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CAPACITIVE TOUCH SCREENS


One of the more futuristic applications of capacitors is the capacitive touch screen.
These are glass screens that have a very thin, transparent metallic coating. A builtin electrode pattern charges the screen so when touched; a current is drawn to the
finger and creates a voltage drop. This exact location of the voltage drop is picked
up by a controller and transmitted to a computer. These touch screens are
commonly found in interactive building directories and more recently in
Apple's iPhone.

Touch-screen monitors have become more and more commonplace as their price
has steadily dropped over the past decade. There are three basic systems that are
used to recognize a person's touch:

Resistive

Capacitive

Surface acoustic wave

The resistive system consists of a normal glass panel that is covered with a
conductive and a resistive metallic layer. These two layers are held apart by
spacers, and a scratch-resistant layer is placed on top of the whole setup. An
electrical current runs through the two layers while the monitor is operational. When
a user touches the screen, the two layers make contact in that exact spot. The
change in the electrical field is noted and the coordinates of the point of contact are
calculated by the computer. Once the coordinates are known, a special driver
translates the touch into something that the operating system can understand,
much as a computer mouse driver translates a mouse's movements into a click or a
drag.
In the capacitive system, a layer that stores electrical charge is placed on the
glass panel of the monitor. When a user touches the monitor with his or her finger,

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some of the charge is transferred to the user, so the charge on the capacitive layer
decreases. This decrease is measured in circuits located at each corner of the
monitor. The computer calculates, from the relative differences in charge at each
corner, exactly where the touch event took place and then relays that information to
the touch-screen driver software. One advantage that the capacitive system has
over the resistive system is that it transmits almost 90 percent of the light from the
monitor, whereas the resistive system only transmits about 75 percent. This gives
the capacitive system a much clearer picture than the resistive system.
On the monitor of a surface acoustic wave system, two transducers (one
receiving and one sending) are placed along the x and y axes of the monitor's glass
plate. Also placed on the glass are reflectors -- they reflect an electrical signal sent
from one transducer to the other. The receiving transducer is able to tell if the wave
has been disturbed by a touch event at any instant, and can locate it accordingly.
The wave setup has no metallic layers on the screen, allowing for 100-percent light
throughput and perfect image clarity. This makes the surface acoustic wave system
best for displaying detailed graphics (both other systems have significant
degradation in clarity).
Another area in which the systems differ is in which stimuli will register as a touch
event. A resistive system registers a touch as long as the two layers make contact,
which means that it doesn't matter if you touch it with your finger or a rubber ball. A
capacitive system, on the other hand, must have a conductive input, usually your
finger, in order to register a touch. The surface acoustic wave system works much
like the resistive system, allowing a touch with almost any object -- except hard and
small objects like a pen tip.
As far as price, the resistive system is the cheapest; its clarity is the lowest of the
three, and its layers can be damaged by sharp objects. The surface acoustic wave
setup is usually the most expensive.
How the iPhone Works

In January 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the Apple iPhone during his keynote address
at the Macworld Conference and Expo. In its first appearance onscreen and in Jobs's
hand, the phone looked like a sleek but inanimate black rectangle.
Then, Jobs touched the screen. Suddenly, the featureless rectangle became an
interactive surface. Jobs placed a fingertip on an on-screen arrow and slid it from left
to right. When his finger moved, the arrow moved with it, unlocking the phone. To
some people, this interaction between a human finger and an on-screen image -and its effect on the iPhone's behavior -- was more amazing than all of its other
features combined.
And those features are plentiful. In some ways, the iPhone is more like a palmtop
computer than a cellular phone. As with many smartphones, you can use it to make
and receive calls, watch movies, listen to music, browse the Web, and send and
receive e-mail and text messages. You can also take pictures and video (using an
iPhone 3GS or later model) with a built-in camera, import photos from your
computer and organize them all using the iPhone's software.
In 2008, Apple introduced the second generation iPhone. This iPhone operates on
third-generation (3G) cellular networks and has a GPS receiver. It also lets you view
map and satellite data from Google Maps, including overlays of nearby businesses.
Owners of the original iPhone got the opportunity to upgrade the software on their
phones. The 2.0 software gave the old phones new functions, but without the GPS
receiver or 3G network capability.
2009 was the year that Apple launched the iPhone 3GS. The 3GS iPhone models
have more storage capacity than earlier iPhones. They also have a better camera
that's capable of taking still shots and video at 30 frames per second. Another
added feature is a compass, which comes in handy when you need to find your way
through unfamiliar territory. Also in 2009 came iPhone OS 3.0, which offered many
improvements, such as the ability to cut and paste.
In 2010, Steve Jobs took the stage to announce a new generation of Apple's
runaway success: the iPhone 4. The iPhone 4 sports two cameras -- one on the front
and one on the back. The iPhone 4 has a retina display with a better resolution than
earlier phones. It also marked a departure from the basic iPhone design -- the phone
doesn't have a slightly curved back so it lays flat on surfaces. Jobs also announced a
new name for the iPhone operating system: iOS, a modified version of the
Macintosh OS X operating system used on Apple desktop and laptop computers.
In June 2011, Apple announced iOS 5 for iPhone 3GS and later, which includes data
syncing to the iCloud service, as well as iMessage, Twitter integration and a

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convenient new sliding notification screen. In October 2011, Apple unveiled the
iPhone 4S, with the faster A5 processor and a much improved camera that shoots 8
megapixel images and 1080p high-definition video. The 4S was also the first phone
that could take advantage of a major addition to Apple's iOS, which debuted with
iOS 5: the Siri voice-activated personal assistant.
The iPhone 5 made its debut in the third quarter of 2013, and offered consumers
two product lines to choose from. The iPhone 5s includes an A7 64-bit chip, and
added a security enhancement in the form of a fingerprint identity sensor (though
just how secure this feature is has been hotly debated). The iPhone 5c provides a
lower price point option, and comes in plastic casings with a variety of color options.

The conductive layers in the iPhone's touch screen enable users to give
the device commands with a simple swipe of the finger.
iPhone Touch Screen
Electronic devices can use lots of different methods to detect a person's input on
a touch screen. Most of them use sensors and circuitry to monitor changes in a
particular state. Many, including the iPhone, monitor changes in electrical current.
Others monitor changes in the reflection of waves. These can be sound waves or
beams of near-infraredlight. A few systems use transducers to measure changes in
vibration caused when your finger hits the screen's surface or cameras to monitor
changes in light and shadow.
The basic idea is pretty simple -- when you place your finger or a stylus on the
screen, it changes the state that the device is monitoring. In screens that rely on
sound or light waves, your finger physically blocks or reflects some of the
waves. Capacitive touch screens use a layer of capacitive material to hold an
electrical charge; touching the screen changes the amount of charge at a specific
point of contact. Inresistive screens, the pressure from your finger causes

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conductive and resistive layers of circuitry to touch each other, changing the
circuits' resistance.
Most of the time, these systems are good at detecting the location of exactly one
touch. If you try to touch the screen in several places at once, the results can be
erratic. Some screens simply disregard all touches after the first one. Others can
detect simultaneous touches, but their software can't calculate the location of each
one accurately. There are several reasons for this, including the following:
Many systems detect changes along an axis or in a specific direction instead of at
each point on the screen. Some screens rely on system-wide averages to determine
touch locations. Some systems take measurements by first establishing a baseline.
When you touch the screen, you create a new baseline. Adding another touch
causes the system to take a measurement using the wrong baseline as a starting
point.
The Apple iPhone is different -- many of the elements of its multi-touch user
interface require you to touch multiple points on the screen simultaneously. For
example, you can zoom in to Web pages or pictures by placing your thumb and
finger on the screen and spreading them apart. To zoom back out, you can pinch
your thumb and finger together. The iPhone's touch screen is able to respond to
both touch points and their movements simultaneously. We'll look at exactly how
the iPhone does this in the next section.

Apple's iOS lets you interact with all of the applications on your iPhone. It displays
icons for each application on the iPhone's screen. It also manages battery power
and system security. The operating system synchs the phone with your computer on
older iPhones and iOS versions, a process that requires a connector much like the
one used to synch an iPod, but since iOS 5, most synching of data across Apple
devices can take place via the new iCloud service. The OS also lets you multitask
and move through multiple open applications, just like you can on a laptop or
desktop computer.
But instead of using a mouse or a physical keyboard, the iPhone uses virtual buttons
and controls that appear on its screen. This isn't really a new phenomenon -- touch
screens have been part of everything from self-checkout kiosks to smartphones for
years. But the iPhone's touch screen is a little different from many of the others
currently on the market. When you touch the screen on a PDA or a Nintendo DS, you
typically use a slender, pointed stylus. The iPhone, on the other hand, requires you
to use your fingers or a conductive stylus. It can also detect multiple touch points
simultaneously.
This article will explore exactly how the iPhone's touch screen carries instructions
from your fingertips to the phone's internal circuitry. We'll also look at the features

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in Apple's latest and greatest, the iPhone 5c and 5s, and the 2013 update to its
operating system: iOS 7.

The many component layers in a mutual capacitance screen.


Multi-touch Systems
To allow people to use touch commands that require multiple fingers, the iPhone
uses a different arrangement of existing technology. Its touch-sensitive screen
includes a layer ofcapacitive material, just like many other touch screens. However,
the iPhone's capacitors are arranged according to a coordinate system. Its circuitry
can sense changes at each point along the grid. In other words, every point on the
grid generates its own signal when touched and relays that signal to the iPhone's
processor. This allows the phone to determine the location and movement of
simultaneous touches in multiple locations. Because of its reliance on this capacitive

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material, the iPhone works only if you touch it with your fingertip -- it won't work if
you use a stylus or wear non-conductive gloves.
The iPhone's screen detects touch through one of two methods: Mutual capacitance
or self capacitance. In mutual capacitance, the capacitive circuitry requires two
distinct layers of material. One houses driving lines, which carry current, and the
other houses sensing lines, which detect the current at nodes. Self
capacitance uses one layer of individual electrodes connected with capacitancesensing circuitry. Both of these possible setups send touch data
as electrical impulses.

The 2012 iPhone 5 replaced the previous touch screen with an in-cell touch
screen that still uses capacitive multi-touch technology, but combines the
capacitive touch sensing layer and the LCD

The iPhone's touch screen registers your touch and converts that raw data
into precise coordinates.
iPhone Processor Touch Interpretation
The iPhone's processor and software are central to correctly interpreting input from
the touch screen. The capacitive material sends raw touch-location data to the
iPhone's processor. The processor uses software located in the iPhone's memory to
interpret the raw data as commands and gestures. Here's what happens:

In the nanosecond between the time you touch the iPhone's screen and
the display reacts, several calculations and signals are sent from the
touch screen to the software.
1. Signals travel from the touch screen to the processor as electrical impulses.
2. The processor uses software to analyze the data and determine the features of
each touch. This includes size, shape and location of the affected area on the
screen. If necessary, the processor arranges touches with similar features into
groups. If you move your finger, the processor calculates the difference between the
starting point and ending point of your touch.

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3. The processor uses its gesture-interpretation software to determine which
gesture you made. It combines your physical movement with information about
which application you were using and what the application was doing when you
touched the screen.
4. The processor relays your instructions to the program in use. If necessary, it also
sends commands to the iPhone's screen and other hardware. If the raw data doesn't
match any applicable gestures or commands, the iPhone disregards it as an
extraneous touch.
All these steps happen in a nanosecond -- you see changes in the screen based on
your input almost instantly. This process allows you to access and use all of the
iPhone's applications with your fingers. We'll look at these programs and the
iPhone's other features, as well as how the iPhone's cost measures up to its abilities,
in more detail in the next section
iPhone Features
The front surface of the Apple iPhone has only one button -- the Home button.
Pressing the Home button takes you to the main screen of the iPhone's graphical
user interface, where the pre-installed Apple applications are housed when you first
get your phone. You simply swipe from right to left or vice versa to change pages
and access additional apps. From any screen, you can also choose from the device's
four primary functions using icons at the bottom of the screen. By default these are:

Phone: This app allows you to add contacts, check voice messages and make
calls via a host of networks including 3G, GSM or EDGE cellular phone service.
Additional network capabilities have also been added to latest phones.

Mail: The Mail app allows you to send and receive e-mail via POP and IMAP,
and includes in-line picture, HTML and push e-mail capabilities. Since iPhone
4S, voice dictation is also included.

Safari: This is the built-in Web browser that has come with all iPhone OSes.

Music: Formerly called the iPod app. Despite the name, Music allows you to
store and play not only music, but also audiobooks and podcasts from your
playlists.

You can swap other applications into these positions by pressing and holding any
one of the above until all app icons begin to shake, sliding it onto the main screen
and sliding something else into the bottom area in its place.
You can open the iPhone's other applications from the upper portion of the Home
screen. These include a calendar, calculator, notepad, and widgets, or miniapplications made specifically for the iPhone. Older iPhones include a 2.0- or 3.2megapixel camera along with software you can use to organize your pictures -- the

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iPhone 5s model ups the stakes with an 8-megapixel camera. You can also use an
iPhone to check weather reports and stock quotes. Even though the iPhone doesn't
support Flash, which YouTube's non-mobile site relies on, you can watch YouTube
videos using the corresponding application. An Apple version of YouTube was built in
prior to iOS 6. Now the iOS requires that you download either the Google YouTube
app or another video search and play app that can access YouTube. The virtual keys
and buttons you need to navigate each application appear only when you need
them.
The shape of the screen changes when you need it to as well -- you can shift the
perspective from vertical to horizontal by tilting the phone. An accelerometer inside
the iPhone lets the operating system know to change the orientation of the image
on the screen. This means that you can scroll through long lists of music files on a
long, narrow screen, and you can watch movies in a widescreen format. You can
learn more about accelerometers in
Other physical buttons and switches, aside from the Home button, are located
around the edge of the phone. An on/off or sleep button is located at the top of the
phone. A switch on the left side lets you set your phone from ringing to silent, and
just below that are the volume buttons.
3G iPhone Applications and Problems
In June 2008, Steve Jobs unveiled the 3G iPhone at a conference for application
developers. Apple offered 8 and 16 GB options of the 3G edition of the iPhone. The
phone's appearance only changed a little bit -- this model has a slightly sleeker
design and its back isn't silver. Customers who bought the 16 GB model could
choose between an iPhone with a black or white plastic back. The 8 GB model was
only available in black.
Perhaps the biggest announcement -- apart from the fact that the phone could take
advantage of 3G network technology -- was that the 3G iPhone had a GPS receiver.
One of the challenges of GPS devices is that they tend to drain batteries pretty
quickly. That's because the device is constantly receiving signals from satellites
orbiting the Earth.
Another important addition to the iPhone was support for Microsoft Exchange.
Microsoft Exchange support means users can now synchronize their iPhones with
their Microsoft Outlook accounts. By adding this feature, the iPhone became more
competitive with other enterprise smartphones -- the phones businesses use to
keep executives and employees connected when out of the office.
When it released the original iPhone, Apple didn't support third-party applications,
though that didn't stop developers from writing them. But with the original iPhone,
in order to even run a non-Apple application, an iPhone owner had to
first jailbreak his or her phone. Jailbreaking just meant the owner could load and run

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third party applications. But it came with a risk -- if you tried to install official
updates from Apple with a jailbroken phone, Apple could tell that some hanky panky
was going on. But the 3G iPhone acts as an application platform, and Apple
encourages developers to create content for it.
The transfer to the 3G iPhone didn't go without a hitch. Instead of allowing
customers to purchase phones and activate them at home, Apple wanted them to
activate the phones inside the store. Unfortunately, Apple's systems suffered an
overload, causing massive delays during the product launch. Most customers ended
up having to activate at home anyway.
Some of the new applications that became available when Apple opened up
development for the iPhone take advantage of the device's accelerometer feature.
Games like "Super MonkeyBall" let the player control the game character by tilting
the phone in different ways. Could the iPhone become the next portable gaming
platform? That's precisely what Apple claimed at its Sept. 9, 2009 press event. That
brings us up to the iPhone 3GS.
APP CONTROVERSY
To get an application into the iTunes App store, Apple must approve it first. Apple
retains the right to deny any application that duplicates or damages the features of
the iPhone. This has led to controversy -- in 2009, the FCC stepped in to investigate
claims that Apple rejected Google Voice applications unfairly.
iPhone 3GS
Apple unveiled the iPhone 3GS at the 2009 World Wide Developers Conference
(WWDC). The S stands for "speed." According to Apple, the iPhone 3GS is up to
twice as fast as the previous iPhone 3G model. That applies both to accessing the
data network and launching applications. In real-world tests, journalists found that
the iPhone 3GS often was more effective at picking up 3G signals from the cell
phone carrier than its predecessor.
But the iPhone 3GS isn't just faster than previous models. It also boasts some new
features. Here's a rundown of what you'll find on the iPhone 3GS:

More storage space: There are two versions of the iPhone 3GS: 16 GB and 32
GB models. This doubles the capacity of older iPhone models. Both models
are available in white or black.

Video camera: Not only does the iPhone 3GS's camera capture larger photos
(3.2 megapixels versus the iPhone 3G's 2.0-megapixel camera), it can record
video at 30 frames per second, too. The camera can focus automatically or
you can use the touch screen to tell the camera where to focus the image. It
also adjusts the image's white balance automatically.

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Voice control: While many other phones on the market have voice dialing
features, the iPhone 3GS's voice control extends the functionality to other
parts of the phone. Not only can you make calls by speaking into your phone,
you can also control music playback and other functions.

Compass: When paired with the accelerometer and GPS receiver, the iPhone
3GS's compass helps keep iPhone owners from getting lost. It also allows app
developers the opportunity to develop augmented reality applications.

Oleophobic screen: One problem with touch screens is that they tend to
attract smudges. The iPhone 3GS has an oleophobic screen. An oleophobic
material repels oils, keeping the screen relatively smudge-free.

Tethering: If your cell phone carrier allows it, you can use the iPhone 3GS as a
modem for your computer. Simply hook the iPhone 3GS to the computer
using an Apple USB cord and you can surf the Web at 3G speeds. Some
carriers don't allow tethering, including AT&T in the United States.

While these features were touted as impressive new technology, many of them
already existed on other smartphones.
iPhone 4
When Steve Jobs unveiled the iPhone 4 in 2010, he confirmed a lot of rumors that
had been swirling around for more than a month. The technology news blog
Gizmodo made headlines of its own when it ran a story about a prototype version of
the iPhone 4 ahead of the official announcement. The phone belonged to
an Apple employee who apparently left it behind at a bar by accident. Gizmodo
revealed many of the phone's features, though Apple had remotely locked most of
its functionality.
Jobs slyly acknowledged the fact that his audience knew more about the phone than
they should, but he still had some surprises up his sleeve. The new iPhone's design
was a departure from previous models. Instead of the slightly curved back, the
iPhone 4 has flat surfaces. It also has two cameras. The rear-facing camera takes 5megapixel pictures and can capture 720p video. It also has an LED flash for low-light
photography [source: Apple]. The front-facing camera plays a part in Apple's
Facetime app, which lets you make video calls to other iPhone 4, compatible iPod
touch and Mac OS X users.
The phone's front and back are both covered in glass. Metal bands around the edge
of the phone act as antennae.
The iPhone 4 has what Apple calls a retina display. Its resolution is 960 by 640
pixels, or 326 pixels per inch. It has an 800-to-one contrast ratio.
Other iPhone 4 features include:

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Multitasking

HD video recording and editing

camera autofocus

three-axis gyroscope

dual-mic noise suppression

A year after the release of the iPhone 4, Apple used its annual WWDC event to
announce something new -- but it wasn't a new phone. It was the next iteration of
its mobile operating system, iOS, with some major improvements in tow.
iOS 5
Apple announced version 5.0 of its mobile operating system in June 2011, several
months before it unveiled the new phone that iOS5 would launch alongside. The
operating system software went through several months of beta use before
becoming available for iPhones, iPads and iPod touches. The iOS 5 update is one of
the biggest changes to the iPhone experience Apple has ever made. The standout
new feature is Siri, the personal assistant built into iOS 5. Siri is only available on
the iPhone 4S and later; the iOS 5 operating system itself can be downloaded onto
the iPhone 4 and iPhone 3GS, but Siri doesn't run on those phones.
Siri uses natural language processing to interpret spoken commands. When you talk
to Siri, your voice is uploaded to a server, processed, and sent back to the phone
where action is taken. This only takes a couple seconds, and Siri can perform tasks
like sending text messages, setting alarms, appointments and reminders, searching
for restaurants, or making voice calls. By filling out contact information, Siri can
understand commands like "Call my wife" or "Remind me to take my keys when I
leave the office."
For all iOS 5 users, Apple revamped its notification system to be more like the
convenient sliding tray found on Android. Notifications no longer pop up in the
middle of the screen, interrupting an app -- they're accessible in a tray that slides
down from the top of the screen with a quick swipe. Additional new features:

Apple's iMessage service integrates various communication sources like text


messages and iChat. If you're sending a SMS to another iPhone owner, iOS 5
defaults to iMessage, saving you a text.

New iPhones can be activated without connecting to a computer, and data


can be synced from iTunes over WiFi.

The iCloud service syncs up to 5GB of apps, photos, and documents across
multiple Apple devices for free.

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Twitter is built into the OS.

The camera can be accessed from the lock screen.

Light photo editing like red eye removal and cropping can be done from the
Photos app.

Apple's AirPlay video streaming works wirelessly. Video can be wirelessly


mirrored from an iPad 2 or iPhone 4S to an Apple TV.

Apple added new multi-touch gestures for multitasking.

iPhone 4S
Steve Jobs passed away on October 5, 2011. The day before, on October 4, his chosen successor, Tim
Cook, hosted the annual fall Apple event to unveil the iPhone 4S. This marked the first time Jobs didn't
introduce the new iPhone, but his influence lives on in the device itself. Up until the moment the event
started, there was speculation that Apple would name its new phone the iPhone 5 and that it planned to
release a modified iPhone 4 as a cheap alternative called the iPhone 4S. That didn't happen. Like the
iPhone 3GS, the iPhone 4S keeps the same body design as its predecessor while substantially updating
its internal hardware.
The iPhone 4S introduced three major new features: faster processing with a dual-core CPU and GPU;
better photography with an 8 megapixel camera; and deep voice control integration through Siri, the voice
assistant software we talked about in the iOS 5 section. While iOS 5 is available as a free download for
iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 users, Siri is only accessible on the iPhone 4S and later.
Apple equipped the iPhone 4S with the same 1GHz A5 system-on-a-chip that's inside the iPad 2. The A5
chip contains dual-core CPU and GPU processing, making it dramatically faster than the A4 chip inside
the iPhone 4. For processor-intensive purposes like Javascript and graphics-intensive games, the iPhone
4S outperformed all the Android devices on the market as of fall 2011. For example, in the GLBenchmark
2.1 software, the iPhone 4S could push 122 frames per second; the Samsung Galaxy S II managed 67,
while the iPhone 4 managed only 15 [source: Anandtech].
The iPhone camera received a similarly big upgrade from 5 megapixels to 8 megapixels. But the image
resolution isn't what makes the iPhone 4S camera so much better -- it's the new, larger sensor, which
captures 73 percent more light than the one on the iPhone 4. Light sensitivity makes an enormous
difference when shooting in low-light situations. Additionally, Apple employed a five-element lens system
over the iPhone 4's four-element system to increase image sharpness, and improved the aperture from
f/2.8 to f/2.4 to capture more light [source: Tested]. The camera can shoot 1080p video, up from the
iPhone 4's 720p video shooting capabilities.
The iPhone 4S marked another significant milestone for Apple's smartphone business: The device
launched simultaneously on AT&T, Sprint and Verizon in October 2011. It's the first iPhone that works on

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both GSM and CDMA networks, the two cellular technologies used worldwide. Dual-radio phones like the
iPhone 4S are often called "worldphones." But there's a catch we'll get into on the next page: Only an
unlocked iPhone 4S, sold for $650 through Apple, can use SIM cards in foreign countries.

iPhone 5
On September 12, 2012, Apple CEO Tim Cook hosted the company's fall special
event and unveiled the iPhone 5. The phone underwent a major redesign this time.
Apple managed to reduce the size of many of the internal components and pack
them into a tighter space. The iPhone 5 is lighter and thinner than its predecessors,
but with the same width and a slightly longer body to increase the screen size. It
measures 7.6 millimeters (0.30 inches) in depth, 58.6 millimeters (2.31 inches) in
width, 123.8 millimeters (4.87 inches) in height, and weighs a mere 112 grams
(3.95 ounces), making it 20 percent lighter than the 4S. The body is made up of
anodized aluminum with ceramic glass inlays.
The new phone has a retina display with a pixel density of 326 pixels per inch just
like the 4S, but the screen has increased from 3.5 inches to 4 inches (8.9
centimeters to 10.2 centimeters) diagonally, taking the resolution from 960 by 640
pixels to 1136 by 640 pixels. The new resolution makes the aspect ratio nearly 16:9,
allowing you to watch widescreen HD video without letterboxing and giving more
room for Web sites, e-mail and games, among other things. Some apps are already
being developed to take advantage of the new screen size, while older apps will still
display correctly by leaving black space on two sides. It also allows for an extra row
of apps on the screen. The width was retained so that the phone would remain just
as comfortable in your hand as previous phones.
The screen now has the touch sensors integrated with the display, meaning there is
one layer with the pixels acting as touch-sensing electrodes, rather than a display
layer and a separate capacitive touch sensing layer laid over it. Behind the scenes,
there are now two chips controlling the touchscreen rather than one, but despite
these differences, multi-touch functionality remains the same. Removing the extra
layer makes the phone thinner, and also reduces glare and makes images sharper.
The iPhone 5 includes a new processor called the A6, the first one designed entirely
in-house by Apple. Both the CPU and graphics speeds are faster than those of the
A5, and it is touted to perform most tasks nearly twice as fast as its predecessor,
while keeping battery usage about the same or even slightly lower by working
efficiently with the new iOS 6 operating system (to be discussed in the next
section). This means faster app loading, faster photo capture, quicker Internet
surfing and better gameplay.
The new phone supports more cellular networks than the previous models, adding
HSPA+, DC-HSDPA and the new ultra-fast LTE wireless technology (up to 100
megabits per second download) to the mix. A new single voice and data chip and a

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dynamic antenna can switch connections between different networks. The iPhone 5
works with more WiFi standards than previous versions -- WiFi is now 802.11 a/b/g/n
rather than just b/g/n, and its 802.11n is both 2.4 GHz and dual-channel 5GHz with
download speeds of up to 150 megabits per second, although this, like the 100
MBPS of LTE, is a theoretical maximum [source: Cook].
The iSight rear-facing camera and FaceTime front-facing cameras both underwent
improvements. The iSight's lens is now made of sapphire crystal, nearly as hard as
diamond and more difficult to scratch. Lens alignment was made more precise, and
a new dynamic low-light mode makes it work better in dim situations. The
FaceTime's video quality has been upgraded to 720p high-definition, and it now has
backside illumination. The iPhone 5 also has three microphones, located on the
bottom, front and back of the phone. They allow for noise cancellation and
beamforming, techniques that improve audio quality.
The traditional 30-pin connector has been replaced with Apple's Lighting connector,
which is 80 percent smaller. The bad news is that many existing accessories are
only compatible with the 30-pin connector. The good news is that there is a
Lightning-to-30-pin adapter available for purchase, and that the new connector is
reversible, meaning no more instances of trying to insert the connector the wrong
way and having to flip it over.
The device also comes with new redesigned EarPods rather than the traditional
EarBuds. The EarPods reportedly provide higher-quality sound and fit more
comfortably into a wider variety of ear shapes than their predecessors EarBuds.
About 5 million units of the iPhone 5 were sold during the first weekend of
availability, breaking the sales records of the iPhone 4s
Read on to find out about the new version of iOS unveiled alongside the iPhone 5.
iPhone 5s and 5c
On Sept. 10, 2013, Apple announced new versions of its iPhone 5, named the
iPhone 5s and 5c. The former is an all-new phone, featuring updated hardware and
capabilities, while the latter is a minor update on the older iPhone 5.
The 5c is intended as a budget-friendly device, and with a two-year contract the
16GB version sold for $99 when it premiered in the U.S. The 32GB model sold for
$100 more. One of the phone's key marketing points is color -- instead of a metal
case, consumers can choose from a plastic exterior that comes in five different
hues. Although the colors may be different, the guts of the phone are still the same
as the iPhone 5.
However, the 5c's battery and antennas are different than the iPhone 5. The battery
has a higher capacity, and thus will store a longer-lasting charge. Apple says that
the antennas will support more frequencies worldwide than any other smart phone.

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In terms of media hype, most focus went directly to the iPhone 5s, which features
significant hardware changes.
Apple overhauled the iconic home button by adding an integrated fingerprint
sensor. After registering a fingerprint with the device, a simple fingertip press
unlocks the phone, authorizes online purchases and completes other actions that
require heightened security.
This capability is called TouchID. The sensor can read sub-surface skin layers at a
resolution of 500 pixels per inch and at any angle. You can register more than one
person on the phone so that multiple people can access secure functions. Although
hailed as a step forward in user-friendly security, the feature was defeated by a
computer club just a few days following the phone's release [source: Diaz].
Instead of the A6 chip, the 5s sports a new A7 processor, which is the first 64-bit
processor ever built into a smartphone. When running apps optimized for 64-bit
functionality, the processor should result in faster and more efficient performance.
Apple built in a secondary processor called the M7, which is dedicated to handling
signals from the phone's built-in accelerometer and gyroscopes. The M7 chip should
shoulder some of the processing load that would otherwise go to the primary A7
chip.
The phone's camera is, like its predecessor, 8 megapixels, but it has some new
tricks. Instead of one LED flash, it features two, in white and amber. The idea is that
the phone will automatically choose the best flash depending on ambient light,
which results in better color balance and improved picture quality. The camera also
has a wider aperture (at f/2.2), slow motion video, 10 frames per second burst mode
and image stabilization.
Hardware aside, both the 5c and 5s run iOS 7, which is Apple's newest mobile
operating system. On the next page you'll read all about iOS's new features.
iOS 7
A few advance reviewers bashed the latest iPhones as rather stale in terms of
hardware. However, iOS 7 includes whole lot of major changes for Apple devotees to
process.
First and foremost, the overall visual interface is quite different from older versions
of iOS. It's considered the biggest overhaul for the operating system since 2007. In
iOS 7, gone are the frilly graphical flourishes, such as faux leather for the calendar
app and wood for the Newsstand app, replaced by a simpler, stripped-down
appearance. There are new icons and fonts, transparency effects, and advanced
graphics physics designed to make the display look more three dimensional.

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The so-called live wallpapers are on prominent display in this iOS. These wallpapers
feature on-screen bubbles that float about in different directions depending the
phone's orientation.
Beyond the eye candy, there are plenty of changes in the way iOS actually works,
too. One of the most notable updates is Control Center access. Just swipe up
anywhere and you'll have immediate access to wireless options, screen brightness,
flashlight, airplane mode and music controls.
The burgeoning App Store, which is at around 900,000 apps and counting, has
improved search capabilities. You can filter apps by their popularity in your
geographical location, and you can filter them by age appropriateness, too, which
should please some parents. Apps can now update automatically in the background
instead of requiring your manual intervention.
iOS 7 integrates with iTunes and a range of cloud-based capabilities. Instead of
playing only tracks stored to the device itself, you can access music stored in
iCloud. There's also the long-overdue ability to build Pandora-like radio stations
around specific artists and songs.
Apple's Web browser, Safari, now has a combined URL and search text box. That
simply means you can either directly type the Web site you want to access or
instead initiate an Internet search. Phones from other companies have been doing
this for some time, but this is a first for iOS. Safari also now lets you open just about
as many tabs as you want, and then swipe them away once you're done with those
pages.
Voice-command app Siri has some new tricks, as well. Simply say "increase screen
brightness" or "turn on WiFi," and Siri immediately does so. You can choose new
voices and languages for Siri, too.
The version of iOS is also slated for all kind of in-vehicle integration. In 2014, about
a dozen car makers will offer displays that communicate directly with the iPhone.
Simply speak a command and the car will read back messages to you (and let you
speak replies), let you control the music system, and of course, control mapping
capabilities.
AirDrop is now integrated into the OS. With AirDrop, you can use your iPhone to
share files with other Apple products through a WiFi signal.
The Camera app allows live previews of various creative filters. You can also swipe
between various frame shapes (such as panoramic or square).
There are dozens of other minor tweaks to iOS, all designed to make a complicated
device easy to use. Later, you'll see how Apple's newest iPhone stacks up against
the competition.

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iPhone Competitors and the Evolving Smartphone Market
The iPhone 4S set records as Apple's fastest-selling phone -- the company moved
more than 4 million units in the device's first weekend on the market
[source: CNET]. And the iPhone 5 beat that record by selling around 5 million units
on its debut weekend.
The iPhone 5c and 5s, however, took Apple to even greater heights. After only three
days of sales, around 9 million of these new phones had been sold, making these
iterations of the iPhone the most popular by far, and providing the company with a
riposte to critics who say post-Steve Jobs Apple is losing its innovative edge. Many
of the new sales were attributed to the fact that for the first time, China's market
was included in the iPhone's rollout [Source: Reuters].
The iPhone has gotten a lot of attention in the press, but other phone models
already have similar features. As of late 2013, phones running Android, the mobile
operating system designed by Google, were leading the smartphone OS arena at
nearly 80 percent versus Apple's 17 percent [source: Fox News].
However, the Android share is spread out over many devices and manufacturers.
Apple reaps all the rewards from iPhone sales. What's more, Apple's strategy has
always been to maximize profit margin and not market share.
The iPhone changed the face of the phone market as we know it. While
"smartphones" existed before the iPhone, Apple's focus on touch controls pushed
the industry in a new direction. The once-common Windows Phone 6.x line was
phased out in favor of an entirely new operating system with Windows Phone 7.
RIM's BlackBerry line has been in decline for years. Android has given Apple its most
serious competition with an open source OS embraced by a range of electronics
companies.
The iPhone Carrier Spread in the U.S.
Apple launched its first CDMA iPhone to U.S. users in early 2011, when it made the
iPhone 4 available on Verizon's cellular network. With the iPhone 4S, the company
released one model using a dual-mode chipset to work on Sprint and Verizon's
CDMA networks and AT&T's GSM network. That means the phone can roam in other
countries on either kind of network. Ideally, it would also mean
foreign SIMs (subscriber identity modules) could be loaded into the phone to pay
local rates while traveling abroad in GSM countries. But that's not how it works: The
iPhone 4S comes locked to a specific network. To use it abroad, there are two
choices: Buy an unlocked model directly from Apple (at a premium), or pay a
cellular carrier for a global roaming plan.
With the flagship iPhone 5s, Apple released four models: the A1533, A1453, A1457
and A1530, along with four versions of the 5c. All four configurations support

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different radio bands, and Apple packs as many as possible in each version so that
it has fewer different models to produce and manage.
No single carrier offers a clear-cut best option as of fall 2013. Sprint offers an
unlimited data plan, Verizon now only offers limited data share plans that allow
customers to share a set amount of data over multiple devices, and AT&T also
forces new customers into similar limited data mobile share plans, but allows older
iPhone customers to be grandfathered into the unlimited plan, provided they come
into a retail store and request this option, and do not order online.
Carrier voice plans for the iPhone also vary in price and available minutes. Verizon
and AT&T are both larger networks that may provide better cellular coverage,
depending on your region. Sprint and Verizon's CDMA technology cannot use voice
and data simultaneously, and the latest iPhone supports faster HSPA+ (also known
as Evolved High-Speed Packet Access)data on AT&T's GSM network. In real-world
use, data speeds vary by network usage and location -- Verizon or Sprint could
potentially be faster than AT&T based on those factors. All carrier services are also
developing much faster LTE networks, but those are only available in certain areas,
and only the iPhone 5 can take advantage of LTE. You have to weigh a variety of
factors and pick the best carrier, plan and phone for you.