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Wood & Timber class notes, lectures and Ebooks

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Civil Engineering Engineering Materials Wood & Timber

Wood & Timber

Wood & Timber

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Seasoning of
Wood
Decay of Wood
Preservation of
wood
Timber
Properties
Artificial
Seasoning
Wood
Construction

Engineering Materials

Concrete
Technology

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Concrete
Concrete
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Concrete
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Wood & Timber


Wood age
Trees have age, just like humans do. Older trees are more stable but not as strong as middle-aged trees.
Younger trees move more and are not ready to use. Tight grain is what we prefer, but the grain can be too tight
because it will start to lose strength at some point.
As trees grow in one season, they grow faster from spring through summer and more slowly from fall through
winter. That is what we see in tree rings. Tighter grain means less space in fast-growing fibre. This space in
looser grain is where the moisture stays, which is why tighter grain is more stable than looser grain. Density is
also heavier in tighter grain. The increased density means that the wood is stronger.
British Columbia's forest resources are managed. Forestry management controls when trees are planted and
harvested. Trees that come out of these managed forests are about 50 years old, and the size of the butt
(bottom) is about 14 inches. This means that the trees contain 50 rings in seven inches, or seven rings per inch.
The wood we are sourcing has 8 to 13 rings per inch, so it is around 100 years old or older.

TIMBER DECAY
Deterioration occurs mainly due to
Decay or rot
Insects, marine borers
Fire
Timber not properly seasoned or subjected to intermittent wetting decays due to fungi, termites as various
portions of the wood are used as food. They require both oxygen and excess moisture hence timber having
less than 25% moisture or fully submerged in water will not decay or rot. Termites also attack wood. They eat
wood and form tunnels or tubes inside. Certain species of beetles and ants will damage timber by digging
tunnels through it using the wood for living quarters rather than food. The major disadvantage of timber is the
ease with which it burns as compared with structural materials.

Paints & Varnishes

Qualities of
Paints
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paints
Varnishes &
Distemper

Stone as
Engg.Material

Stone Mortars

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Classification & methods of cutting timber


Wood a material of plant origin characterised by a hard
fibrous structure and composed mainly of cellulose,
hemicellulose, and lignin. The high content (22-29%) of
lignin contributes unique... [Read More]
Classification
1. Endogeneous
2. Exogeneous
Methods of sawing
1. Ordinary sawing
2. Rift sawing
3. Quarter sawing

Properties of wood
Wood is the oldest material used by humans for
construction, after stone. Despite its complex chemical
nature, wood has excellent properties which... [Read
More]

Properties of wood
1. Specific Gravity
2. Moisture content
3. Thermal properties
4. Strong & light weight
5. Durable
6. Flexible

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Wood & Timber class notes, lectures and Ebooks

Classification
of stones
Stone
Construction
Other Subjects
Hydraulic
Structures
Technical Writing
Engineering
Metals

http://www.aboutcivil.org/Wood and Timber.html

4. Tangential sawing

7. Economic

Seasoning of wood
Seasoning is the controlled process of reducing the
moisture content of the timber so that it is suitable for the
environment and intended use. Removal of the moisture
from wet or green wood, in other words... [Read
More]
1. Natural(air) seasoning
2. Artificial(kiln) seasoning
3. Chemical seasoning

Decay & Preservation


The traditional building materials for bridges are stones,
timber and steel, and more recently reinforced and
pre-stressed concrete. For special elements aluminum
and its alloys and some types of plastics are used. These
materials have different qualities of strength, workability,
durability and resistance against corrosion. They differ
also in their structure, texture and color or in the
possibilities of surface treatment with differing texture...
[Read More]

Rubber & Glass


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Wood as construction material


Wood is a simple engineering material, but the conception,
design, and construction process is complex with
problems and places to err. In using wood in its many
forms and with its unique inherent characteristics, there
are problem areas which seem to... [Read More]
1. Problems in wood construction
2. Wood defects

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Uses and applications of wood


In concrete a substance other than active and inert
matter, added in small amounts to the mix to alter its
natural properties to required properties... [Read More]
Wood and Engineering materials Ebooks

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