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Functions of Bearings for Bridges

Function of Bearings:
the superstructure to the substructure, allowing the following
types of movements of the superstructure:
Translational movements
Rotational movements
Types of Bearings:

Metal sliding bearings
Knuckle Pinned Bearing
Pot Bearings

1. Pin Bearing:
A pin bearing is a type of fixed bearings that accommodates
rotations through the use of a steel
Translational movements are not allowed.
The pin at the top is composed of upper and lower semi
circularly recessed surfaces with a solid circular pin placed
Usually, there are caps at both ends of the pin to keep the
pin from sliding off the seats and to resist uplift loads if
The upper plate is connected to the sole plate by either
bolting or welding. The lower curved plate sits on the
masonry plate.

2. Roller Type Bearings:

AASHTO requires that expansion rollers be equipped with
substantial side bars and be guided by gearing or other means
to prevent lateral movement, skewing, and creeping (AASHTO
A general drawback to this type of bearing is its tendency to
collect dust and debris.
Longitudinal movements are allowed
Lateral Movements and Rotations are Restricted.



A rocker bearing is a type of expansion bearing that comes in a

great variety.
It typically consists of a pin at the top that facilitates rotations,
and a curved surface at the bottom that accommodates the
translational movements

Rocker and pin bearings are primarily used in steel bridges.

4. Sliding Bearings:
A sliding bearing utilizes one plane metal plate sliding against
another to accommodate translations.
produces a frictional force that is
applied to the superstructure, substructure, and the
bearing itself.
To reduce this friction force, PTFE
(polytetrafluoroethylene) is often used as a sliding
lubricating material. PTFE is sometimes referred to as Teflon,
named after a widely used brand of PTFE
Sliding Bearings be used alone or more often used as a
component in other types of bearings
Pure sliding bearings can only be used when the rotations
caused by the deflection at the supports are negligible. They
are therefore limited to a span length of 15 m or less by
5. Knuckle Pinned Bearing:
It is special form of Roller Bearing in which the Knuckle pin is
provided for easy rocking. A knuckle pin is inserted between the
top and bottom casting. The top casting is attached to the Bridge

superstructure, while the bottom casting rests on a series of

Knuckle pin bearing can accommodate large movements and
can accommodate sliding as well as rotational movement.

6. Pot Bearings:
A POT BEARING consists of a shallow steel cylinder, or pot, on a
vertical axis with a neoprene disk which is slightly thinner than
the cylinder and fitted tightly inside.
A steel piston fits inside the cylinder and bears on the neoprene.
Flat brass rings are used to seal the rubber between the piston
and the pot.
The rubber behaves like a viscous fluid flowing as rotation may

Types of Lacing
There are five types of lacing, named as

Single Lacing
Double Lacing
Lacing Battens
Perforated Lacing

These are to be used under different field conditions.Single and

double lacings are the most common out of these types. The
shapes of these five types are shown, whereas, single and double
lacing are compared in detail regarding design of such lacing.
Lacing usually consists of flat bars but may occasionally consist of
angles,perforated plates, channels or other rolled sections.
1-The lacing elements must be so placed that the individual parts
being connect have slenderness values less than the governing
slenderness ratio for the entire member. L/R ratio of the flange
included between the lacing points must not exceed three-fourth
the governing slenderness ratio or the member as a whole.
2- In riveted construction the effective length denoted by a, of
lacing bars for the determination of the permissible stress shall be
taken as the length between the inner end rivets of bar for the
single lacing and as 0.7 of the length for double lacing

In welded construction, the effective length shall be taken as the

distance between the inner ends of effective weld lengths
connecting the lacing bars to the main member elements for
single lacing and 0.7 of this length for double lacing.
3- The AISC column formulas are used to design the lacing in the
usual manner. The additional lacing provisions are discussed in
4- Slenderness ratios are limited to 140 for single lacing and 200
for double lacing.
5- Double lacing or single lacing are using angles should be used
if the distance between connection lines between the lines of
welds or fasteners in the flanges, denoted by s Is greater 380



< 140

< 380 mm



< 200

>380 mm

6- Lacing is assumed to be a shearing force normal to the built-up

member denoted by v equal to not less than 2% of the total
compressive design strength of the member. This force should be
equally divided into lacing elements at particular cross-section.
7- Lacing bars may be under tension and compression alternately.
However compression in bars is more critical and design is
performed for it. If N is the number of parallel planes of lacing,
shear on one lacing face will be Vv/N. For single lacing,
component of axial compression should provide the required
shear component.
8- The Transverse Centre-to-Centre distance between the rivets or
centroid of welds may easily be found from the known standard
gage distances of the individual elements.

9- The AISC-E62 specification states that the end tie plates shall
have a thickness at least equal to 1/50 the distance between the
connection lines of rivets, bolts, or welds shall have a length
parallel to the axis of the main member at least equal to the
distance between the connection lines. Intermediate plates can
have half its length. The welding on each line connecting a tie
plate must be not less than one-third the length of the plate. The
spacing of the bolts in the direction of stress in tie plates must not
be more than 6d and tie plates must be connected to each
segment by at least three fasteners. The weld on each line must
not be less than one-third the length of the plate. The longitudinal
spacing of intermittent welds or fasteners at the plates must not
exceed 150 mm.
Thickness of the plate, t > s/50
Minimum length of tie plate = s
10- The slenderness ratio (L/r) of the flange between lacing points
should not be more than three-fourth of the overall slenderness
ratio of the main member.
11- Flat bar for lacing should have the minimum width considering
minimum edge clearance from Centre of rivets to all sides.
bmin = (1.5d) x 2 = 3d
12- Batten plate is defined as a rigidly connected plate element
used to join two parallel components of a built-up sections. This is
designed to transmit shear between the two components of the
main bar.
13- Double lacing bars shell be joined together at their

Steel Strucutes Connections

Welded Connections
The welded connections are solid, non-detachable connections based on the principle of local
melting of connected parts using heat or pressure.

Bolted Connections
Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They
consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are secured with the mating of screw

There are two main types of bolted joint designs: tension joints and shear

A rivet is a permanent

mechanical fastener. Before

installed, a rivet consists of a
cal sh
ft with a head on one end.
The end opposite the
head is called the tail. On
installation the rivet is
placed in a punched or
drilled hole, and the tail
or bucked (i.e., deformed), so that it expands to
about 1.5 times the original shaft
diameter, holding the rivet in place. In other words,
pounding creates a new "head" on the other end by smashing the "tail" material flatter, resulting in a
rivet that is roughly a dumbbell shape. To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original
head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail.

Moment Resisting Connections

Moment-resisting frames are rectilinear assemblages of beams and columns, with the beams
rigidly connected to the columns. Resistance to lateral forces is provided primarily by rigid
frame action-that is, by the development of bending moment and shear force in the frame
members and joints.