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You are on page 1of 148

Analysis

Prof. Bidyadhar Subudhi

Dept. of Electrical Engineering

National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India

bidyadhar@nitrkl.ac.in

Steady state response of the system to a sinusoidal input

frequency w(0 < w < ). The amount of amplification, together

with the phase shift, are referred to as the frequency response

data.

r(t) = A sin(wt)

c(t) = |G(wt)| A sin(wt + q )

G(s)

1 We can use the data obtained from measurements on the physical system

2. frequency-response tests are, in general, simple and can be made accurately by

use of readily available sinusoidal signal generators and precise measurement

equipment.

3.The transfer functions of complicated components can be determined

experimentally by frequency-response tests.

4. A system may be designed so that the effects of undesirable noise are negligible

and that such analysis and design can be extended to certain nonlinear control

systems.

Frequency response data, |G(j)| and

can be obtained experimentally so the system

characteristics can be analysed even if the open loop

transfer function, G(s), is unknown.

3

Suppose the input to a plant is a sinusoidal signal, what is

the output ?

The solution to the system differential equations can be

interpreted using two properties of sinusoidal signal :

Sinusoids can be differentiated indefinitely.

Each differentiation results in another sinusoidal signal.

together is another sinusoid with

different amplitude and phase.

However, the frequency of the signals

is the same.

Frequency response

For a RC circuit:

If : ur A sin(wt 0 )

ur

1

U c ( jw )

1

jwC

U r ( jw )

U r ( jw )

1

jwRC 1

R

jwC

Make:

then:

We have:

G ( jw )

Uc( jw )

1

Ur( jw )

jwRC 1

Uc ( jw ) G( jw )U r ( jw )

uc (t ) Ucm sin(wt c )

uc

Here:

U cm U c ( jw ) G ( jw ) U r ( jw )

1

A

( RCw ) 2 1

We call:

G ( jw )

c U c ( jw ) G( jw ) U r ( jw )

tg -1 ( RCw ) 0

U c ( jw )

1

U r ( jw )

jwRC 1

electric circuit.

of the complex vector of the steady-state output versus

sinusoid input for a linear system, that is:

G ( jw )

Here

:

C ( jw )

R ( jw )

C ( jw ) the complex vector representation of the output

G ( jw ) frequency response(or characteristic)

And we name:

A(w ) G( jw )

C ( jw )

R( jw )

input)

1. Experimental discrimination

Input a sinusoid signal to the control system

Measure the amplitude and phase of the steady-state output

Change frequency

Get the amplitude ratio of the output versus

input

Get the phase difference between the output and input

Are the measured data enough

Data processing

2. Deductive approach

Theorem: If the transfer function is G(s), we have:

G( jw ) G( s)

s jw

Proof :

C ( s)

M ( s)

R( s ) ( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s pn )

Aw

r(t) A sinwt R( s )

s2 w 2

assume : G ( s )

and

then

C ( s ) G( s ) R( s )

M ( s)

Aw

( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s pn ) ( s jw )( s jw )

C ( s)

Here:

A1

Kn

K1

K2

A2

( s p1 ) ( s p2 )

( s p3 ) ( s jw ) ( s jw )

M ( s)

Ki

( s pi ) R( s )

( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s p3 )

s p

A1 G ( s )

Aw

( s jw )

( s jw )( s jw )

s jw

A G ( jw ) j ( G ( jw )90o )

A

G ( jw )

e

2j

2

A G ( jw ) j ( G ( jw ) 90o )

A2 A1

e

Taking the inverse Laplace transform:

n

c( t )

i 1

o

j (wt G ( jw )90o )

j

(

w

t

G

(

j

w

)

90

)

e

e

pi t

Kie

A G ( jw )

i 1

K i e pi t A G ( jw ) sin(wt G ( jw ))

i 1

For the stable system all poles (-pi) have a negative real parts,

we have the steady-state output signal:

n

lim c( t ) c s ( t ) lim [

K i e pi t A G ( jw ) sin(wt G ( jw ))]

i 1

A G ( jw ) sin(wt G ( jw ))

the steady-state output:

cs (t ) A G( jw ) sin(wt G( jw ))

The amplitude ratio of the steady-state output cs(t) versus

sinusoid input r(t):

A G( jw )

C ( jw )

G(j)

magnitude character istic

A

R( jw )

The phase difference between the steady-state output and

sinusoid input:

[wt G ( jw )] wt G ( jw ) C ( jw ) R( jw )

phase characteristic

Then we have :

G ( jw )

C ( jw )

G( s)

s jw

R ( jw )

Example

A unity feedback control system, the open-loop transfer

function:

1

G( s)

0.5 s 1

If : r ( t ) 10 sin(4t 60o ) 20cos(4t 45o )

2) Determine the steady-state error e(t) of the system.

Solution:

1) Determine the steady-state response c(t) of the system.

The closed-loop transfer function is:

1

C ( s)

G( s )

1

0.5 s 1

( s)

R( s ) 1 G( s ) 1 1

0.5 s 2

0.5 s 1

The error transfer function is :

E ( s ) R( s ) C ( s )

C ( s)

1

R( s )

R( s )

R( s )

1

1 ( s) 1

0.5 s 2

0.5 s 1

0.5 s 2

0.5 jw 1

R( jw )

0.5 jw 2

j 0.5w 1

E ( jw )

R ( jw )

j 0.5w 2

w 4

E ( jw )

5

10

4

5

20

4

j 0.5w 1

E ( jw )

R ( jw )

j 0.5w 2

w 4

The error frequency response:

(63.4 o 45o ) (4t 60o ) 4t 78.4 o

(

63

.

4

1

1

( jw )

s jw

0.5 s 2

0.5 jw 2

phase response :

c(t) :

5

o

o

c( t )

2

5

2

Graphic expression for intuition

1. Rectangular coordinates plot

Example

G( s)

10

10

G( jw )

2s 1

j 2w 1

G ( jw )

G ( jw )

0

0.5

1

2

3

4

10

7.07

4.47

2.4

1.64

1.24

0o

45o

63.435o

75.964o

80.538o

82.875o

0 .995

84.29o

10

10

tg 1 ( 2w )

1 ( 2w ) 2

G ( jw ) G ( jw )

5

1

0

- 90o

0. 5 1

Performance specifications in the frequency domain

1. For the closed loop systems

The general frequency response of a closed loop systems is

shown in Fig

(1) Resonance frequency r: The frequency at which the

amplitude is maximum.

A()

A(w ) ( jw )

Assume :

w r satisfy :

G ( jw )

1 G ( jw ) H ( jw )

d

A(w )

0

dw

w w

Mr

A(0)

0.707A(0)

M r A(w )

w w r

(3) Bandwidth b:

w b satisfy :

2

A(w )

A(0)

w wb

2

Fig.

(1) Gain crossover frequency c:

wc satisfy :

G ( j) H ( j)

G(j w ) 1

1

G ( jw )

( jw )

1 G ( jw ) G ( jw ) G(j w ) 1

(2) Gain margin Kg:

1

Kg

; K g ( dB) 20 log G ( jw ) H ( jw )

w w g

G ( jw ) H ( jw )

w w g

Here wg satisfies :

Here wc satisfies :

G( jw ) H ( jw ) w w 1800

g

c G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w w ( 1800 )

G ( jw ) H ( jw )

w wc

frequency and time domain

G ( jw )

1 G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w 0

A( 0 ) A(w ) w 0

assume : G ( s) KG

1

K

then : A(0) H

1

KG K H

1

s

G0 ( s) H ( s) K H H0 ( s)

v 1

v0

systems:

1

A( 0) KG

1 KG

v 1

v0

and time domain

Reproductive bandwidth M :

A()

Mr

G ( jw )

A(0)

A(w )

A(0)

0.707A(0)

1 G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w w

M

0

: allowed reproducin g error

Fig. 5.5.2

for a given , M higher accuracy of reproducing r(t) .

Demonstration

assume : E ( jw ) R( jw ) C ( jw ) e ( jw ) R( jw )

and : e ( jw )

the frequency and time domain

Relationship of the performance specifications between the

frequency and the time domain: for the typical 2nd-order

system

2

wn

G( s) 2

2

s 2wn s wn

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

frequency and the time domain: for the typical 2nd-order system

We have:

w b w n (1 2 2 ) 2 4 2 4 4

2

2

w r w n 1 2 (0

)

2

Mr

1

2 1 2

wc wn

1 4 4 2 2

c tg 1

Kg

1 4 4 2 2

, w n p % , t s , t r ...

, w n p % , t s , t r ...

The shortage of the polar plot and the rectangular coordinates

plot: to synchronously investigate the cases of the lower and

higher frequency band is difficult.

3. Bode diagram(logarithmic plots)

Plot the frequency characteristic in a semilog coordinate:

The log-magnitude and phase frequency response curves as

functions of log w are called Bode plots or Bode diagrams.

Magnitude response Y-coordinate in decibels: 20 log G( jw )

X-coordinate in logarithm of : log

Phase responseY-coordinate in radian: G( jw )

X-coordinate in logarithm of : log

First we discuss the Bode diagram in detail with the

frequency response of the typical elements.

Some dB Values

dB

-20

-10

-5

-3

-2

-1

ratio

0.100

0.316

0.562

0.708

0.794

0.891

dB

20

10

5

3

2

1

ratio

10.000

3.162

1.778

1.413

1.259

1.122

(power)!

Knowing a few logs by memory can help you calculate logs of different

ratios by employing properties of log. For instance, knowing that the

ratio of 2 is 3 dB, whats the ratio of 4?

47

48

can find the total magnitude response by adding zero

terms magnitude responses and subtracting pole terms

magnitude responses.

Similarly if we know the phase response of each term, we

can find the total phase response by adding zero terms

phase responses and subtracting pole terms phase

responses.

Sketching Bode plots can be simplified because they can be

approximated as a sequence of straight lines.

49

50

Plotting methods of the Bode diagram of the open loop systems

Assume:

G ( s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )...

here : Gi ( s ) the transf er functio n of the t ypical elements

We have:

(w ) G( jw ) G1 ( jw ) G2 ( jw ) G3 ( jw ) ...

L(w ) 20 log G 2o log G1 20 log G2 20 log G3 ...

That is, Bode diagram of a open loop system is the

superposition of the Bode diagrams of the typical elements.

The typical elements of the linear control systems

1. Proportional element

Transfer function:

G( s )

C ( s)

K

R( s )

Frequency response:

G( jw ) K

(w ) G( jw ) 0o

L(w ), (w )

(w ) 0o

L(w ) 20 log K dB

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

100

Bode diagram

w (log w )

Integrating element

Transfer function:

G( s)

Frequency response:

C ( s) 1

R( s )

s

1

G ( jw ) L(w ) 20 log G ( jw ) 20 log w

G ( jw )

w

jw

o

(

w

)

G

(

j

w

)

90

L(w ), (w )

L(w ) : 20dB / dec

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

Bode diagram

w (log w )

100 (w ) 90o

decades.

- An octave is a frequency band from w1 to 2w1

- A decade is a frequency band from w1 to 10w1

5

4

- The log-magnitude curve is a straight line with a slope of 20

dB/decade.

5

5

5

6

- At w = 10/T, the log magnitude is -20 dB.

dB decreases by 20 dB for

every decade of w

with a slope of -20 dB/decade (or -6 dB/octave).

5

7

Inertial element

1

C ( s)

1

G

(

j

w

)

Transfer

G( s )

jwT 1

R( s ) Ts 1

function:

w 1 T

0

1

G( jw )

L(w ) 20 log 1 (wT ) 2 3dB

w 1 T

20 log(wT ) w 1 T

1 (wT ) 2

1

(w ) tg (wT )

K

1

G

(

s

)

:

1/T: break frequency

T2 s 1 T2

L(w ), (w )

0dB,

0o

20 log K

0.1

10

1

T

100

45o

w (log w )

20dB / dec

90o

Bode diagram

1/(1+jT).

5

9

Corrections

frequency is approximately equal to -1 dB.

Similarly, the error at one decade below or above the

corner frequency is approximately -0.04 dB.

6

0

curve of 1/(1+jT).

6

1

frequency and a correction of 1 dB at points one octave

below and above the corner frequency and then connecting

these points by a smooth curve.

Note that varying the time constant T shifts the corner

frequency to the left or to the right, but the shapes of the logmagnitude and the phase-angle curves remain the same.

The transfer function 1/(1 + jwT) has the characteristics

of a low-pass filter.

Therefore, if the input function contains many harmonics,

then the low-frequency components are reproduced

faithfully at the output, while the high frequency

components are attenuated in amplitude and shifted in phase.

6

2

factors-for example, the factor 1 + jwT-the log-magnitude

and the phase-angle curves need only be changed in sign,

since

6

3

Log-magnitude curve, together with the asymptotes, and phase-angle curve for

61+jT.

4

product of two first-order factors with real poles.

If 0 < < 1, this quadratic factor is the product of two

complex conjugate factors.

6

5

6

6

Errors obviously exist in the approximation by straightline asymptotes. The magnitude of th error depends on the

value of .

67

68 curves of the quadratic transfer function given by Equation (87).

69

Oscillating element

C ( s)

1

G( s )

R( s ) T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

Transfer function:

G( jw )

G ( jw )

(1 w 2T 2 ) j 2Tw

(w ) tg 1 (

1 (w T ) (2Tw )

2

0 1

2Tw

2 2

1w T

w w n ( 1 T )

0

w wn

40 log(wT ) w w

n

maximum value of G( jw )

d

2

2

Make:

( G( jw ) ) 0 w w r w n 1 2 (0 )

dw

2

1

w r resonant f requency M G( jw )

r

r

M r resonant p eak

2 1 2

The Bode diagram:

L(w ), (w )

20 log M r

20 log( 1

wn 1 / T

wr

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

100

w (log w )

90 o

40dB / dec

180o

Bode diagram

1. w r ( w n ) M r

0 w r w n unstable system

2.

2 w 0 No resonan ce, Optimal Second - order System

Because of the transfer functions of the differentiating elements

are the reciprocal of the transfer functions of Integrating element,

Inertial element and Oscillating element respectively,

that is:

inverse

s

Ts 1

T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

inverse

inverse

1

1

Ts 1

T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

symmetrical to the log-axis with the Bode curves of the

Integrating element, Inertial element and Oscillating

element respectively.

Then we have the Bode diagram of the differentiating elements:

L(w ), (w )

L(w ), (w )

180o

L(w ) : 20dB / dec

0dB,

0o

0.1

10 100

40dB / dec

(w ) 90o

w (log w )

90o

0dB, 0o

differential

L(w ), (w )

90

20dB / dec

45

0.1

10

0.1

10

100

w (log w )

20 log( 1

0dB, 0o

wn 1 T

100

w (log w )

1th-order differential

20 log M r

2th-order differential

Delay element

Transfer

function:

C ( s)

G( s )

e s

R( s )

G ( jw ) 1 L(w ) 0

j

w

G ( jw ) e

(w ) G( jw ) w

L(w ), (w )

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

Bode diagram

100

w (log w )

Example 1

G(s)H(s) could be regarded as:

G( s ) H ( s )

10( s 1)

s 2 (0.01s 1)

10( s 1)

1

1

G ( s) H ( s)

10 (s 1)

2

s (0.01s 1)

s2 0.01s 1

Then we have:

20dB/de

L(w ), (w )

c

40dB/dec

40dB, 90o

20dB, 45o

0dB,

0o

-20dB,

-45o

-40dB, -90o

-60dB.-135o

-80dB,-180o

20dB/dec

0.1

10

100

w (log w )

20dB/dec

-40dB/dec

40dB/dec

Summarizing, we have the facility method to plot the

magnitude response of the Bode diagram:

1) Mark all break frequencies in the -axis of the Bode

diagram.

2) Determine the slope of the L() of the lowest frequency

band (before the first break frequency) according to the

number of the integrating elements:

20dB/dec for 1 integrating element

40dB/dec for 2 integrating elements

3) Continue the L() of the lowest frequency band until to

the first break frequency, afterwards change the the slope of

the L()

which should be increased 20dB/dec for the break frequency

of the 1th-order differentiating element .

The slope of the L() should be decreased 20dB/dec for the

break frequency of the Inertial element

Plot the L() of the rest break frequencies by analogy .

Example 2

G ( s)

10( s 1)

s(0.1s 1)( 0.012 s 2 0.01s 1)

20log10 20log (w 1)

(w ) 90o tg 1w tg 1 (0.1w )

20log10 20logw

0.01w

1

(1 w 10)

tg

20logw

2

(

0

.

01

w

)

51.3o

(10 w 100)

w 1

20logw 20log(0.1w )

56.5o

w 10

(

w

)

20log10 20logw

o

174

.

9

w 100

179.6o w 104

40log(0.01w )

L(w ), (w )

G ( s)

10( s 1)

2 2

20dB,

0dB, 0o

45o

-40dB,

-90o

0.1

-20dB, -45o

10

20dB/dec

1.25dB

100

wr

w (log w )

60dB/dec

-60dB.-135o

-80dB,-180o

-100dB,-225o

-120dB,-270o

Mr

1

2 1 2

1.154 1.25 dB

Bode diagram

1. The minimum phase system(or transfer function)

Compare following transfer functions:

We have:

K (s 1)

K (s 1)

G1 ( s)

G2 ( s )

(Ts 1)

(Ts 1)

K ( s 1)

K (s 1)

G3 ( s)

G4(s)

(Ts 1)

(Ts 1)

G1 (w ) G2 (w ) G3 (w ) G4 (w )

(w ) 2 1

(Tw ) 2 1

But the net phase shifts are different when vary from zero

to infinite.

systems in terms of the magnitude response

Definition:

A transfer function is called a minimum phase transfer

func- tion if its zeros and poles all lie in the left-hand splane.

A transfer function is called a non-minimum phase transfer

function if it has any zero or pole lie in the right-hand splane.

Only for the minimum phase systems we can affirmatively

deter- mine the relevant transfer function from the magnitude

response of the Bode diagram .

Bode diagram

we can get the G(s) from

the Bode diagram :

K ( 0.5s 1)

G ( s)

s2 ( 0.005s 1)

L(w )

40dB/dec

20dB/dec

0dB, 0o

0.1

20

200

10 100

w (log w )

40dB/dec

and :

Example.4

we can get the G(s) from the

Bode diagram :

Ks

G ( s)

(T1s 1)(T2 s 1)

w 20

0 K 40

L(w )

20dB

0dB

20dB/dec

0.5

0.1

20dB/dec

200

10 100

w (log w )

Bode diagram

L(w )

Bode diagram :

Ks

G ( s)

(T1s 1)(T2 s 1)

and :

20dB

0dB

20dB/dec

0.5

0.1

20dB/dec

200

10 100

w (log w )

K 2

1

L(w ) 20 log 2 20 log w 20 log( 0.2w ) 20 log(T2w ) w 200 0 T2 0.05

Example 5.3.5

we can get the G(s) from

the Bode diagram :

G ( s)

K ( 0.01s 1)

s(T 2 s 2Ts 1)

20dB/dec

L(w )

8.136 dB

20 dB

0dB

0.1

10

w (log w )

100

60dB/dec

20dB/dec

Bode diagram

we can get the G(s) from

the Bode diagram :

G ( s)

K ( 0.01s 1)2

20dB/dec

L(w )

0dB

0.1

s(T 2 s 2Ts 1)

1

10 T 0.1

T

L(w ) 20 log K 20 log w w 10 20 dB K 100

20 log

1

2 1 2

8.136 0.2

8.136 dB

20 dB

10

w (log w )

100

60dB/dec

20dB/dec

then :

100(0.01s 1) 2

G(s)

s(0.01s 0.04s 1)

magnitude response and phase response together to

determine the transfer function.

Bode diagram

L(w ), (w )

Example 6

10(0.1s 1)

10(0.1s 1) 0dB,

G1

G2

( s 1)

( s 1)

10( 0,1s 1)

10(0.1s 1)

G3

G4 ( s )

( s 1)

( s 1)

0o

0.1

90o

180o

20dB/dec

10(0.1s 1)

But only G4 ( s )

( s 1)

10(0.1s 1)

So, we have :

G( s)

(s - 1)

10

100

w (log w )

(Relative stability of the control systems)

In frequency domain, the relative stability could be described

by the gain margin and the phase margin.

1. Gain margin Kg

Kg

1

G ( jw ) H ( jw )

K g ( dB ) 20 log G ( jw ) H ( jw )

w w g

w w g

g

2. Phase margin c

c

c : G( jw ) H ( jw )

w wc

Bode Diagrams

First rewrite the sinusoidal transfer function G(jw)H(jw) as a

product of basic factors discussed above.

Then identify the corner frequencies associated with these basic

factors.

Finally, draw the asymptotic log-magnitude curves with proper

slopes between the corner frequencies.

The exact curve, which lies close to the asymptotic curve, can be

obtained by adding proper corrections.

the phase-angle curves of individual factors.

86

Examples

87

88

89

Consider the definitions of the gain and phase margins in relation to

distance, in dB, from the magnitude curve up to 0dB when the angle

curve crosses 180 .

Phase Margin: the additional phase lag required to make /GH(jw) =

180 when | GH(jw) | = 1 . On the Bode plot this is the distance in

degrees from the phase curve to 180 when the gain curve crosses 0dB.

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

-180

1

0

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

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123

EXAMPLE 8-5

124

Bode diagram of

125

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128

129

130

131

132

133

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135

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137

Example

138

Using MATLAB

1

3

MATLAB

1

4

Frequency Response

Methods Using

MATLAB

1

4

Frequency Response

Methods Using

MATLAB

1

4

Bode Plots

Bode plot is the representation of the magnitude and phase of G(j*w)

(where the frequency vector w contains only positive frequencies).

To see the Bode plot of a transfer function, you can use the MATLAB

bode

command.

For example,

bode(50,[1 9 30 40])

displays the Bode plots for the

transfer function:

1

4

Examples Bode

1

4

Examples - Bode

1

4

Examples - Bode

1

4

Examples Bode

1

4

Questions???

Thank you

148

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