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Lecture Outline

Basic Definitions

State Equations

State Diagram

State Controllability

State Observability

Output Controllability

Transfer Matrix

Solution of State Equation

Definitions

State of a system: We define the state of a system at time t0 as

the amount of information that must be provided at time t0,

which, together with the input signal u(t) for t t0, uniquely

determine the output of the system for all t t0.

State Variable: The state variables of a dynamic system are the

smallest set of variables that determine the state of the

dynamic system.

State Vector: If n variables are needed to completely describe

the behaviour of the dynamic system then n variables can be

considered as n components of a vector x, such a vector is called

state vector.

State Space: The state space is defined as the n-dimensional

space in which the components of the state vector represents

its coordinate axes.

Definitions

Let x1 and x2 are two states variables that define the state

of the system completely .

dx

dt

x2

State (t=t1)

Velocity

State (t=t1)

State

Vector

x1

Position

In state-space analysis we are concerned with three types of

variables that are involved in the modeling of dynamic systems:

input variables, output variables, and state variables.

The dynamic system must involve elements that memorize the

values of the input for t> t1 .

Since integrators in a continuous-time control system serve as

memory devices, the outputs of such integrators can be

considered as the variables that define the internal state of the

dynamic system.

Thus the outputs of integrators serve as state variables.

of the system is equal to the number of integrators involved in the

system.

Assume that a multiple-input, multiple-output system involves

integrators.

Assume also that there are inputs 1 , 2 , , and

outputs 1 , 2 , , .

Define outputs of the integrators as state variables:

1 , 2 , , .

Then the system may be described by

1 = 1 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

2 = 2 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

= (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

1 = 1 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

2 = 2 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

= (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

If we define

1

2

=

1 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

( , , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

, , = 2 1 2

(1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

1

2

=

1 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

2 (1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

, , =

(1 , 2 , , ; 1 , 2 , , ; )

1

2

=

State space equations can then be written as

= (, , )

= (, , )

State Equation

Output Equation

the system is called a time varying system.

If above equations are linearised about the operating

state, then we have the following linearised state

equation and output equation:

If vector functions f and g do not involve time t explicitly then

the system is called a time-invariant system.

D

C

B

A

Example-1

Consider the mechanical system shown in figure. We assume that

the system is linear. The external force u(t) is the input to the

system, and the displacement y(t) of the mass is the output. The

displacement y(t) is measured from the equilibrium position in the

absence of the external force. This system is a single-input, singleoutput system.

From the diagram, the system equation is

() + () + () = ()

This system is of second order. This means that

the system involves two integrators. Let us

define state variables 1 () and 2 () as

1 = ()

2 = ()

Example-1

1 = ()

2 = ()

() + () + () = ()

Then we obtain

1 = 2 ()

Or

1

2 = + ()

1 = 2 ()

1

2 = 2 1 + ()

= 1

Example-1

1 = 2 ()

1

2 = 2 1 + ()

= 1

In a vector-matrix form,

x1 (t ) 0

x (t ) k

2 m

y (t ) 1

1 x (t ) 0

b 1 1 u (t )

x2 (t )

m

m

x1 (t )

0

x

(

t

)

2

Example-1

State diagram of the system is

1 = 2 ()

1

2 = 2 1 + ()

= 1

-k/m

-b/m

() 1/m

1/s

2 = 1

1/s

()

Example-1

State diagram in signal flow and block diagram format

-k/m

-b/m

()

1/m

1/s

2 = 1

1/s

()

Example-2

State space representation of armature Controlled D.C Motor.

Ra

ea

La

ia

B

eb

dia

ea Ra ia La

eb

dt

T J B

Example-2

T K t ia

eb K b

J B-K t ia 0

dia

La

Ra ia K b ea

dt

Choosing , as state variables

0

0

0

+ 1

= 1 0

State Controllability

A system is completely controllable if there exists an

unconstrained control u(t) that can transfer any initial

state x(to) to any other desired location x(t) in a finite

time, to t T.

uncontrollable

controllable

State Controllability

Controllability Matrix CM

CM B

AB

A2 B An 1B

rank (CM ) n

Consider the system given below

1 0

1

x

x u

0 3

0

y 1 2x

State diagram of the system is

U (s) 1

s -1

x1

1

1

2

3 x2

s -1

Y (s)

Controllability matrix CM is obtained as

CM B

1

B

0

AB

1

AB

0

Thus

1 1

CM

0 0

Since () therefore system is not completely

state controllable.

State Observability

A system is completely observable if and only if there exists a finite

time T such that the initial state x(0) can be determined from the

observation history y(t) given the control u(t), 0 t T.

observable

unobservable

State Observability

Observable Matrix (OM)

C

CA

2

Observability Matrix OM CA

CA n 1

rank (OM ) n

Consider the system given below

0 1 0

x

x u

0 2 1

y 0 4x

OM is obtained as

Where

C

OM

CA

C 0 4

0 1

CA 0 4

0 12

0 2

Therefore OM is given as

0 4

OM

12

observable.

4

U (s) 1

s -1

x2 s -1

2

x1

Y (s)

Output Controllability

Output controllability describes the ability of an external

input to move the output from any initial condition to any

final condition in a finite time interval.

Output controllability matrix (OCM) is given as

Home Work

Check the state controllability, state observability

and output controllability of the following system

0 1

0

A

, B , C 0 1

1 0

1

Now Let us convert a space model to a transfer function model.

x (t ) Ax(t ) Bu (t )

(1)

(2)

conditions to zero.

sX ( s ) AX ( s ) BU ( s )

Y ( s ) CX ( s ) DU ( s )

(3)

(4)

( sI A) X ( s ) BU ( s )

X ( s ) ( sI A) 1 BU ( s )

(5)

Substituting equation (5) into equation (4) yields

1

Y ( s ) C ( sI A) BU ( s ) DU ( s )

Y ( s ) C ( sI A)

B D U ( s)

Example#3

Convert the following State Space Model to

Transfer Function Model if K=3, B=1 and

M=10;

x 0

K

v M

1 x 0

B 1 f (t )

v

M

M

y (t ) 0

x

1

v

Example#3

Substitute the given values and obtain A, B, C

and D matrices.

x

3

v

10

1 x 0

1 1 f (t )

v

10

10

y (t ) 0

x

1

v

Example#3

0

A 3

10

1

1

10

C 0

0

B1

10

Y ( s)

C ( sI A) 1 B D

U ( s)

D0

Example#3

0

A 3

10

1

1

10

C 0

s 0 0

Y (s)

0 1

3

0 s

U (s)

10

0

B1

10

D0

1

1

10

0

1

10

Example#3

s 0 0

Y (s)

0 1

3

0 s

U (s)

10

s

Y (s)

0 1 3

U (s)

10

1

1

10

1

1

s

10

0

1

10

0

1

10

s 10 1 0

Y (s)

1

1

0 1

3

1

3

U (s)

s 10

s(s )

10 10 10

Example#3

1

s 10 1 0

Y (s)

1

1

0 1

3

1

3

U (s)

s 10

s(s )

10 10 10

Y (s)

1

U (s) s(s 1 ) 3

10 10

3

10

1

s

10

Y (s)

1

s

U ( s ) s ( s 1 ) 3 10

10 10

Example#3

Y (s)

1

s

U ( s ) s ( s 1 ) 3 10

10 10

Y (s)

s

U ( s ) s (10s 1) 3

Home Work

Obtain the transfer function T(s) from

following state space representation.

Answer

Forced Response, with u(t) as forcing function

x1 a11 a12 x1 b1

u(t )

x a

2 21 a22 x2 b2

Unforced Response (response due to initial conditions)

x1 a11

x a

2 21

a12 x1( 0)

a22 x2 ( 0)

Consider the state equation given below

x (t ) Ax(t )

(1)

sX ( s ) x(0) AX ( s )

sX ( s ) AX ( s ) x(0)

sI AX ( s) x(0)

X ( s ) sI A x(0)

1

X (s)

x(0)

sI A

1

1

X (s)

x(0)

sI A

Taking inverse Laplace

x(t ) e At x(0)

(t ) e

At

Example-4

Consider RLC Circuit obtain the state transition matrix (t).

vc 0

i 1

L

L

1

v 1

c

C

C u(t )

R iL

0

L

R 3, L 1 and C 0.5

vc 0

i 1

L

2 vc 2

u(t )

3 iL 0

iL

Vc

Vo

Example-4 (cont...)

vc 0

i 1

L

2 vc 2

u(t )

3 iL 0

S

(t ) 1[( SI A)1 ] 1

0

0 0 2

S 1 3

2

S 3

1 ( S 1)( S 2 )

(

S

1

)(

S

2

)

(t )

1

S

( S 1)( S 2) ( S 1)( S 2)

Example-4 (cont...)

2

S 3

1 ( S 1)( S 2 )

(

S

1

)(

S

2

)

(t )

1

S

( S 1)( S 2) ( S 1)( S 2)

Taking the inverse Laplace transform of each element

( 2e e ) ( 2e 2e )

( t ) t 2 t

t

2t

( e e ) ( e 2e )

t

2t

2t

Home Work

Compute the state transition matrix if

0

1 0

A 0 2 0

0

0 3

Solution

(t ) [( SI A) ]

1

The unforced response of a system released from any initial

point x(to) traces a curve or trajectory in state space, with time

t as an implicit function along the trajectory.

Unforced systems response depend upon initial conditions.

x(t ) Ax(t )

Response due to initial conditions can be obtained as

x(t ) (t ) x( 0)

State Transition

Any point P in state space represents the state of the system

at a specific time t.

x2

P(x1, x2)

x1

x2

t0

t6

t1

t2

t3

t5

t4

x1

Example-5

For the RLC circuit of example-4 draw the state space trajectory

with following initial conditions.

vc (0) 1

iL ( 0 ) 2

Solution

x(t ) (t )x(0)

vc (2e t e 2t ) (2e t 2e 2t ) 1

i t 2 t

t

2t

L (e e ) (e 2e ) 2

vc 3e 3e

i t

2t

L e 3e

t

2 t

vc 3e t 3e 2t

iL e t 3e 2t

Example-5 (cont...)

Following trajectory is obtained

State Space Trajectory of RLC Circuit

2

1.5

t-------->inf

iL

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-0.5

0.5

Vc

1.5

Example-5 (cont...)

State Space Trajectories of RLC Circuit

2

1.5

0

1

iL

0.5

1

0

1

0

0

-0.5

0

1

-1

-1.5

-2

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

Vc

0.5

1.5

Equilibrium Point

The equilibrium or stationary state of the system

is when

x(t ) 0

State Space Trajectories of RLC Circuit

2

1.5

1

iL

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

Vc

0.5

1.5

Consider the state equation with u(t) as forcing function

x (t ) Ax(t ) Bu (t )

sX ( s ) x(0) AX ( s ) BU ( s )

sX ( s ) AX ( s ) x(0) BU ( s )

sI AX ( s) x(0) BU ( s)

x(0) BU ( s )

X (s)

sI A

(1)

x(0) BU ( s )

X (s)

sI A

x(0) BU ( s )

X (s)

sI A sI A

Taking the inverse Laplace transform of above equation.

t

0

Natural Response

Forced Response

Example#6

Obtain the time response of the following system:

x1 0

x 2

2

1 x1 0

u (t )

3 x2 1

consider x(0)=0.

Solution

(t ) [(SI A) ]

1

Example#6

Obtain the state transition equation of the system

t

0

END OF LECTURE

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