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References:

1. Dagens, Bruno. 1986. Mayamata: An Indian Treatise on Housing Architecture and Iconography.New
Delhi: Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Scientific Research,!

2.

Bharne, Vinayak &


Krusche , Krupali. : Rediscovering the Hindu Temple: The Sacred Architecture and Urbanism of India

3.

Vardia, Shweta.2008 ,Building Science of Indian Temple Architecture

4.

Prof. SKR Rao, Temple Architecture -Devalaya Vastu

5.

Ram Raz, On The Architecture of Hindus

presented by: !
Ar. Fathima Rishin Razak!
3rd Sem, M.Arch (Architecture Education)!
SMMCA, Nagpur

Temple Construction

Temple Construction : From Design to Execution

Layout
Upapitha
Adisthana

Pillars
Mandapa

Temple Construction

Garbhagriha
Shikhara

Steps in Temple Construction:


! 1.! Bhu pariksha: Examining and choosing location and soil for temple and town. The land should
be fertile and soil suitable.!

!
! 2.! Sila pariksha: Examining and choosing material for image!

!
! 3.! Karshana: Corn or some other crop is grown in the place first and is fed to cows. Then the
location is fit for town/temple construction.!

Site Selection and


Preparation for
Construction!

!
! 4.! Vastu puja: Ritual to propitiate vastu devata.!

!
! 5.! Salyodhara: Undesired things are dug out.!

!
! 6.! Adyestaka: Laying down the first stone!

!
! 7.! Nirmana: Then foundation is laid and land is purified by sprinkling water. A pit is dug, water
mixed with navaratnas, navadhanyas, navakhanijas is then put in and pit is filled. Then the
temple is constructed.!

Actual
Construction!

!
! 8.! Murdhestaka sthapana: Placing the top stone over the prakara, gopura etc. This again involves
creating cavities filled with gems minerals seeds etc. and then the pinnacles are placed.!

!
! 9.! Garbhanyasa: A pot made of five metals (pancaloha kalasa sthapana) is installed at the place of
main deity.!

!
! 10.!Sthapana: Then the main deity is installed.!

!
! 11.!Pratistha: The main deity is then charged with life/god-ness.

Temple Construction

Sanctifying
Ceremony!

Temple Design:
Design Team:
Acharya

Construction Process:

3. assembling the parts

Temple Construction

Sthapati

Takshaka

Sthapaka

1. The planning of the temple by architect

2. the carving of different parts

Sutragrahin

Vardhakin

prepares list of all parts that go into details of


temple -figures, beams, brackets etc.
carves the parts and segments as per drawings,
designs, specifications and guidelines!
parts are transported to construction site

parts are assembled with joints -mortise


and tenon joint, lap joint etc.!
mortise and tenon joint allow space for
stones to expand in heat or even vibrate
modestly without moving from its
position

Workmen

Process:
Quarrying of Stone:!

cut a series of pockets


along the surface of the
stone

filling them
with wood,

2. The carving of different parts


carving each stone piece -slow, tedious and work of patience
2.1 Cutting and carving the stone:!
4 different phases:!
1. team of stone masons will cut stone blocks to appropriate size.!
2. team of carvers will give basic shape to stone!
3. Sculptors give them final form along with joinery details!
4. during assembling time, these details are made fine and correct
to make a proper joint.
2.2 Drawings of Stone:!

watering the
woods
regularly.

wood swells and


makes a crack along
the holes.
Transportation:!
-with wooden rollers drawn by
elephants/ humans!
- floated on wooden barge
along rivers and canals!

Temple Construction

- drawings on stone made by sharpened coal piece and bamboo


shoot dipped in any colouring agents like lime, ink,redoxide etc.!
- long straight lines are marked by soaking the thread in
colouring agent and then stretching from one end to other and
snapped.!
- after every phase of carving, more lines are made for the canvas
to detail the stones.
2.3 Polishing the stone:! - final phase, takes 12 -20 days to complete!
- done using stone bars slowly and patience
fine chiselled surface is
levelled using different
categories of stone bars

washed

cleaned to remove
stains and dirt

Process of Temple Buiding:

N
4

1. Pada Vinyasa

the land considered for temple


construction has a square (4:4) or rectangle
(4:5,4:6,4:7,4:8) ratio for breadth to length

first drafted on planning sheets and later


drawn upon the earth (site)
ground divided into 81 cells, by drawing
10 lines from east to west and 10 from both
to south (if square layout and (9X9) is
selected).
- Garbhagriha !
- Brahma pada

- manusha pada

- devika pada

- paishachika pada

81
9X9!
Paramasayika

2. Garbhadhana:
Foundation pit is dig with not less than 2m
depth
Adyestaka : laying of first foundation stone
in the NW corner
stones are fully packed (one above the
other) below the sanctum
portion below garbhagriha is filled 3/4th

Temple Construction

3. Agni Hotra:
sanctifying ceremony
main diety

stone slab - Adhara shila


golden box embedded in earth
foundation stones below

..actual
construction starts
with assembling of
parts

Temple Layout:
Garbhagriha:

Vesara Style:

South India

North India!

!
orthogonal grids
of mandalas are
used

Temple Construction

Elements of Temple:
3. Assembling the parts

Adisthana / Pitha:

Cumbhabandha

usually high plinth to give respect to the temple

Pratibandha

made using layers of stones of good quality

Pattabandha

Construction:!
!
-plinth stones are placed above foundation stone
and it act as retaining wall for the rubble compacted
earth within plinth area of structure.!
!
-above this compacted rubble are laid stone slabs
of thickness 20-30 cm, for flooring.!
!
-stones are placed one above the other and made
stable with the self weight (3-10 layers)!
!
-top most course has groover for pillar bases

Temple Construction

Upapitha / Jagati:

Rhutabandha

Manchabandha
Sribandha
Proportions:

Types:

Vedibhadra
Pratibhadra
Manchabhadra

Elements of Temple:
Mandovara / Pada:

Proportions:
generally, width : height = 1:1 (Aparachitaprecha)

wall that connects base to the shikhara


divided into 44 parts with mouldings

Proportions of Garbhagriha:!
grid considered is 4X4 or 8X8 -(vastu purusha mandala) ,
considered auspicious for both horizontal and vertical proportions!

Construction:
!
-structural stone masonry, with
!
interlocking of stones with mortice and
!
tenon joint!
basic unit of measurement is 1 danda = 180cm, (human proportion)!
!
-Through stone is provided for extra
width X length =180 X 180 cms (1:1)!
stability!
width of sanctum wall would be 60 cms!
!
-Stone slabs are cut, dressed and
outer dimension of sanctum = 300 cms
carved and used as facing stones. !
!
-Stone thickness varies from 30 -450cm
4
and wall thickness 80-120cm
Through Stone
4
4
Garbhagriha - view

180 cms

6 ft
mesayuddha - mortice and tenon joint in stones in wall

Temple Construction

Garbhagriha - plan

Elements of Temple:
Shikhara / Vimana:

Proportions:

relation between width of wall and height of shikhara

the most distinctive part of hindu temple!


pyramidical structure built over the garbhagriha!
stepped, curvilinear / conical in North, and
pyramidical in South
Construction:
!
-The horizontal courses one above the other are
stepped inwards and progressive forward to cover
the space. !
!
-The sikhara is usually hollow from inside or in
some cases filled with rubble. !
!
-The apex of the superstructure is mounted by a
single piece of stone!

wall and shikara are collectively divided into 20 parts


2 relation between garbhagriha and Shikhara!

!
- area of shikhara is divided into 16 (4X4)!
!
if width of sanctum is 2, then width and height !
!
of shikhara is 4 and 2/3rd of total height
3 geometric progression:!
width of garbhagriha :
width of shikhara :
height of shikhara =2:4:8

4
Constructing of shikhara:
based on curvature / rekha!
corbelling construction system!

1. Candrasala Rekha!
2. Udayakala Rekha

Temple Construction

4
4

Elements of Temple:
sudha (pure)

Types:
based on materials

based on
magnitude

above
mandala

breadth!!

height!

(units)! !
santica! !
7! !

(units)
10

panstica!

6!

jayada! !

5!

atbhuta!!

4!

sarvacama! 3!

misra (mixed)
sancirna (anomalous)

North
India

latina
sekhari

based on shape

above
garbhagriha

kalasa
parts of shikhara

Phamsana

kutina

amalasaraka
griva

South
India
shala

skatha

candarasala
sthanaca (erect)
based on
posture of deity

asana (sitting)
sayana (recumbent)

Temple Construction

Elements of Temple:
square

Types:

Columns & Beams:

circular
based on cross section

consists of tall, slender, free-standing,


beam supporting columns, pillars and
pilasters.
monolithic structures, !
Construction:
divided into 5 parts and joint by
mortise and tenon joints.
uttaroshtha/
entablature
padma/capital

shaft

ghata/base
vahana/pedestal

Temple Construction

polygonal
scalloped

faceted

fluted

lobed
staggered
stellate

height of
column

based on dimensions
and ornamentations
chitra -kantha
padma -kantha
chitra -stambha
palika sthambha
kumbha-stambha

Proportions:
parts of column

Elements of Temple:
Mandapas:
pillared halls
Construction:

Types:

trabeated system of construction!


-horizontal and vertical members are used and stability is achieved
by massive arrangement of vertical elements and heavy cross beams!
-Roofing: stone slabs laid horizontally, spanning from one
supporting beam or wall to another!
-Ceiling: deliberately confined to the overlapping of one stone
course with another!
laying of diagonal and square stone course to produce
designs with rotating and diminishing squares.
Pproportion:
reflects the grid used
for the garbhagriha!

antarala / ardhamandapa narrow pavilion


navaranga / nrittamandapa
- big hall for singing and
dancing etc.
sanapana mantapa - hall for
ceremonial purpose
mukha mantapa - opening
pavilion

North India
South India

Temple Construction

view from interior