You are on page 1of 148

# Frequency-Response

Analysis
Dept. of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India

## Frequency Response of a System

Steady state response of the system to a sinusoidal input
frequency w(0 < w < ). The amount of amplification, together
with the phase shift, are referred to as the frequency response
data.
r(t) = A sin(wt)
c(t) = |G(wt)| A sin(wt + q )
G(s)

## Advantages of the frequency-response approach

1 We can use the data obtained from measurements on the physical system

## without deriving its mathematical model.

2. frequency-response tests are, in general, simple and can be made accurately by
use of readily available sinusoidal signal generators and precise measurement
equipment.
3.The transfer functions of complicated components can be determined
experimentally by frequency-response tests.
4. A system may be designed so that the effects of undesirable noise are negligible
and that such analysis and design can be extended to certain nonlinear control
systems.

## Why work in the frequency domain ?

Frequency response data, |G(j)| and
can be obtained experimentally so the system
characteristics can be analysed even if the open loop
transfer function, G(s), is unknown.
3

## Definition of Frequency Response

Suppose the input to a plant is a sinusoidal signal, what is
the output ?

## Intuitively, the output will also be a sinusoidal signal.

The solution to the system differential equations can be
interpreted using two properties of sinusoidal signal :
Sinusoids can be differentiated indefinitely.
Each differentiation results in another sinusoidal signal.

## The result of adding two sinusoids

together is another sinusoid with
different amplitude and phase.
However, the frequency of the signals
is the same.

## Analysis using Laplace Transform

Frequency response
For a RC circuit:
If : ur A sin(wt 0 )

ur

## We have the steady-state response:

1

U c ( jw )

1
jwC
U r ( jw )
U r ( jw )
1
jwRC 1
R
jwC

Make:
then:
We have:

G ( jw )

Uc( jw )
1

Ur( jw )
jwRC 1

Uc ( jw ) G( jw )U r ( jw )

uc (t ) Ucm sin(wt c )

uc

Here:

U cm U c ( jw ) G ( jw ) U r ( jw )
1

A
( RCw ) 2 1

We call:

G ( jw )

c U c ( jw ) G( jw ) U r ( jw )
tg -1 ( RCw ) 0

U c ( jw )
1

U r ( jw )
jwRC 1

## Frequency Response(or frequency characteristic) of the

electric circuit.

## Definition : frequency response (or characteristic) the ratio

of the complex vector of the steady-state output versus
sinusoid input for a linear system, that is:
G ( jw )

Here
:

C ( jw )
R ( jw )

## R( jw ) the complex vector representation of the sinusoidinput

C ( jw ) the complex vector representation of the output
G ( jw ) frequency response(or characteristic)

And we name:
A(w ) G( jw )

C ( jw )
R( jw )

input)

## Approaches to get the frequency characteristics

1. Experimental discrimination
Input a sinusoid signal to the control system
Measure the amplitude and phase of the steady-state output
Change frequency
Get the amplitude ratio of the output versus
input
Get the phase difference between the output and input
Are the measured data enough

Data processing

## Approaches to get the frequency characteristics

2. Deductive approach
Theorem: If the transfer function is G(s), we have:
G( jw ) G( s)
s jw

Proof :

C ( s)
M ( s)

R( s ) ( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s pn )
Aw
r(t) A sinwt R( s )
s2 w 2

assume : G ( s )
and

## Where pi is assumed to be distinct pole (i=1,2,3n).

then

C ( s ) G( s ) R( s )
M ( s)
Aw

( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s pn ) ( s jw )( s jw )

## In partial fraction form:

C ( s)

Here:

A1
Kn
K1
K2
A2

( s p1 ) ( s p2 )
( s p3 ) ( s jw ) ( s jw )

M ( s)
Ki
( s pi ) R( s )
( s p1 )( s p2 ) ( s p3 )
s p

A1 G ( s )

Aw
( s jw )
( s jw )( s jw )
s jw

A G ( jw ) j ( G ( jw )90o )
A
G ( jw )

e
2j
2

A G ( jw ) j ( G ( jw ) 90o )
A2 A1
e

## Approaches to get the frequency characteristics

Taking the inverse Laplace transform:
n

c( t )

## K i e pi t A1e jwt A2 e jwt

i 1

o
j (wt G ( jw )90o )

j
(
w
t

G
(
j
w
)

90
)
e
e
pi t

Kie
A G ( jw )

i 1

K i e pi t A G ( jw ) sin(wt G ( jw ))

i 1

For the stable system all poles (-pi) have a negative real parts,
we have the steady-state output signal:
n

lim c( t ) c s ( t ) lim [

K i e pi t A G ( jw ) sin(wt G ( jw ))]

i 1

A G ( jw ) sin(wt G ( jw ))

## Approaches to get the frequency characteristics

cs (t ) A G( jw ) sin(wt G( jw ))

## Compare with the sinusoid inputr (t ) A sinwt , we have:

The amplitude ratio of the steady-state output cs(t) versus
sinusoid input r(t):
A G( jw )
C ( jw )
G(j)
magnitude character istic
A
R( jw )
The phase difference between the steady-state output and
sinusoid input:
[wt G ( jw )] wt G ( jw ) C ( jw ) R( jw )
phase characteristic

Then we have :

G ( jw )

C ( jw )
G( s)
s jw
R ( jw )

Example
A unity feedback control system, the open-loop transfer
function:
1
G( s)
0.5 s 1
If : r ( t ) 10 sin(4t 60o ) 20cos(4t 45o )

## 1) Determine the steady-state response c(t) of the system.

2) Determine the steady-state error e(t) of the system.

Solution:
1) Determine the steady-state response c(t) of the system.
The closed-loop transfer function is:
1
C ( s)
G( s )
1
0.5 s 1
( s)

R( s ) 1 G( s ) 1 1
0.5 s 2
0.5 s 1

## Determine the steady-state error e(t) of the system.

The error transfer function is :
E ( s ) R( s ) C ( s )
C ( s)

1
R( s )
R( s )
R( s )
1
1 ( s) 1
0.5 s 2
0.5 s 1

0.5 s 2

0.5 jw 1
R( jw )
0.5 jw 2

j 0.5w 1
E ( jw )
R ( jw )

j 0.5w 2
w 4

E ( jw )

5
10
4
5
20
4

j 0.5w 1

E ( jw )
R ( jw )
j 0.5w 2
w 4
The error frequency response:
(63.4 o 45o ) (4t 60o ) 4t 78.4 o

(
63
.
4

1
1
( jw )
s jw
0.5 s 2
0.5 jw 2

phase response :

c(t) :
5
o
o
c( t )

2
5

2

## Graphic expression of the frequency response

Graphic expression for intuition
1. Rectangular coordinates plot
Example

G( s)

10
10
G( jw )

2s 1
j 2w 1

G ( jw )

G ( jw )

0
0.5
1
2
3
4

10
7.07
4.47
2.4
1.64
1.24

0o
45o
63.435o
75.964o
80.538o
82.875o

0 .995

84.29o

10

10

tg 1 ( 2w )

1 ( 2w ) 2

G ( jw ) G ( jw )

5
1
0

- 90o

0. 5 1

## System analysis based on the frequency response

Performance specifications in the frequency domain
1. For the closed loop systems
The general frequency response of a closed loop systems is
shown in Fig
(1) Resonance frequency r: The frequency at which the
amplitude is maximum.
A()
A(w ) ( jw )

Assume :

w r satisfy :

G ( jw )
1 G ( jw ) H ( jw )

d
A(w )
0
dw
w w

Mr

A(0)
0.707A(0)

M r A(w )

w w r

(3) Bandwidth b:

w b satisfy :

2
A(w )

A(0)
w wb
2

Fig.

## For the open loop systems

(1) Gain crossover frequency c:

wc satisfy :

G ( j) H ( j)

## For the unity feedback systems, c b , because:

G(j w ) 1
1
G ( jw )
( jw )

1 G ( jw ) G ( jw ) G(j w ) 1
(2) Gain margin Kg:
1
Kg
; K g ( dB) 20 log G ( jw ) H ( jw )
w w g
G ( jw ) H ( jw )
w w g

Here wg satisfies :

## (3) Phase margin c:

Here wc satisfies :

G( jw ) H ( jw ) w w 1800
g

c G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w w ( 1800 )
G ( jw ) H ( jw )

w wc

## Relationship of the performance specifications between the

frequency and time domain

## (3) A(0) Steady state error ess

G ( jw )
1 G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w 0

A( 0 ) A(w ) w 0

assume : G ( s) KG
1
K
then : A(0) H
1

KG K H

1
s

G0 ( s) H ( s) K H H0 ( s)

v 1
v0

systems:

1

A( 0) KG
1 KG

v 1
v0

and time domain

## (4) Reproductive bandwidth M accuracy of Reproducing r(t)

Reproductive bandwidth M :

A()
Mr

G ( jw )
A(0)
A(w )
A(0)
0.707A(0)
1 G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w w
M
0
: allowed reproducin g error

Fig. 5.5.2

## for a given M , higher accuracy of reproducing r(t) .

for a given , M higher accuracy of reproducing r(t) .

Demonstration
assume : E ( jw ) R( jw ) C ( jw ) e ( jw ) R( jw )
and : e ( jw )

## Relationship of the performance specifications between

the frequency and time domain
Relationship of the performance specifications between the
frequency and the time domain: for the typical 2nd-order
system

2

wn
G( s) 2
2
s 2wn s wn

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

## Relationship of the performance specifications between the

frequency and the time domain: for the typical 2nd-order system
We have:

w b w n (1 2 2 ) 2 4 2 4 4
2
2
w r w n 1 2 (0
)
2
Mr

1
2 1 2

wc wn

1 4 4 2 2

c tg 1

Kg

1 4 4 2 2

, w n p % , t s , t r ...

, w n p % , t s , t r ...

## Graphic expression of the frequency response

The shortage of the polar plot and the rectangular coordinates
plot: to synchronously investigate the cases of the lower and
higher frequency band is difficult.
3. Bode diagram(logarithmic plots)
Plot the frequency characteristic in a semilog coordinate:
The log-magnitude and phase frequency response curves as
functions of log w are called Bode plots or Bode diagrams.
Magnitude response Y-coordinate in decibels: 20 log G( jw )
X-coordinate in logarithm of : log
Phase responseY-coordinate in radian: G( jw )
X-coordinate in logarithm of : log
First we discuss the Bode diagram in detail with the
frequency response of the typical elements.

Some dB Values
dB
-20
-10
-5
-3
-2
-1

ratio
0.100
0.316
0.562
0.708
0.794
0.891

dB
20
10
5
3
2
1

ratio
10.000
3.162
1.778
1.413
1.259
1.122

## Engineers are very conservative. A margin of 3dB is a factor of 2

(power)!
Knowing a few logs by memory can help you calculate logs of different
ratios by employing properties of log. For instance, knowing that the
ratio of 2 is 3 dB, whats the ratio of 4?
47

48

## Thus if we know the magnitude response of each term, we

can find the total magnitude response by adding zero
terms magnitude responses and subtracting pole terms
magnitude responses.
Similarly if we know the phase response of each term, we
can find the total phase response by adding zero terms
phase responses and subtracting pole terms phase
responses.
Sketching Bode plots can be simplified because they can be
approximated as a sequence of straight lines.

49

50

## Bode diagram of the open loop systems

Plotting methods of the Bode diagram of the open loop systems
Assume:
G ( s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )...
here : Gi ( s ) the transf er functio n of the t ypical elements
We have:

(w ) G( jw ) G1 ( jw ) G2 ( jw ) G3 ( jw ) ...
L(w ) 20 log G 2o log G1 20 log G2 20 log G3 ...
That is, Bode diagram of a open loop system is the
superposition of the Bode diagrams of the typical elements.

## Frequency Response of The Typical Elements

The typical elements of the linear control systems
1. Proportional element
Transfer function:

G( s )

C ( s)
K
R( s )

Frequency response:

## G( jw ) K L(w ) 20 log G( jw ) 20 log K

G( jw ) K

(w ) G( jw ) 0o

L(w ), (w )

(w ) 0o

L(w ) 20 log K dB

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

100

Bode diagram

w (log w )

## Frequency response of the typical elements

Integrating element
Transfer function:

G( s)

Frequency response:

C ( s) 1

R( s )
s

1
G ( jw ) L(w ) 20 log G ( jw ) 20 log w
G ( jw )

w
jw
o

(
w
)

G
(
j
w
)

90

L(w ), (w )
L(w ) : 20dB / dec

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

Bode diagram

w (log w )

100 (w ) 90o

## - In Bode diagrams, frequency ratios are expressed in terms of octaves or

- An octave is a frequency band from w1 to 2w1
- A decade is a frequency band from w1 to 10w1

5
4

## - The phase angle of jw is constant and equal to 90.

- The log-magnitude curve is a straight line with a slope of 20

5
5

5
6

## - At w = 1/T, the log magnitude equals 0 dB.

- At w = 10/T, the log magnitude is -20 dB.

## Thus, the value of -20 log wT

dB decreases by 20 dB for
every decade of w

## For w 1/T, the log-magnitude curve is thus a straight line

with a slope of -20 dB/decade (or -6 dB/octave).
5
7

## Frequency response of the typical elements

Inertial element
1
C ( s)
1
G
(
j
w
)

Transfer
G( s )

jwT 1
R( s ) Ts 1
function:
w 1 T
0
1

G( jw )
L(w ) 20 log 1 (wT ) 2 3dB
w 1 T
20 log(wT ) w 1 T
1 (wT ) 2

1
(w ) tg (wT )
K
1
G
(
s
)

:
1/T: break frequency
T2 s 1 T2

L(w ), (w )

0dB,

0o

20 log K

0.1

10

1
T

100

45o

w (log w )
20dB / dec

90o

Bode diagram

1/(1+jT).
5
9

Corrections

## The error at one octave below or above the corner

frequency is approximately equal to -1 dB.
Similarly, the error at one decade below or above the
corner frequency is approximately -0.04 dB.
6
0

## Log-magnitude error in the asymptotic expression of the frequency-response

curve of 1/(1+jT).
6
1

## drawn by introducing a correction of 3 dB at the corner

frequency and a correction of 1 dB at points one octave
below and above the corner frequency and then connecting
these points by a smooth curve.
Note that varying the time constant T shifts the corner
frequency to the left or to the right, but the shapes of the logmagnitude and the phase-angle curves remain the same.
The transfer function 1/(1 + jwT) has the characteristics
of a low-pass filter.
Therefore, if the input function contains many harmonics,
then the low-frequency components are reproduced
faithfully at the output, while the high frequency
components are attenuated in amplitude and shifted in phase.
6
2

## An advantage of the Bode diagram is that for reciprocal

factors-for example, the factor 1 + jwT-the log-magnitude
and the phase-angle curves need only be changed in sign,
since

6
3

Log-magnitude curve, together with the asymptotes, and phase-angle curve for
61+jT.
4

## If > 1, this quadratic factor can be expressed as a

product of two first-order factors with real poles.
If 0 < < 1, this quadratic factor is the product of two
complex conjugate factors.
6
5

6
6

Errors obviously exist in the approximation by straightline asymptotes. The magnitude of th error depends on the
value of .

67

## Log-magnitude curves, together with the asymptotes, and phase-angle

68 curves of the quadratic transfer function given by Equation (87).

69

## Frequency response of the typical elements

Oscillating element
C ( s)
1
G( s )

R( s ) T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

Transfer function:
G( jw )
G ( jw )

(1 w 2T 2 ) j 2Tw

(w ) tg 1 (

1 (w T ) (2Tw )
2

0 1

2Tw
2 2

1w T

w w n ( 1 T )
0

## L(w ) 20 log (1 w 2T 2 ) 2 ( 2Tw ) 2 20 log( 2 )

w wn
40 log(wT ) w w
n

maximum value of G( jw )
d
2
2
Make:
( G( jw ) ) 0 w w r w n 1 2 (0 )
dw
2
1
w r resonant f requency M G( jw )
r
r
M r resonant p eak
2 1 2

## Frequency response of the typical elements

The Bode diagram:

L(w ), (w )

20 log M r

20 log( 1

wn 1 / T
wr

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

100

w (log w )

90 o

40dB / dec
180o

Bode diagram

1. w r ( w n ) M r
0 w r w n unstable system
2.
2 w 0 No resonan ce, Optimal Second - order System

## Frequency response of the typical elements

Because of the transfer functions of the differentiating elements
are the reciprocal of the transfer functions of Integrating element,
Inertial element and Oscillating element respectively,
that is:
inverse
s
Ts 1
T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

inverse

inverse

1
1

Ts 1

T 2 s 2 2Ts 1

## the Bode curves of the differentiating elements are

symmetrical to the log-axis with the Bode curves of the
Integrating element, Inertial element and Oscillating
element respectively.
Then we have the Bode diagram of the differentiating elements:

## Frequency response of the typical elements

L(w ), (w )

L(w ), (w )
180o
L(w ) : 20dB / dec

0dB,

0o

0.1

10 100

40dB / dec

(w ) 90o

w (log w )

90o

0dB, 0o

differential

L(w ), (w )
90

20dB / dec

45

0.1

10

0.1

10

100

w (log w )

20 log( 1

0dB, 0o

wn 1 T

100

w (log w )

1th-order differential

20 log M r

2th-order differential

## Frequency response of the typical elements

Delay element
Transfer
function:

C ( s)
G( s )
e s
R( s )

G ( jw ) 1 L(w ) 0

j
w
G ( jw ) e

(w ) G( jw ) w
L(w ), (w )

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

Bode diagram

100

w (log w )

## Bode diagram of the OL system

Example 1
G(s)H(s) could be regarded as:

G( s ) H ( s )

10( s 1)
s 2 (0.01s 1)

10( s 1)
1
1
G ( s) H ( s)
10 (s 1)
2
s (0.01s 1)
s2 0.01s 1
Then we have:
20dB/de
L(w ), (w )
c
40dB/dec
40dB, 90o

20dB, 45o
0dB,

0o

-20dB,

-45o

-40dB, -90o
-60dB.-135o
-80dB,-180o

20dB/dec

0.1

10

100

w (log w )
20dB/dec

-40dB/dec
40dB/dec

## method to plot the magnitude response of the Bode diagram

Summarizing, we have the facility method to plot the
magnitude response of the Bode diagram:
1) Mark all break frequencies in the -axis of the Bode
diagram.
2) Determine the slope of the L() of the lowest frequency
band (before the first break frequency) according to the
number of the integrating elements:
20dB/dec for 1 integrating element
40dB/dec for 2 integrating elements
3) Continue the L() of the lowest frequency band until to
the first break frequency, afterwards change the the slope of
the L()
which should be increased 20dB/dec for the break frequency
of the 1th-order differentiating element .
The slope of the L() should be decreased 20dB/dec for the
break frequency of the Inertial element

## plot the magnitude response of the Bode diagram

Plot the L() of the rest break frequencies by analogy .
Example 2

G ( s)

10( s 1)
s(0.1s 1)( 0.012 s 2 0.01s 1)

20log10 20log (w 1)
(w ) 90o tg 1w tg 1 (0.1w )
20log10 20logw

0.01w

1
(1 w 10)

tg
20logw
2

(
0
.
01
w
)

## L(w ) 20log10 20logw

51.3o
(10 w 100)
w 1

20logw 20log(0.1w )

56.5o

w 10

(
w
)

20log10 20logw
o

174
.
9
w 100

179.6o w 104

40log(0.01w )

L(w ), (w )

G ( s)

10( s 1)
2 2

20dB,
0dB, 0o

45o

-40dB,

-90o

0.1
-20dB, -45o

10

20dB/dec
1.25dB
100

wr

w (log w )
60dB/dec

-60dB.-135o
-80dB,-180o
-100dB,-225o
-120dB,-270o

Mr

1
2 1 2

1.154 1.25 dB

## Determine the transfer function in terms of the

Bode diagram
1. The minimum phase system(or transfer function)
Compare following transfer functions:
We have:
K (s 1)
K (s 1)

G1 ( s)

G2 ( s )

(Ts 1)
(Ts 1)
K ( s 1)
K (s 1)
G3 ( s)
G4(s)
(Ts 1)
(Ts 1)

G1 (w ) G2 (w ) G3 (w ) G4 (w )

(w ) 2 1
(Tw ) 2 1

## The magnitude responses are the same.

But the net phase shifts are different when vary from zero
to infinite.

## Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase

systems in terms of the magnitude response
Definition:
A transfer function is called a minimum phase transfer
func- tion if its zeros and poles all lie in the left-hand splane.
A transfer function is called a non-minimum phase transfer
function if it has any zero or pole lie in the right-hand splane.
Only for the minimum phase systems we can affirmatively
deter- mine the relevant transfer function from the magnitude
response of the Bode diagram .

## Determine the transfer function in terms of the

Bode diagram
we can get the G(s) from
the Bode diagram :
K ( 0.5s 1)
G ( s)
s2 ( 0.005s 1)

L(w )

40dB/dec

20dB/dec

0dB, 0o

0.1

20

200

10 100

w (log w )

40dB/dec

and :

## L(w ) 2o log K 20 log w 2 20 log( 0.5w )

Example.4
we can get the G(s) from the

Bode diagram :
Ks
G ( s)
(T1s 1)(T2 s 1)

w 20

0 K 40

L(w )

20dB

0dB

20dB/dec
0.5

0.1

20dB/dec

200

10 100

w (log w )

Bode diagram
L(w )

Bode diagram :
Ks
G ( s)
(T1s 1)(T2 s 1)
and :

20dB

0dB

20dB/dec
0.5

0.1

20dB/dec

200

10 100

w (log w )

K 2

## L( ) 20 log 2 20 log w w 1 / T 20 dB T1 0.2

1
L(w ) 20 log 2 20 log w 20 log( 0.2w ) 20 log(T2w ) w 200 0 T2 0.05

Example 5.3.5
we can get the G(s) from
the Bode diagram :
G ( s)

K ( 0.01s 1)

s(T 2 s 2Ts 1)

20dB/dec

L(w )

8.136 dB

20 dB

0dB

0.1

10

w (log w )

100

60dB/dec

20dB/dec

## Determine the transfer function in terms of the

Bode diagram
we can get the G(s) from
the Bode diagram :
G ( s)

K ( 0.01s 1)2

20dB/dec

L(w )

0dB

0.1

s(T 2 s 2Ts 1)

1
10 T 0.1
T
L(w ) 20 log K 20 log w w 10 20 dB K 100
20 log

1
2 1 2

8.136 0.2

8.136 dB

20 dB

10

w (log w )

100

60dB/dec

20dB/dec

then :

100(0.01s 1) 2
G(s)
s(0.01s 0.04s 1)

## For the non-minimum phase system we must combine the

magnitude response and phase response together to
determine the transfer function.

Bode diagram
L(w ), (w )

Example 6
10(0.1s 1)
10(0.1s 1) 0dB,
G1
G2
( s 1)
( s 1)
10( 0,1s 1)
10(0.1s 1)
G3
G4 ( s )
( s 1)
( s 1)

0o

0.1
90o
180o

20dB/dec

## All satisfy the magnitude response

10(0.1s 1)
But only G4 ( s )
( s 1)

10(0.1s 1)
So, we have :
G( s)
(s - 1)

10

100

w (log w )

## The relative stability

(Relative stability of the control systems)
In frequency domain, the relative stability could be described
by the gain margin and the phase margin.
1. Gain margin Kg
Kg

1
G ( jw ) H ( jw )

K g ( dB ) 20 log G ( jw ) H ( jw )
w w g

w w g

## wg : G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w w 1800 Phase-cros sover freq uency

g

2. Phase margin c

## c G ( jw ) H ( jw ) w w ( 1800 ) G ( jwc ) H ( jwc ) 1800

c

c : G( jw ) H ( jw )

w wc

## Graphical Procedure for Plotting

Bode Diagrams
First rewrite the sinusoidal transfer function G(jw)H(jw) as a
product of basic factors discussed above.
Then identify the corner frequencies associated with these basic
factors.
Finally, draw the asymptotic log-magnitude curves with proper
slopes between the corner frequencies.
The exact curve, which lies close to the asymptotic curve, can be
obtained by adding proper corrections.

## The phase-angle curve of G(jw)H(jw) can be drawn by adding

the phase-angle curves of individual factors.
86

Examples

87

88

89

## Bode Plots and Stability Analysis

Consider the definitions of the gain and phase margins in relation to

## | GH(jw) | = 1 when /GH(jw) = 180 . On the Bode plot this is the

distance, in dB, from the magnitude curve up to 0dB when the angle
curve crosses 180 .
Phase Margin: the additional phase lag required to make /GH(jw) =
180 when | GH(jw) | = 1 . On the Bode plot this is the distance in
degrees from the phase curve to 180 when the gain curve crosses 0dB.

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

-180

1
0

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

EXAMPLE 8-5

124

Bode diagram of
125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

Example

138

Using MATLAB

1
3

## Frequency Response Methods Using

MATLAB

1
4

Frequency Response
Methods Using
MATLAB

1
4

Frequency Response
Methods Using
MATLAB

1
4

Bode Plots
Bode plot is the representation of the magnitude and phase of G(j*w)
(where the frequency vector w contains only positive frequencies).
To see the Bode plot of a transfer function, you can use the MATLAB
bode
command.
For example,

bode(50,[1 9 30 40])
displays the Bode plots for the
transfer function:

1
4

Examples Bode

1
4

Examples - Bode

1
4

Examples - Bode

1
4

Examples Bode

1
4

Questions???

Thank you
148