused by the differences in mean curves. Therefore the generating

circuit shown in Figure 43 was designed (combined generating

circuits). Generator 1 generates the full lightning impulse voltage and

generator 2 generates the overshoots or oscillations. At the object the

two voltages are superimposed to each other.

By varying the resistors in generator 1, Rp and Rf, the front time and

the time to half value of the lightning impulse voltage can be varied.

By varying the inductance Ls and the resistor Rd of generator 2,

Generator 1, lightning impulse

overshoot; L = 750 H, Cs = 300 nF,

Rp = 350 , Rf = 1400

oscillation; L = 750 H, Cs = 300 nF,

Rp = 250 , Rf = 200

Divider 1

Rf

Cs

Rp

Cp

Test cell

Ampl. 1

Atten. 1

Trigger box

Digital

Oscilloscope

Computer

Atten. 2

Ampl. 2

Ls

Rd

Divider 2

51

respectively the frequency of the oscillations and the damping of

these oscillations are varied.

The use of a combined generating circuit was proposed by Fernando

Garnacho in August 1997, when all partners within the EC project

came independently from each other to the conclusion that a

conventional circuit could not be used for the investigations to be

performed. The first simulations were made by LCOE. These

simulations showed that it should be possible to build such a circuit

and that the circuit could meet the requirements for the investigations

to be performed. Disadvantage was that the test set up itself was

made much more complex.

The advantages are:

mean curve can be maintained constant while varying overshoots

and oscillations

the mean curve can be obtained exactly

frequency, amplitude and damping of oscillations can be varied

independently from each other

amplitude of the oscillations can be kept constant while varying

the amplitude of the lightning impulse voltage

The disadvantages are:

the two circuits have to be synchronised

two measuring systems are needed

influence of the two circuits on each other during withstand and

breakdown

instead of the modified conventional circuit on the test results

One of the concerns towards using the combined generating circuit

instead of a modified conventional circuit, was the possible influence

on the breakdown process. Performing either calculations or

measurements should make it clear if there was an influence. It was

found the best to check it by measurements.

Four different types of measurements have been performed using a

15 mm sphere-plate gaps in air. It was expected that there should be

no difference in the results obtained. The situations were the

following:

1. Two measurements have been performed applying a standard

impulse by using only one generating circuit (generator 1)

connected to the upper electrode. The lower electrode was

connected to ground. This situation is identical to a situation

where the modified conventional circuit would be used.

Measurement no. 981002-1, 980929-3

2. One measurement has been performed applying a standard

impulse by using one generating circuit (generator 1) connected to

the upper electrode. The lower electrode was connected via a 30

Ohm resistor to ground. Measurement no. 980929-4.

52

3. One measurement has been performed applying a standard

impulse by using one generating circuit (generator 1) connected to

the upper electrode. The lower electrode was connected to the

not energised generator 2. Measurement no. 980929-5.

4. One measurement has been performed applying a standard

impulse by using one generating circuit (generator 1) connected to

the upper electrode. The lower electrode was connected to the

generator 2. With that generator an oscillation of 2,5 MHz and

10% amplitude was applied. The oscillation was superimposed at

the start to the impulse. Measurement no. 980930-1.

Zobject

Zg1

Zg2

generating circuits and the test cell

The result of these five measurements performed was that the average

U50 was -42,95 kV. All results were within 0,2% of that average. In

addition to this no influence on the time to breakdown could be

detected.

Therefore, the conclusion is that using the combined generating

circuits instead of the modified conventional circuit has no influence

on the results of the breakdown tests.

5.3 Test set-up and test method used for the tests at

KEMA

5.3.1

Generating circuit

Z object Z g1

Z onject Z g 2

Equation XIX requirements to be met for

minimum influence between the two

generating circuits

The generating circuit used for the breakdown testing of oil and air at

KEMA is the combined measuring circuit. In this paragraph the

circuit used, its design criteria, the test and simulations made and

some of the problems encountered are described in detail. Most of

the work was performed by the author, but she was assisted by others.

The generating circuit needs to be stable

The two generators should work independent from each other.

To prevent that generator 1 (Zg1 in Figure 45) influences

generator 2 (Zg2) and vice versa, the requirements of Equation

XIX, where Zobject, is the impedance of the object under test (the

test cell) have to be met.

The circuit has to be built in such a way that in case of a

breakdown no components of the generating and measuring circuit

are damaged. Most critical part of the circuit was the 10 kV fast

divider and the resistors parallel to this divider in generator 2.

Therefore a spark-gap was placed in parallel with these, see Figure

46.

It should be possible to generate all required wave shapes.

It should be safe for people to work with.

divider and the resistors in generator 2

One thing that became once more very clear from all measurements

and tests performed is that the components do not seem to be what

one think they are. When working with these high-frequencies,

resistors are not pure resistors, capacitors are not pure capacitors and

wires not simply wires. The equivalent circuit of the generating

circuit is presented in Figure 47.

53

54

generating circuit used at KEMA

bifilar high-voltage resistor

Because of the breakdown test that had to be performed, problems

with interference were expected and experienced. The problems with

the interference can be divided into two categories, interference to the

measuring system, interference to the generating circuit. To limit the

interference to a tolerable level, several measures were taken.

55

For the digitizer, the computer, the power supply and the low voltage

parts of the dividers, a special designed (by TU Eindhoven) open

EMC cabinet was built, see Figure 75. The measuring cables were

shielded partly by hollow litze-cable and partly by solid cable tubes.

Because of the interference caused by the spark gaps, the cables from

the trigger delay box to the trigger boxes were put in the same solid

cable tubes.

The initial set-up was optimised by performing some breakdown in air

and making some small modifcations to the screening and

connections. The final set-up had no problems with interference;

either they were not present anymore or within the required limits.

oscillations

From the first measurements it appeared that the beginning of the

oscillations was very steep (the wave shape had more the shape of a

cosine than sine). Since it was not known if the steep front had

influence on the breakdown behaviour (it could be that a breakdown

was provoked by the steep dV/dt above a certain voltage level and not

by the voltage level itself), the problem needed to be investigated.

First idea was that the problem was caused by inductances in the

circuit of generator 2. After some investigations (at low voltage) it

appeared that it was caused by the internal inductance of the resistor

in generator 2 placed between high voltage and ground (in parallel

with the divider). Some simulations were made in addition to these

measurements and besides that they showed good agreement with the

measurements performed, they showed that the inductance of the

high-voltage resistor was 1,44 H. In Figure 49 the wave shape of the

oscillations generated with a low voltage resistor is shown, in Figure

48 the wave shape of the oscillations generated with a high-voltage

resistor is shown. To avoid these high frequency oscillations, special

non-inductive high-voltage resistors were purchased and used.

Many aspects played an important role in the proper functioning of

the test circuit. Some of them are described in the previous

paragraphs, other ones will be shortly mentioned here.

As is well known, the distance of the spark gaps influences the shape

of start of the impulse and oscillation. In the set-up, the gap distance

had to be more or less perfect. (If the gap distance to large at

oscillation part, the first part of the oscillation was disturbed. If the

gap distance was to small, a spontaneous trigger could occur). This

meant that when the voltage to be generated had to be changed, the

gap distances needed to be changed too. This seems an unimportant

matter, but in this case it is important since it was not known if it

could have an influence on the test results.

inductive low voltage resistor

56

In the trigger-box overvoltage protection were placed, to prevent

spontaneous triggers and to protect the devices inside the trigger-box.

The overvoltage protections placed close to the digitizer, intentionally

placed to protect the digitizer, appeared to have a bandwidth limiting

Figure 52 Drawing of the components of

the delay trigger box

box

5.3.2

Trigger delay

two generators can be triggered independently of each other. This

implies that oscillations or overshoot can be superimposed on any part

of the impulse, on the front, on the peak on the tail etc.

To be able to trigger the two generating circuits independent from

each other a delay trigger box had to be designed and built. Because

of interference on the cables from the delay trigger box to the trigger

unit near the trigger gaps (caused by breakdowns and the triggering of

the trigger gaps) and because the output signal of the delay trigger

box had to be in the 100 Volt range, this was not an easy task.

A drawing of the components of the delay trigger box is shown in

Figure 52, a photograph of the delay trigger box is shown in Figure

50, the connections to the 100 Volts supply and to the trigger units of

generator 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 51. The delay can be varied

from 5 s till +5 s.

Because of the influence of the position of the superimposed

oscillations or overshoot on the U50, it was very important that the

delay between the two circuits is very stable (see Figure 88). The

stability of the delay trigger box itself had been checked and the result

was that the output signals were stable within a few ns.

During investigations on the stability of the whole set up it appeared

that the major contribution to the variation of the delay was caused by

instability of the trigger gaps, but still the trigger was stable within

50 ns, which was very good.

5.3.3

Test cell

The test cell was designed for performing breakdown tests on the

insulating materials, oil and air (at normal pressure or below).

box to the 100 V DC supply and the

trigger units of generator 1 and 2

57

Since it is expected that the differences in U50 of different wave

shapes are very small it is very important that the test conditions and

the quality of the insulating medium is very stable. Therefore one of

the requirements of the test cell is that the test conditions are known

and to some extend adjustable. The most important requirements are

listed below, other relevant requirements for the electrodes and the

test conditions of the dielectric media are listed in the following

paragraphs.

General requirements:

the test cell should preferably be at eye height and good working

height

the test cell should be either made of transparent material for

instance glass or plastics or another insulating material with a part

of it of transparent material. This for being able to check the oil

between the electrodes, the electrodes and to check if breakdown

occurs

the test cell should have two electrodes, one to apply the standard

lightning impulse voltage and the other one to apply the

oscillations or overshoot

the high voltage connections to these electrodes should be in such

a way that no flash-overs occur on the outside of the test cell

the divider of the superimposed oscillations and overshoots should

be placed in a very well defined environment and as close as

possible to the electrode that is connected to generator 2

the connections to the high voltage and to ground should be proper

and robust

it should be possible to evacuate the air above the oil

it should be easy to open and to close the test cell

58

One of the requirements for the test cell is that the two electrodes

should be replaceable and that different electrode configurations can

be used. For instance sphere-sphere or plane-plane or point-plane.

Another requirement is that it should be possible to adjust the

distance between the electrodes from 1 mm to 10 mm and measure

this very accurately (in m range). The electrode material should be

such that several breakdown tests can be made with one electrode

without having to replace or polish it. The distance between the

electrodes and the wall of the test cell should be at least 6 cm.

For the homogenous field configuration two different types of

electrodes were made, spheres and plates. The sides of the plates

were smoothed according to the Rogowski profile (y = 1/2 * + e(x1)

). A photograph of the two types of electrodes is shown in Figure

54.

the plane electrode within the test cell

was used. A field calculation for sphere-sphere electrodes and an

electrode distance of 15 mm and air at atmospheric pressure as

insulating material is made, see Figure 55 and Figure 56.

Figure 55 Field calculation with sphere

electrodes at a distance of 15 mm

59

inlay after a number of breakdowns

To be able to replace the electrodes and fix them in the test cell, the

body of the electrodes is made of brass. The effective surface of the

electrode (about 1 cm in diameter) had been replaced by a tungsten

inlay because of severe surface deformation of the brass caused by

breakdowns. To check how large the surface deformation of the

tungsten inlay would be a number of breakdowns (around 100) have

been applied to the electrodes. From both the visual check with the

aid of a microscope, see also Figure 57, and the results of the

measurements it can be concluded that the deformation of the

tungsten can be neglected.

magnification of the area in between the

electrodes

60

The test conditions that have influence on the breakdown voltage are

different for the different insulating materials. In the following

paragraphs most of the test conditions that have to be kept constant,

should be influenced or adjustable or should be fulfilled are

explained.

5.3.3.2.1

Air

During the test with air, the pressure, the humidity, the temperature

and the availability of free electrons have influence on the test results.

Therefore these factors should be maintained constant or known.

Also the test cell should fulfil the criteria of IEC 60052 [75]. It

should be possible to place a UV lamp so the gap can be radiated.

5.3.3.2.2

Oil

instance the gas content, relative humidity, particle content and, of

course the type of oil.

61

Even though oil is a self-restoring medium, it is known that when

breakdown tests are performed after every breakdown the oil between

the electrodes should be replaced since discharges break the oil into

low-molecular gaseous hydrocarbons and elementary carbon [78].

One way to do this is to replace the oil in the whole test vessel after a

number of breakdowns, another way is to circulate the oil.

All methods have some disadvantages. When circulating the oil,

space-charges can be left or gas bubbles can be created, when

changing the oil after each breakdown a larger scatter in results is

expected, when changing the oil after a number of breakdowns, space

charges as well as dirt between the electrodes can be left.

Investigation should make clear what is the best procedure. Since it

was not known on forehand it should therefore be easy to circulate

and change the oil.

From all requirements and with the aid of the first hand-written

design, KEMA-TNK made a professional drawing and suggested

some improvements. This professional drawing of the test cell is

shown in Figure 53. A photograph of the test cell (without oil and

vacuum pump) is shown in Figure 58.

5.3.4

Measuring circuit

For measuring the applied voltage to the test cell that is generated by

the combined generating circuit, two Measuring Systems are

necessary. The Measuring System that measures the lightning

impulse is henceforth named MS1 and the Measuring System that

measures the superimposed oscillations and overshoot is henceforth

named MS2. The applied voltage to the test cell is the difference of

the two measured voltages. The voltage measured with MS1

represents the base curve, the voltage measured with MS2

represents the residual curve R(t) in case the base curve is taken as

the mean curve.

5.3.4.1 Requirements

In principle both measuring should fulfil the requirement of

IEC 60060-2. This implies that the overall measurement uncertainty

should be within 3%. Besides the following requirements:

the cable length of the two measuring systems should be equal and

the time delay between the two measuring systems should be

checked.

the divider of MS2 should have protection in case of a breakdown

both measuring systems should not influence the generating circuit

MS1 should be an approved measuring system and should be able to

measure standard full lightning impulse voltages and chopped

lightning impulse voltages with a maximum of 100 kV.

Figure 58 Photograph of the test cell

62

MS2 should measure voltages with a maximum amplitude up to 20

kV. The voltage can be either an overshoot with duration up to 5 s

or oscillations with a frequency of 5 MHz. MS2 should be able to

detect parasitic high frequency oscillations, much higher than 5 MHz,

caused by the dimensions of the generating circuit, since they might

have an influence. The bandwidth of MS2, assuming an RC circuit

and requiring that the scale factor does not deviate more than 1% at

5MHz from the scale factor at for instance 100 kHz, should be 35

MHz.

It was known that the IEC 60060-2 requirements might be difficult to

meet for MS2, but it should be tried.

As discussed in the previous paragraph, for the investigations in oil,

two measuring systems are needed. One to measure the standard

lightning impulses (MS1) and another one to measure superimposed

oscillations and overshoot (MS2).

63

5.3.4.2.1

MS1

For MS1, one part of a mixed (RCR) divider for LI, SI, AC and DC

was taken. The original divider comprises of three HV-parts, when

used together (in series), the rated voltages of the complete divider are

1550 kV LI, 1175 kV SI, 343 kV DC and 220 kV AC.

Photo of the divider (one HV-part of the original) and its connection

to the test cell is shown in Figure 59.

Most difficult in the construction of this measuring system was to get

rid of the interference that was picked up at the bottom of the divider

and the tuning of the low voltage part. It appeared from measurement

that the scale factor of the measuring system was lower for higher

frequencies and therefor amplified the disturbances. By tuning the

low voltage part and to use two zener diodes (that were intentionally

meant to protect the inputs of the digitizer, but appeared to have a

bandwidth limit effect), the interference could be reduced with a

factor hundred to an acceptable level without disturbing its

capabilities of being able to measure standard LI, see Figure 60.

The dark line is the impulse measured using a filter, the gray line is

the impulse measured not using the filter. The topline is the difference

between them.

5.3.4.2.2

available high voltage probe could be used. It appeared to be that the

dynamic behaviour of this probe was not fulfilling the requirements

and that they became even worse when the cable length was extended.

MS2

divider, two different types of measuring systems were designed and

built. One design was based on the conventional resistive divider and

the other design was based on a D/I (differentiating/integrating)

system. Because of several reasons explained below, the resistive

divider was chosen as divider for MS2.

Ri

Vh

Vout

R

Cp

Ci

Vout

RC

Vh

Ri Ci

output voltage of the D/I divider

64

Together with TUE, a D/I system was built. A drawing of the divider

built is shown in Figure 61. The equivalent circuit of the system is

shown in Figure 62. The relation between the output voltage of the

divider (Vout) and the input voltage on high voltage side Vh is given in

Equation XX. Detailed information about the design of this D/I

system can be found in [76].

The design of the D/I system had the disadvantage that the scale

factor of the divider was very high (when it was dimensioned for the

high frequency, large bandwidth requirements). This made it difficult

to measure the overshoots and oscillations, since the measured

amplitude of the signal was only a few times larger than the

magnitude of the internal noise of the oscilloscope.

Resistive divider

Because of the requirements to the bandwidth (at least 35 MHz) and

the value of the estimated parasitic capacitance, the resistance of the

divider should be in the range of 5 k. The resistances should be low

inductive. After some investigations it turned out that the optimal

design and construction for the divider is the one that is shown in

Figure 63. Before the construction and the design of this divider was

as it is shown in this figure, a lot of investigations and measurements

were carried out. It appeared that very small things had major

influence on the frequency characteristic and the measurement itself,

e.g. type of coaxial cable, aluminium tape placed on the corners of the

test cell. Also there was a difference between the values obtained by

using a spectrum analyser to establish the frequency characteristic and

the values obtained by using a sinusoidal wave shape generator. But

in both cases the divider appeared to meet the requirements.

A photograph of the divider is shown in Figure 64.

divider of MS2

168 matching resistors

aluminium hat

perspex tube, 5 k high voltage resistors

50 , low voltage part

20 meter coaxial cable, 50 RG 214

50 , 15 times, attenuator

5.3.4.2.3

Digitizer

The digitizer used is a Nicolet Power Pro 610, see Figure 75. MS1 is

connected to Channel 1 of the digitizer. MS2 is connected to Channel

2 of the digitizer. The digitizer has a bandwidth of 35 MHz and a

minimum sampling time of 13,3 ns per sample. To reduce

interference to the digitizer and the low voltage part an EMC-screen

was built, see Figure 75.

of MS2

65

Technical Data of LIR1/46.05

performed. One of these measurements is a comparison measurement

with a Reference Measuring System, named LIR1/46.05. Some data

of this Reference Measuring System is given in the column besides

the text. The results of some of the measurements performed are

explained in the next paragraphs.

Nominal Epoch

Up: 100 kV 500 kV

T1: 0,8 s 2,5 s

Scale factor

F = 15580

Overall Measuring Uncertainty

LI 0,84/50 Up:0,93%, T1:6,7%, T2:2,3%

LI 5/50

Up:0,93%, T1:1,6%, T2:2,0%

Last Performance Test

PTB 07-02-1996

Details of divider

Manufacturer

Type

Resistance HV arm 5 k

Resistance LV arm

Damping resistor

5.3.4.3.1

Calibration of MS1

scale factor, linearity, dynamic behaviour and interference.

Scale factor

Haefely

R500 REF

19,1

400

Hber-Suhner, G07273D, 75 , 20 meter

Details of attenuator

HV-arm

71,58

LV-arm

1,966

Details of digital recorder

Manufacturer

Nicolet

Type

Power Pro 610

Bandwith

25 MHz

Sample frequency 76,9 MHz

First, the scale factor has been measured using DC on 7 July 1998.

The scale factor was according to that measurement 19526. For

linearity tests and the comparison measurement, the scale factor was

set to 19530. A comparison measurement against LIR 1 was carried

out on 18 January 1999 at 96 kV. The result was that the scale factor

was 19950 for 100 kV positive polarity. The measurement uncertainty

of this calibration was 0,94%. From the linearity measurements it

appeared that the best scale factor would be 20060. This value was

used for all breakdown tests performed later.

Linearity

A linearity test of MS1 in comparison with LIR 1 was performed for a

voltage level of 2,5 kV up to 96 kV. The result of this linearity test is

presented in Figure 65. The contribution to the measurement

uncertainty caused by the non-linearity is 0,921%.

Dynamic behaviour

The dynamic behaviour of the measuring system was checked by

measuring the rise-time by applying a high voltage step (rise time of

2,5 ns) and by measuring the scale factor in a frequency range 50 kHz

to 20 MHz when a sinusoidal wave of 10 Volt amplitude.

A photograph of the latter measurement in presented in Figure 69.

The results of the latter test are presented in Figure 66. The error

caused by the dynamic behaviour of the measuring system in the

range of 50 kHz to 0,7 MHz, i.e. for time parameters from 5 s to 0,5

s is 1,5%.

1,1

1,05

0,95

0,9

0,85

0,8

0,75

0,7

10,0E+3

66

100,0E+3

1,0E+6

Frequency [Hz]

10,0E+6

100,0E+6

Scalefactor [1]

1,4

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

10,0E+3

of 50 kHz to 20 MHz

100,0E+3

1,0E+6

10,0E+6

100,0E+6

Frequency [Hz]

Interference

Investigations performed demonstrated that the most important

contribution to the interference to MS1 is the triggering of the spark

gaps and is picked up by the low voltage part of the divider. The

interference caused by the measuring cable itself is negligible.

In case a 5,8 kV oscillation of frequency 2 MHz is generated, the

MS1 measures a voltage of 56,9 mV. When multiplied with a scale

factor of 20060 this equals to 1,14 kV. In relation to the expected 70

kV LI, this means that the interference is 1,6 %. (see Figure 67)

In addition to this measurement, also a simultaneous measurement

(MS1 and MS2) was performed while applying a lightning impulse

voltage. The amplitude of the interference is in the same range as the

previous measurement (see Figure 68). The applied voltage is 12,5

kV.

measurements of the dynamic behaviour

using the sine wave generator

MS1 and black is MS2.

MS1. Black is generated oscillations, grey

measured voltage by MS1.

67

5.3.4.3.2

Calibration of MS2

following properties were checked: scale factor, linearity, dynamic

behaviour, short term stability and interference.

Scale factor

First, the scale factor has been measured using DC on 7 July 1998.

The scale factor was according to that measurement 3077. For the

linearity test and the comparison measurement, the scale factor was

set to 3040. A comparison measurement against LIR 1 was carried out

on 18 January 1999 at 19 kV. The result was that the scale factor was

2996 for 19 kV negative polarity. The measurement uncertainty of

this calibration was 0,94%. From the linearity test it appeared that the

scale factor of 3040 was a good scale factor.

2,0%

1,5%

1,0%

Error

0,5%

0,0%

-0,5%

-1,0%

Positive polarity

Negative polarity

-1,5%

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Voltage [kV]

Linearity

A linearity test of MS2 in comparison with LIR 1 was performed for a

voltage level of 2,5 kV up to 19 kV. The result of this linearity test is

presented in Figure 70. The contribution to the measurement

uncertainty caused by the non-linearity is 1,62%.

Dynamic behaviour

Figure

71

Dynamic

behaviour

measurements using a spectrum analyser

68

were performed; a step response measurement, an automatic

frequency response measurement using a spectrum analyser (see

Figure 71), a manual frequency response measurement using a

sinusoidal wave shape generator. The result of these measurements

was that according to the automatic frequency response measurement,

the response of the divider was within 0,6 dB from 100 kHz to 50

MHz. The ratio at 100 kHz and 50 MHz are about the same level,

maximum ratio difference is at 30 MHz. According to the manual

frequency response measurements, the 3 dB point is at 25 MHz (see

Figure 72). For the step response measurement a pulse with a front

time of 2,5 ns is applied, the front time of the pulse measured by the

divider is 4 ns. Taking the result of the manual frequency response

measurement, which results in the smallest bandwidth, the error

caused by the dynamic behaviour is 0,7% in the range of 100 kHz to 2

MHz.

1,1

frequency for MS2

1,05

0,95

0,9

0,85

0,8

0,75

0,7

10,0E+3

100,0E+3

1,0E+6

10,0E+6

100,0E+6

Frequency [Hz]

Interference

For MS2, also three interference measurements have been performed

(interference on the measuring cable, interference caused by generator

1 and interference caused by generator 2). The interference caused by

the trigger of the gap when applying a standard impulse was the

largest. The measuring system measured 12 mV (see Figure 68). The

oscillations to be measured will be between 4 and 14 kV, therefore

the interference is maximum 0,9%.

Short-term stability

To establish the short-term stability of MS2, 60 1,2/50 impulses of

19 kV with a time interval of approximately half a minute were

applied to MS2. Simultaneous readings were take of LIR1 and MS2.

The results are presented in Figure 73. The average scale factor of

the 60 applied impulses is 0,9872. The maximum and minimum scale

of the graph is this value with respectively +1% and 1%. From the

figure it can be seen that the short term stability of MS2 is well within

the required limits. The average scale factor of the first 10 impulses

is 0,9866 the average scale factor of the last 10 impulses is 0,9883

this means that the uncertainty contribution of the short term-stability

is 0,09%. At the same time the uncertainty of the short-term stability

for the time parameters was determined, for T1 this was 0,27% and for

T2 this was 2,15%.

0,9972

MS2 compared to LIR1 at 19 kV for 60

impulses

0,9947

scale factor

0,9922

0,9897

0,9872

0,9847

0,9822

0,9797

0,9772

1

11

16

21

26

31

36

number of impulses

41

46

51

56

69

The software used has been validated. It was found that differences up

to 0,4% can occur in the peak value due to the nature of noise. [77]

Differences up to 0,8% in the peak value can occur when high

frequency oscillations occur on the peak. This will not be the case.

measuring systems

The time delay between the two measuring systems is checked by

applying a chopped impulse. In Figure 74 it can be seen that the time

difference is within a few nanoseconds. The black signal is the signal

measured with MS2, the grey signal is the signal measured with MS1.

MS2

70

The measurement uncertainty is calculated using the method of

IEC 60060-2, as explained in paragraph 2.3.8. This implies that the

general formula for the calculation is the one that is given in Equation

XXI. With the results of the calibration and the information found in

the description of the equipment used, the measurement uncertainty

for one measurement is calculated with Equation XXII.

5.3.4.6.1

MS 1

With:

a1 =

a2 =

a3 =

a4 =

a5 =

a6 =

a7 =

a8 =

a9 =

sr =

Uk =

0,55%

0,92%

estimated: 0,1%

estimated: 0,2%

estimated: 0,1%

no effect: 0%

1,5%

1,6%

0,4%

0,15%

0,94% for k=2

U k

sr

1 2

U ts

Rn R x2 k r

3

k k n

Fm

n 1

calculation of measurement uncertainty

n = number of measurements

Fi = scale factor of measurement i

Fm = average scale factor of n

measurements

sr = experimental standard

deviation

t = student t factor

k = coverage factor

Uk = measurement uncertainty of the

reference measuring system or the

calibration

aI = systematic contribution to the

measurement uncertainty

Therefore, the measurement uncertainty for k=2, B=95% for MS1 for

one measurement is 3,1%.

U k

5.3.4.6.2

MS2

U

1

ai2 i

3

ki

t sr

With:

a1 =

a2 =

a3 =

a4 =

a5 =

a6 =

a7 =

a8 =

a9 =

sr =

Uk =

1,47%

1,62%

0,09%

estimated: 0,2%

estimated: 0,1%

no effect: 0%

0,7%

0,9%

0,4%

0,066%

0,94% for k=2

The measurement uncertainty for k=2, B=95% for MS2 for one

measurement is 3,1%

for one measurement

a1 =

a2 =

a3 =

a4 =

a5 =

a6 =

a7 =

a8 =

a9 =

sr =

non-linearity

short term stability

long term stability

temperature effect

proximity effect

dynamic behaviour

interference

software

experimental standard

deviation of the calibration

71

5.3.5

the experiments and the control of the digitizer a special software

package, with the name PARAMETER, was developed by FFII/LCOE

(one of the partners in the European project). Besides the standard

IEC 60060 parameters some research parameters are evaluated. The

parameters to be evaluated have been proposed and discussed within

the European project team. How the software controls the digitizer

and which parameters are used and how they are evaluated is

explained in the next three paragraphs.

Figure 75 Digitzer,

evaluation software

computer

and

The software can control a Nicolet Power Pro 610 or a Tektronix

RTD 710A. Signals either from only Channel 1, from only Channel 2

or from Channel 1 and 2 can be acquired. Because it might be

necessary to evaluate the measured curves once more after all

measurements were carried out to test the validity of a new parameter,

it was decided in the project that all measured curves should be

stored. The software acquires the signals from the chosen Channel(s)

and saves the data to disk. Channel 1 is saved as a *.c1 file, Channel

2 as a *.c2 file and in case of a two channel measurement the applied

voltage over the test cell is the difference between the two channels is

saved as a *.c12 file, taking into account the two different scale

factors. In all case of the Nicolet Power Pro, the used record length of

the signals is 6300 samples per channel, the sampling rate is 13,3 ns

for each channel.

Once the signals have been acquired, displayed on the screen and

stored to disk the parameters can be evaluated and displayed on the

screen as well, see Figure 76. The complete set-up of computer,

parameters displayed on the screen

The parameters evaluated are stored in an ASCII-file (*.pc1, *.pc2,

*p12 format), so that after measurements some automatic evaluation

of this output files can be made, for instance to calculate U50 or a

mean area above a certain level. Which parameters are evaluated is

72

explained in the paragraph 5.3.5.2. How the U50 is calculated is

explained in the paragraph 5.3.5.4.

The evaluated parameters can be divided into two categories:

1.

2.

BL, base line

T1, front time

T2, time to half-value

Tc, time to chopping

O1, origin

Ut,, test voltage

Uc, voltage at Tc

research parameters

Uprmc

Up

f, frequency of the oscillation

AI, amplitudes of the superimposed oscillation

, wave integral above a reference voltage

OPV, overshoot peak value

VPV, virtual peak value

Wave integral above VPV

, overshoot amplitude

d, overshoot duration

In addition to these parameters, some curves can be drawn.

BL, Base Line

RMC, Reference Mean Curve

R(t), Residual Curve

SE, Single Exponential of Tail

dU/dt, Impulse Steepness at each point

The flowchart presenting the steps made to evaluate the parameters

(IEC 60060 and research) and a detailed description how each

parameter is evaluated are presented in Appendix 1.

In case of a two channel measurement and in case generator 1 has no

influence on generator 2 and vice versa, the residual curve is the

signal recorded at Channel 2. The mean curve is the signal recorded

at Channel 1.

For the determination of U50 a statistical analysis software

programme, with the name MLM 53, version 5.2/5.3, is used. MLM

53 is programme that analyses statistically the measurement results of

multiple level tests and has been developed for impulse testing. This

programme has been developed by the Technische Universitt

Dresden, Insitut fr Hochspannungs- und Hochstromtechnik, in

cooperation with Dr. W. Hauschild. Detailed information about how

the data is statistically analysed can be found in [78].

73

Once the measured data have been entered, a graph showing the

distribution function (breakdown probability as function of the

voltage) with the maximum likelihood, the confidence limit of this

function, the U50 and the sigma can be displayed on the screen or

printed, see Figure 77.

function of the measurement series:

44,4 kV, 10 impulses, 0 breakdowns;

44,8 kV, 10 impulses, 0 breakdowns;

45,1 kV, 10 impulses, 1 breakdowns;

45,25 kV, 10 impulses, 6 breakdowns;

45,5 kV, 10 impulses, 8 breakdowns;

45,8 kV, 10 impulses, 10 breakdowns.

With some of the measurement series (in oil and in air) it has been

investigated which distribution showed the best results. In most cases

in air the Weibull and the normal distribution function showed similar

and good result. In most cases for oil, the normal distribution showed

good results. To make sure that the difference between the test results

in the work at KEMA and within the European project was not

influenced by the difference in distribution function, one distribution

function had to be chosen. Therefore, in all cases in this thesis and in

the European project a normal distribution function is chosen for the

approximation function.

5.3.6

air have been performed, only some of the results are presented here.

To check how the mounting and de-mounting of several components

and setting the gap distance, changing it, and setting it back again

influenced the results two measurements in air were performed. The

result of Measurement 980929-3 was: U50 = -42,866 0,132 kV, the

result of Measurement 981002-1 was:U50 = -42,988 0,169 kV. The

conclusion was that the influence of changing some of the

components and the gap distance was within the standard deviation

(0,4%) of the determination of the U50 and even within 0,3%.

45,6122

U50 in [kV]

45,5122

If the voltage is set to a certain value 10 times, eg. 41,7 kV, the

average of these 10 voltages was 41,6758, the maximum voltage

differed 0,12%, the minimum voltage 0,16% from this value.

45,4122

45,3122

45,2122

45,1122

45,0122

990119 990120-2 990121-2 990205-1 990205-3 990208-2

Measurement number

sphere-sphere gap of 15 mm

74

measurements with IEC 60052 as reference were made. The results

are presented in Figure 78. The result was that the difference of the

average of the measured values to IEC 60052 less than 1,3%. The

values do not differ more than 0,36% of each other.

5.3.7

After the generating circuit, the test cell, the measuring systems and

the evaluation methods have been explained, the test method and the

test procedure of the breakdown tests will be explained.

It appeared that after all problems associated with the generating

circuit, the measuring systems and the software had been solved,

finding a suitable and reliable test procedure was more difficult than

expected. The results of the several investigations made are not

presented in this thesis, only the procedure finally chosen is explained

here.

For the tests in air the multiple level test for establishing the U50 is

chosen. This because of the limitations of the generating circuit.

The electrodes are placed in an area with enough fresh air, since it

appeared from measurements that inaccurate and unreliable results

were obtained when the electrodes were used inside the plastic tube.

Therefore, for these measurements, the plastic tube is removed.

Before starting a test series, the environmental conditions are

measured and noted. In some cases UV-lamps were used, in some

cases not. This is indicated when the measurement results are

presented.

The tests in air are made using the sphere-sphere electrodes, without

tungsten inlay. It was checked my measurement and by visual

inspections, that the electrode was not damaged noticeable.

5.3.7.2.1

Test method

From the many investigations performed towards the best test method

for oil, it could be concluded that the best suitable and most reliable

and independent method was the multiple level test for establishing

the U50. Because of the limitations of the test set-up it was not always

possible to have 6 levels, but only 5 levels (one with all breakdown,

one with all withstands and three with withstands and breakdowns)

with equal intervals can be obtained. Each level consists of at least

10 shots.

5.3.7.2.2

Test procedure

towards the best test procedure is that every test series (this is a

multiple level test, comprising of at least 50 shots) should be done

using fresh and conditioned oil.

Before the test series is started at least two breakdowns should be

made. After these breakdowns, three withstands should be made and

after two minutes rest the test series can be started. After a long break

at least one breakdown; followed by three non-breakdown is made.

Since the tests are independent from each other, it is not so important

at which voltage level the test series is started. But, because of the

75

degradation of the oil after too many breakdowns (more than

approximately 100), it is preferred to start in case of an unknown U 50

at a low voltage level and not at a too high voltage level.

Because of the memory effect of the oil, it was found that one cannot

simply use the multiple level method. After thorough investigations a

special procedure for the multiple level test was found to be the best.

This procedure is used for further tests and is explained below.

After each withstand one minute should be waited before the next

impulse is applied. After five withstand in a row, a breakdown should

be made (this impulse is not used as a shot for the test series). After

every breakdown three withstands, far below the U10, should be made

(these three withstands are not used as shots for the test series). After

a breakdown followed by three withstands two minutes should be

waited before the next impulse is applied.

5.3.7.2.3

As mentioned before, for each test series fresh and conditioned oil

will be used.

Because at KEMA no treatment unit for oil was available the fresh oil

is take from a barrel of new oil and it is not regenerated. After the oil

was used for one test series, it was removed from the test cell and

discarded.

The conditioning of the oil comprises of the following steps:

1. filling the test cell with oil

2. conditioning of the oil before starting the test series

3. conditioning of the oil during the test series

The air and oil in the test cell are at normal surrounding pressure. In

case there is still oil in the test cell, the oil is taken out completely of

the cell by opening the bottom valves. The oil is flowing out by

gravity forces.

Before filling with fresh oil, the test vessel and the electrodes are not

being cleaned. It was checked that the electrodes, which are from

tungsten, are not deformed. Besides that, the electrodes do not get

dirty from the relatively few breakdowns. Cleaning it may introduce

more dirt.

After that the used oil is removed, all valves are closed and the test

vessel is pumped vacuum. When it is vacuum, the valves to the barrel

of oil are opened and the oil is being sucked in the test cell, see

Figure 79. The fresh oil is pumped into the test vessel from a barrel

of oil. This barrel is normally closed and only opened for a short time

during the filling of the test cell.

76

When there is enough oil in the vessel, the valves to the barrel will be

closed and the test vessel will be pumped vacuum, so that the air

inside the oil gets out. After this, the oil is being circulated, for some

time by the pumping system, and it is again pumped vacuum. This is

repeated for two times.

When the fresh oil in the barrel (which should be done no longer than

16 hours before the test series is started) and has been brought to

vacuum for three times, the test cell is brought back to surrounding

pressure by opening the valves. Before the start of the test series, the

electrode distance are checked. Half an hour before the first test the

oil pump of the circulating system is started and the DC supply of the

three ring electrodes is switched on (see explanation later).

Before each test series, the temperature, the air pressure and the

humidity are measured and the values are written down.

When the barrel was opened the first time and when the last oil was

taken out, an oil sample was taken and an analysis was made.

A photo of the vacuum and oil pump, the DC supply and the tube

connections is shown in Figure 80.

During the test, an oil pump continuously circulates the oil between

the electrodes. This is done for three reasons:

1. to get rid of the dirt in the gap, but for that you do in principle not

need continuously pumping

2. every time the pump starts, you might get some small air bubbles,

to prevent these air bubbles, the pumping is continuously

3. to get rid of the charges in the oil. For this the oil is pumped

through a hose containing three ring electrodes. The outer ones

are on earth potential, the middle on 30 V DC, see Figure 81

(Investigations pointed out that 1 kV DC was decreasing the

properties of the oil, AC voltage was equally worse. If 30 V DC is the

optimum, we do not know since we are not making investigations to

this and the 30 V DC gave very stable values)

breakdown voltage

Two oil samples were taken. One sample, sample no. 61534 was of

the fresh and new oil. The other sample, sample no. 61535 was taken

after a significant number of breakdowns (at least 50). The results of

the analysis performed on these two samples at KEMA are presented

in detail Appendix 5. The breakdown voltage for 50 Hz, changes

from 75 19 kV per 2,5 mm for fresh oil to 69 17 kV per 2,5 mm

for the used oil. The change is well within the measurement

uncertainty of the measurement, so no significant influence can be

detected.

connected to the 30 V DC supply

Standard deviation

Because of several physical reasons, the standard deviation in the

obtained results is around 4 kV for a breakdown voltage of 70 kV

(around 5%). For the purpose of this project it is rather large, but

comparing the results to values heard from other institutions

performing breakdown tests in oil (around 20%), it is rather low.

77

Figure 82 The two generating circuits, the

test cell and the two dividers

5.3.8

Conclusions

cell and test methods at KEMA took at least 1 year. A lot of

investigations towards the best generating circuits, measuring circuits,

test cell, test methods and their properties were performed. For sure

the tests performed with the designed and built test set up and test

method give reliable and reproducible results.

In Figure 82 a photo of the set up built at KEMA (without the

pumping system of the oil) is shown.

5.4

5.4.1

Generating circuit used for the tests at TU Graz

This circuit was sufficient for the type of investigations to be

performed.

For the generated lightning impulse voltages of different types, two

different circuits were used. Schematic descriptions of these two

circuits are presented in Figure 83 and Figure 84.

impulses and for the standard impulse with

superimposed 200 kHz oscillations and 1,3

s overshoot

impulse with superimposed 1 MHz

oscillations

78

A photograph of the circuit used to generate the damped sine wave of

which the results are not presented in this report is presented in Figure

85.

The values of the different components used in the different circuits

are presented in Table 3.

Table 3

Waveshape

Cs in nF

Re in

Rd in

Ld in H

Cb in nF

a) Standard

Impulse

35

400

375

b) Overshoot

1,4 s

35

400

300

165

c) 200 kHz

Oscillations

35

400

41

13,6

d) 1000 kHz

Oscillations

35

400

50

78

0,24

e) Damped

sine wave 200

kHz

35

400

2,5

5,6

5.4.2

Test vessel

given in Figure 86.

Figure 85 Photograph of the circuit used

for the one of the experiments (200 kHz

damped sine wave)

79

5.4.3

Samples

Sample type A: The two copper strips, wrapped with paper, are only

on two places wrapped together

Sample type B: The two copper strips, wrapped with paper, are over

its whole length wrapped together

The samples were placed at the disposal by Siemens. For which they

are thanked.

5.4.4

Since the samples consist of, amongst others, paper material it is very

important that the paper contains as less as possible moisture, since

this has a effect on the breakdown behaviour. It is also very important

that each sample is of the same quality. If this is not the case, it will

be almost impossible to evaluate the results because of the wide

spread in the results.

Figure 87 The samples

To reduce the moisture, the samples were dried under vacuum, 1 mbar

at 105C (2C) for 24 hours. After the samples are dried, they were

places in oil for 24 hours. After that this process was completed the

tests were started.

To find the breakdown voltage the progressive stress method was

used with 3 shots at the same level. For each test series at least 10

samples were used.

The tests were started at 85% of the U20 (20% breakdown voltage)

and the voltage was raised in steps of 5% until breakdown occurred.

After each shot 2-3 minutes was waited before the next impulse was

applied.

5.4.5

For the tests performed at TU-Graz, the same digitizer and evaluation

software was used as that used at KEMA. Also for the evaluation of

the U20, the same software was used as that one used at KEMA.

80

6.1

Introduction

In the previous chapter the test set-up, the test methods and test

procedure used at KEMA and TU Graz are explained in detail. In this

chapter the results of the investigations performed at KEMA and at

TUG are explained. The results of the investigations performed by

the other partners in the European project, Schering Institute, LCOE

and NGC, are explained as well. The author was the project-leader

and initiator of the European project, performed the measurements at

KEMA and evaluated the results performed at TU-Graz.

used will be explained. When the statement, there is no influence is

made, it means that two or more measurements performed do not

differ from each other. When the statement, there is no significant

influence is made, it means that there is a difference between two or

more measurement results, only that the difference between them is

within the standard deviation of the U50. In case the statement, there

is an influence is made, it means that the difference between two or

more measurement results is larger than the standard deviation of the

U50.

For the measurements from which the results are presented in this

chapter, with the exception of the measurements performed at TU

Graz, the combined generating circuit as described in the previous

chapter is used. The peak value of the curve generated by generator

1, the part that generates the standard impulse is referred to as the

peak value of the RMC, Up(RMC). The peak value of the difference

between the two applied waves (the full impulse and the oscillations)

is called the peak value of the total curve Up. For the measurements

performed at TU Graz, the curves measured when applying only the

standard impulse could be used for fitting the curve, or in case of

overshoot the curve was fitted with a exponential function that fitted

the tail. The peak value of the measured curve is referred to as Up.

The peak value of the fitted curve is called Up(RMC).

6.2

Test to be performed

Before the breakdown tests were started at the different location, took

place on which test should be performed. Redundant tests should be

prevented, but on the other hand there were a lot of research questions

that had to be solved. In this paragraph the test that were intended to

be performed are explained. Of course, like in every other research

project, on the road, some more or some fewer tests are performed,

since the information available from the tests already performed

changes the view and the number of open questions.

To check the influence of systematic and random errors, the

laboratories participating in the European project performed a

comparison measurement using a sphere-sphere gap in air. The test

81

should be performed with a 1,2/50 with 2 MHz oscillations

superimposed so that the peak values coincide.

for standard lightning impulse voltages

The standard full lightning impulse voltage is a 1,2/50 s impulse. A

tolerance of 30% is allowed for the front time, 20% for the time to

half-value and 3% for the peak value. One of the goals of the

experimental investigations will therefore be to prove that, indeed, the

U50 is within certain tolerance limits, when the front time and the time

to half-value are varied between or even outside these limits.

curve as test voltage

When evaluating the parameters of a measured lightning impulse

voltage according to the present IEC 60060-1, in some cases the test

voltage is the peak value of the mean curve. It seems not possible to

define a mathematically mean curve that is suitable/acceptable for

all lightning impulse voltage that are generated during normal testing.

Besides this not all persons agree with the relevancy of the test

voltage obtained by taking the peak value of this mean curve.

Therefore another goal of the experimental investigations will be to

investigate whether the peak value of the curve or the peak value of a

mean curve is the most important parameter when evaluating the test

voltage.

In the present IEC 60060-1 no difference is made in the evaluation of

lightning impulse voltage with overshoot and the evaluation of

lightning impulse voltages with oscillations. It is necessary to

investigate whether this assumption is correct. Therefore tests have to

be performed with both oscillations and overshoot.

At the moment in the IEC 60060-1 the test voltage is equal to the peak

value in case the frequency of the oscillation is below 500 kHz (or the

overshoot longer than 1s) and it is equal to the peak value of a

mean curve in case the oscillation frequency is above 500 kHz (or

the overshoot shorter than 1 s). Why is this sharp limit and is it on

the right frequency? To answer this question investigations with

oscillations and overshoot of different frequencies and duration have

to be performed.

Right now, a lightning impulse with oscillations or overshoot of

amplitude larger than 5% is called a non-standard impulse. Is it really

so that the evaluation is different? Is it so that oscillations of 5%

amplitude do not have a significant effect on the 50% breakdown

voltage and oscillations of more than 5% do? To answer this question

investigations with oscillations and overshoots of different amplitudes

have to be performed.

82

New parameters

Another assignment in this project is to investigate totally new

parameters. In case that one finds out that the present parameters are

either not relevant or too difficult to implement one does not have to

perform all test over again, since one has the data already available.

Therefore it was also agreed upon that all test data should be stored

digitally so that post processing was possible.

To find all the answers to the questions mentioned before and in

Chapter 4.6, standard lightning impulse voltages with different front

times and time to half value, standard lightning impulse voltages with

superimposed oscillations and overshoot of different amplitudes and

frequencies have to be generated.

An overview of the tests that initially have been thought of

performing is given in Table 4.

Table 4 Overview of test to be performed on oil

Parameters to vary

Wave shape Oscillation

front/tail

frequency

Overshoot

duration

overshoot

oscillation or overshoot

1,2/50

200 kHz

0,625 s

20%

on the peak

1,56/50

500 kHz

1 s

10%

on the front

1,84/50

800 kHz

2,5s

5%

1,56/40

2 MHz

5 s

0,84/40

5 MHz

amplitude of the first peak.

83

6.3

could be performed, the test set ups of the different partners had to be

tested on reproducibility and correctness by a comparison

measurement. All partners performed a breakdown test in air using

sphere-sphere gaps and applied a 1,2/50 s impulse with a

superimposed 2 MHz oscillation at the peak of the impulse.

The disruptive discharge of external

insulation depends on the atmospheric

conditions [1]. By applying correction

factors, a disruptive discharge voltage

measured in given test conditions may be

converted to the value, which would have

been obtained under the standard reference

conditions. The disruptive discharge is

proportional to Kt that results from:

Kt k1 k2

Equation XXIII atmospheric correction

factor

The measured disruptive discharge

voltages U are corrected to U0

corresponding to the standard reference

atmosphere by dividing by Kt:

reference conditions (see explanation to the left). The initial

measurements performed showed some inconsistency. To find the

reason for this inconsistency several additional measurements were

performed by KEMA and LCOE.

6.3.1

Two measurements (measurement no. 990208-1 and 990208-2) were

performed for the inter-comparison measurement (in a 15 mm spheresphere gap, sphere diameter 6 cm, minimum radiation). T 1 and T2 of

the full impulse were respectively 1,18 s and 49,2 s. The waves of

measurement no. 990208-1 had oscillations superimposed and the

waves of measurement no. 990208-2 were smooth impulses. The

superimposed oscillation had an amplitude of 4,4 kV, its frequency

was 1,85 MHz and it was placed around the peak (1,6 s delay).

U0 U / Kt

deviation of 0,6 kV and UP,50 was 47,8 kV with a standard deviation

of 0,5 kV. This means that the amplitude of the oscillations was 10%.

atmosphere

deviation of 0,12 kV.

from 45,2 kV to 43,4 kV.

k1 m

b 273 t0

b0 273 t

therefore that the influence of superimposed oscillations of frequency

1,85 MHz, amplitude 10%, placed around the peak (delay 1,6 s) to

the Up(RMC),50 is 4%.

Equation XXV

humidity correction factor k2

k2 k w

Equation XXVI

84

Influence of trigger delay

To study the influence of the trigger delay, in case oscillations are

superimposed, to the Up(RMC),50, a measurement series was performed.

The electrode configuration used was a sphere-plate gap at a distance

of 15 mm in air. The air is irradiated with UV light. The standard

impulse had a 1,6/50 shape. The superimposed oscillations had a

frequency of 2,5 MHz and amplitude of 10%. The standard deviation

in the determination of the Up(RMC),50 was around 0,4%. In Figure 88

the results are presented and a trend-line is added.

-41

time between the start of the full impulse

and the start of the oscillation of frequency

2,5 MHz and amplitude 10% for sphere

plate (15 mm) configuration in air with

UV light to the Up(RMC),50

Up(RMC),50 in [kV]

-41,5

-42

-42,5

-43

-43,5

-44

-44,5

0

superimposed oscillations have no influence on the Up(RMC),50 when

they are placed near or before the origin of the impulse. They

however have an influence on the Up(RMC),50 when they are positioned

close to the peak. Therefore the conclusion of this measurement

series is that the trigger delay has an influence on the Up(RMC),50.

The influence is the largest when the delay is around 3 s for a

1,6/50 s impulse and 2,5 MHz oscillation frequency. At that point

the influence to the Up(RMC),50 is expected to be around 4,8% (a

Up(RMC),50 of around -42 kV in case oscillations superimposed on the

peak versus a Up(RMC),50 of around -44 kV in case of a standard

impulse).

of standard impulses

To investigate the influence of irradiation to the 50% breakdown

voltage a measurement series in air was performed. During this

measurement series a sphere-sphere gap with a gap distance of 15 mm

and impulses of positive polarity were used. The results are presented

in Figure 89. It can be seen that the first three measurements have a

higher U50 value than the last three measurements.

The average value of the first three measurements differs 0,3% from

the average value of the last three measurements. From this it might

be concluded that UV irradiation has the effect that the U50 increases

a little. The difference is however within the standard deviation of

these measurements (0,4%) and therefore the conclusion is that no

significant influence of the irradiation on the U50 can be seen.

Just for information of some readers, the difference between the

IEC 60052 values and the average values of the measurements is

45,61

a sphere-sphere gap of 15 mm in air to

investigate the influence of radiation

U50 in [kV]

45,51

45,41

45,31

45,21

45,11

45,01

990119

Measurement number

85

1,1%.

oscillations superimposed

To investigate the influence of the irradiation towards the influence

on the Up(RMC),50 impulses with superimposed oscillations a

measurement series was performed. The oscillation superimposed

had an amplitude of 4,4 kV (around 10%), a frequency of 1,85 MHz,

and it was placed 1,6 s after the start of the impulse. The results are

presented in Figure 90. (The results of these measurements are

normalised to 10% oscillations amplitude).

During measurement 990120-1, the gap was irradiated with UV light,

during measurement 990205-2 no special precautions were taken and

during measurement 990208-1 the gap was covered so it could not be

irradiated by other sparks gaps close to it.

49,0

Up(RMC),50 of in case oscillations are

superimposed

48,0

U50 in [kV]

47,0

46,0

Up(RMC),50

45,0

Up,50

44,0

43,0

42,0

990120-1

990205-2

990208-1

Measurement number

that the influence of superimposed oscillations of frequency 1,85

MHz, amplitude 10%, placed around the peak is influenced by

irradiation. The influence on the Up(RMC),50 becomes significant

smaller, when the irradiation is less, a change from 6,2% to 4,5 %.

The general additional conclusion of the measurement series

performed is that under the used test conditions the influence of

superimposed oscillations of frequency 1,85 MHz, amplitude 10%,

placed around the peak on the Up(RMC),50 is around 5%.

6.3.2

results. The plate electrodes used had a diameter of 100 mm, a flat

area of 55 mm and the distance between the electrodes was 15 mm.

The T1 and T2 of the impulse were 1,2 s and 50 s. The frequency

of the oscillation superimposed was 1,84 MHz, its amplitude 5,25 kV

and the delay was 2,5 s.

The Up(RMC),50 of the impulse with oscillations was 49,8 kV with a

standard deviation of 1,07 kV. The Up,50 of the impulse with

86

oscillation was 54,8 kV with a standard deviation of 1,07 kV.

Therefore the amplitude of the oscillations was 10,5%.

The Up(RMC),50 of the full impulse was 51,31 kV with a standard

deviation of 1,04 kV.

The conclusion of this measurement was that oscillations of

frequency 1,84 MHz, 10,5% amplitude and with a delay of 2,5 s

have an influence of 2,9% to the Up(RMC),50.

6.3.3

Initial measurement

Two measurements carried out in March 1999, showed the following

results. The spheres used had a diameter of 150 mm and the distance

between the spheres was 35 mm. The T1 and T2 of the impulse were

1,19 s and 50,17 s. The frequency of the oscillation superimposed

was 2,14 MHz, its amplitude 9,76 kV and the delay was 2,46 s.

The Up(RMC),50 of the impulse with oscillations was 98,64 kV with a

standard deviation of 0,86 kV. The Up,50 of the impulse with

oscillation was 109,25 kV with a standard deviation of 1,27 kV.

Therefore the amplitude of the oscillations is 10%.

The Up(RMC),50 of the full impulse was 98,0 kV with a standard

deviation of 0,62 kV.

The conclusion of this measurement was that oscillations of

frequency 2,14 MHz, 10% amplitude and with a delay of 2,46 s have

no significant influence on the Up(RMC),50 (the influence is in the range

of the standard deviation).

Additional measurements

In order to study the influence of the trigger delay on the Up(RMC),50,

the trigger delay has been changed between 1,2 s and 3s for an

impulse with superimposed oscillations of a fixed frequency (2 MHz)

and fixed amplitude (A1 = 10%). This study has been carried out for

the homogeneous field.

When the trigger delay, to, is inside the interval 1,2 s and 3,0 s the

breakdown voltage of the mean curve Up(RMC),50 decreases. The

highest decrease of around 3% was obtained for to = 2,3 s, see

Figure 91.

Figure 91 Influence of the trigger delay

towards the influence of superimposed

oscillations

87

Up(RMC),50/U1,2/50 [1]

1,01

1

0,99

0,98

0,97

1

1,5

2,5

6.3.4

results. The spheres used had a diameter of 20 mm and the distance

between the spheres was 15 mm. The T1 and T2 of the impulse were

1,2 s and 50 s. The frequency of the oscillation superimposed was

1,88 MHz, its amplitude 3,06 kV and the delay was 2,58 s.

The Up(RMC),50 of the impulse with oscillations was 33,91 kV with a

standard deviation of 0,89 kV. The Up,50 of the impulse with

oscillation was 36,94 kV with a standard deviation of 0,95 kV.

Therefore the amplitude of the superimposed oscillations is 9%.

The Up(RMC),50 of the full impulse was 33,62 kV with a standard

deviation of 0,93 kV.

The conclusion of this measurement was that oscillations of

frequency 1,88 MHz, 9% amplitude and with a delay of 2,58 s have

no significant influence (smaller than the standard deviation) on the

Up(RMC),50.

in air

In four different laboratories test on sphere-sphere gaps been carried

out under different test conditions. The goal of the test was twofold.

The first goal was to check the influence of oscillations of frequency

2 MHz and 10% amplitude. The second goal was to check the

stability of the whole test set-up and the consistency of the results

obtained by different partners.

The initial results showed some inconsistency, the influence of 10%

oscillations varied between 0% and 4%. Investigations performed

showed that the influence was depending on the trigger delay used

and the irradiation. Because of this, discussions took place about

what the best suitable trigger time delay should be for the other tests

to be carried out. This resulted in the fact that the trigger delay had to

be such that:

88

The front time, T1, obtained for the curve with the superimposed

oscillations is as close as possible to the T 1 obtained for the curve

without oscillations

Up Up(RMC) + 0,7*Oscillation amplitude

Trigger delay time, td, is shorter than the time to peak tp(RMC)

If more than one td fulfils the requirements, the most natural curve

should be chosen

The same td should be obtained for all amplitudes

It also resulted in the decision that when results of tests carried out

were discussed the overshoot value in percent is not the amplitude of

the superimposed oscillation itself, but ((Up-Up(RMC))/ Up(RMC))*100%.

The general conclusion of the test carried out in air was that

oscillations of frequency 2MHz and of 10% amplitude superimposed

on the peak of a 1,2/50 smooth impulse in a sphere-sphere gap cause

that the 50% breakdown voltage (Up(RMC),50)is decreased by around

3%.

6.4

The measurements in oil were carried out using the test set-up and

76

U50 in [kV]

74

72

70

68

66

64

62

0

0,5

1,5

2,5

out using transformer oil. The oil was purchased at SMIT

transformers Nijmegen and it was processed as if being used for

filling transformers. Details about the oil used can be found in

Appendix 5.

The gap distance of the sphere-sphere electrodes was set to 1 mm.

The test method and procedure used are the ones described in detail in

Chapter 5.

Investigations performed towards the influence of the front time

showed the results are presented in Figure 92. In this figure the

measured U50 values, the standard deviations and a trend-line are

presented.

The results presented in Figure 92 shows that the U50 varies between

69,5 kV for a front time of 0,3 s and 69 kV for a front time of 2 s

(69,2 kV for 1,2 s). This means that the influence of variations of

89

Figure 92 Influence of the front time

towards the U50 of transformer oil.

the front time between 0,3 and 2 s on the U50 is not more than 0,5%.

The conclusion is that there is no significant influence on the 50%

breakdown voltage of oil in a 1 mm sphere-sphere gap when the front

time is varied from 0,3 s to 2s.

voltage

The results of the investigations performed towards the influence of

the time to half value are presented in Figure 93. No significant

influence on the 50% breakdown voltage can be detected when the

time to half value is varied from 40 s

Figure 93 Influence of the time to half

value towards the U50 of transformer oil

80

U50 in [kV]

76

72

68

64

60

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

to 50 s.

A number of measurements have been performed to investigate the

influence of superimposed oscillations of different frequencies. The

measurements performed are the measurement numbers: O990622a,

O990525a, O990519a, O990518a, O990517b and O990316a as

described in Appendix 4. Because of the standard deviation

performing tests with 5% oscillations was of no use. Therefore only

oscillations of 10% and higher were superimposed.

When an overshoot of amplitude 17,5% and duration 1 s is

superimposed the Up(RMC),50 is 65,24 kV. When an oscillation of

frequency 500 kHz and amplitude 17,5% is superimposed the

Up(RMC),50 is 65,48 kV. The Up(RMC),50 for a standard impulse is 69,2

kV. This means that the influence of an oscillation of amplitude

17,5% on the Up(RMC),50 is 5,48% and the influence of an overshoot of

amplitude 17,5% on the Up(RMC),50 is 5,72%. The difference between

the two results is 0,25% and therefore there is no significant

difference between the influence of oscillations and overshoot.

Therefore only the influence of oscillations is investigated further.

the 50% breakdown voltage

Investigations have shown that there are certain oscillations

frequencies have an influence on the Up(RMC),50 and there can be

certain oscillation frequencies that do not have an influence on the

Up(RMC),50. It is clear of course that only in the first case the amplitude

might also have an effect on the Up(RMC),50.

90

The measurement results presented in the previous paragraph indicate

that the amplitude of a superimposed oscillations of 500 kHz has an

influence to the Up(RMC),50. It is clear that in case no oscillation is

applied, the influence on the Up(RMC),50 is 0%. If the amplitude is

17,5%, the influence on the Up(RMC),50 is 5,48%.

Question is now, if a oscillation of around 8,5% has an influence on

the Up(RMC),50 of 2,7% or a different influence. And in the latter case

is this influence larger or is it smaller? Do oscillations of amplitude

smaller than 5% affect or not?

With the measurement results obtained a linearity statement could be

validated (see Figure 94). How it works will be explained by

presenting three fictious measurement examples.

In case a standard impulse (without oscillations) is applied, the

obtained Up(RMC),50 is 69,2 kV, indicated in Figure 94 by the point R.

This value is called the test voltage. This point is, of course, equal to a

standard impulse with superimposed oscillations with amplitude 0%.

The points L (Up,50) and M (Up(RMC),50) in Figure 94, correspond to

measurement with a superimposed oscillation of a certain frequency

of amplitude 21,5%. As can be seen from the figure point L is above

the test voltage and point M is below the test voltage. It appeared that

for another measurement, presented by the points A (Up,50) and

B (Up(RMC),50) in Figure 94, that correspondent to an oscillation of

10,4% the test voltage was also in between these two values and

more, that A = x*(L-R)+R and that B = x*(M-R)+R. Where x is a

certain value between 0 and 1.

With these equations, it is easy to interpret and to convert a

measurement result obtained for an amplitude of 20% to that for an

amplitude of 10%.

L

78,2

Up(rmc), 50

76,2

Up,50

U50

74,2

72,2

70,2

R

68,2

B

66,2

M

64,2

1

the 50% breakdown voltage

With the validated linearity statement, the measurement results of the

influence of oscillations superimposed could be interpolated, the

results are only for 20% oscillations presented in Figure 95.

From the results the following conclusions can be drawn:

91

For a oscillation frequency of 2 MHz and amplitude up to 20% the

oscillations have no influence on the 50% breakdown voltage

Oscillations of a frequency of 200 kHz have an influence on the

breakdown voltage. In case an oscillation of 20% amplitude is

superimposed on a standard lightning impulse the Up(rmc),50 is 10%

lower than in case a standard lightning impulse with no

oscillations superimposed is applied.

Oscillations of a frequency of 500 kHz have an influence on the

breakdown voltage. In case an oscillation of 20% is superimposed,

the Up(rmc),50 is reduced by 6%.

Oscillations of a frequency of 800 kHz have an influence on the

breakdown voltage. In case an oscillation of 20% is superimposed,

the Up(rmc),50 is reduced by 5,6%.

For of oscillations between 200 kHz and 2 MHz with amplitudes up to

20%, the 50% breakdown voltage for a standard impulse is in

between the peak value of the total curve and the peak value of the

mean curve. It is therefore not solely the amplitude of the peak value

nor the amplitude of the peak value of a mean curve that is of

physical significance. It seems that: Ut= kUp + (1-k)Up(RMC)

80

towards the 50% breakdown value of

transformer oil (69,2 kV is the breakdown

voltage for standard impulses). The

trendline a logaritmic fitting of the

measurement results

Up,50 [kV]

75

70

65

60

50

250

450

650

850

1050

1250

1450

1650

1850

2050

80

Up(RMC)50 [kV]

75

70

65

60

55

50

250

450

650

850

1050

1250

1450

6.5

92

1650

1850

2050

At NGC tests were carried out in SF6 gas at a pressure of 4 bar. A

drawing of the vessel used is presented in Figure 96. A drawing of

the electrode configuration used for the uniform field is presented in

Figure 99, the configuration used for the non-uniform field is

presented in Figure 98. The test method used was the up and down

method and for each measurement series, 40 to 50 lightning impulses

were applied.

The influence of the front time in the

interval 0,5 s and 2 s on the 50%

breakdown voltage was investigated.

The results are presented in Figure 97.

The standard deviation of the

measurements performed is around 1%.

In the range 0,5 to 2,5 s the influence

of the front time to the 50% breakdown

voltage is within the maximum

variation, 2%, occurring with positive

non-uniform fields.

The influence of superimposed oscillations on the 50% breakdown

voltage was investigated for uniform

field positive polarity and for nonFigure 96 The SF6 pressurised test vessel

uniform field for both negative and

positive polarity. The measured results

are presented in Figure 101, Figure 100 and Figure 102.

93

From the results it can be seen that in general the results for the

different oscillation amplitudes (5%, 10% and 20%) are quite

analogue. There are however small differences as can be seen in the

figures. These differences are caused by the standard variation and

because the amplitude of each measurement point is not exactly 5%,

10% or 20%. The general conclusion is however that also for SF 6,

linearity statement can be validated.

120

towards U50 in SF6

110

U50 [kV]

100

90

80

70

60

Non uniform field, neg.

50

0

0,5

1,5

2,5

T1 [us]

From the results presented in Figure

101, Figure 100 and Figure 102 it can be

seen that the frequency of the oscillation

has an influence.

More specific the following conclusions

can be drawn:

For uniform and non-uniform field

both polarities, oscillations of 200

kHz have influence on the 50% breakdown voltage. For instance,

in case an oscillation of 20% amplitude is superimposed, the

Up(RMC),50 is decreased by 20%. Or

the 50% breakdown voltage is equal Figure 99 The uniform field electrode

system.

to the Up,50.

system.

94

For uniform and non-uniform field

2 MHz have some influence. In

amplitude is superimposed, the

approximately 5%.

For uniform and non-uniform field

5 MHz have some influence. In

amplitude is superimposed, the

approximately 5%.

case an oscillation of 20%

Up(RMC),50 is decreased by

both polarities oscillations of

case an oscillation of 20%

Up(RMC),50 is decreased by

For oscillations of frequency between 200 kHz and 5 MHz with

amplitudes up to 20%, the 50% breakdown voltage for a standard

impulse is in between the peak value of the total curve and the peak

value of the mean curve. It seems that also for SF6 Ut= kUp + (1k)Up(RMC).

95

85

uniform field, positive polarity, in SF6

U50pk, A=5%

U50pk, A=10%

U50pk, A=20%

U50mc, A=5%

U50mc, A=10%

U50mc, A=20%

80

75

U50 [kV] 70

U50ref

U50ref-5%

U50ref+5%

65

60

55

0,1

1

Oscillation frequency [MHz]

10

110

U50pk, A=5%

U50pk, A=10%

100

U50pk, A=20%

U50mc, A=5%

90

U50mc, A=10%

U50 [kV]

U50mc, A=20%

80

U50ref

U50ref-5%

70

U50ref+5%

60

0,1

10

130

U50pk, A=5%

U50 [kV]

120

U50pk, A=10%

U50pk, A=20%

U50mc, A=5%

110

U50mc, A=10%

U50mc, A=20%

100

U50ref

U50ref-5%

90

U50ref+5%

80

0,1

10

Institute

At the Schering Insitute, University Hannover, tests have been

performed on PE. A drawing of the test cell is presented in Figure

103. The test method used was the multiple level tests.

experiments with PE

96

The influence of the front time towards the 50% breakdown voltage

for PE is presented in Figure 104. Conclusions of these investigations

were that:

Front times T1 between 0,5 s and 1,56 s do not have a

significant influence on the breakdown behaviour of the tested PE

specimens.

The time to half value T2 is not a significant parameter for this

kind of test because almost all breakdowns in the tested PE

specimen occur at the front or at the peak.

200

kV

on the U50%-voltage

175

U50%

150

125

100

0

0,5

1,5

T1

There seemed to be no difference between superimposed oscillations

and overshoots because the breakdowns appear at the front or at the

peak of the superimposed oscillation or overshoot. Therefore it is

assumed that the results obtained for oscillations are also valid for

overshoot.

Also for PE, the amplitude of oscillations have influence on the

Up(RMC)50. The measurement results are presented in Figure 105,

Figure 106 and Figure 107. From these results it can be seen that also

for PE, the linearity statement can be validated for the three

200

U50%

Upeak

200 kHz

kV

200 kHz

oscillations

with

various

amplitudes

190

180

170

160

Upeak (mean curve)

150

0

10

15

Amplitude of oscillation

200

U50%

Upeak

800 kHz

kV

190

800 kHz

oscillations

with

various

amplitudes

180

170

160

150

0

10

15

Amplitude of oscillation

frequencies used.

97

200

2 MHz

oscillations

with

various

amplitudes

U50%

Upeak

2000 kHz

kV

190

180

170

160

150

0

10

15

Amplitude of oscillation

The conclusion drawn from the measurement results is that the

frequency of the superimposed oscillations has an important influence

on the Up,(RMC),50.

The measurement results obtained of the

investigations performed are presented in Figure 108, Figure 109 and

Figure 110.

Superimposed oscillations with a low frequency (200 kHz) are

influencing the breakdown behaviour in a strong way and in this case

besides the frequency the amplitude of the oscillation is another

important parameter. Thus for superimposed impulses with a low

frequency the Up-value has to be the test voltage. Superimposed

oscillations with a high frequency (2 MHz) have no great influence on

the breakdown behaviour and the amplitude of the oscillations can

vary in a wide range without influencing the breakdown voltage. The

frequency at which the 50% breakdown value is exactly in between

the two peak values is around 900 kHz.

For oscillations of frequencies between 200 kHz and 2 MHz with

amplitudes up to 15%, the 50% breakdown voltage for a standard

impulse is in between the peak value of the total curve and the peak

value of the mean curve. It seems that also for PE Ut= kUp + (1k)Up(RMC).

200

oscillations with amplitude of 5% and

various frequencies

U50%

Upeak

Aosc= 5 %

kV

190

180

JB

170

J

J

U

(mean curve)

peak

160

150

0

98

200

400

600

800

kHz 2000

Frequency of oscillation

200

U50%

Upeak

Aosc= 10 %

kV

190

180

oscillations with amplitude of 10% and

various frequencies

B

JB

170

160

150

0

200

400

600

800

kHz 2000

Frequency of oscillation

200

U50%

Upeak

Aosc= 15 %

kV

190

180

oscillations with amplitude of 15% and

various frequencies

B

J

JB

170

Upeak (mean curve)

160

150

0

6.7

200

400

600

800

kHz 2000

Frequency of oscillation

measurements performed are presented in this thesis, a more detailed

presentation of the measurement results will be given in [79].

Drawings of the test cells used are presented in Figure 111 and Figure

113. Many precautions have been taken to have reliable and stable

results, these measures are explained in detail in [15].

240

150

35

900

325

To study the influence of the front time, T1 within and outside the

present permitted limits of IEC 60060-1 and to establish a correlation

between the mean slope in the front of the impulse and the Up,50 a

study in air has been carried out. The study was carried out for four

combinations: two polarities (positive and negative) and two kinds of

electrical fields (homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields). The

results are presented in .

325

99

Tables and figures corresponding to the influence of the front time on the U p,50%

Homogeneous field.Positive Polarity

T1 ( s )

T1 ( s )

T1 ( s )

T1 ( s )

Up,50%(kV)

z (kV)

Up,50%(kV)

z (kV)

Up,50%(kV)

z (kV)

Up,50%(kV)

z (kV)

0,5

100,32

0,29

0,5

101,14

0,30

0,5

108,89

1,61

0,5

62,30

2,88

0,8

99,56

0,42

0,8

98,82

0,29

0,8

107,02

0,25

0,8

64,76

2,15

1,2

98,85

0,40

1,2

98,73

0,30

1,2

107,19

0,67

1,2

62,67

2,19

1,56

98,76

0,38

1,56

98,95

0,18

1,56

107,57

1,05

1,56

61,73

3,41

98,94

0,32

98,38

0,27

107,39

0,41

59,96

1,51

105

115

115

112,5

112,5

110

110

70

104

103

67,5

102

Up,50%(IEC52) = 98,5 kV

65

105

Up, 50%

107,5

Up,50

100

Up

107,5

Up,50

Up,50%(IEC52) = 98.0 kV

101

105

62,5

99

102,5

102,5

100

100

98

60

97

98,5

97,598.0

96

95

95

0,5

0,75

1,25 1,5

1,75

0,5

T1 ( s )

57,5

97,5

0,75

1,25

1,5

T1 ( s )

1,75

95

0,5

0,75

1,25

T1 ( s )

1,5

1,75

55

0,5

0,75

1,25

1,5

1,75

T1 ( s )

of the IEC 60060-1 for T1 (0,84 s 1,56 s) can be extended to the

interval 0,8 s 2,0 s without any significant variation of the

breakdown voltage. For front times of 0,5 s there is an increase of

the breakdown voltage but it is within the voltage standard tolerance

3%.

There is a very close agreement between the results for the

homogeneous field and the standard values of IEC 52. The differences

are between 0,5% and 0,7%.

The standard deviation, z, of the Up, 50% is bigger in the nonhomogeneous field than in the homogeneous field. In the nonhomogeneous field, z is bigger with positive than with negative

impulses.

To study the influence of the frequency of superimposed oscillations

several tests have been carried out by LCOE. The tests are carried out

for the two field configurations (homogeneous and nonhomogeneous) and the two polarities (positive and negative).

290

4

150

10

40

50

900

325

260

field

100

on the 50% breakdown value are presented in Figure 114 and Figure

115.

The conclusions that can be drawn from the experiments performed

are the following:

Superimposed oscillations with amplitudes of less than 5% and

frequencies of not less than 0,5 MHz do not have a significant

influence on the breakdown voltage.

Superimposed oscillations with amplitudes of less than 5% and

frequencies of less than 0,5 MHz have a significant influence on

the breakdown voltage except for the non homogeneous field

negative polarity

The IEC 60060-1 criterion for evaluation of L.I. is satisfied for the

homogeneous field and non-homogeneous field with positive

polarity, but not for the homogeneous field with negative polarity

Taking into account that the breakdown voltage for the nonhomogeneous field is much larger for negative than for positive

polarity the IEC 60060-1 criterion for evaluation of L.I. can be

used without decreasing the insulation level.

For air some additional investigations with the results of the test have

been performed. One of the investigations performed was the

verification of the equal area criterion. A detailed explanation of this

study is presented in [15]. The conclusion of this study was that the

equal area criterion was validated.

Also for air, the conclusion can be drawn that the 50% breakdown

voltage for a standard impulse is in between the peak value of the

total curve and the peak value of the mean curve. It seems that also

U50 vs f. 2,0% <b <5,1%

upon the U50 in a homogeneous field in air

1,1

Up,50%

1,05

U50%

0,95

Up(RMC),50%

0,9

Positive Polarity

Negative Polarity Up

0,85

0,8

0

Positive Polarity

Negative Polarity Up(RMC)

0,5

1

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

f(MHz)

U50 vs f. 1,9%<b <7,2%

upon the U50, non-homogeneous field

negative polarity in air

1,1

Up,50%

1,05

U50%

0,95

Up(RMC),50%

0,9

0,85

Up

Up(RMC)

0,8

0

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

f(MHz)

101

6.8

V( ud ) 1 m 1

Two different types of samples have been tested, Sample type A and

Sample type B. As explained in paragraph 5.4.4, the progressive

stress method is used and at each voltage level, three voltage

applications are done. As can be found in [72], if the test data is used

as input in the PSM statistical program it is not the U50 value that is

found, but the U20. That it is like that can be calculated with the

performance function in Equation XXVII. If the equations is known

for m=1, one can calculate by using this formula the equation for

m=3.

S (ud ) S (ud u )

1 S (ud u )

the breakdown value, it doesnt matter so much if one takes the 50%

or the 20% breakdown value, as long as one takes the same in the

comparison. The only thing that can be different is the standard

deviation.

standard impulse

superimposed 1 MHz oscillation

superimposed 200 kHz oscillation

superimposed 1,37 s overshoot

The results are summarised in the table below, Table 5.

Table 5

Wave shape

Sample type A

Sample type B

Up,20

SD

Up(RMC),20

SD

Up,20

SD

Up(RMC),20 SD

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

Standard impulse

-172,6

8,0

-172,6

8,0

-168,0

7,2

-168,0

7,2

-182,0

8,1

-151,4

6,6

-191,0

5,7

-149,5

4,4

-180,5

4,7

-112,0

3,2

-179,0

8,3

-111,9

5,3

-178,0

7,5

-152,2

6,7

-184,0

4,3

-158,1

3,4

-168,6

7,6

-173,6

10,3

the 20% breakdown voltage

From the measurement results is became clear that the frequency of

the superimposed oscillation had an influence, the higher the

frequency, the smaller the influence on the Up(RMC),20.

If the linearity statement is also valid for these types of samples then

also for these type of samples, the test voltage should for certain

oscillating frequencies be in between the peak value and the peak

value of the mean curve. It seems that also for the samples

investigated Ut=kUp + (1-k)Up(RMC).

102

6.9

6.9.1

Front time

performed is that the 50% breakdown value does not change

significantly when the front time varies in the interval

0,3 s and 2,0 s for homogeneous gaps in oil

0,5 s and 1,56 s for homogeneous gaps in PE

0,8 s and 2,0 s for homogeneous and non-homogenous gaps in

air

0,5 s and 2,5 s for homogeneous and non-homogenous gaps in

SF6

For some measurements the intervals were limited by the

measurements performed (oil, PE and SF6) for air the limits were set

by the variation of the front time.

Therefore it can be concluded that for the tested configurations the

present front time limits in the IEC 60060-1 are valid. It can be

discussed it they can be extended from 0,84-1,56 s to 0,51,56 s,

since there is no significant influence to 50% breakdown voltage.

6.9.2

Only for oil and PE, a conclusion can be drawn concerning the time to

half value.

For oil the conclusion is that no significant influence on the 50%

breakdown voltage can be detected when the time to half value is

varied from 40 s to 50 s.

For PE the time to half value T2 is not a significant parameter for this

kind of test because almost all breakdowns in the tested PE specimen

occur at the front or at the peak.

6.9.3

For the insulating materials oil, PE, SF6 and air it has been confirmed

that no difference can be detected between the influence of overshoot

and oscillations of corresponding frequency and duration.

Therefore all conclusions drawn concerning oscillations are also valid

for overshoot.

6.9.4

The position of the oscillations, i.e. on the peak or on the front has an

influence on the 50% breakdown value for air and for oil. The

influence increases when the position of the oscillations is closer to

the peak of the lightning impulse. Most relevant seems to be the

increase of the peak value of the curve with oscillations compared to

that without oscillations.

103

the breakdown voltage

Depending on their frequency, amplitude and position, oscillations or

overshoot have a significant influence on the 20% or 50% breakdown

voltage. In general an oscillation or overshoot of high amplitude and

low frequency or long duration has more influence than an oscillation

or overshoot of small amplitude and high frequency or short duration.

No cases were reported where the breakdown voltage of a standard

lightning impulse was clearly below the Up(RMC) or clearly above the

Up of an impulse with oscillations superimposed. Therefore, the

conclusion can be drawn that the test voltage is, for all materials and

samples investigated, in between the peak value and the peak value of

a mean curve. It should be noted that in the cases investigated the

mean curve is a standard impulse that is generated by a generating

circuit and not a mathematical function.

For all materials and samples investigated it could therefore be

demonstrated that Ut = kUp + (1-k)Up(RMC). It is of course the question

if k is a constant, or that it is a function of some parameters or if it is

the same for all materials investigated etc. The next paragraph will

deal with the k-factor and the linearity statement.

of oscillation frequency and amplitude

One of the most important parameters when evaluating a lightning

impulse voltage is some kind of parameters that characterises

magnitude of the impulse voltage applied. When this parameter and

the evaluation method for this parameter is well know, the other

parameters characterising a lightning impulse can be defined.

Since the front time (within certain limits) and the time to half-value

do not have a very significant influence parameters like dU/dt and the

area underneath the impulse do not seem to be the best parameter to

choose to define the magnitude of the impulse.

In the previous paragraph it has been demonstrated that the test

voltage, Ut seem to be a parameter is relevant and significant. This

because it is not affected by oscillations and by changes in the front

time and time to half value. As has been demonstrated too the test

voltage seems in case of oscillations and overshoot present, to be a

function of the peak value of the applied curve and the peak value of

the applied base or mean curve.

Utest= kUp + (1-k)Up(RMC)

Equation XXVIII k-factor hypothesus

is a function of Up and Up(RMC), see Equation XXVIII and that for

some materials a linearity statement could be validated. In the next

paragraphs, the k-factor and the linearity statement will be explained.

For all insulating materials it has been confirmed that in case of

superimposed oscillations of very low frequencies the test voltage

should be equal or close to the peak value of the total curve. This

means that oscillations of low frequency have almost full influence

and that k = 1.

104

In case of very high frequencies the test voltage is equal to the peak

value of the reference mean curve. This means that oscillations of

high frequency have almost no influence and that k = 0.

In all other cases k is in between 0 and 1.

The factor k can in theory be a random variable or a function of:

1. the oscillating frequency

2. the position of the oscillation or overshoot

3. the field configuration

4. the insulating material

5. the amplitude of the oscillation or overshoot

The k-factor can also be different for oscillations and for overshoot.

In the next part it will be explained and discussed that the k-factor

will only a function of the field configuration and the insulating

material. It is namely so that:

earlier evidence is given that that there is no significant difference

between overshoot or oscillation. Therefore k is no function of

overshoot and oscillations.

when the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillation were kept

constant, the position of the oscillations has an influence, at least

for air, but it is plausible that it is the same for other materials.

Therefore the amplitude of the oscillations in combination with the

time delay are important parameter. It is plausible that it is more

the voltage difference between the peak voltage of the complete

curve and the voltage of the mean curve used. Therefore the Up

and the Up(RMC) were introduced.

it is proven in some cases and assumed in some other cases that the

k-factor is not a function of the oscillation amplitude. This will be

treated in detail in the next paragraph

The k-factor as function of the frequency will be presented for

different materials in the one of the next paragraphs. But first a more

fundamental discussion is presented.

amplitude

The amplitude of the oscillation is an important parameter for

frequencies where oscillations have an influence on the 50%

breakdown voltage. If the amplitude of an oscillation of a certain

frequency increases than the influence to the breakdown voltages

increases as well.

It is to find out what kind of relation the amplitude of the oscillation

has with the influence to the 50% breakdown voltage. It can in theory

be that 20% oscillations of a certain frequency have full influence,

while 10% oscillations only have partly influence. In this case there

is no linear relation with the test voltage for different oscillation

amplitudes and the k factor will be a very complex function.

Therefore it had to be proven first that the influence of oscillations is

a linear one.

A linearity statement has been presented earlier and for oil (up to

40%), for PE (up to 15%), for SF6 (up to 20%) and for transformer

samples (up to 60%) the linearity statement has been validated. It is

105

plausible that the linearity statement is valid for other insulating

materials also.

It was expected that things might change drastically when the

amplitude of the oscillations starts to be more dominating than the

basic impulse. But the test with the transformer samples shows that

in case a 185 kHz damped sine wave the theorem might still be valid.

It is now important that the two hypotheses, the linearity statement

and the k-factor function are not two contradicting statements, else it

will not be possible to find an suitable evaluation method. This prove

is given in the next paragraph.

6.10.3 Evidence of the matching of the linearity and the kfactor statement

One of the ways to demonstrate that the two hypotheses are not

contradicting to each other is to use some mathematics.

From the k-factor hypothesis it follows that:

(1)R=Ut=k(A)+(1-k)B

(2)R=Ut=k(L)+(1-k)M

From the linearity hypothesis it follows that:

L

78,2

Up(rmc), 50

76,2

Up,50

U50

74,2

(3)A=x(L-R)+R

(4)B=x(M-R)+R

72,2

filling (3) and (4) in equation (1) gives the following result:

70,2

R

68,2

R=k(x(L-R)+R) +(1-k)(x(M-R)+R)

B

66,2

M

64,2

1

Or xR=x(k(L)+(1-k)M)

Measurement no.

This means that the two hypotheses are not contrary to each other.

Figure 116 Linearity statement and kfactor

Since both the k-factor and the linearity hypotheses are validated with

measurement results, it can be concluded that both hypotheses

correspond and are therefore correct.

This seems a very simple statement, but it is rather fundamental.

materials

homogeneous field

oscillation amplitude for oscillations at least up to 15%, but perhaps

even up to 60%, for each material and field configuration a k-factor

can be determined. The results are now presented.

The measurement results and the most likely k-factor as function of

the frequency for oil are presented in Figure 117.

106

k-factor [1]

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

10

100

1000

10000

107

k-factor [1]

the frequency for SF6 are presented in Figure 118 and Figure 119.

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

field

10

100

1000

10000

k-factor [1]

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

10

100

1000

10000

k-factor [1]

the frequency for PE are presented in Figure 120.

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

field

10

100

1000

108

10000

k-factor [1]

the frequency for air are presented in Figure 121 and in Figure 122.

field

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

10

100

1000

10000

Figure

122

k-factor

inhomogeneous field

for

k-factor [1]

air,

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

10

100

1000

10000

models, Sample A and Sample B, and the most likely k-factor

function are presented in Figure 123 and Figure 124.

k-factor [1]

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

10

100

1000

10000

Note that the test with the damped sine is not presented in this figure.

In case a pure 185 kHz oscillations is applied, the Up,20 = 168,6 kV, in

this case the k-factor is 0,956. Because of the standard deviation it is

difficult to make a statement about this result, but it seems to fit very

well.

109

k-factor [1]

1,2

1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

-0,2

10

100

1000

10000

Note that the test with the damped sine wave is not presented in this

figure. In case a pure 185 kHz oscillations is applied, the Up,20 =

173,6 kV, in this case the k-factor is 0,956. The test voltage should

be 168 kV. With the k-factor one calculates 166 kV, which is a very

good result, considering the standard deviations.

The k-factor as function of the frequency for different insulating

materials have been determined using the measurement results and

have been presented in the previous paragraph.

In Figure 125, the most likely k-factors as function of the frequency,

fitted according to a logaritmic function, for all materials investigated

and the present IEC 60060 k-factor are presented in one graph.

It is surprising to see how small the difference is between them, with

the exception of inhomogeneous fields in air, and how the present

IEC 60060-1 crosses them somewhere halfway.

1,20

oil

1,00

air inhom

Figure 125 k-factors

of all materials

hom oscillations or

investigated valid airfor

SF6 hom frequency and

overshoot of corresponding

PE

amplitudes up to 15-60%.

k-factor [1]

0,80

0,60

0,40

IEC 60060

0,20

SF6 inhom

Sample A

Sample B

0,00

-0,20

10

100

1000

10000

each other it seems possible to determine some kind of average kfactor function. This average k-factor together with all k-factors

determined and the IEC 60060-1 factor is presented in Figure 126. In

this figure it can also be seen that in case a k-factor with a shape of

IEC 60060 is kept it is best to change the frequency where it goes

from 1 to zero to around 700 kHz.

110

1,20

1,00

together with all

the k-factors

k-factor [1]

0,80

0,60

0,40

0,20

0,00

-0,20

10

100

1000

10000

oil

air inhom

air hom

SF6 hom

SF6 inhom

IEC 60060

PE

proposal(1)

Sample A

Sample B

Because all k-factors are best fittings of the measurement point for

each material it is interesting to see how the average k-factor will fit

between all the measurement results. This is presented in Figure 127

1,20

proposal (1)

oil

air hom

SF6 hom

SF6 inhom

PE

sample A

Sample B

k-factor [1]

1,00

0,80

0,60

0,40

0,20

0,00

-0,20

10

100

1000

10000

Figure 127 Measurement results and the average k-factor

Now the k-factor has been presented it is the question if and how it

can be implemented in a good way. This will be the main subject of

the next Chapter.

111

112

Proposal

7 Proposal

7.1

Introduction

evaluation of the parameters characterising the applied lightning

impulse voltages should be performed accurate and uniform all over

the world.

The rules for the evaluation of the parameters as described in the

present IEC 60060-1 are ambiguous and in case of non-standard wave

shapes they are not described at all.

The goal of the investigations performed was to find parameters and

clear evaluation rules, that are applicable to both standard and nonstandard lightning impulse voltages, taking into account the

possibilities and limitations of modern computers, that are proven to

be of physical relevance for all type of practical insulating systems in

case lightning impulse voltages are applied.

evaluation method, the evaluation method proposed should be simple,

straight forward, easy to understand and apply.

Besides that, it should, preferably, be possible for laboratories that are

still using analogue measuring equipment to implement the method.

In this chapter a method will be proposed based on the findings

presented in the previous Chapter that, hopefully, will meet all these

requirements.

7.2

parameters is the test voltage. The test voltage is a parameter that is

described for all components used in the different applicable

standards for long time.

Even in case from a scientific point of view it would be the best to

introduce another parameter that replaces the test voltage, it would be

difficult to implement this proposal. The investigations have however

shown that the test voltage is a relevant parameter.

One of the other reasons to choose the test voltage as an important

parameter is that the equal area criterion is not validated for all

insulating materials investigated, besides this the Ub level is different

for different materials and configurations.

Therefore it would be the best to introduce a new algorithm to

determine the test voltage.

The investigations performed have demonstrated that the front time

and the time to half value can vary within wider limits without

significantly influencing the test results. For the test voltage value

this is different. Therefore of all proposals that can be made, the best

one is that one who is able to evaluate the peak value the most

accurate.

113

Proposal

7.2.1

Test voltage

By the breakdown tests performed on several insulating materials

(using Measuring Systems with an extremely wide bandwidth), it has

been demonstrated that the test voltage is an important parameter. It

can be used for the characterisation of lightning impulse voltages, if

one can find an appropriate evaluation procedure and algorithm.

U t k U p (1 k ) U p ( RMC )

Equation XXIX

function of the peak value of the applied lightning impulse voltage

and the peak value of the mean curve or better base curve of the

impulse applied. In mathematical words, the test voltage can be

defined by Equation XXIX.

In the previous chapter it has been explained that the k-factor in this

equation is only a function of the oscillation frequency or overshoot

duration and the insulating material (see Figure 126). It is plausible

that this statement is valid for all materials and oscillation amplitudes

up to at least 15%, but for some materials even up to 60%.

1,20

IEC 60060

proposal(1)

1,00

0,80

0,60

0,40

0,20

0,00

-0,20

10

100

1000

10000

60060-1

In the previous chapter, the best k-factor for the different insulating

materials investigated has been calculated. From the several graphs

presented, it is concluded that the behaviour of the breakdown voltage

as function of the oscillation frequency and the amplitude of the

superimposed oscillations are more or less similar, but not identical

for all materials. In Chapter 6.10.4 the average k-factors, the k-factor

for each material investigated and the IEC 60060-1 factor are

presented. In Figure 128 the average k-factor and the IEC 60060

factor are presented once more. An interesting fact is that the IEC

60060-1 and the average k-factor cross at 0,56 at 500 kHz.

The average k-factor is:

1 for frequencies below 80 kHz

0 for frequencies above 5 MHz

given by the formula k=-0,2479*ln(freq in kHz) + 2,1056 for

frequencies in between these two values.

Up to now the evaluation procedure for lightning impulses with

oscillations depends on the frequency concerning the determination of

the test voltage. This fixed limit is generally a problem for digital

recorded data, because only the very small change of one sample will

influence the evaluation results, that means the test voltage. Even if

the amplitude of oscillation is limited up to 5% of the peak of the

mean curve, the maximum deviation can also be 5% only by the

change of one digital sample (i.e. the oscillation frequency changes

from 499,46 to 499, 51 kHz). Because the overall measurement

uncertainty has to be within 3%, this is a problem. Besides this, as

can be seen from Figure 128, even if one is able to determine the

frequency or the duration this accurate, one makes an error. From this

it is even clearer that the present situation has to be changed.

114

Proposal

In order to prevent the problems with the present IEC, which will

exists if the frequency limit is given with a certain tolerance, it is

better to introduce a smooth transition. The introduction of the kfactor makes such a smooth transition from the low frequencies to the

high frequencies possible. First publication of this k-factor was made

on the ISH and CIGRE WG 33.03 and CIGRE SC 33. [14]

One big advantage of implementing the k-factor it that the values for

k can be defined according to the behaviour of the different materials

or an average can be taken. Besides this the characteristics of the

Measuring Systems used can be taken into account.

It might be clear that in case a Measuring System is used with a

bandwidth much better than the k-factor function. The k-factor needs

to be implemented fully in the evaluation method.

In case a Measuring System is used with a limited bandwidth other

measures are necessary. Lets first assume that Measuring Systems

having sufficient bandwidth will be used. In this case there are

several ways to implement this k-factor, for instance:

Use a modified IEC 60060 evaluation method

Use completely other procedure, for instance filtering

The problem that still exists in the first option is that a mean curve

has to be determined. This is a problem, since one cannot find a

mean curve valid for all possible measured curves.

Therefore the idea was raised to implement the k-factor by using

filtering techniques. One can partly filter the measured curve or filter

the measured curve totally.

Since the front time can vary within a wide range before influencing

the test voltage it is assumed that the k-factor is also valid in case

oscillations or overshoot is superimposed on other wave shapes

besides a standard 1,2/50.

If filtering techniques can be used, this would be a big step forward,

because the determination of a mean curve is avoided, a smooth

transition is guaranteed and it is very easy to program different kfactors or filters if one wishes too.

The idea for using filtering techniques was checked initially with a k

defined as 1 for 0,5 MHz, equivalent with the actual IEC standard,

going from that point linearly down to 0 for the frequency of 2 MHz.

The result of this initial check is presented in paragraph 7.2.3 and

showed good results.

techniques

The proposal for the evaluation procedure using filtering techniques

to implement the k-factor is presented in Figure 129.

The amplitude check is necessary, since the linearity statement has for

some materials only been validated for oscillations up to 15%

amplitude.

115

Proposal

procedure using filtering techniques

7.2.3

techniques can be used, the proposal with the k-function filter has

been tried by the Schering Institue on a three cases of the IEC 610832 TDG and two measurements performed in the frame work of the

project.

1,2

1

0,8

H(w)

0,6

0,4

0,2

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Frequency [kHz]

used for the initial check of the evaluation

proposal

The results of the initial check are presented in Figure 131, Figure

132, Figure 133, Figure 134 and Figure 135. On the right side of

these figures four numbers are presented; Up,filt (in V and in %) and

Up,orig (in V and in %). Up,filt is the peak value of the filtered curve, Up,

orig is the peak value of the original curve.

The first figure, Figure 131, shows the well-known case 11 of the

IEC-TDG form the IEC 61083-2. The filtered curve shows a slight

overshoot but no more oscillations. The difference in the peak is very

small due to the low amplitude of the superimposed oscillation. The

result of the filtering is within the reference values given in IEC.

measured lightning impulse (case 11 of

IEC TDG)

1,2

original

MV

filtered

0,8

1

(100 %)

0,6

0,4

0,9

(100,5%)

0,2

0

0,8

9

10

11

12

-0,2

0

116

10

15

20

25

13

30

Proposal

Figure 134 and Figure 135 and Figure 133 are respectively the cases

13 and 14 from the IEC-TDG, which represent measured impulses of

lightning impulse tests performed on a transformer. The filtered

curve of the impulse with a long duration overshoot shows no

influence of the filter and the test voltage is the peak value of the

measured curve.

The filtered curve for an impulse with short duration shows a

reduction of the test voltage of about 1,5 % which is in accordance

with the used practice of evaluation of such kind of impulses, but not

in accordance with the present standards.

Concerning the proposed evaluation procedure it is not of importance

that the amplitude of the superimposed oscillations is above 5% and

therefore outside the allowed range.

0,2

original

-0,8

MV

filtered

measured lightning impulse with long

duration overshoot (case 13 of IEC-TDG)

-0,9

-0,2

(100 %)

-1

-0,4

-0,6

-1,1

10

11

12

13

(100,5%)

14

-0,8

-1

-1,2

0

10

15

20

25

30

0,2

original

-0,7

MV

measured lightning impulse with short

duration overshoot (case 14 of IEC-TDG)

filtered

-0,8

U

-0,2

-0,9

-0,4

-1

(100 %)

-1,1

-0,6

10

11

12

(101,4%)

-0,8

-1

-1,2

0

10

15

20

25

30

117

Proposal

Figure 134 and Figure 135 are examples of impulses with

superimposed oscillations, as obtained in the European project. The

oscillation frequency is respectively 2 MHz and 0,8 MHz.

As can be seen from the figures, filtering the curves with the k-factor

works quite good and easy. Of course the proper function of the

implementation of the k-factor by filtering has to be proven in a more

accurate way, but for the cases tested the results look quite promising.

Since the filtered curve is very smooth, the definitions of the

parameters for T1 and T2 can be kept the same.

an analytic, smooth lightning impulse

superimposed

with

an

oscillation

(f = 2000 kHz, Aosc = 20 %)

0,2

MV

-0,7

-0,8

original

filtered

-0,9

-0,2

(100 %)

-1

-0,4

-1,1

-1,2

-0,6

10

11

(113,2%)

12

-0,8

-1

-1,2

0

10

15

20

25

30

an analytic, smooth lightning impulse

superimposed

with

an

oscillation

(f = 800 kHz, Aosc= 10 %)

0,2

original

-0,7

MV

filtered

-0,8

-0,9

-0,2

-1

(100 %)

-0,4

-1,1

-1,2

-0,6

10

11

12

(101,8%)

-0,8

-1

-1,2

0

10

15

20

25

118

30

Proposal

7.3

applicable, then the present definitions for front time and time to half

value can be maintained. The definition of the test voltage and the

peak voltage will change slightly. The test voltage is then the

maximum voltage of the filtered curve. The peak voltage is then the

maximum voltage of the recorded curve.

The proposal is to use the average k-factor function instead of all the

different k-factor functions for the different materials.

In principle there are several ways of implementing filtering

techniques:

implementation of the k-factor in the hardware of the Measuring

System

implementation of the k-factor in the software of the Measuring

System

combination of the implementation in the hardware and the

software of the Measuring System

In case the bandwidth of measuring systems used for performing HV

tests is large enough, the k-factor has to be implemented fully in a

filter.

In case the bandwidth of the measuring system in not sufficient, the kfactor function has to be partly implemented in a filter, since it is

already partly implemented in the limited bandwidth of the measuring

system.

In the following paragraphs it is assumed that the bandwidth of the

measuring systems used is large enough. I.e. frequencies of 4 MHz

can be measured with an overall uncertainty smaller than 3%, or with

a dynamic behaviour error smaller than 1%. Assuming that a

measuring system can be approximated by a first order filter, this

implies that the measuring system has a bandwidth of 28 MHz or

larger.

Because this is certainly not valid for all measuring systems used, the

k-factor function will in the practise be a multiplication of the

bandwidth of the measuring system and the filter programmed into the

software. To demonstrate the validity of the k-factor function, it is

fully implemented into a software filter in the next paragraph.

7.4

The proposal will be checked with some wave shapes that occur in

testing. The four examples that are selected are presented in the next

paragraph and the voltage levels are summarised in Table 6.

Table 6 Summary of the examples

Example no.

Up

Uprmc

Ut

168,50

139,36

150,72

166,86

103,36

153,53

3 (standard LI)

165,25

165,25

165,25

119

Proposal

4 (LI with overshoot)

120

175,15

149,50

Proposal

Example 1

A wave shape typical for transformer testing is presented in Figure

136. The peak voltage of the curve is 168,50 kV, the peak voltage of

superimposed oscillations of frequency

1 MHz and 20% amplitude

of the oscillations is 1 MHz. The kfactor for this wave shape is 0,39. This

means that the test voltage is 150,72 kV.

Example 2

Another wave shape typical for transformer testing is presented in

Figure 137. The peak voltage of this wave is 166,86 kV, the peak

voltage of the RMC is 103,36 kV. The frequency of the oscillation is

200 kHz. The k-factor is 0,79. This means that the test voltage will

with 200 kHz oscillations of 60%

amplitude superimposed

be 153,53 kV.

Example 3

The example shown in Figure 139 is a standard lightning impulse.

The peak voltage and the test voltage are equal in this case and are

equal to 168,25 kV.

Example 4

A standard lightning impulse with superimposed overshoot is

presented in Figure 139. The duration of the overshoot is 1,36 s.

This means that the test voltage is equal to 165,97 kV.

function

To check the proposal a computer program was written in Labview.

A recorded signal can be selected as input, one of the filters available

can be selected and an output file will be created. The output file can

121

Proposal

then be read into the PARAMETER program and the parameters like

the test voltage, front time and time to half-value can be evaluated.

Figure 139 Standard lightning impulse

voltage with peak voltage 165,28 kV and a

front time of 1,28 s and a time to half

value of 47,69 s.

overshoot, peak voltage is 175,15 kV,

peak voltage of the RMC is 149,50 kV.

The duration of the overshoot is 1,3649

s.

The filters that are available within Labview and might be useful are:

FIR windowed filter, with windows:

- none

Hann

Hanning

Triangular

Blackman

Exact Blackman

Blackman-Harris

Kaiser-Bessel

Flat top

Bessel filter

Elliptic filter

Inverse Chebyshev filter

Butterworth filter

Chebyshev filter

A few of these filters have been used to check the proposal, the results

are presented in Table 7.

Table 7 Results of the different filters

Filter type

Waveshape

Chebychev

Chebychev

Chebychev

Chebychev

order 1

order 1

order 1

order 2

60 kHz

100 kHz

90 kHz

200 kHz

Butterworth Bessel

order 2

290 kHz

400 kHz

Front time [s]

Time to half-value [s]

Standard impulse

1MHz oscillations

1,369 us overshoot

165,25

150,72

153,53

165,97

164,58

165,06

165,03

169,35

165,27

1,77

1,47

1,52

1,55

2,06

1,83

47,14

46,80

46,83

44,46

47,60

46,89

144,53

155,32

152,67

150,79

140,77

143,66

0,85

0,69

0,71

1,03

1,56

1,20

44,61

39,93

41,05

41,17

46,59

45,12

159,20

163,82

163,16

165,79

154,10

158,36

1,92

1,87

1,88

1,88

1,97

1,96

27,95

28,33

28,34

27,18

30,01

28,32

162,30

168,58

155,34

1,27

1,17

1,37

39,66

37,22

42,50

From the results presented in this table it can be seen that the type of

filter can have significant influence on the front time. This is logical

because the standard impulse has the same frequency components as

that of superimposed oscillations that have to be reduced slightly with

the k-factor function. Different types of filters have different effects

on the wave shape. For instance compare the results of filtering of the

standard impulse using the Chebychev order 1, 100 kHz to that using

the Bessel order 2, 400 kHz. Although the peak voltages are within

122

163,76

Proposal

10% when 1 MHz oscillations are applied the front time is twice as

large in the latter case.

From the results presented it can be concluded that it must be possible

to design a filter (combined in the measuring system and the software)

that can be used during impulse tests and that implements the k-factor.

In this thesis this investigation is not further made. Most important

was to demonstrate that it is possible to use a filter. Which filter type

in combination with the measuring system should be used should be

the topic of another study.

From the results presented in Table 7 it can be seen that a first order

Chebychev filter with a cut-off frequency of 90 MHz is not a too bad

choice. This original and the filtered wave shapes using this filter on

the four examples are presented in Figure 140 to Figure 143.

123

Proposal

124

Proposal

7.6

has proven to be possible. It can be discussed how it should be

implemented.

In principle there are several ways of implementing filtering

techniques:

implementation of the k-factor in the hardware of the Measuring

System

implementation of the k-factor in the software of the Measuring

System

combination of the implementation in the hardware and the

software of the Measuring System

In case the bandwidth of measuring systems used for performing HV

tests is large enough (28 MHz or larger.), the k-factor has to be

implemented fully in a filter.

In case the bandwidth of the measuring system in not sufficient, the kfactor function has to be partly implemented in a filter, since it is

already partly implemented in the limited bandwidth of the measuring

system.

With the Measuring Systems available nowadays, the k-factor

function will in the practise be a multiplication of the bandwidth of

the measuring system and the filter programmed into the software.

This is explained in Figure 144 and Figure 145. In Figure 144 the kfactor function and the frequency behaviour of two different

Measuring systems are presented. Measuring System 1, has a

bandwidth of 360 kHz. It is clear that in this case no software filter is

needed. In case of Measuring System 2, which has a bandwidth of 1

MHz (which is a normal bandwidth for Impulse Measuring Systems)

a software filter is needed. This software filter is presented in Figure

1,20

Figure 144 K factor function and the

frequency characteristics of two different

Measuring Systems

1,00

H(freq) [1]

0,80

0,60

0,40

0,20

Meetsysteem (1)

Proposal

0,00

Meetsysteem (2)

-0,20

10

100

1000

10000

145.

125

Proposal

1,20

Figure

145

k-factor,

frequency

characteristic of the Measuring System and

the necessary software filter

1,00

H(freq) [1]

0,80

0,60

0,40

0,20

Proposal

Meetsysteem (2)

0,00

software filter

-0,20

10

100

1000

10000

7.7

proposed. It can be discussed whether the whole impulse or only part

of it should be filtered. In case the whole impulse will be filtered, the

present definitions of the time parameters can be kept.

Only the limits of the tolerated time intervals might have to change,

but since the time parameters can be varied in a wider range than

mentioned in the present standard before they start to have a

significant influence on the breakdown voltage, this should not be a

too difficult problem to solve.

With the implementation of the k-factor the measurement uncertainty

for lightning impulses with overshoot and oscillations can be reduced

significantly. It is just an estimation to say that it can be reduced

from 5% to 2%.

It seems possible to use the average k-factor for all insulating

materials. What should be discussed is which tolerance in the

insulation design is tolerated. The maximum difference between the

average k-factor and the individual ones is 0,3. This means that for

instance an oscillation with an amplitude of 20%, the test voltage is

6% to low or to high. Whether this is acceptable should be discussed

in an international forum. If taking the present tolerances into

account then oscillations with an amplitude up to 10% are allowed.

This is a big step forwards.

126

Proposal

7.8

answered, but as usual some new questions have also arisen.

In this paragraph the open questions will be listed in random order.

Influence of time to half value in oil when the time to half value is

changed in a wider interval

investigated

the other materials and the measurement uncertainty

been investigated)

To verify whether the k-factor is also valid for other than the

investigated materials and for insulating systems, more experimental

investigations have to be performed for other complex insulating

system and other materials. But considering the measurement results

obtained so far, no results that are far from the measurement results

obtained within this project are expected.

The results obtained from new investigations performed can be

incorporated in the table for the k factor or new k-factors can be

defined.

One of the most important topics to solve before the k-factor can be

implemented is the bandwidth of measuring systems used. If the

bandwidth of measuring systems used is equal to the k-factor than it is

of course obviously that filtering techniques should not be used and

that always the peak value of the impulse should be taken as the test

voltage.

In case the bandwidth requirements of Measuring Systems are stricter

than the k-factor, than filtering techniques can be used. Which filter

will suit the best has to be investigated.

Many investigations have already been performed towards the use of

filtering techniques in impulse measurements. In [80] some of the

techniques with their advantages and disadvantages are described as

well what to do in case of chopped impulses.

Perhaps it needs to be proven that the method is valid also for

oscillation amplitudes >20%, but it seems not to be necessary.

127

Lightning strokes have caused a considerable number of failures of

high voltage equipment installed in medium and high voltage

networks. In order to prevent these failures much research has been

performed and several measures have been taken. One of these

measures is to test high voltage equipment with lightning impulse

voltages to verify the withstand capability.

In Chapter 2 tests with lightning impulses have been explained in

detail. Attention was also paid to the problems with the evaluation of

the parameters characterising lightning impulses during testing and to

the state of the art in solving these problems.

oscillations and/or overshoot occur, the rules for the evaluation of the

parameters (as described in the present standard) are ambiguous. In

case of non-standard lightning impulses no evaluation rules are given

in the present standard.

Several solutions for the problems with the evaluation have been

proposed, but most of them had some disadvantages that are not

acceptable. The most ideal solution for the evaluation problems will

be a solution, which is applicable to both standard and non-standard

lightning impulse voltages, which uses the possibilities of modern

processing techniques and which is founded on the breakdown

behaviour of insulating materials.

To find this most ideal solution that is based on the breakdown

behaviour of insulating materials or systems, theoretical and

experimental investigations were necessary. Therefore the author

initiated an European project and started this PhD study. The goal of

these projects was to investigate if the new approach was possible and

to find new ideas about how to solve the problem. In the two projects

theoretical and experimental investigations have been made by the

author. The results of these investigations and investigations

performed by others in the European project were presented.

In Chapter 3 the results of the theoretical investigation towards the

disruptive discharge behaviour of insulating systems and materials

were presented. The result of this investigation was that the

information found was not enough so that a good proposal for a new

evaluation method could be given.

In Chapter 4, the investigations needed because of the evaluation

problems and the lack of information about the breakdown physics

when lightning impulses with overshoot and oscillations are applied

are formulated. Open questions and hypotheses are formulated too.

The experimental investigations were performed simultaneously at

different laboratories (KEMA, NGC, LCOE, Schering Institute) and

later at TU Graz. For the measurements that were carried out

simultaneously the generating circuit, the software were chosen the

same to be sure that the measurement results were not influenced by

these factors. At TU Graz a less complicated generating circuit could

be used, but the software used was the same as for the other

measurements. In Chapter 5 the test set up used at KEMA and at

129

TU Graz and the problems associated with these are described in

detail.

The experimental investigations (breakdown tests) were carried out to

find the performance of different insulating materials and systems

against lightning impulse voltages of different shape. It was

especially the task of the author to give ideas and to look at the

performance and to draw the conclusions of the results.

In Chapter 6 the results of the experimental investigations performed

at KEMA, TU Graz, LCOE, NGC and the Schering Institute were

explained in detail. The materials XLPE, oil, oil-paper, SF6 and air

were investigated. From the experimental results the following

conclusions are drawn.

It was concluded that the present limits for the front time in

IEC 60060-1 are valid. The peak value doesnt change significantly

when the front time is varied within certain limits. It can be discussed

that the limits can be extended from 0,84 s-1,56 s to 0,5 s-1,56 s.

The time to half value have only been studied for PE and oil. For PE

it seems not to be a significant parameter and for oil no significant

change in the breakdown voltage can be detected when the time to

half value is varied from 40 s to 50 s.

There was no detectable difference in the influence of oscillations and

the influence of overshoot on the breakdown voltage. Therefore all

conclusions for oscillations are also valid for overshoot.

The position of the oscillations, i.e. on the peak or on the front has an

influence on the 50% breakdown voltage for air and for oil. The

influence increases when the position of the oscillations is closer to

the peak of the lightning impulse. Most relevant seems to be the

increase of the peak value of the curve with oscillations compared to

that without oscillations.

The amplitude and the frequency of the oscillations have an effect on

the breakdown voltage. In general an oscillation with an high

amplitude and a low frequency has more influence than an oscillation

with a low amplitude and a high frequency.

Because in all cases the test voltage was in between the peak valeu of

the applied curve and the peak value of the base curve, the idea with

the k-factor arose. Therefore a linearity statement and a k-factor

hypothesis have been introduced and proven to be valid for most

materials investigated.

It has been proven that the test voltage is, for different materials and

for oscillations with an amplitude up to at least 15%, a function of the

peak voltage and the peak voltage of the mean curve.

But since for paper oil insulation the theorem seems to be valid for

amplitude at least up to 60% but perhaps even for pure oscillations, it

is not expected to be valid for much higher amplitudes.

The best k-factor for the different materials investigated has been

determined. Because the results were so close to each other an

average k-factor could be determined. The author was the first to

calculate and to propose this average k-factor.

130

The question if and how this k-factor could be implemented is

answered in Chapter 7. There are several ways to implement this kfactor function, one of the most easy ways is to use filtering

techniques which the author proposed during one of the meetings held

about the European project. One thing that should absolutely not be

forgotten is the bandwidth of the measuring system used. The kfactor is namely implemented in the measuring system, which

includes the hardware and the software.

If the bandwidth of the measuring systems follows the k-factor

function then in all cases the peak value has to be taken. In case the

bandwidth of the measuring systems used is more then sufficient, the

k-factor can be implemented by for instance using filtering

techniques. In case of manual evaluating the determination of the test

voltage can easily be done by calculation.

Therefore it is certainly possible to evaluate standard and nonstandard impulses using the same evaluation procedure. Before a

final method can be presented a few questions (presented in Chapter

7) should be answered in discussions to be held internationally, e.g. In

WG 33.03.

By implementing the k-factor the problems associated with the

present IEC 60060 can be solved. The evaluation of standard and

non-standard impulses can be done using the same evaluation method.

The evaluation method is the same for all insulating materials and

insulating systems, only different k-factors might be used in the

future. One of the most important advantages of the presented

method is that it is no longer necessary to calculate the mean curve

and that the method can be used independent of the technology

position the laboratory. It is besides this easy to understand and to

apply.

131

Appendices

Appendices

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

133

Appendices

Appendix 1

Evaluation of parameters by

the software package PARAMETER

The following flowchart (Figure 146) presents the steps to calculate

the standard and complementary parameters of lightning impulses.

The user enters by visual examination of the wave if it is a full,

chopped in the front or on the crest or chopped in the tail impulse.

Figure 146 flowchart of steps to take to

evaluate parameters

Impulse acquisition

( BL) and the peak value ( Up)

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

at the instant of chopping ( Uc)

Output parameters

Step 4

Step 5

the peak value (Up)

The base line (BL) is the average of consecutive samples proceeding

the time when the impulse is applied. In order to reduce the influence

of noise, the number of samples used must be enough.

Note: In order not to include in the average of the base line samples corresponding to

the beginning of the impulse, some samples (~ 10) before the origin (0) are not

included. A number of 100 samples is considered to be enough to determine the base

line (BL).

134

Appendices

The origin (O) is the time when a sample of the recorded impulse first

exceeds the base level by 2% of the peak value.

Note: In order not to consider as the origin (0) a sample with an amplitude > 2% Up

due only to superimposed noise, the amplitude of the next samples must be also

greater than the 2% Up.

value after the superimposed noise is removed.

For full or chopped in the tail impulses the peak value, Up, is

determined by the difference between the mean value of the samples

in the time interval around the peak zone and the base line adding

0,5 digital levels. The first and the last samples whose amplitudes are

identical define the time interval around the peak zone. These

amplitudes should not be greater than the maximum absolute

amplitude minus one digital level, but as large as possible.

I=I 2

W(I)

U p=

I=I1

( I 2 I 1 + 1)

BL + 0,5

or chopped in the tail impulses

Note: The addition of 0,5 digital levels is to compensate the averaging effect between

approximately the same number of samples of levels MAX and MAX-1 for smooth

impulses without noise.

In order to avoid with this method a peak value lower than the real

one when high frequency superimposed oscillations appear, the two

following conditions must be satisfied:

1. |MAX W (I1)| < NOISE BAND, Noise band is defined as the

maximum difference between any two samples of the base line

(BL)

2. The samples I2 and I1 must belong to the same oscillation. If these

two conditions are not satisfied the peak value Up is the maximum

absolute amplitude (MAX).

135

Appendices

For impulses chopped in the front or on the crest, in general, it is not

possible to remove the noise in the peak zone by means of the above

criterion (see Figure 149). In these cases, the greatest amplitude of the

impulse will be the peak value.

The RMC is directly acquired by means of a channel of the recorder.

By means of the second channel the oscillations to be superimposed

are acquired. The subtraction of both channels of the recorder is the

impulse with superimposed oscillations.

Figure 149 Zoom around the crest of

impulses chopped in the front or on the

crest. The average of the samples included

in the time interval (I2 I1) can not be

considered correct as peak value. In this

case the greatest amplitude will be the

peak value

The main frequency, f, and the amplitudes, Ai, of the oscillations can

be evaluated by determining the main frequency and amplitudes of the

wave acquired by means of the channel 2, for instance, by means of

the FFT. The amplitudes Ai are calculated after the superimposed

noise is removed. If during the record length the CH2 curve is not

damped inside the noise band, in order to avoid calculation errors, it

is advised that the FFT is calculated with an integer number of

periods of CH2.

wave integral above a reference voltage, .

This parameter, , is the sum of the areas enclosed by the recorded

impulse above (or below for negative impulses) the horizontal line

that passes through a reference voltage level (Us).

This step only can be applied to full impulses or chopped in the tail

impulses.

An overshoot is present in an impulse if, after removing the eventual

superimposed noise and oscillations by means of the RMC, the

resulting curve is above (or below for negative impulses) the single

exponential function, SE, that fits the tail of the recorded impulse.

SE(t) = A e-(t-to)/

Where: A, to and are the parameters calculated to achieve the best

fitting (using the same criterion of minimisation as the one

used for the RMC) to the tail of the impulse.

Note: The single exponential fitting is determined for samples of the recorded

impulse after the 0,7 Up voltage in the tail. For impulses chopped in the tail

the fitting is considered to be suitable only if enough samples are recorded

after this level.

be calculated:

136

Virtual peak value, VPV:

Wave integral above the VPV:

Overshoot amplitude:

Overshoot duration:

Appendices

The algorithms to determine these parameters are described in

internal Document of the European project: Doc. Partner 2/10 Rev 1

and are not explained here.

instant of chopping, Uc

The three time parameters that can be determined are: T1, T2, Tc.

In order to calculate T1 and T2 it is necessary to determine the instants

t30, t90, t50, when the impulse reaches the voltage levels: 30% Up, 90%

Up and 50% Up.

Front time, T1 :

moving window filter. Even without noise an appropriate filter

improves the results due to a lower quantisation error.

If there are no oscillations the instants t30 and t90 are determined after

filtering by means of the straight line between the first sample just

below (or above for negative slope) the voltage level and the last

sample just above (or below for negative slope) this level, (see Figure

150).

If there are oscillations, the instants t30 and t90 can be determined

replacing the impulse with the superimposed oscillations by a mean

curve at the front, MC. The MC used, is determined using as the time

interval, from origin to the instant corresponding to the peak value,

and it pass through the origin, O, and the peak value, Up.

The front time is a virtual parameter calculated as:

The virtual origin, O1, is the instant where the straight line which

passes through the points (t30, 30% Up) and (t90, 90% Up), cuts the

baseline, BL.

Rev1.

For lightning impulses chopped in the front or on the crest, the instant

to chopping, Tc, is the intersection point of the straight line through

90% and 30% of the peak voltage and the horizontal line that passes

through the impulse peak voltage (see Figure 151).

the front

Note

The times t90%, t30% at the zone of decay voltage are determined by linear

interpolation between the closest samples.

137

Appendices

For impulses chopped in the tail, the instant of chopping, T c, can be

determined also as the intersection point of two straight lines. One

straight line is the regression line of the ten samples before Tc, taking

into account that, when oscillations appear, the ten samples are taken

from the RMC. The second straight line is the one defined by the

points of the 90% and 30% of the voltage at the instant of chopping,

Uc at the zone of decay voltage.

Note:

curve

R(t)

is

less

than

2% Up during the time interval used to calculate the regression line.

original impulse at the instant Tc. In order to apply this method it is

necessary to have an initial value for Tc. The initial value, Tc, is

defined as the sample when the voltage decreases at least 10% Up in

30 ns and at least 3% Up in 10 ns.

With the initial value Tc and the corresponding Uc (Tc) value it is

possible to determine the two straight lines previously described. The

intersection point between both straight lines corresponds with the

final instant of chopping Tc, and the corresponding Uc (t) can be also

calculated.

138

Appendices

Results of tests performed in air

Date of test

[yy-mm-dd]

Test no.

Temp.

[C]

Air

press.

Humidity

Medium

[gH2O/m3]

[hPa]

gap

distance

wave

shape

Electro

de

conf.

U50(RMC)

sd

[kV]

[kV]

U50(RMC)/k

[mm]

[kV]

98-09-29

98-09-29

98-09-29

98-09-30

98-09-30

98-09-30

98-10-01

98-10-02

980929-3 23

980929-4 23

980929-5 23

980930-1 22

980930-2 23

980930-3 23

981001-1 22

981002-1 22

1003

1003

1003,5

1000

999,5

999,5

1004

1007

14

14

14

13

14

14

13

10,5

air+UV

air+UV

air+UV

air+UV

air+UV

air+UV

air+UV

air+UV

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

15,1

1,6/50

1,6/50

1,6/50

sphereplate

-42,123

sphereplate

-42,172

sphereplate

-42,172

z

on

start

1,6/50+ sphere2,5MH plate

z

on

front

1,6/50+ sphere2,5MH plate

z

on

peak

-42,988

-43,028

-43,007

-42,875

-42,886

-41,022

z

on

tail

-41,439

1,8/50

sphere-

-42,323

plate

-42,866

0,169 Scalefactor

19530

Scalefactor

19530

Scalefactor

19530

Scalefactor

19530

Scalefactor

19530

Scalefactor

19530

Scalefactor

19530

0,132 Scalefactor

19530

139

Appendices

Date of test

Test no.

[yy-mm-dd]

Temp.

[C]

Air

press.

Humidity

Medium

[gH2O/m ]

[hPa]

gap

distance

[mm]

wave

shape

Electro

de

conf.

U50(RMC)

sd

[kV]

[kV]

U50(RMC)/k

[kV]

99-01-19

990119-1

air+UV

15

sphere- 45,197

sphere

45,385

99-01-20

990120-1

air+UV

15

sphere- 42,659

sphere

42,879

99-01-20

990120-2

air+UV

15

sphere- 45,218

sphere

45,452

99-01-21

990121-1

air+UV

15

sphere- 45,195

sphere

45,281

99-01-21

990121-2

air+UV

15

sphere- 45,263

sphere

45,309

99-02-05

990205-1

air

15

sphere- 45,191

sphere

45,364

99-02-05

990205-2

air

15

sphere- 42,911

sphere

43,069

99-02-05

990205-3

air

15

sphere- 44,990

sphere

45,151

99-02-08

990208-1

air+cover 15

sphere- 43,228

sphere

43,422

99-02-08

990208-2

air+cover 15

sphere- 45,010

sphere

45,212

140

Lightning Impulses

Appendices

Results of tests performed in oil

All tests are performed using a gap distance of 1 mm and spheresphere configuration

Date of test

Test no.

[yy-mm-dd]

Temp Air

Humidity

press.

[C]

[gH2O/m3]

[hPa]

wave

shape

oscillatio

ns

oversh

oot

U50(RMC)

U50(peak) sd (rmc)

Sd (peak)

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

[kV]

99-03-05

O990305a

19

986

1,2/50

no

69,494

5,506

99-03-11

O110399a

18

1015

1,2/50

no

68,815

1,748

99-04-22

O990422a

22

1002

11

1,2/50

no

71,659

3.051

99-04-26

O990426a

23

1015, 10

5

0,85/50

no

69,593

4,113

99-04-28

O990428a

22

1020

0,5/50

no

66,932

4,500

99-05-04

O990504a

22

1014

0,54/49

no

69,106

2,707

99-05-06

O990506a

21,5

1012

11

1,5/51

no

67,987

5,481

99-05-06

O990506b

21,5

1012

11

1,9/51

no

69,000

4,556

99-05-12

O990512a

21

1006

11

0,85/49

no

68,731

3,71

99-05-12

O990512b

21

1006

11

1,2/40

no

66,599

3,621

99-05-17

O990517a

21

1016

0,31/47

no

71,360

2,725

1999-06-22 O990622a

21

1018 10

1999-05-25 O990525a

1,2/50

1 s

65,237

76,638

4,248

4,192

1,2/50

1,2 s

60,612

87,99

5,357

6,104

1999-05-19 O990519a

22

1008, 9

5

1,2/50

2 MHz

70,002

77,632

4,116

3,948

1999-05-18 O990518a

22

1008, 9

5

1,2/50

800 kHz

65,514

77,656

4,136

4,036

1013 8

1,2/50

500 kHz

65,178

77,541

4,494

4,349

1028 9

1,2/50

200 kHz

61,54

75,196

5,261

5,15

1999-05-17 O990517b

1999-03-16 O990316a

20

141

Appendices

142

Lightning Impulses

Appendices

143

Appendices

144

Lightning Impulses

Appendices

145

References

References

The list of references is divided into two parts, public available

references and non-public available references. If the reference

number you are looking for is not in the first list, it will be in the

second. For example the reference numbers 1 to 4 and 7 to 9 are in the

public available list the missing numbers in the non-public available

list.

1

and test requirements IEC 60060-1: 1989.

series 17, 1996, ISBN 0 86341 293 9

the future of figure 10 in IEC 60-1 ERA conference, Milan,

1996, paper no. 5.3

Wedberg, M., Pesavento, G., Gobbo, R., Benda-Berlijn, S.M.,

Scheltinga, L., Schon, K., Lucas, W., Blanc, I., Gournay, P.,

Sacepe, B., Weck, K.-H., Kster, H.-J., Garnacho, F., Tangen,

K.O., Rizzi, G., Neves Gomes, F., Muhr, M. and Renger, H.:

European intercomparison of h.v. impulse measuring systems

with digital recorder ISH, Montreal, 1997, Volume 4, page 712

Stichting

Historie

der

Techniek,

ISBN 90-73192-16-1

uncertainty in measurement

estimation of uncertainty in high-voltage measurement

IEC 60060-2, annex H: 1996

13

F., Ribot, J., Garnacho, F., Perez, J., Gomes, N., Dias, C., Aro,

M., Valve, P., Claudi, A., Lehmann, K., Strauss, W. and

Notkonen, E.:International comparison of software for

evaluating HV impulses and step respones 8th ISH, Yokoham

1993, paper no 51.01, pp. 289-292

14

Gockenbach, E., Werle, P., Hackemack, K., Watts, M and

Wong, K.C.P.: Todays problems with the evaluation methods

of full lightning impulse parameters as described in IEC

60060-1, ISH 1999.

18

method to calculate a mean curve in lightning impulses

acquired with a digital recorder Paper 51.03 ISH 93 Yokohama

147

References

148

19

fitting and smoothing digital data Paper 50.06, 6th ISH, New

Orleans 1989

20

extraction IEEE panel session on digital techniques in HV

tests, Long Beach, California, 1989

21

procedures for the evaluation of parameters of digitally

recorded impulses Paper 62.07, 7th ISH, Dresden 1991

23

parameters of digitally recorded lightning impulses by

regression method ISH 1993, Paper no 51.04, Yokohama

24

high voltage impulses Helsinki University of Technology, high

voltage institute, Espoo-Finland, report Tkk-SJT-17, november

1995, 26 p.

26

full lightning impulses Using Model-based Curve fitting IEEE

Transactions on Power delivery, 6 1991-4), p.1386-1392

27

determinacin de los parmetros de impulsos tipo rayo en

sistematas de medida con registro digital, conforme a la norma

IEC 60-1. Tesiis Doctoral, Madrid, 1994

28

parameters. Proposal to establish the criteria to determine the

reference mean curve in lightning impulses ISH 95, paper

4547, Graz

29

method of determining the mean curve of lightning impulses

according to IEC 60060-1 11th ISH, London, 1999, page

1.74.S21-1.77.S21, Volume 1

30

parameter evaluation 11th ISH, London 199, page 1.78.S211.81.S21, Volume 1

31

measurements on high voltage impulses, 11th ISH, London

1999, page 1.205.S21-1.208.S21, Volume 1

32

Panel Session on digital techniques in HV tests, Long Beach,

IEEE summer meeting California 1989

33

impulse test results 7th ISH, Dresden 1991, paper 62.08

35

measurement of lightning impulse parameters using curve

fitting algorithms 11th ISH London 1999, page 1.193.S211.196.S21, Volume 1

References

38

technique Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Braunschweig, ISBN 3-52808383-2

39

Kawashima, T., Okabe, S. and Zaima, E. Evaluation of steepfront overvoltage waveforms for oil-filled transformers 11th

ISH 1999, London, Volume 1, p. 1.279.P4-1.282.P4

40

transmission towers TRITA-EEA-9706 ISSN 1100-1593

41

Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Braunschweig, ISBN 3-528-08599-1

42.

Lemke, E.:Ein Beitrag zur Abschtzung der rumlichzeitlichen Entwicklung des Durchschlags in langen

Luftfunkstrecken bei Schaltspannungen Wiss. Zeitschrift der

TU Dresden 26 (1977), 1, p.133-136.

43

regularities of breakdown in transformer oil 7th ISH vol.2,

paper no 2102, p.17-20 Dresden, Germany August 26-30, 1991.

44

W.:Dielectric strength under transformer oill under impulse

and hhigh frequency voltage stress 7th ISH, Vol. 2, paper no.

2212, p1-4, Dresden Germany, August 26-30, 1991

45

H.W.:Initiation of electrical breadkwon in ultra-high vaccum

J.Vac.Sci.Technol.Vol1 (1964), p. 35-50

46

breakdown voltage and condition characteristics of a vacuum

gap Brit.J.A[[;.Phys.Vol13 91962), p.122-125.

47

vacuum J.Appl.Phys.,Vol23 (1952), P.518-522

48

technischer Elektrode Anordnungen in Luft Dissertation TH

Mnchen 1957

51

polarity and field non-uniforminty on the rbeakdwon voltage

characteristics of SF6 under impulse voltages1994 IEEE

International symposium on electrical insulation, p.485-488,

Pittsburg, PA (USA) June 5-8, 1994

52

of SF6 and SF6-N2 under lightning and steep fronted impulses

Conference record of the 1992 International symposium on

Electrical insulation, p.310-313 Baltimore, MD (USA), June 710, 1992, IEEE, New York, 1992

53

in SF6 for oscillating impulses and fast oscillating

overvoltages7th ISH, Vol. 3, paper no. 3106, p./29-32,

Dresden, Germany August 26-30, 1991

55

149

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150

56

the dielectric strength of transformer oil under oscillatory

impulse voltagesConference recod of the 1996 iEEE

international symposium on electrical insulation. Vol2, p. 554556, Montreal Quebec, Canada June 16-19, 1996

57

Polyethylen

nach

unterschiedlicher

Dissertation, 1982, Universitt Hannover

58

conditions on the behaviour of XLPE-samples at voltages of

different shapes Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International

symposium on Electrical Insulation, part2, Montreal, 1996

59

Kahle,

M.:

Der

Einflu

von

Gleichspannungsvorbeanspruchungen

und

Erholezeit

auf

die

Stodurchschlagfestigkeit hochpolymer Folien Elektrie, 1971,

heft 25, S. 315-317

60

at high temperature 8th ISH Yolohama 1993

61

PE and XLPE insulations 3th ISH, Milan 1979

62

berlagerungen von Gleich- und Stospannung Dissertation

Universitt Hannover, 1987

63

Lightning Impulse voltage ETEP, Vol.2, No. 4, July/August

1992

64

Polyethylen bei Belastung mit Blitzimpulsspannung

Dissertation TU Dresden, 1993

65

Spannungssten Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1924, Heft 25,

S 652-654

66

Isolatoren Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1924, Heft 40, S

1045-1050

67

function of voltage rise time Journal of Physics, No.4, L19L20, 1971

68

interrupter under ligthning and switching impulse voltage XVth

International symposium on discharges and electrical insulation

in vacuum. p. 632-635. Darmstadt, Germany, September 6-10,

1992

69

devices TUE-Netherlands, 8 August 1983, ESA Technical

Management, the Netherlands 1983

70

series 17, 1996, ISBN 0 86341 293 9

von vernetztem

Vorbelastung

References

72

Hauschild, W and Mosch, W.:Statistical techniques for highvoltage engineeringPeter Peregrinus Ltd., ISBN 0 86341 205

X

73

lightning impulse voltages , Thesis 1999 TUE-Netherlands

75

76

impulse on the breakdown behaviour of insulating materials

14-8-1998, EH.98.A.152, thesis, Technical University

Eindhoven

5

Hochspannungssystemen der Energieversorgung 2.berarbeite

Auflage, Mrz 1998 (page 101-114).

Engineering B.V., april 1990.

10

measuring systems used in high-voltage testing to standards of

measurement, Provisional STL Guide, draft September 1996

11

Haefely Trench Symposium, 25-26 May 1998, Stuttgart, paper

no. 4.

12

impulse parameters in case of waveforms with oscillations

and/or overshoot IEEE 1996

15

P., Hackemack, K., Watts, M.:Final report, digital

measurement of parameters used for lightning impulse tests for

high voltage equipment contract no. PL-951210-SMT-CT962132, 17 September 1999

16

A survey of parameters for comment and further suggestions,

CIGRE 33-96 (WG 03) IWD 11

17

McComb, T., Pesavento, G., Hauschild, W., Gockenbach, E.,

Ramirez, M. Munoz, P., Larzeler, B. and Xin Zhang,

Y.:Evaluation procedures for lightning impulse paramters in

case of waveforms with oscillations and/or overshootCIGRE

33-96 (WG03) 10 IWD.

22

double exponential model CIGRE 33-93 (WG03) 40 IWD

25

parameter evaluationCIGRE 33-93(WG03)30IWD

34

of impulse waves. CIGRE 33-93 (WG03) 7 IWD

151

References

152

36

procedure of standard impulse parametersCIGRE 3395(WG03) 25 IWD

37

with non-conventional waveforms, report to Study Committee

12 CIGRE 33-97 (WG03) 19 IWD

49

50

1Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven the

Netherlands, Dec 1994

54

71

Simon, P., Gockenbach, E., Werle, P., Hackemack, K., Watts,

M and Wong, P.:An investigation into the relevancy of the

wave shape parameters used for lightning impulse tests

CIGRE WG 33.03, 1998, CIGRE WG33.03 1998 IWD 15.

74

generator project document P1/11

77

P2/16, 12/3/98

78

79

comportamiento de medios dielctricos frente a sobretensiones

tipo rayo no normalizados en alta tensin". Dissertation to be

presented at a later time. Professor: F. Garnacho.

80

stootspanningsproeven aan transformatoren SMIT Nijmegen,

A.P. E.92.2.26

References

153

References

154

and test requirements IEC 60060-1: 1989.

series 17, 1996, ISBN 0 86341 293 9

the future of figure 10 in IEC 60-1 ERA conference, Milan,

1996, paper no. 5.3

Wedberg, M., Pesavento, G., Gobbo, R., Benda-Berlijn, S.M.,

Scheltinga, L., Schon, K., Lucas, W., Blanc, I., Gournay, P.,

Sacepe, B., Weck, K.-H., Kster, H.-J., Garnacho, F., Tangen,

K.O., Rizzi, G., Neves Gomes, F., Muhr, M. and Renger, H.:

European intercomparison of h.v. impulse measuring systems

with digital recorder ISH, Montreal, 1997, Volume 4, page 712

Hochspannungssystemen der Energieversorgung 2.berarbeite

Auflage, Mrz 1998 (page 101-114).

Engineering B.V., april 1990.

Stichting

Historie

der

Techniek,

ISBN 90-73192-16-1

uncertainty in measurement

estimation of uncertainty in high-voltage measurement IEC

60060-2, annex H: 1996

10

measuring systems used in high-voltage testing to standards of

measurement, Provisional STL Guide, draft September 1996

11

Haefely Trench Symposium, 25-26 May 1998, Stuttgart, paper

no. 4.

12

impulse parameters in case of waveforms with oscillations

and/or overshoot IEEE 1996

13

F., Ribot, J., Garnacho, F., Perez, J., Gomes, N., Dias, C., Aro,

M., Valve, P., Claudi, A., Lehmann, K., Strauss, W. and

Notkonen, E.:International comparison of software for

evaluating HV impulses and step respones 8th ISH, Yokoham

1993, paper no 51.01, pp. 289-292

14

Gockenbach, E., Werle, P., Hackemack, K., Watts, M and

Wong, K.C.P.: Todays problems with the evaluation methods

References

60060-1, ISH 1999.

15

P., Hackemack, K., Watts, M.:Final report, digital

measurement of parameters used for lightning impulse tests for

high voltage equipment contract no. PL-951210-SMT-CT962132, 17 September 1999

16

A survey of parameters for comment and further suggestions,

CIGRE 33-96 (WG 03) IWD 11

17

McComb, T., Pesavento, G., Hauschild, W., Gockenbach, E.,

Ramirez, M. Munoz, P., Larzeler, B. and Xin Zhang,

Y.:Evaluation procedures for lightning impulse paramters in

case of waveforms with oscillations and/or overshootCIGRE

33-96 (WG03) 10 IWD.

18

method to calculate a mean curve in lightning impulses

acquired with a digital recorder Paper 51.03 ISH 93 Yokohama

19

fitting and smoothing digital data Paper 50.06, 6th ISH, New

Orleans 1989

20

extraction IEEE panel session on digital techniques in HV

tests, Long Beach, California, 1989

21

procedures for the evaluation of parameters of digitally

recorded impulses Paper 62.07, 7th ISH, Dresden 1991

22

double exponential model CIGRE 33-93 (WG03) 40 IWD

23

parameters of digitally recorded lightning impulses by

regression method ISH 1993, Paper no 51.04, Yokohama

24

high voltage impulses Helsinki University of Technology, high

voltage institute, Espoo-Finland, report Tkk-SJT-17, november

1995, 26 p.

25

parameter evaluationCIGRE 33-93(WG03)30IWD

26

full lightning impulses Using Model-based Curve fitting IEEE

Transactions on Power delivery, 6 1991-4), p.1386-1392

27

determinacin de los parmetros de impulsos tipo rayo en

sistematas de medida con registro digital, conforme a la norma

IEC 60-1. Tesiis Doctoral, Madrid, 1994

155

References

156

28

parameters. Proposal to establish the criteria to determine the

reference mean curve in lightning impulses ISH 95, paper

4547, Graz

29

method of determining the mean curve of lightning impulses

according to IEC 60060-1 11th ISH, London, 1999, page

1.74.S21-1.77.S21, Volume 1

30

parameter evaluation 11th ISH, London 199, page 1.78.S211.81.S21, Volume 1

31

measurements on high voltage impulses, 11th ISH, London

1999, page 1.205.S21-1.208.S21, Volume 1

32

Panel Session on digital techniques in HV tests, Long Beach,

IEEE summer meeting California 1989

33

impulse test results 7th ISH, Dresden 1991, paper 62.08

34

of impulse waves. CIGRE 33-93 (WG03) 7 IWD

35

measurement of lightning impulse parameters using curve

fitting algorithms 11th ISH London 1999, page 1.193.S211.196.S21, Volume 1

36

procedure of standard impulse parametersCIGRE 3395(WG03) 25 IWD

37

with non-conventional waveforms, report to Study Committee

12 CIGRE 33-97 (WG03) 19 IWD

38

technique Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Braunschweig, ISBN 3-52808383-2

39

Kawashima, T., Okabe, S. and Zaima, E. Evaluation of steepfront overvoltage waveforms for oil-filled transformers 11th

ISH 1999, London, Volume 1, p. 1.279.P4-1.282.P4

40

transmission towers TRITA-EEA-9706 ISSN 1100-1593

41

Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Braunschweig, ISBN 3-528-08599-1

42.

Lemke, E.:Ein Beitrag zur Abschtzung der rumlichzeitlichen Entwicklung des Durchschlags in langen

Luftfunkstrecken bei Schaltspannungen Wiss. Zeitschrift der

TU Dresden 26 (1977), 1, p.133-136.

References

43

regularities of breakdown in transformer oil 7th ISH vol.2,

paper no 2102, p.17-20 Dresden, Germany August 26-30, 1991.

44

W.:Dielectric strength under transformer oill under impulse

and hhigh frequency voltage stress 7th ISH, Vol. 2, paper no.

2212, p1-4, Dresden Germany, August 26-30, 1991

45

H.W.:Initiation of electrical breadkwon in ultra-high vaccum

J.Vac.Sci.Technol.Vol1 (1964), p. 35-50

46

breakdown voltage and condition characteristics of a vacuum

gap Brit.J.A[[;.Phys.Vol13 91962), p.122-125.

47

vacuum J.Appl.Phys.,Vol23 (1952), P.518-522

48

technischer Elektrode Anordnungen in Luft Dissertation TH

Mnchen 1957

49

50

1Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven the

Netherlands, Dec 1994

51

polarity and field non-uniforminty on the rbeakdwon voltage

characteristics of SF6 under impulse voltages1994 IEEE

International symposium on electrical insulation, p.485-488,

Pittsburg, PA (USA) June 5-8, 1994

52

of SF6 and SF6-N2 under lightning and steep fronted impulses

Conference record of the 1992 International symposium on

Electrical insulation, p.310-313 Baltimore, MD (USA), June 710, 1992, IEEE, New York, 1992

53

in SF6 for oscillating impulses and fast oscillating

overvoltages7th ISH, Vol. 3, paper no. 3106, p./29-32,

Dresden, Germany August 26-30, 1991

54

55

56

the dielectric strength of transformer oil under oscillatory

impulse voltagesConference recod of the 1996 iEEE

international symposium on electrical insulation. Vol2, p. 554556, Montreal Quebec, Canada June 16-19, 1996

57

Polyethylen

nach

unterschiedlicher

Dissertation, 1982, Universitt Hannover

von vernetztem

Vorbelastung

157

References

158

58

conditions on the behaviour of XLPE-samples at voltages of

different shapes Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International

symposium on Electrical Insulation, part2, Montreal, 1996

59

Kahle,

M.:

Der

Einflu

von

Gleichspannungsvorbeanspruchungen

und

Erholezeit

auf

die

Stodurchschlagfestigkeit hochpolymer Folien Elektrie, 1971,

heft 25, S. 315-317

60

at high temperature 8th ISH Yolohama 1993

61

PE and XLPE insulations 3th ISH, Milan 1979

62

berlagerungen von Gleich- und Stospannung Dissertation

Universitt Hannover, 1987

63

Lightning Impulse voltage ETEP, Vol.2, No. 4, July/August

1992

64

Polyethylen bei Belastung mit Blitzimpulsspannung

Dissertation TU Dresden, 1993

65

Spannungssten Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1924, Heft 25,

S 652-654

66

Isolatoren Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1924, Heft 40, S

1045-1050

67

function of voltage rise time Journal of Physics, No.4, L19L20, 1971

68

interrupter under ligthning and switching impulse voltage XVth

International symposium on discharges and electrical insulation

in vacuum. p. 632-635. Darmstadt, Germany, September 6-10,

1992

69

devices TUE-Netherlands, 8 August 1983, ESA Technical

Management, the Netherlands 1983

70

series 17, 1996, ISBN 0 86341 293 9

71

Simon, P., Gockenbach, E., Werle, P., Hackemack, K., Watts,

M and Wong, P.:An investigation into the relevancy of the

wave shape parameters used for lightning impulse tests

CIGRE WG 33.03, 1998, CIGRE WG33.03 1998 IWD 15.

References

72

Hauschild, W and Mosch, W.:Statistical techniques for highvoltage engineeringPeter Peregrinus Ltd., ISBN 0 86341 205

X

73

lightning impulse voltages , XX9thesis) XX TUE-Netherlands

74

generator project document P1/11

75

76

impulse on the breakdown behaviour of insulating materials

14-8-1998, EH.98.A.152, thesis, Technical University

Eindhoven

77

P2/16, 12/3/98

78

79

comportamiento de medios dielctricos frente a sobretensiones

tipo rayo no normalizados en alta tensin". Dissertation to be

presented at a later time. Professor: F. Garnacho.

80

stootspanningsproeven aan transformatoren SMIT Nijmegen,

A.P. E.92.2.26

159

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