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HENRY FRO WD
Oxford University Press Warehouse

Amen Corner, EC.

Q\erv Sorft

MACMILLAN

&

CO.,

66 FIFTH AVENUE.

Cfarenfcon (preoe Settee

AN

ANGLO-SAXON READER
IN

PROSE AND VERSE

GRAMMAR, METRE, NOTES AND GLOSSARY

HENRY SWEET,

M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.

SEVENTH EDITION
ENLARGED AND PARTLY RE-WRITTEN

Ovforb

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


1894

xforfc

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY


Shlf

URL

PREFACE
The

first

of this

edition

book appeared

1876 at

in

a time when interest in Old-English studies was beginning

and when the two books most

revive,

to

in

use then

Thorpe's Analecta Anglo -Saxonica and Vernon's Anglo-

Saxon Guide
it

were

beginning to become antiquated.

thus supplied a pressing want,

it

met, from the

first,

As
with

a favourable reception from the gradually increasing body


of Old-English

not

students,

only

America, but also on the Continent.

in

this

country and

After the appearance

of Professor Earle's Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon


I

then brought out an Anglo-Saxon Primer, to serve as

an introduction to the Reader, which

went certain modifications


the

many improvements

the advice of others,


also learnt
that have
points,
to

me

in

in

consequence under-

subsequent editions, besides

suggested by ripened experience,

and the progress of philology.

much from

appeared of

have

the other books of a similar character


late years

sometimes from

their

good

sometimes by endeavouring to avoid what seemed


their defects.

The most prominent

of these are the

PREFACE,

VI

German Kluge's
American

Angelsachsisches Leseluch (1888), and the

Anglo-Saxon Reader, which has been

Bright's

republished in this country by the enterprising firm of

The

Sonnenschein and Co. (1892).


resemblance to the

latter

earlier editions of

grammatical introduction

my

Reader

This defect

omitted.

is

Swan

bears a striking
but the
is,

how-

ever,

from another point of view, an advantage, inasmuch

as

has

it

made

namesake.

more

It

closely to

the

book a few

what appears

to

cheaper than

shillings

its

author has not adhered

a pity that the

is

have been his original plan

he might also have consulted the convenience of myself and

who

those

my Reader

use

by following the same system

of numbering and reference as in the later editions of

my

book.

In the

first

remarked
to

make

few editions of

in the preface to
'

it

work

was, as I have

my Anglo-Saxon

Primer, obliged

this

a somewhat unsatisfactory compromise between

an elementary primer and a manual


In the present edition

students.'

more

for

[more] advanced

have carried out, even

consistently than before, those alterations which

called for

although

by
it

its

being a continuation of the Primer.

covers a wider

vanced students,

seemed

it

is

still

field,

and appeals

an elementary book

But

more ad-

to
it

does not

attempt to anticipate the learner's future studies in English


philology, literature, history, or institutions, or in comparative

philology, but claims only to lay a firm

and broad founda-

tion for such studies.

In
is to

its

present form, therefore,

put before the student

the

who has

object

of

this

book

already mastered the

PREFACE.

Vll

Primer, a series of texts which will give a general knowledge

of the language in

its

and

chief periods

without

dialects,

neglecting the interests of literary and antiquarian study,


with such additional helps in the
notes,

and glossary

as

way of grammar,

metre,

seemed necessary.

In every Old-English Reader the preference must neces-

be given to West-Saxon texts

sarily

the other dialects

and

in Bright's

book.

is

but the exclusion of

in the previous editions of this

book

a mistake in any but a very elementary

Dialectal texts are absolutely necessary for linguistic

students, for

Anglian

modern English

is

of dialectal origin

dialect in particular is of great

study of the poetry (see

critical

as

and the

importance

Grammar,

have given specimens of Northumbrian and

Hence

3).

late

for the

and

early

Kentish together with a long piece of early Mercian from


the
that

well-known Vespasian Psalter;

MS.

give a

have given the hymns in

themselves,

are also in

my

hymns

but as the

in

more varied vocabulary than the psalms


full,

although they

Second Anglo-Saxon Reader, where, however,

they are accompanied by the Latin original, which I have

omitted here, so as to induce the learner to master the

forms more thoroughly;

have also marked the quantities

in the present work.

Otherwise

which

must

have excluded glosses and glossaries,

refer to the

To make room

for

for

Second Reader.

this

additional

matter,

out jElfric on the Old Testament on account of

have cut

its

dispro-

portionate length and want of interest.

This saving of space has further enabled

me

to

add the

PREFACE.

Vlll

Old-English

of the

finest

may

also

add

that

The Seafarer (No.

lyrics,

most of

29).

the dialectal pieces are of great

value from a literary and antiquarian point of view, the

many a glimpse

Old-Kentish charters, in particular, affording


into the daily

life

of our ancestors.

But while giving due prominence


conveniently term realien,
that this
texts

all

is still

interesting

often,

of hopeless obscurities.

have excluded
in themselves

too, with a considerable residue

Many

of them, too, are preserved

and corrupt recensions.

late

considerations have often obliged


to translations

That

me

So

also

linguistic

to give the preference

over original works.

have been successful in making a representative

and interesting selection of


critics

Hence

and important

technical nature would require a disproportionate

amount of comment

only in

what the Germans

have been careful not to forget

an elementary book.

however

whose

to

texts

is

generally admitted by

even those who are otherwise unfavourable.

pieces are, of course,

common

Certain

property, such as the account

of the poet Csedmon, portions of the Chronicle, and

such as the Battle of Maldon.


it

will

be found that

Thus Kluge shows


accomplished the
the

Laws by

of the

life

of

my

But even allowing

successors follow

his approval of the


difficult task

reprinting

my

of

way

me

very closely.

which

have

selection

from

in

making a

poems

for this,

extracts bodily.

Oswald from the mass of material

My

selection

in (the then

unpublished) iElfric's Lives of the Saints seems to meet with


especial favour, for this text

but also bv Korner

is

reprinted not only by Kluge,

in his Einleitung in

das Stadium des

PREFACE.
Angelsachsischen.

It

IX
included

of course,

is,

Bright's

in

Reader

The

antiquarian

made me

and

first

object of

to

historical

selecting the

in

as possible from

There

comment.

with Old-English literature,


itself,

much

refrain as

historical

question that the

literature

me

which have guided

principles

texts have also

can be no

who occupy

all

themselves

whether with a view


investigations,

the

to

or to a better

understanding of the development of the English language

must be

generally,

In

was
I

to acquire a

the first editions of this

some

to

from the manuscript

remove the

then follow naturally.

the spelling of the texts

But when

and regulated.

extent normalized

removed from

will

work

had brought out the Primer

spelling,

to

sound elementary knowledge

Everything else

of the language.

in

a rigorously normalized

Reader the few deviations

the

spellings, so that the student

&c,

diacritics,

to

restore

the

had only

MS.

text,

although, of course, I have not attempted to reproduce purely

The MS.

palaeographical features.

accents are faithfully

kept, either in the texts or at the foot of the page, in their


original

form

('),

theoretical longs being

great advantage of this

method

accented in the

MSS.

Divergent

when

book

as

it

marked

(").

The

enables the careful

MS.

readings

letter in italics

are

given

but

(mans).

sparingly,

really instructive, not with a view to giving

criticus,
this.

is

supplement final-consonant

also

doubling by adding the omitted

apparatus

that

remember whether or not any given word

student to

only

is

and

an

which would be quite out of place in such

PREFACE.

The grammar
subordinated

omissions

to

thus

present

the

in

that

entailed

edition

me

have enabled

account of the varieties of period and

Some

regards phonology.

minute

but even

strictly

The

to

give

full

dialect, especially as

may seem

of these details

when they

more

is

Primer than before.

the

in

too

are perhaps too minute from

a practical point of view, they have the advantage of training


the student to habits of linguistic observation
the actual forms

more

firmly

on

Anyhow, a grammatical sketch


which
to

is

fixing

like the

based on a limited selection of

one given here,

texts,

must be

easier

master than one which draws upon the whole literature

and

hope that

tion to such
a

and of

the mind.

will

be found useful also as an introduc-

books as

work which

beginner.

it

is

Anglo-Saxon Grammar

Sievers'

not quite suited to the ordinary English

In one important respect

advantage over

Sievers',

namely, that

my grammar
it

has the

includes derivation

and syntax, together with sentence-stress and metre.


In the section on metre

have

tried

to

give a clear

abstract of Sievers' views (see his Altgermanische Mctrik,


Halle,

1893, and his article in Paul's Grundriss der ger-

manischen

philologie),

which

I feel

obliged to accept, in spite

of the adverse criticisms of Lawrence {Chapters on Alliterative Verse,


tive

London, 1893), Heath {The Old-English

Allitera-

Line, Philological Society Trans. 189 1-3), and others.

These

critics

seem

to

forget that Sievers' classification of

the Old-English metrical forms into types

is

not a theory,

but a statement of facts, and that the complexity and


regularity to which they object

is

a fact, not a theory.

ir-

The

PREFACE.
truth

we know very

that

is

versification

Old-English

the

realizing that a

scheme

and

English metres, for

same thorough way

in the

metres,

of the

little

of most languages

our modern

XI

is

it

of

details

the

possible that

if

were analyzed

instance,

which Sievers has analyzed

in

we should have a

modern poet could

in

difficulty

carry such a complicated

in his head.

Considerations of space have obliged

much

adding

scantiness.

me

from

to refrain

to the Notes, in spite of complaints of their

It

appears that certain examinees have been

disappointed at not being able to get through by cramming

up

the notes instead of reading the texts

that

Old-

work

is

But they forget

not Middle-English, and that methods which

well with Piers

Ploughman do not

necessarily apply

to Beowulf.

The

glossary gives very

to see

and

letter

m. gives

number
has,

spellings.

what practical use there can be

nom.

ace. sg. stdn 20/165,


all

pi.

any

references, but without

full

elaborate classification of forms

stdnas,

It is difficult

in registering stdn,

&c, when the

The

the information required.

single

large

of dialectal forms introduced into the present edition

however, caused

me some

embarrassment.

But the

use of suitable diacritics in the head-words has enabled


to dispense in
dialectal

specially in

is

to

the

word

Again, when a dialectal form

form.

a general law,

likely

most cases with repeating

have not thought

the glossary.

it

But when

falls

me

in

necessary to note
it

is

if

necessary.

it

exceptional, or

cause any difficulty in recognizing the word,

given, in a cross reference,

its

under

The

student

it

is,

PRE FA CE.

Xll
in

short,

expected to learn the dialectal forms by reading

by looking the words up

the texts, not

The most important


to explain the

matical
likely

practical use of a glossary

meanings of words, then

enough

cause difficulty to the learner

to

use the book

with

is,

evidently,

hope

on

its

this

new

who

advanced

is

Ease of reference

profit.

edition will be found

Of

predecessors.

course,

cram up Old-English from


mastered the Primer, the
irritation

Reader without having

forms

cause him great

will

but that

which

in

be an advance

to

a beginner attempts to

if

this

dialectal

and waste of time

as are

details

depends greatly on compactness and conciseness,


I

gram-

to state such

and other

constructions, inflections,

to

in the glossary.

no reason why

is

should double the bulk of the glossary by giving such

regular variations as herein, hi'eran, hyran, a?ida, onda separate

headings and cross-references.

The

order in the

Early West-Saxon

glossary

the long from the short vowels

a real difficulty to learners,

first

but

editions I separated

when

found

this

was

restored the purely alphabetic

Another improvement was referring

order.

on an

alphabetic

strictly

is

In the

basis.

to the

number

of each piece instead of to the page, so that the student

might learn

The

to recognize each piece

reasons which have

comment have

also obliged

of comparative philology.

made me

me

to

by

some

at least of the

until that practical

number.
from antiquarian

be sparing with the details

Comparative philology

upon and presupposes an elementary


of

its

refrain

practical

languages with which

knowledge

is

it

is

based

knowledge
deals

and

acquired, an incessant com-

PREFACE.

Xlll

parison with and reference to the divergent forms of other

languages

allied
is

positively injurious to the student

is

beginning the practical study of any one language.

therefore, in the

grammar

Reader

to the

who

I have,

as well as in that

&c, and have

to the

Primer avoided

made

purely practical divisions, in order to bring out as

clearly as

Indeed to

(why not

stems,'

phenomena

stem, cynn a jo-, menigo an

&c,

-o,

point of view, sheer nonsense

is,

i-

like menigo,

there are

no

stems

Old-English

at all in

'

Verner's Law, &c, be kept

But we are bound

till

their

to utilize

comparative philology

and

all

cor-

o-

stems

which keeps the

o throughout, has the best claim to the designation.


'

an

or In-

from an Old-English

we must have

if

word

in Old-English, surely a

hits

some other language the

that in

responding words ended in

of the

Old-English nouns

the

call

e- ?)

on the ground

stem,

'

possible the actually existing

language.
a- or o-

reference to

all

let

In

fact,

them and

proper time.
the practical results of

have done

my

best to keep

up with recent progress.

As

historical

cultivated

and comparative philology are

Germany, there

in

one extreme of ignoring German work

the

blindly accepting whatever views


in

Germany

Englishman
this

in

country

my

time

imitation
to

at

the

moment.

to introduce

for

which

happen

As

German
I

to

chiefly

into

that of

be fashionable

was almost

philological

the

methods

first

into

have been a good deal abused

have a special right to protest against over-

of our Teutonic brethren.

improve on

still

a danger of rushing from

is

their

methods and

Why

not rather try

critically sift their theories

PREFACE.

XIV

become

before they

fossilized

numbering of

so trifling a matter as the

us at

let
it

common-sense of England

the

is,

As

and America

has

almost unanimously rejected the unmeaning

adopted

(") as the

mark

opposition to

German

against

analogy

all

was only
were

into

'

must

Why

and

to

when

caused not by

trial

German

prac-

and has

both cases in direct

in

then continue to assume

call the

consonants

final

change of weorc

the change

front,

Old-English,

in

that the doubling of

etymological,'

is

consonants
It

of length

usage.

palatal mutation,'

'

and

tion,

not a muta-

is

but invariably by back

also be borne in

German

of

of printing 5 instead of

tice

in even

the strong verbs,

new suggestion

events give any

all

we can improve

If

teaching

Germany

are

countries.

It

mind

many

that

of the details

and exposition which work well

doomed

to

failure

differently

in

must be particularly noted

in

organized

most German

that

elementary text-books are intended as companions to the


author's lectures, so that he naturally does not care to put
his

book

fluous

into such a

form as

will

make

his lectures super-

hence such books are generally not

instruction.

Nor must

it

fitted for self-

be forgotten that a

German

has

great advantages over an English-speaker in learning Old-

English

he has no conception of the

difficulties

matical gender, the distinction of strong and

&c,

to the latter

knowledge of
which would

The

it

baffle

besetting

and hence he

is

weak

of gramadjectives,

able to acquire a practical

from a crabbedly theoretical exposition

an English
sin

learner.

of Englishmen

and Americans who

XV

PREFACE.
German

study

of the subject'
call

it

much

matiker

learn

the

studies

if

art

to

would-be

the

of

'

irony,

junggram-

skimming and

go and hear another

in a

sifting

foundation

concerned

professor,

if

he

word, he should cultivate

The

best foundation for this

as
as Old
can be firmly
by means of the Anglo-Saxo?i Primer

is

and

Anglo-Saxon Reader.

laid

far

HENRY SWEET.
Oxford,
March, 1894

is

he should

study of the languages required

English
die

literature

Germany, he should beware of

in

a point of doing so

this

'

one professor exclusively:

a thorough practical

and

the

and abhandlungs, he had better leave them

independence of judgement.
is

they take

Germans, with unintentional

as the

himself to

warned not

that

is

too seriously

he

If

attaching

make

cannot

'

dissertations
alone.

philology

CONTENTS.
PAGE

GRAMMAR

xix

METRE

Ixxxv

TEXTS
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.
VI.

VII.
VIII.

IX.

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.

XIV.

XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.

XIX.

XX.
XXI.

Cynewulf and Cyneheard

On the State

....

of Learning in England

Alfred's Translation of the Cura Pastoralis

The Voyages

of

Ohthere and Wulfstan

S
17

Alfred's Translation of Orosius

The Battle of Ashdown


Alfred and Godrum

3i

Alfred's

Wars with

....
.....

the Danes

From Alfred's Translation of Boethius


Account of the Poet Cjedmon
From the Laws
Charters
^Elfric
The Assumption of St. John
^Elfric The Nativity of the Innocents
^Elfric's Life of King Oswald

......
........

The Martyrdom of

^Elff.ah

33
35

Wulfstan's Address to the English

....
.

43

46
5i

54
61
72

80
88

98

Eustace at Dover, and the Outlawry of Godwine

101

Charms
Beowulf and Grendel's Mother
The Battle of Maldon

104

.....
.

106
120

CONTENTS.

XVI11

PAGE

XXII.
XXIII.

The Fall of the Angels

The Happy Land, from the Phcenix


XXV. The Dream of the Rood
XXVI. The Wanderer

XXIV.

XXVII.
XXVIII.

XXIX.

XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.

XXXIV.

131

Judith

139
.

151

154
159

Riddles

164

Gnomic Verses
The Seafarer

168

Northumbrian Fragments
Mercian Hymns
Early Kentish Charters
Codex Aureus Inscription
Late-Kentish Psalm

175

171

177

189
195

196

NOTES

203

GLOSSARY

22;

AN ANGLO-SAXON READER.

GRAMMAR.
[References not otherwise specified are to the numbers of the texts in
the Reader.

Pr.

= Anglo-Saxon

Primer.]

DIALECTS AND PERIODS.


1.

The

Old English (OE) are Northum-

chief dialects of

between the Humber and the Firth of Forth,


(Merc.) between the Thames and the Humber,

brian (North.)

Mercian
West-Saxon (WS), which was spoken

south of the Thames,

except in Kent and Surrey, where Kentish (Kt) was spoken.

Anglian (Angl.), Angl. and


non-West-Saxon (nWS) group.
We distinguish two periods of OE, early (e) 700-900,

North, and Merc, constitute the

Kt

the
2.

and late

(1)

900-1 100, the distinction between

eWS

and

1WS

some

being especially important.


a.

Nearly pure

OE

was

still

written

and probably

spoken

in

of the monasteries of the South of England as late as the beginning of the

But

twelfth century.
rapidly, so that

in the

North.

already the characteristics

specimens of these dialects,


glosses, see

my

North the language broke up much more


shows
to some extent, 1 Merc, also
F01
of the transition to Middle English.
as exhibited in the Durham and Rushworth

and,

Second Anglo-Saxon Reader.


GRAMMAR.

XX
The

3.

served

OE

poetry

except

copies,

mainly of North, origin, but

is

a few fragments, such as 30

which keep only an occasional Angl.

forms are also found even


writings ( 80), which

nWS

scribes,

result of the

MSS

1WS

nWS
of

WS

employment of

who, in their endeavours to avoid

sometimes wrote forms which did not

pre-

is

in

spelling.

contemporary

in

was the

only

exist in

nWS

forms,

any

dialect

57a).

The

a.

original dialect of

OE

poems

is

requiring the substitution of Angl. etc.

often

shown by the metre

forms for the written

ones

(3io).

OE

4.

belongs,

Low and High German,

together with

Scandinavian (Icelandic, Danish, Swedish) and Gothic, to


the

Germanic

group, descended from a hypothetical parent

Germanic language.

SPELLING AND SOUNDS.


The Anglo-Saxons wrote the Roman alphabet in its
which b=d, y=f, %=g, p = r, )"=$", c=/.
They afterwards added from their own Runic alphabet itself
5.

British form, in

a variety of an old northern Euro-Asiatic

\ th and \>=w, and made from

some Greek alphabet


a

new

letter (5=: p.

letters,

p and

(S

modification of

It is

now usual

only being kept.

the texts, but write p only in the

to print

OE

In this book we keep


grammar and glossary.

also supplement the defective distinctions of the

adding
a.

In

words.

diacritics,

OE MSS
It

written in

such as those in

a,

e,

0, c,

MSS

(5

in

We
by

various contractions are used for a few very

must be noted specially that and,

with ordinary

common

gttd is only occasionally

full.

Stress.
6.

We

medium

distinguish
(:),

three

degrees of

stress,

strong

(),

and weak, which we generally leave unmarked,

'

SPELLING AND SOUNDS; STRESS.


sometimes marking
to include

In

7.

such as

stress,

We often use

(-).

weak

that are the result of

be ( 15), are called

weak.'

'

OE

most words have their strong stress on the first


So also in compounds, such as -heofontrice, wldcup,

syllable.

where the second element has medium


syllables (

medium

35) also have

a long stress-syllable, as in

Long inner
when preceded by

stress.

stress

o.-foeme,

ceresta

compared with

manode.

ccrest.

Such word-groups

8.

'

not always easy or convenient to

is

it

Sounds and forms

distinguish them.

weak

by a prefixed

it

medium,' as

'

XXI

as 'cyninges :tun,jElfred cyning,peoden


'

wordum

wis, wide cup are

mare famous

prince,' tzvegen fet,

stressed as

they were compounds, and so also most of

'

if

the other combinations


adjective
full

and

+ noun,

of noun

word

'inn :gdn,

verb

finite

So

also,

when such adverbs are


compound

adjectives

dependent on

full stress,

:com

whether

it

participles,

infinitives,

itself:

to

is

stressed like a

subordinated in stress to

which take

them, as also to

is

stod; -eode :inn, 'stod -him

'bi

is

adjective,

an adverb of

element

associated with verbs, the group

noun, noun

first

meaning.

distinct

and when the

:bi,

'wlltanpurh.

all

nouns and

precedes or follows

and

'lande, hdtefi

to finite verbs

gretan, 'feallende

swealt, czvcEp frcet he 'bude.


9. Subordinate

particles

have

words

and other

especially prepositions

subordinate

stress, as in

Modern

E.,

whence

the stress on the second element of such combinations as


of- dune, to-dug,

+ noun.

second element
10.
[as

the

which were originally groups of preposition


in be'/oran, togcedre, &c, where the

Similarly

When

opposed
stress is

is

an adverb or

a verb

is

lost

noun.

combined with an inseparable

to the separable particles inn, bl in inn

thrown on

But when a noun

is

to the verb,

combined with

particle

gan, &c],

as in began, arppican.

prefixes

which

are then

XXU

GRAMMAR.

never separable

is

the stress

on

is

the prefix, as in 'bigang,

forwyrd compared with forweorpan.

'orpanc,

formed

ddiesednis

directly

from

from a verb,

a- liesan,

prefixes occur only in

for sewenms

one form

noun

If the

keeps the verb- stress, as

it

'

strong or weak

in

But some

contempt.'

thus ge-

is

always weak, even in independent nouns such as gefera, and


mis-

always strong, as in 'mislimpan.

is

11.

Most pronouns have weak

even to verbs

pronouns, such as
like

stress,

and are subordinated


But emphatic

-he cwcep, narnig heora polite.

self,

oper,

wlc,

have strong

ccgper,

stress

nouns.

12.

Some

quantitative adjectives,

and adverbs of

similar

meaning, are subordinated to nouns, adjectives, and emphatic


adverbs
'

vianige 'mgnn, ealles manncynnes, nealles 'swceslice

Such adverbs

not gently.'

take the stress from the

hu -lamp
a.

The

poetry,

as hu, swa, pcer,pon?ie sometimes

finite verb,

sometimes not

'swa dyde,

eoiv ?
best

way

which

is,

of acquiring correct stress

is

careful reading of the

indeed, the main source of our knowledge of

OE

stress.

13.

Weak

changes.

consonants

stress has

( I 48> 5)>

a great effect in producing sound-

leads to the shortening of vowels ( 15)

It

101), the loss of vowels ( 34)

and

and consonants

and to various vowel-changes.

Vowels.
QUANTITY.
14.

In the

OE MSS

vowel-length

by doubling, sometimes by

('),

the

is

sometimes marked

two methods being some-

But the
times combined: god, good (9/3), wiif (32D/10).
MSS evidence is so scanty and often so incorrect that we have
to rely mainly

on

the phonetic laws of

OE

itself

and compari-

VOWELS: QUANTITY.

XXU1

son with the other periods of English and with the cognate

The metre

languages.

some cases

the spelling

shows the quantity

often

In

( 361).

apart from doubling or accentuation

also does so ( 46, 126).

Some words have two

15.

forms, one with a long, one with

a short vowel, the shortening being the result of

Thus
So

to the strong se

also the adverb bi

and the

is

he

'

'

weak

corresponds the weak

stress.

se

the.'

'

the strong form of the preposition be

prefix be-.

a. There were probably similar weak forms of he, seo, and other words
which occur frequently unstressed, together with strong forms oiJ>es &c,

we

although for convenience


strong

generally write only one

form.

generally

the

b. For the lengthening shown by such spellings as is (2/65


32 b/i)>
6n (2/3 &c), of, hit, 6ndr[cdap (3/1 31), tinbieldo (3/1 14) see my History
of English Sounds, 384.
;

By

16.

'

group-lengthening,' vowels are lengthened before

the vowellike consonants

consonant.

This began

such spellings as
is

I,

wcelle, <zldra

established in lAngl.

fully

also in

r,

1WS;

m,

n,

in eAngl.,

thus in 13, 14

when followed by another


and before /, as shown by

= wlelle,
:

word,

we

ieldra in 31 ( 46).
did,

Igng.

It

appears

It

find hordfatu, aides, lande,

stincende, geldmp.
a.

In 31 the spelling seems to

dcega, gtfceh, mcektig

show lengthening

17. Vowel-length

is

dat.

pi.

sometimes the result of the

a consonant, especially h, which

before a vowel

before

and h:

daga, gefeah pret, mihtig.

145),

is

whence the long vowels

in

of furh, feolan 'penetrate' compared with

fealh,feos, gen. oifeoh.

pweoru from pweorh

in

But such

loss of

always dropped medially

fur um,
its

pret.

inflections as fem. sg.

nom.

31, together with the metre, which

often requires feores,pyrel instead olfeores, gen. of feorh,

show

that the short vowel

was sometimes restored

&c,

generally

GRAMMAR.

XXIV

The

by the influence of uninflected forms such zsfeorh.


loss of

g before

a consonant

ing, especially in

18. Foreign

1WS,

is

also a cause of vowel-lengthen-

as in sa:de=sa'gde ( 130).

words had

their stress-syllables long, all their

more prominent syllables being apparently often uttered with


strong stress Adam, Adam, Eve, Maria, Maria.
19. Long vowels seem to have been generally shortened
:

before
in the

as in sohte, gepoht, puhie, being never accented

lit,

MSS.

CONSONANT-INFLUENCE.
20. In

WS

g make

and

a following

73), e into ea, ea, ie respectively:

gear;

scield,

gefan.

So

giefan

also

= nWS

nWS

sceal,

gcrf;

sea:/,

ce,

&

= nWS

e,

geaf; sceap,geafon,
gefon, ger; sceld,

seep,

gu- becomes geo-

in

WS,

as in geong,

geogup = n WS giing, jung (122), jugop.


a.

b.

But we find sceal in e North. (30 c).


There is no diphthonging in the prefix^-

21. In Angl. c (x), h,

ing diphthong,
gesaih,
ege,

waixan, harg idol


'

peh (30

flegan,

geweorc

also re,

ea, eo, ea, eo

c),

heh [but

legan =geseah,
;

'

eac, eage,

se

!,

peah, heah

respectively

fehtan, gewerc

hea and

weaxan,

hea,

pi.

hearg

ce, e, e,
;

&c,

geseoh

a preced-

'

'

becoming
geseh

( 123).

&c. smooth

!,

ec

e:

also,'

'

216];

feohtan,

fleogan, leogan.

smoothings occur in WS and Kt texts they may, of


due to Angl. scribes but the frequency of such spellings as
34/S9) seem to show that
Peh (8/20, 173) and ec, Kt iec 46 (32/1 1
they were really established in these dialects.

When

these

course, be

22. wio- from Germanic wi- ( 91) generally becomes wu-,


although the intermediate forms wio-, weo- also occur in the
earlier

texts:

wudu= Oldest

Weoduninga i2b/57];
(

E. and Germanic

swatol,

sweotol;

wicn,

96); belwih, -eoh, -uh; widuwe, wuduwe.

widu

wucu,

[cp.

wiece

XXV

VOWELS: CONSONANT-INFLUENCE.
wo- in woruld

weo- becomes

23.

=nWS

occasionally in other words, such as wore

1WS

In

becomes wu-,

often

it

'

weoruld, and

trouble' (22/51).

swurd (13/155), wurpan


in swyrd

as in

(16/19), wurpian, towurpati, sometimes wy-, as

(23/264), swytol.
In INorth. such forms as s-word,

a.

?oorj>

are very frequent.

become wy-, wy- as in wyllap,


cwyde (13/243), wydewan (13/24), swype

24. wi-, wi- sometimes

swy/t (4A43, 50),

geswycon(i 3/2 41).

(13. 15),

25. In

eWS

undergoing
ie

before ^

ie

its

lig

becomes

i,

as in hli(e)hhan,

in

1WS

before

c,

it

from

In the same way

usual change into lWSj'.

generally becomes
'

(.*)

miht, wcehliht, six, which, of course, prevents

niht,

ican,

smic

'

smoke,'

dfligan, gebigan.

fire,'

spellings as yean (27 d/24) also occur probably against


the pronunciationjyo, yg- are sometimes written for original ic-, -ig, as

As such

a.

in sygefast (14/139).

b. In

\VS

cy-

sometimes becomes

as in ring (8/90), such spellings

ci-,

1WS.

as cinedom, cinn being not unfrequent in

In YYS He-, gie- sometimes

c.

26. In
nc:

\WS y,y

often

become

becomes

i,

as in gingra.

before

ht,

bricas 'fragments,'

genihtsu?nian,

drihten,

ci-, gi-,

drige, bicgan, Iricg, fil{i)gan

'

c,g, eg, Ig, ng,

hige (21/4),

follow/ pincan (14/212).

WEAK VOWELS.
27. In

OE

all

fully

weak vowels

are shortened, as in be-

vowels being often pre( 15), the length of medium-stress


when the vowel of
Hence
ending
-dam.
in
the
served, as
a derivative syllable

on

it,

a.

Even

shortened

28.

is

in the

when

The

we must assume medium stress


compared with the plur./certiee.

long,

as in the adv. fair/ice

second elements of compounds long vowels

their original

chief

meaning

weak vowels

is

in

may

be

forgotten.

OE

are a,

e, 0,

u.

In the

GRAMMAR.

XXVI
period e

earliest
i

and

cz (c)

Thus

is

30 we

in

represented by the two distinct vowels

corresponding to Germanic i and a respectively.

gidanc=gepanc,

find

eci,

dccmid, hefcenricczs,

gastce dat., wldce adv.


a.

Weak

very frequent in some late

ce is

my

charter in

Second A.

Reader

S.

nWS

(p. 209),

texts,

where

criminately for the ordinary e without regard to

its

it

such as a Suffolk
is

written indis-

In 15/182

origin.

we have gangande.
29. But weak

preserved in a few derivative endings,

i is

such as -nis

(-njys

written -nes,

and before

and

-ig, -Ig

-aeg

eWS

g
e,

is,

however, as frequently

c in -ig

under which older

isc, -lie,

which are only

these spellings being most frequent

15/164), geweolegap (31), lytegan

ma?ieg- (3/39;

and

have been levelled

occasionally written with


in

which

57)

(3/188), mpmesces(^i), ungefoglecesta, wunderlecast


a.

So

also in

Basengum
30.

eWS we

find

weak -eng

(5V33, 9).

-ing, as in scctenga (3/188),

(6/21).

It is

important to observe that some of the weak front

vowels are special

OE modifications of Germanic back vowels,

such as the -ig= Germanic *-ag, in hdlig [cp. haleg=hdlag


,

30], the -ian of lufian

may

love-class,

Germanic *-andi of the pres. partic. These


easily known by their inability to cause

the -ende from

vowels

and the other verbs of the

be

mutation.
a.

Thus we can

tvyiian and the

Germanic i or j.
b. In some late

= iettrene,

engyl,

pronounced

general rule,
3

we

MSS weak

magyn

(22),

is

often written y, as in atlrynne (21/47)

which

is

the result of

frequently

more frequent

interchange,
in the earlier

find such spellings as hcafud,

wmtin.

and the -ian of swerian,

of the wean-class really correspond to

weak y

itself

being

e ( 69).

u and

31.

see that the -ig of lytig,

other verbs

u being,
texts.

wundur, spmud,

in

as

Thus

in

bropur,

WEAK VOWELS.

XXV11

32. o and a also interchange, as in huntope, fiscape (4/6).

liable

is

eWS,

into a

(11)

become

to

(or gl) before nasals, especially in

The

as in iitone (3/66), wiotona.

converse change of

especially frequent in Kt, as in hcela (32/5),

is

bropar (32 b/11);

the reaction against this tendency led

instead of a in such words

scribes to write

zs>

Kt

faron (12/8)

infin.

and

33.

is

often changed to

vowel

When

interchange under certain conditions.

a back vowel

added
e,

to a syllable containing

0,

this

is

so as to avoid the repetition of a back

thus rodor, stapol have genitives rodores, stapoles, but

plurals roderas, dat. roderum, stapelas, gen. stapela.

So

also

lufode (-ude, -ade) often has plur. lufedon.


a. Some words show traces of an older (Germanic) alternation of
back a or and front i in weak syllables
thus dgen points to *-an, the
rarer agen to *-/.
;

34.

The

vowels

laws which govern the dropping of final weak


too

are

tendency

is

complicated

drop them

to

be stated here.

But the

long stressed (root)

syllable,

to

after a

and keep them

after a short stressed syllable, as in plur. scipu

compared with

plur. hus,

word, or a weak

syllable, as in fem.

sing, mpiniscn.

35.

'

Inner vowels

consonant
single.

'

that

+ vowel are

As

is,

weak vowels followed by


when the consonant is

often dropped

a general rule such vowels are dropped after

a long, kept after a short syllable, as in the genitives pigles,


opres, heafdes

compared with

rodores, heofones,

gebundne compared with gecwedene.


hdlge.
a.

But micel

(0)

and the

especially

Merc.

inner vowels

are regularly

of the fem. sg. nom. and neut. pi. nom. of three-

syllable forms without regard to the quantity of the root-syllable


in 31

we

plur.

also halig has plur.

zxv(\yfel shorten : micles, yfle; &c.

In the earlier texts

kept before the

So

find heafudic (f/26), netenu, micelu.

thus

GRAMMAR.

XXV111

1WS

36. In

inner vowels are often restored

(13/128), epele

long

after

by the influence of the uninflected forms

syllables

eowere

(1 4/'35), gebitndene, hdlige.

37. If inner vowels are followed by two consonants, they


are not dropped even

afterra,

ieldesta,

in

1WS

preceded by a long

if

syllable, as in

operra gen. plur. compared with oprum.

But

the shortening of double consonants ( 101) leads to

contraction

crftra, opra.

38. In some cases parasite-vowels have developed them-

consonants

selves, especially before the vowellike

when

final

Syllabic

syllabic.

often map(p)u7ti]
husl,

and

often also

take a parasite-vowel
a back vowel:
dt[t)or

especially

cecer,

[oldest texts

generally

Angl.

ccester,

wundor

dlr~\,

after

after a front,

WS

/ often,

ceaster ( 20), winter;

(-ur)

tdel,

hagol

iempel;

when

preceding syllable

is

long, as in tdcen (also tden), beacen.

hrTpr (32 b/35)

is

an isolated archaism.

39.

When

consonant

But air

'

alder

alor

is

these words are inflected, so that the vowellike

is

no longer

parasite-vowel

is

generally introduced before r

syllable precedes, as in

cannot

syllabic, the parasite-vowels


setlas,

fugles, which form an apparent exception to 35.

1WS

the

(,7/27)].

develope themselves, whence such forms as

in

after

{ii)

n generally takes a parasite

found even in late texts [cp. at Aire

[but
as in

d, s,

[also hcegl\ fugol.

a.

to be

mdpm
/,

r always, and

as in hrafn, pegn.

n.

n,

I,

does not generally develope a parasite-

vowel, as in bosm, woestm [but weestem in 31],

sett,

r,

and preceded by another consonant, so as

pegnas,

But the

when a

short

wederum, fcegeran [fcegran 25/21];

also before the other consonants, as in pegenes.

40. Parasite-vowels are often developed between r and


a following consonant.

In

WS

rg regularly becomes

rig,

VO IVELS
and
'

Ig often

bury/
a.

rg

WS ri,

becomes

HI A T US.

as in byrig (rarely byrg), byr(i)gan

lig,

hgriges, gen. of hp-e,fyl{i)gan

more frequently kept

is

as in h$rgan

'

praise

'

XXIX

in the

follow.'

'

n\VS

corresponding to

dialects,

(30, 31), n^igaid, as well as to

\YS

rig,

as in byrg, h^rgcs.

The

b.

insertion of e

between r and

g (not g)

in

hyegodon (17/14)

is

exceptional.
c.

So

also

41.

cedes,

is

-uriih

-icrh in furuh, burith (17/18, 26).

when

often takes a parasite-vowel

as

in

syr(e)wung (14/92, 100).

precedes, u or

is

inserted,

which

often

is

a consonant pre-

weakened

by the

in beadiave (21/185), bear owe (28/18)

back vowel

If

to

e,

as

side of beadwe

(20/289), bearwas (24/71).

HIATUS.

42.

weak

before a strong vowel

But

ge'unnan, be-irnan.
positions,

such as b-innan,

be-

generally kept, as in

is

becomes

b- in

compound

pre-

ba?ftan, butan, although such forms

not

becomes

as beinna.11, bea>ftan also occur.

ne

combination with certain

pronouns, and verbs, as

in n-a, ncefre, nan, nurnig,


adj. nyten

43.

'

ni's,

'

'

nabban, nyste, &c.

result

after a strong

of the loss of h

strong vowel being lengthened

if

one

ieohan, the adverbs nean, near


sai-s,

hcelend.

also in the

being
the
disappears, the
hiatus

145)

short.

Thus we have

infinitives fon, slean from older fohan, sleahan,

gen.

n- in

ignorant.'

weak vowel

often the

particles,

/eon

compared wiih/eorran,

the

from

deopor,

feos (from feohes), ge/ea-n, freo-nd compared with


But after u and y weak vowels are often kept, as in
'

buan

'dwell.' partic. gebu{e)n, dry-as

In the later

a.

OE

the elided vowel

is

'

magicians

often restored by the analogy

of uncontracted words, as in the dat. ivoum (27 c/3)


woh

'

b. In Angl. hiatus is

doan

older wont from

crooked.'

310)

si-e

= don,

more

frequent,

sie subj. in

whence such forms as dissyllabic

the poetry.

GRAMMAR.

XXX

SHORT VOWELS,
a,

44. All these

Germanic
in

together

which

a,

This a

mann, nama.

in the oldest texts

open

Modern

o in

the close o
is

with ea

OE was

in

is

as

86)

sound was no doubt

we

write

constant in lMerc. as well as eMerc.


a,

WS

while late

out of

and Kt

from

it

This g

( 16).

eWS

o,

that of the

g to distinguish

it

mgnn, ngma, Igng, Angl. also long

both g and

developed

preserved only before nasals, as

written sometimes a, sometimes

its

E. not,

se.

9,

and eKt write


which no

write a only,

doubt points to a change of sound.


a.

Weak

g tended to

changing into a
lichgmlic

become

close

into

o,

words as

in such

occasionally written

is

change of

1WS

in

and so was preserved from

Hence

on, pone, 62.

licumlic

(10/99)

eWS

with the further

( 31).

45. Everywhere except before nasals Germanic a became


cc

But a following back vowel soon

in the earliest period.

changed

it

back

to a,

WS

as in

dagas,

dagum compared

with dceg.
a.

In the earliest texts

we

such forms as hcebuc

find

=fare, nom. faru 'course.'


point back not to a but to ca ( 21).
(30b,

c)

46. In the oldest texts

(where the tag


this
is

book.

is

is

a), all

of which

often further shortened to

regular in 31, where

hafoc, -fcercB

written indifferently ae,

<z is

a shortened

But dagas (= degas) &c. in 31

e,

we

and

write

in

this spelling

reserved for the long

tz is

ce,

ce

a:,

as in

In Kt cz
wes, weter compared with hcclan, dagas (45 a).
thus in
and e, both short and long, are constantly confused
32 a, b we find det, See/, da>.ttce, mid godes gcefce (= gie/e),
;

gedelan,
a.

cece,

Weak a

hyepa-p.

deem, dim, heir

'

here.'

after lip-consonants

becomes

Cp. similar changes of weak ea

a,

94.

in h^rpap, hypop =
The apparent change

SHORT VOWELS.

XXXI

oteawan (31) = cellewan is the result of confusion between at and op


where ot - op\
hwafier
b. There seems to be a tendency to make a into a before J>
(S/27 32 c/32), ASelmund (12 b/ioS).
c. The anomalous a for < in c 'but' may be the result of weak

in

[cp. 31 c/9,

stress.

1WS manig often becomes mcenig,

47. In

and
a.

{mantig

?)

(16/46)

vienig (13/138).

The

sl^gen

(33

is

a and g in such participles as sltzgen,


Germanic variation between -an and -in

between

fluctuation

the result of the

a).

e, oe.

WS

48. In

Germanic

e,

and

a mutation of
'

oil,'

ce (

has

ce

generally, e stands not only for

written

75)
ele,

0,

this

oe in the

MSS which

having the sound of close French en

Already

dcehter dat. of do/i/or.

vowel

is

=WS

bledsian

shortening of
a.

OE

late

but also for

unrounded
bletsian,

eMerc.

in

into

e,

is

cele.

which keeps

as in

WS;

where the older

thus 31

ce

was a

ce.

wast
There seems to be a tendency to broaden e into a after w
although the last two are
:

(8/83), forecwadcn (32), swale (32 b);


doubtful, being in Kt texts ( 46).
b.

For the alternation of e and

49. In 1VVS
a.

becomes y

In the frequent

by the analogy of

50. /

is

1WS

in sy//'

self.'

celmysse (15/76, 8)

almcsse, e has

become y

-nes{se), -nis, -nys ( 57).

occasionally written

though rarely in good


arfe

eo see 91.

(32b)=WS

ce

WS MSS:

ierfe

point to group-lengthening

texts of all

gescrgp

60),

(15/ 232), gegramedon (16/203).

in

Some

( 16).

periods,

ecldra (30), candte (30c),

(3/181),

cenglas

probably

of these

<s's

But

fixed in

ce is

WS

XXXU
in

GRAMMAR.

some words,

kaftan

51. /

1WS

especially before

cernan

represented by

is

syllan

'

The

-en, hlastan,

f: fccsl-an,

(pointing to an

eWS

slcrpe.

*siellan) in

give.'

a. -styde (32 c/9)

b.

sf,

152) barnan, hale, hcerfest, gemcBcca,

isolated

= -st$de in an independent word.


1WS stynt (21/51) may be the

result of the

Kt

pronunciation of y ( 69).

52. In
(

1WS /

is

lengthened to / in such words as lgde=lggde

3\

a.

In 31 group-lengthened

becomes a:

= fiell

feel

'fall', wielle,

czudilman.

53. i

is

sometimes

original, as in witan,

and

in gebiden

the other present participles of the shine-verbs

a mutation of

e,

as in sittan,

For the alternation of

and

si/efi

to (eo)

and

sometimes

compared with geseten.


For = ie, y see

see 91.

59, 68.

54. newinyste,

55. In
re[o)ht

contracted into ny- in the verb-forms nyle,

is

&c, and

the adj. riyten

1WS

riht, the

and Angl. reht

sponds to Angl. sex

ignorant.'

'

corresponds to the vowels of Kt

in the

25)

same way

but in

eWS

as

WS

six corre-

the usual form

is

names as
Sigebryht (1/1), where -bryht from -briht= -bre(o)ht is a weak
form of beorht (152). In 1WS the y of -bryht makes its way
rylit

by the influence of the

into the first (strong)

r.

So

also in such

element of proper names, as

in

Byrht-

wold (21/309).
a.

We

see the

Brettas, Brittas,
67).

For wy-

56. In

same influence of r in Bryttas (15/S9) 'Britons' =


and in isolated forms such as gc?ypon, prym (S/142,

1WS

wi- see

24.

mycel=mzcel the change seems due

influence of the m.

to the

SHORT VOWELS.
1WS weak

57. In

tends to

XXX111

become^

without regard to

consonant-influence, both in derivative syllables, as in ecnysse


(13/1), beorhtnysse,8<.c., abbudysse (10/55), an ^ in subordinate
93), nys (15/226), hyne, hyt (23/96, 174),

words suchasjf/j (23


hyre; this

is

probably due to an e\VS change of weak

i into

as in /iiere=h're.

t'e,

In

a.

some

eWS MSS

ie is

pienga (3/4, 201), which

written incori'ectly for

i,

as in wietanue,

probably due to an ignorant nYVS scribe

is

(3)-

58. In

1WS

a'-,

by the

gi- are sometimes written cy-, gy-

analogy of cy-=cie-

59) and through the pronunciation of

cyning as cining (25

21/40, 56), wurp-

scyp (4/81;

b), as in

(16/138, 46), angynn (13/226), ongynnap

scype, peodscype

(22/53)ie.

59. This vowel

eWS.

peculiar to

is

a diphthong, but the frequent spelling


fird (5/5), Wili'sc (11/57), anfl

1WS, as
a

in cyle,

monophthong

was

It

regular change into

its

fyrd, gewyldan, show that

probably the open

i of

1WS

spelling i occurs occasionally in

originally

as in andgit (2/77),

i,

Modern

E.

as

also,

in

had become

it

The

?/.

gebildum

in

(13/269).

60.
ea,

*cazli,

It

has three main sources,

(a) It

as in ieldra, ahierdan, (wi(e)xt

this

*kali

( 20).

In

nWS

this ie

spelling occurring also in

(1 1/65).

(b) It is the

onli{e)hian ( 25).

In

birhtu, inlihian (31);

but in

this ie

eorsung.

scield, giefan, the original

(c)

is

25)

from

*ceali,

gldra,

as

in

represented by
the co

is

t,

which has heorde

arises

from

ce-,

as in

restored,
'

ge-,

forms being preserved in the


c

cle

afllan

as in bterhtu, afierran,

eo,

texts,

many words
It

the mutation of

ciele

appears as

WS

mutation of

nWS

especially in Angl. texts such as 31,


herd,' eorre,

shepas in

nWS

GRAMMAR.

XXXVI

se.

of

WS, one

in

which

as in hdlan, ladan

a,

write

the

in

convenience,

as

generally

preserved in

is

and one which becomes

dialects,

we

as

There are two

73.

nWS.

e in the

grammar and

corresponds to original Germanic a, and

Mod. E.,
becomes ea after

generally written

e for

a.

is

WS

In

heal.

it

fixed in

is

in

ee

WS

c,

niece 'sword.'

74. For the change of

In slier

'

This

did.

mutation.

It

a
is

compared with

( 20).

In other words the spelling

= gear.

For pam, pam,


hwar (16/33, 54) fox p<zr,
weak forms.

into a see 70.

originally

history,' the

a broadening of e from

is

by the influence of the

*sfdrja)

this

frequent par,

may have been

hvc&r
a.

The

its

as in deed

only occasional, as in ger (8/1 19, 32)

&c. see 71.

the other

dialects;

glossary for the sake of

mag, ddd=n\YS meg,

in

a mutation

all

ce

(*stier

from

r.

e.

The most

75.

ing of

frequent source of

the mutation

the

0,

e in

WS

is

the

unround-

spelling being

old

as in dpel (2/g)

= epe/.

preserved in Angl., as in dpel, daman, fat.

eKt

preserved occasionally in
fully

of

oe, eo

and occasionally

beginning
a. e is

e,

goes,foeran

eWS,

showing
beoc

and

still

It

that the

change into

bee (33),

gefeorum (32

was
c).

occasionally written ei in the oldest texts, as in neid- (30 b)

WS tiled ( 78).

is

writes

For WS ei see 25.


b. In lKt
is sometimes expressed by y, which had the same sound
lKt ( 85) thus 34 has cyiie bold.' In 1WS we find bewypp (14 b).
1

1?

in

'

76. In
lede

1WS we

from legde

have long open

e (/)

distinct

from

a in

( 130).
1.

77.

is

often written ig in

1WS

written y, as in aydlode,ydel (13).

126).

It is

For swype see

very rarely
24.

LONG VOWELS.

which probably had the sound of long


generally a mutation of ea and
59]

WS

78.

i [cp.

eo,

is

compared with

a mutation of ea from

parallel

toy from

have

teman,gesene,

open

ie

tieman, geslene
is

XXXV11

ie

ciese

1WS

In

20).

tyman, gesyne,

In

team, seen.

<z (

cheese'

becomes

ie

The other

cyse.

But they often restore

cese.

'

as in
it

y,

dialects

eo [cp.

60]

thus 31 (Angl.) has underpiodan, steoran, and 32 b (Kt) has

WS

In

gestrionen.

itself

we

by the

find gepeodan, peostre

side

of gepiedan, -ydan, piestre, pystre.

79. In hie

her,'

'

'

they,'

and

sie subj.

the

the result of

ie is

contraction [cp. Gothic sijai\ and appears therefore also in

nWS, where

it
was of course a
shown by the metre.

dissyllabic, as
a.

Angl. has

80. In
2

we

1WS

te in

WS

full

diphthong, or

even

onsien {31).

le is

sometimes written

i,

sometimes

find hersumedon, in 3 nilemim, gtemleste,

In

gesene (16/142).

latives hehst, nehst, (zt

1WS

is

-fiste,

thus in

and

in

frequent in the super-

nextan (13/162).

6.

Long open

81.

styndan

occurs in Angl. in such words as long,

( 16).

u.

82. u

is

and

which was

the regular spelling of Scandinavian

probably a sound between

Danish

as

in

and

purs tan

u, as

(12 c;

it

still

is

21/298)

in

Swedish

= Icelandic

porsteinn.
y-

83.

is

rarely written

Tiihwon (15), gelitlap (16).

i':

pi (13/61, 101), pis (22/44),

GRAMMAR.

XXXVlii

Weak J;

84.

often

becomes

py

in

e (e ?)

less

pe, &c. (15/223

16/78; 17/13).
85. In lKt _> regularly becomes

as in vies

e,

'

mice.'

DIPHTHONGS,
ea, eo (Pr.

In the oldest texts ea

86.

and

ea,

occasionally written

is

ceo, eo

are generally the

eo

result

of the development

of parasite-vowels after Germanic a (through intermediate

and

respectively before

has gegeorwien, reogolweord.

still

87.

5).

such as

r+ cons., as

brmgd.

In North,

in

cs)

consonant combinations,

certain

weorpan, wearp compared with bregdan,

this ea often

becomes a

thus 30 a has

ward, barnum by the side of -geard.

WS

88.
swealt

and Kt also have ea before /+cons., as mfeallan,

compared with sweltan, although fa /Ian,

frequent in

eWS

and eKt, being universal

a was often lengthened


baldlice, baldlicost
a.

1WS

In

( 16).

&c. are

where the

such spellings as

(21) are quite exceptional.

instead of ea in ALlfrcd, probably

ce

svoalt,

in Angl.,

by the influence of

<zl-

in

alfremede, &c.

WS

89.
final

and Kt
&c.

crhta, fehian,

before h

began

also have ea before ^

as in eahta,

h,

is

and 1WS

But

( 21).

exceptional

to pass

through

+ cons.

and before

iveax, geseah, feohtan, geseoh

in

WS

eWS

already in

ie (

60) into

i,

/=Angl.

also the retention of eo


eo in

whence

Kt

eWS

reoht,

ryhi

seox
55),

riht, six.

a. WS sometimes has
(i5/i02\ Eastscxe (17/4)

for

where

ea
it

Exaficester (S/53),

may

Westsexna

be due to weak stress ( 94)

eh/a (17/40), lehtrep (16/176).


b. In

WS

am, bam

is

kept in foreign words such as altare, martir.

see 152

For

DIPHTHONGS.
90. In
following
a.

WS

ea, eo also arise

<z, o,

This ea

from the action of

c,

on

as in ceaster, geong.

( 20),

sometimes written

is

XXXIX

probably

Kt

cb

(46)

as

in

age/, onget (8/75, 148), beget (12/3).

The second main

91.

source of

a following originally back vowel


love-verbs and

eMerc.

in

has

thus 31

cweopap, weofendan.
into io

30)

-e?ide (

ea, eo

which

most

is

fearu (from

ic

the influence of

is

including

the -ian of the


fully carried

out

*/crru), gehleadap,

under the same conditions developes

thus 31 has nioman,

h'omu=WS

niman, limu plur.

WS (e followed by a back vowel became a, not ea (


WS also generally restores the simple vowels instead of
In

45).

eo, io,

especially

when

even

in

1WS

{E/ordun I2b/i2), heofon

eofor

and diphthong, as

would

it

a scribal

is

(2/37)

such words as

in

{liefene

eo is

heorot,

20/321), where

its

although

in lim plur. liomu, leomu,

these latter are not unfrequent in


ongiotan

an alternation of monophthong

retention does not involve

a.

But

these are the result of inflection.

generally preserved

eWS.

blending of ongictaii and Angl.

ongeotan.

92. Originally

io

was kept

distinct

from eo=e, but by

degrees eo only was written, even 31 showing such spellings


as

sfeogun=\\S

So

stigon pret. plur.

1WS

also written heora,

and

io for eo is rare

has giorn, liornunga.

93.

co, io

in

io

compared with

a following u or

(generally parasitic)

and occasionally

special changes,
lip

ea

+ r,

swellan,

self,

still

is

spelling

cb)

tends to

and

become

&c,

is

due to

preserved in the

in later spellings

94. In weak syllables ea (or

by a

hi{p)ra

The

before /+cons. in such words as heolstor, seolfor,

meolc (Angl. mile)

oldest texts

eWS

also

disappears.

eo

such as mioluc.

undergo some
when preceded

consonant, as in Grimbold (2), jEpeiwold (12 b/107),

GRAMMAR.

xl
grfeivordnis (31), which

sometimes becomes

Eadward (i2d/i);

(32),

(12C/11); and, especially

Eadwerd

tends to become

eo

In lAngl. strong

ear/.

we

31 f/16
a.

The

oifeawa

96.

eo also

WS

find earre=eorre,

as in toward
in JElfward
andwerd (14.),

as in

if so, it

WS

Thus

and

becomes

and already

ea,

itself

in

ierre.

occasionally alternates with

eo

Angl.

heora, eom,

IWSfeaZa (13/206, &c.) may be due to the influence


should perhaps be written feala.

frequent

e {el),

a,

as

ea, especially in

ram=WS

31 has regularly hear a,

has

1WS,

in

occurs,

(16, 95).

Weak

95.

also

a?

ie

gynd (16/13),

(y), z:

gind (320/37; also e\VS)=geond; wiecan 'weeks' (7/25)

= Angl.

wiocan; sieppan (3/io8)

syfan (4/42 C)

&c,

pwymys

(13).

= siofifian

(34/67), sifipan;

For Sigebryht, Byrhlwold,

see 55.

ea.

We

97.

must distinguish between old ea from Germanic


which

au, as in beam,

when smoothed
from

<z,

as in

is

common

to

gear

except
and WS

the dialects

all

into e in Angl., as in heh ( 21)

ea

( 20), ea being sometimes also the result

of contraction, as in slean ( 17).


a.

Old ea

is

[cp. eo
b.

occasionally written

from eu,

In

czo,

co in the oldest texts, as in deoth-

showing an older pronunciation

dcrge (30 b),

late

from *ceu

[cp. 86]

ieg

98].

MSS

ea

is

sometimes written

of the Middle E. smoothing into

especially

ce,

syllables, as mj>tarjl<zs (i$),Jirgenh<zfde (19 b),

in

weak

showing the beginning

ie.

eo.

98.

eo,

which generally corresponds to Germanic

sometimes the

result

of contraction, as

seon

in

written iu in the oldest texts, as in fliusum (30


early period

it

is

(31), hlo, heo, the

written indifferently w,

former spelling

eo,

which

as
is

c),

eu,

being

( 17),

is

but in the

m/lond,/tond

still

frequent in

CONSONANTS

DOUBLING.

eWS becoming obsolete in 1WS.


h'beadep (32 b).
this spelling
a.

Map

as in bian (32 b/53),

in Kt,

ea

Merc.

weak nouns

(30

sia

spelling ia

as

c),

is

frequent

also ea, as in

thus 31 has geseap, gefreap,


in lMerc.

WS seo

'

pupil of eye,' gefia

made

of To seems to have been

which the

in

also

becoming very frequent

31 has ia in the

WS gefea,

is

The

xli

into

analogy of the uncontracted weak nouns nama, &c.


b. Other exceptional forms in 31 are pTeda (,g/i4), }lwgen

156

eletres (

a on the
(i/9),

a).

Consonants.
DOUBLING.
99.

The

(Pr. p. 3)

is

doubling of

the omitted letter

Reader.

consonants to show length

final

frequently neglected in the

/ is

is

added

in

italics

scarcely ever omitted, as

MSS,

six

as also

when doubled, and

is

(pngo?i?i,

feorr, &c.) doubling

in others,

such as

8,

is,

requires

while in

some

doubled

of course, never shortened.

of this

no

less

In some texts,

most of the other consonant-letters.

letter that is

which case

texts

therefore often written single,

such as 3

almost the only

in

requires only two

//

strokes of the pen, while such a letter as

than

the

in

is

frequent, less so

texts,

such as 31,

finally.

Final eg

It is also

/ is

= gg

usual to write single

consonants before another consonant in inflections such as

fylp=fyllep\ frequently also in compounds, such as mancyn

zpmanncynn,
100. Final consonants are not doubled in weak

syllables,

whether separate words, such as the adverbial ful, fol (66)


and the impersonal man, mon 'one,' or endings, as in fasten,
rymel, gen.f(ts/ennes, rymeltes

in all these cases the originally

long consonants have been shortened in pronunciation as well


as writing.
in () to

In the glossary

show

that

it

we add the second consonant


when a vowel is added in

reappears


GRAMMAR.

xlii

Doubling

&c.

inflection,

ending

frequent

is

in

the

of the

case

9), -nyss (14/152), where, however,

b/28,

-ness (5

it

indicates, not length, but the breath sound.

1WS and

101. In

occasionally in

eWS weak

double

consonants are shortened also medially, as in morfaslenum

So

(7/6).

also in

and even opra.

1WS

the gen. plur. dperra

But nn

becomes opera

kept in such inflections as agenne

is

(14/185) and the gerund

cumanne

to

sake of dis-

for the

tinctness.
a.

Hence occasional false doubling


panonne (23/132).

in

1WS,

as in cettrynne

attrene

(21 / 47),

102. Double consonants are sometimes Germanic, as in

mann; sometimes

full,

cons.

+J

vowel as

in

they are 'j-doublings

which case they are never preceded by a back

dgrep.
tively,

the original single cons,

in sellan, sceppan, sgttan,

reappearing in such forms as

manic

'= Germanic

rj appears as ri in

Germanic

kj, gj,

sgle !

OE,

Note

sgtep.

as in dgrian

fj appear

in

as in wrgeca, Igcgan, hgbbati

OE

as

that

Ger-

compared with

cc, eg,

bb respec-

compared with wracu,

Iggep, hafen.
a.

Such a verb as

in such

103. In

OE

itself c,

lowed by r or
(

38)

as i n

104. In

same

from

fylla.71

*fiilljan

forms a.sfyll!,f}>llcp (jyfi

t,

its

Germanic

throughout

//

are liable to doubling

crppel

generally

when

fol-

intervening

compared with apulder.

various consonants are doubled under the

conditions, as

widdor adv. (27

keeps

99).

parasite-vowel

bit'\t)er, at(f)or,

1WS

b),

also

when no vowel

intervenes, as in

moddrie and viicchwi (13/3,

4),

geskclod

(15/170).
a. Other doublings in 1WS p'ittig (15/124) = eWS pritig with
probable vowel-shortening by the influence oijiridda, riccetere (14).

105. In

WS

sceal often

doubles

its /

(as in

4/58 C) by the

;:

CONSONANTS: BREATH AND VOICE.


influence of

The

weall, &c.

eall,

frequent upp

xliii

= iip

due to

is

the influence of uppan.

BREATH AND
106. d before

becomes

VOICE.

in mettrum, the older

form being

kept in the spelling medtrum (3 205).


107. -d in preterites (Pr.

p.

30) becomes

a breath

/ after

stop or hiss consonant, as in dypte, cyste from *cyssede, com-

pared with

Itedde, rcesde

from *rasede.

108. Medial ds in bledsian (31), gidsian where s=(z),


becomes
the derivative syllable being a shortening of *-esian

ts in

the ordinary

Weak

109.

become

b,

WS
d,

preceded by another cons, tend to

voiceless, as in sint

strong form

of which sind was

= -ung, -ing.

nnc, -inc

Unvoicing of strong

a.

bletsian, gltsian.

g in

crincan

[But

originally the

cp. 114.]

cringan.

CONSONANTS IN DETAIL.
c, g.

110.

we

c,

write

have back and front pronunciations, which


g,

c,

c=(k); stop g=(g); open g=(%) in German sagen


that is, a (k) or (t) formed in the position of (j)
stop

111. c

as in

112.

c,
z',

that

is,

voiced (c)

c=(c),
in

you;

by being written

are often

marked by

the addition of

e,

omitted at pleasure.

The

pronounced

/dgean (21/125).

eWS

separately, they

following are examples

mpiigeo, s/>yrrgean=spyrian,

more

or,

these spellings being especially frequent in

gefylcio (s)

k,

(2/1), Kristes-cirice (32 b).

as these vowels were not

pgncean,

sometimes distinguished from

is

kynmg

rarely,

open ^=(j). c and stop^


resemble Modern E. ch and dg respectively.

g=(q),

closely

latter

being also a stop and an open consonant

spyrjan

(all

were

ciricean,

from

3),

GRAMMAR.

xllV

Double

113.

is

always a stop, and

rare (gg) as in

frogga

which

is

gg=cg

regularly written

by

being, however, always recognizable

vowel.

is

gg being used for the


sometimes written frocga

sound,

eg, the c indicating the front

in hrygge (3/34), sgggaj? (31 b/9), eg is also

written egg ibriegge 12 b/61), gcg (gebygege 32

114. g,

are always stops in the

which are sometimes written ngc

c).

combinations ng, ng,

where the
and nc

not

c indicates,

the front, but the stop pronunciation


in cyningc

back

the preceding

[cp. 109], as

(4/48 C), poncunca (33), geghncde (10/7), the n

being occasionally dropped in weak syllables, as in penigmgnn


(13). cynigas (15/112).

115. c

and

as in scield, ascian,

is

e,

as in sc(e)olde,

always written, and in

forms a diphthong with the following vowel, as

it

sceal, sceall

scucca

se,

unpronounced

In some words the

sc(e)anm.

such

always c in the combination

is

often written see with a

is

so also probably in sceadan

= scadan,

sceocca

demon.'

'

116. Otherwise c

and

are generally the result of the

influence of a following old front vowel or

Germanic

j, the

sound which caused the change having often been


wards dropped
instead of

e,

in

OE

after

vening consonant

and often

ieean,

in

itself.

a mutated vowel

as in

after-

Hence we always have

often with

an

c,

inter-

wrgeca, Ipig, wyrcan, lyge, bee plur.,

after the other front vowels, especially

when

followed by another front vowel, as in wicce (ec=*/y), s?ge


(oldest E.

and Germanic

sigi), lace

not

if

a back or unoriginal

front vowel follows, as in wiga, nigon, eakian (3/182).

117.
in eg,

Always

gg

final

after ce in

WS,

as in dceg, dcrges, scrgde,

and

or before a consonant or front vowel, as in

wegies), Iggde.
a.

ege

in

dagwn

eage ( 21).

( 21),

&c,

as well as in ivegas, &c.

Also

in

Merc.

CONSONANTS :

Weak

118.

hwelc,

sivelc,

seem

-ig

and

such words as

g became

and

ic,

where

in the

xlv

G.

C,

front

after

endings

front vowels in

and

-ig,

-lie,

in ale,

and
had the back sounds before a back vowel,

to have

-Ic

a shortening of

is

-lie;

but

-lie

as in geornlicor, -liocar (32 b).

119. Initial

e,

are kept before back vowels, as in Cant-

ware, gold ; and, as the change to

e,

was completed before

that *pankjan became


*patic(j)an, and ihtn ppican they are kept before the muta-

the beginning of mutation

tions of the

first

is,

back vowels a +

nasal,

0, u, a, 0,

u, as in Cpit,

Kentingas (17/7), gpigan, gylden, gap, cane, cene, cypan.


120. On the other hand c, g are developed before

all

vowels which were front in Germanic together with Germanic

a before non-nasal consonants, which had become


the development of c
c,

ie,

before the diphthongs

together with

le,

giernan,

nWS

cirice,

i,

cidan.

and

dialects also before ce

and before e=<, as

e,

in the

followed by non-nasals,

WS, where

quality in the consonants

initial

mutations

their

were no doubt front

and

&c, the diphthonging being

eea,

and

These combi-

in easier, gefan, eele, cese.

nations do not exist in


die-,

ea, ea, eo, eo

as in geard, ceorfan, ceas, ceosan,

i,

before

ce

Hence we always have

and g.

hence we

they are

made

in itself a

may

into eea-,

proof of front

WS

say that in

all

diphthongs, of whatever origin, are always preceded by the


front

sounds of

and g.

The absence of diphthonging in the anomalous


show that the g had the back sound.

a.

to

The

121.

was

initial

it

Initial

is

to

was a stop and when an open consonant.

certainly a stop in the combinations eg, gg,

122.

gcedre seems

chief difficulty in the pronunciation of

determine when
It

WS

corresponds

to

Germnnic

g,

Jig,

as

corresponds not only to Germanic g, as

in

ng.

god;

in gie/an,

GRAMMAR.

xlvi
but also to

Germanic

jung,jahr\.

This

nWS

as in

j,

gung, ger

being front in

,=/,

[cp.

German

and not through

itself

vowel-influence, occurs before back as well as front vowels.

As

it

WS

has in

same

exactly the

vowel as c has, and as the change of

on a following

effect

through

ce- into die-

can be explained only as the natural

*cje-

result of the transition

from the front stop to the vowel, we can hardly avoid the
conclusion that

j became

^r^ Germanic g

in

a stop in

OE,

German

in giefan [cp.

thus being

merged

gebe?i\.

In Germany, however, it is generally assumed that all initial OE


were open consonants, whatever their origin, g = (5), g = (j).
b. There can be no doubt that in lKt initial g was already (j), as in
Middle E.
a.

^"s

The absence

123.

of diphthonging in

ge- and in ge (from *ge

sound

(j) in

124. g-

weak

is

WS

texts, as in

back vowels,

WS

may

iu

Latin ego through

The

b.
(j),

at

(j)

eo,

in the

in

prefix

g- had the

to

occurring
/

'92)= geo.
avoid the ambiguity of gung,
in 31.

Sometimes the

form of gutiig, gia (2/46).

than French je

(33)

But the i no more


from Old French (dja) from

( 123).

*jo does.

before vowels in

least

in the

that

texts in imitation of

jung (15/63), ju (2/3

be a weak form like ge

necessarily implies

WS

show

this spelling

however the regular spelling

is

two are combined


a.

nWS

often written i in

was evidently adopted

It

which

to

syllables.

Latin, especially before


also in

15) seems

Merc,

as

weak mutation-verbs seems to have been


shown by the spellings hergan praise/
'

lifgan, &c.

125. Non-initial open

is

also written

i,

especially in Kt,

the earliest documents of which have such spellings as gret

greg

(WS

grccg),

and dei=dcrg

is

frequent in lKt, the dif-

ference between (daej) and (dsei) being, indeed, very slight.

In

1WS we

find the

compromise

as beira (12 c/17), &c.

dccig,

peignas (12 d) as well

CONSONANTS
The

126.
(ii)

D.

xlvii

between ig = (\]) and

difficulty of distinguishing

1WS,

led to writing i for ig, ig in

as in modi, Sibyrht

eWS,

Sig(e)byrht (21/147, 282), and occasionally in

Hence

Wiferp (1/27)= Wigferp.


express
127.

z,

as in hig

The

'

they,'

the spelling

1WS

is

often used to

wiggend=wigend.

weak
whether
g
followed by a vowel so frequent

omission of

original or parasitic

ig in

as in

in

the i

ig

is

is

that

often almost a matter of indifference, as in

is

ncri(g)e (Angl. nerge), lufi(g)e, lufi{g)ap {lufigeap); mpii{g)u

But the dropping of the

(?npigu).

is

much

less

frequent in

inflections of adjectives in -ig, as in weolie (31 j/9),

such words as Wnlfsie, jElfsie (12 b/106,


128.

Open g

(16/229 H)-

is

sometimes written

^n

l^r S

as in utlah, beorh, beak

as

showing

also before breath,

that

in

hg, as in beorhgan

g/i,

regularly written h

is

it

and

9).

when

final,

had been unvoiced

it

and occasionally

voice, consonants,

as in slihsi, stihp,forhohnesse (10/9).

129. Final

change of
130.

ct into

became h

n,

in IIJ?=?ige/>. iipian
is

dropped

= ac.

For

the

1WS and occasionally in eWS


d with lengthening of the preceding vowel, as

often disappears in

before^,
g

Angl. ah

in

see 147.

///

in on

'

grant,' pen,

frinan, bredan,

marne (io/53) = <? morgenne.

verb-forms gebroden, gcfrimon the loss of


to the analogy of bredan,

&c,

as

is

is

scede, I[de.

In the 1YVS

probably due

certainly the case with

/rati =fragn.
a.

Some MSS have

the curious spellings J>eng,fmng (10/107,

1 7)

d.
131. Non-initial

in

in foreign

words

is

occasionally written

accordance with the popular pronunciation of North-

Wesl Latin, as
(23/13)

is

in

Davipcs (31).

So

also the

written Jupyile in the Chronicle.

name

/</////

GRAMMAR.

xlviii

s,

f,

The

132.

when

voice pronunciation of these consonants

seems to have been confined

initial

in Angl. the voice

(v, z,

(5)

and Kt

and forp were pronounced as regards


as in the Mod. E. over and forth.

They may have been

voiceless finally in

ff were always voiceless.


133. The voice sound of medial

WS

and Kt

often

shown

also.

ss,

by writing

texts

spelling

is

extended occasionally

sound

this

Eve; and

the late Latin v (u), as in

is

thus in 30

In foreign words

hefceii.

in the

accordance with the

b in

it

temporary Latin pronunciation


well as

WS

exactly

breath and voice

oldest

to

sounds seem to have been only medial, so

that in Angl. ofer

Double

\>.

find heben as

is

expressed by

MSS

in very late

to native

con-

we

this

words, as in gegiven,

healve (12 d).

as

134.

fn

in

emn

is

often

made

(5 b/2j)

into mn,

= efcn,

stemn,

mm

{in

before a cons.),

hrem.m,as=hr<zfnas

em-

sdrig.

135. sc often becomes

eWS as

cs,

in

1WS

and

occasionally in

This

rixa 'rushes' (12 b/83).

in axian, tuxas,

change began medially, and

the end of

occurs at

rarely

a word.
136. j

is

often transposed in the Merc. cldsnian-=clansian.

137. s becomes si in
138.

in

1WS

mistlicmis{sen)lic

the oldest texts

various/

written th in imitation of

is

Latin, especially initially, medial

'

thus

in

31

we

find thd, gidanc.

early texts, such as 31

prefer p, such as

5,

and
6.

3.

Afterwards

This

general use with occasional p.

Others

1WS

being often written

cording to the contemporary Latin pronunciation [cp.

is

texts,

ff

came

the usage in

ac-

133]

into

most

generally rather later

such as

13,

tend to

CONSONANTS:
write

at the beginning,

a letter-group, as in

an

initial capital.

we

write

As no

p everywhere

in

*pcet-pe

distinction of

gesynio,

/(/)

bitt bidep,

at the

end of

pa, d being also preferred as

sound was intended

our grammar and glossary.

139. tp and dp become

from

xlix

H.

middle and

in the

paddpd

F, S,

sitt=sitep, pcrtte 'that' conj.

compared with eapmod,


while mid

eapmetlo,

gesund, and mcer-po,

mit-ty, mitte (31)

'

'

In the spoken language these changes were probably

py.

carried out

when

the two consonants belonged to separate

words, whence occasional spellings such aspect tat (1/37).

140.
'

sp

want of

were

becomes

food,' westu

still

as in ciest (Angl. ceoscp), metchcs-t

st,

= wes pu

sometimes written

natural result

was

(1 9

that original st

In

b/28).

after the

eWS cusp, &c.

had become

was often written

the

sp, as in

unfasplice, aresp (3/98, 100).

141.

bs

bliss= blips
a.

becomes

s(s),

(34/80) from

The form

geblitsian

as in

pu

civist

from

civipest,

bliss,

blipe.

(32) seems

to

be due to the influence of

bletsian.

142.

In

1WS p becomes d

in

143. h had the weak sound (h)

madm' as)

[also

cydde=eWS

cypde.

frgmde,

mappu7ii\,fracod; and, by assimilation, in

when

it

began a

as in he, gehaten, and elsewhere the strong sound

syllable,

= (x)

or

(q),

was back or front. This last distinction is


not always certain but // was always front after a mutation,
as in hli{e)hhan, dryhten, and generally when preceded by any
according as

it

front vowel,
like

hw,

Mod. E. wh

hi,
;

hr,

but

hn were probably simple sounds


h was originally pronounced

the

separately.
a.

In the contemporary Latin pronunciation // was silent; hence in


is written throughout, the alliteration points to

23 although Holofernus

'

GRAMMAR.

Hence

the pronunciation Olofernns.

also in the -oldest texts

times wrongly prefixed to native words, and


as

still in

dhebbad (S/198).

Alchere (32 b/i

1),

For the

later ct

As

in

1WS

In the oldest texts there

cht being generally shortened to

ht see

some-

is

also used to -show hiatus,


is

a tendency to

h to the weak sound, the strong one being written ch, as

restrict

b.

is

still in

as in dry din (30).

ct.

147.

beag was pronounced beak, being generally written

so,

wrongly used to express original h,


But even in the
as in viearg 'horse' (26/93), onlag pret. (22/113).
arrow
oldest texts g is sometimes written for h, as in cerig- earh

it

sometimes happens that

final

is

'

(3ic).

144.

and

hr-

interchange in

r-

(h)raj?e, rapost,

hrtxdest

(16/62).

145. Medial h before a vowel or vowellike consonant such


as r

is

dropped except

in the oldest texts, as

feores gen. offeor/i, healic, ozcaa(3oc)

where the h

'mfeos=feohes,

= the ordinary ahwanon,

restored by the influence of hwanon.

is

a. h is often dropped in the second element of proper names, as in


sEpelm (8/89) =-- AZpelhelm, /ElJ\re (21/80), and hence probably also
in weak words such as he, hit.

146. Before a breath cons, h


in eahta, beorht, the

that

it

tended to become front in

front before s in

ciation

of

WS

kept, especially before


in riht,

WS

compared with

&c

before

/.

/,

as

55) showing

So

also

it

was

six compared with weaxan, the pronun-

being, however, uncertain

other cases h + cons,

a.

is

vowel-change

is

In most

159).

the result of vowel-loss, as in hiehsta

Ipigest, he, fell)?, pit gesi(e)hst.

In Angl. the h was dropped in accordance with 145 before the


lost, the result being such forms as hesla (from *hehista),

vowel was
fap,

gesis.

h is occasionally dropped before breath consonants, as


compared with weaxan, fer{h~\J> life.'
b.

in

wcestm

'

147.
written

Such
Ihte,

preterites

&c,

into h before

/,

as

tecte,

especially in

firycte,

nealcecfe

WS, showing

which probably began

in

are often

a change of

eWS,

for

we

find

CONSONANTS.
geworct in 8/76, where

ct represents

It

Germanic

lit.

So

also

31 has wyrcte.
1.

Weak

148.

/ is

sometimes dropped

ally before r, as in

(12 b/i\)

proper names, especi-

in

jEpered (8/89), JEperic (21/280), JEpelm

= jEJ>elred,

JEpelric, jEpelhclm.

m.

Weak m

149.

becomes n

often

the

in

inflection

-urn

( 160).

n.

150. In INorth.

change beginning

final

weak

11

generally dropped, this

is

thus 30 a has foldu

in the earliest texts;

=.foldan, ace, 30 c has

dwana = ohwanon, cnyssa

infin., eor/?u

ace.

For binde we see

a.

247.
r.

151.

There are two

= Germanic

itself

r's in

OE, one = Germanic

a weakening of s

pared with wces, ?nara, Igngra compared

r=z
ma,
a.

being regularly dropped when

r,

the other

as in wctron
mocs-t,

com-

Ipigest,

this

as in the adverbs

final,

l^ng.

Hence

also the fluctuation between s and r in ise{r)n, Tren.

b. r is often

dropped

in

the late (Kt

?)

forms specan, forespeca,

spac, &c.

152. For the transposition of r in berstan, &c. see Pr.

We

p. 7.

have a different transposition in weak -bre(p)ht from beorht

( 55).
t.

153.

The

nysse.
a.

eWS

pret. wis/e (nys/e)

For

/s

= ds,

appears in

eWS

see 108.

shows assimilation of/

in

Wes{t -seaxe.

d 2

also as wisse,

'

GRAMMAR.

Hi

w.

154. In the oldest texts


(30

and

c)

These

especially

spellings are

cu<z]>,

by

eWS,

in

especially

and when a vowel precedes, as

occurring

155. Final

becomes u

when a

[plur. bearw-as], or

156. Final

after a cons., as
;

these last

(0) after

'

beam

consonants, as in

cons, follows in inflections such

This u

as gearo-ne ace. sing. masc.


syllable, as in ?nced

in saul

as in biwaune (26/76).

later,

still

as in uerc (30 a).

u,

frequent in later texts, such as 32,

still

and occur occasionally


in

expressed by uu, as in uuat

is

North.

in

is

dropped

after

a long

meadow,' gen. mdkdwe.

seems to have been originally dropped

after

a long vowel also, as in a compared with dwa, Angl. treo

= WS

/raw, where the

was imported from the

inflected

cases treoives, &c.


a.

Such forms as Angl. gen.

eleires (31),

on the other hand, are due

to the influence of the uninflected treo.

157. There
(a

is

a tendency to drop

w before u, as in s(zv)uhmg

Kentish land-measure), anht from dwtht, divuht, bet(vu)nh

from betwih, especially

in

=.wuton (9/46), and

in

weak

syllables, as in uton

proper

names such

as

'

let

us

Swlfiulf,

Beorhtulf (8/168,9).
a.

w is

ealneg

'

dropped

always

'

158. Medial

Also

in

dropped before front vowels

in

in the contractions nas, nat, nolde,

&c.

ealne weg.

after r, /

is

such forms as geare 'well' [gearo 'ready'], gierede, wielede


preterites of gierwan, wielwan.

x, z.

159.

especially

often represents cs in imitation of Latin spelling,

where

and

in ricsian, rlxian, or

come

where

it

together through vowel-loss, as


is

the result of transposition,

INFLECTIONS: NOUNS.

as in axian.

The

oxa.

six,

confined to

is

Germanic

hs, as in

weaxan,

not unfrequent, but

hs; thus

we

is

not

find gedhsade (5D/65).

probable that (ks) was the usual later pronunciation of

It is

The

sounds
in

;ts)

hs

x = Germanic

v= Germanic
a.

also represents

spelling

liii

hs as well as of

letter z is

x=cs.

used only in foreign words, where

it

Lazarus being also written ladzarus;


Bezabe = Bathsheba (34/23), where th = t.

has the Italian

it

(dz, ts),

has the sound

INFLECTIONS.

Nouns.
The

160.

-urn appears occasionally as -un, as

dat. plur.

rixun 'rushes' (12D/84), wicun (20/54),


and -on, as in handon, leodon (21/7, 23), which again becomes
-an ( 32), as in ramman (3/193 H), mid miclan earnungan
in scipun (5/68),

(16/16).
a.

The

gen. plur. -a

of writing a for

is

written -o in gebyllo (13/149) in consequence

( 32).

STRONG MASC. AS-PLURALS, AND NEUT.


and gen.

161. In the oldest texts the dat.


-se,

162.

Some

of these nouns have

namely the masc. ham (4/26), dccg


(20/304
to

sing, are written

-ses as in id ymbycganncc (30 b) [see 249],

?)

although

home (21/92),

all

todege

neut. dogor (20/145),

no -e

in

metudas (30).

the dat. sing.,

in todag, ielce dceg, sigor

three have also the regular datives

(Merc), sigore (23/299)

which also has the regular

and

dat.

the

(23/12

32D/26).
163.

u-nouns

The
(

following

179)

have

masculines

dat. sing, in

which

-a

were originally

/eld (6/3), ford (8/40),

GRAMMAR.

IlV

sumor (4/6), weald


occurs (23/206).

Some masc. nouns

164.

namely monap

which also has

We

a.

(8/9), although

For winter see

the regular wealde also

178.

are uninflected in the

and

[cp. twelvemonth}

hcelep

'

nom.

man

plur.,

(23/56),

'

plur. hcelepas (22/40).

also find the isolated masc. plurals ingei (25/9), twegen fietels

(4/169).

The

165.

neut. plur. -u

is

also written -o,

which

a later form, as also -a, as in scypa (4/83 C),

generally

is

wundra (13/284.

313), flicca (32).


a. The plur. -u of dissyllabic neuters is often dropped in 31, as in
weter miceiu (i/?,o),forebacn (e/20) compared with netenu (h/14).

166. Such nouns as fxxt treow,


their

original forms

occasionally in

whence

WS (26/42).

the plur. treowu,

the influence of treoiw).

formed direct from the


a.

pat cneow keep

The Germanic form was

which

in

There

WS

is

nom.

sing,

*trewo,

becomes ireown by

also a

WS

plur. treow

sing.

In Angl. these words are generally contracted.

sing, as well as

in Angl.

which also appear

cneo ( 156),

treo,

and

Thus

treo is dat.

plur.

ynonns.
167.

se here inserts

(i)g=;

hrige (8/21), gen. her(i)ges,


is

inflected like pide:

in
pi.

its

oblique cases

hfrgas (6/17).

dat. sg.

In

1WS

it

dat. sg. hgre (17/2), pi. hgras.

w-nouns.

168. Besides the old z^-nouns there are masc. and neut.

nouns with

-u, -0 in the

nom.

sg.

which

is

a weakening of w,

re-appearing in the oblique cases, in the same


the
'

same development of parasite-vowels

grove

'

has dat.

bearewas, &c.

sg.

way

as hre, with

thus se beam, -0

bearwe, bearnwe, bearowe,

pi.

bearwas,

INFLECTIONS: NOUNS.

The

169.

lv

neuters, such as bealu, seam, smeoru, have the

same endings except

nom.

in the

seam, sear(w)o,

pi. seariuu,

sear a (5/29).

The

a.

For fat

oldest texts

drop the

in the dat. pi. also

170. mte doubles the

hyse

/ in its pi. meltas.

everywhere except in the nom. and ace.

ss

searum

( 157).

treoiv, Sec, see 156.

'

youth

'

has

dat. sg. hysse.

101.

in -en, -ennes, see

For the doubling

sg.

mear (21 / 188) = mearh


For feorh, feores, see 17.
'horse' is a new nom. formed from the inflected forms
171.

mearas, &c.
172. For dag, dagas, see

We

45.

find a instead of

in

isolated forms such as hwales (4/56 C) by the side of the


regular hwales (4/56), getale (12 c/7) dat. of getal number,'
'

pat geat, which


sg., and pi. gatu.

in

weallgate dat. of

throughout the
a.

For Merc, dagas see

Merc, has sg. gat,

21.

generally has ea

pi.

But even

173. For mag, magas, see 70.

mdgas

WS

geatu (91).

in

WS

we

find

(1/32).

174. For the vowel-changes in wcr, weoras, li?n, liomu,


For the shortwhich are only occasional in WS, see 91.
ening in gngel, pigles, wundor, wundrn, see 35.

175. For the contraction in

feos,pat bleoh

'

colour,' dat. pi.

the same contraction

hra{w)
in

31

'

carcass

156

'

when

se leak, pi. leas,

pat ft oh, gen.


There

bleom, Sec, see 17.

final

is

dropped

thus

is

pat

has gen. hrdJwes, hras, treow has gen. ires

a).

t-plurals.

176.

As

this

e= Germanic

?',

all

original <?-plurals ought to

have mutated vowels, as in Engle from *A ng/i.


eo

from

(15/40.

seo peod,
3)-

whence

also the frequent

leode takes its

1WS form

leoda

GRAMMAR.

hi
a.

1WS

even went so

Horn.

leode \M.\i.

b.

II.

far as to

form a

sing, seo Icod

'

people,' gen.

252).

trace of the old i

is

= Dyia

preserved in the gen. Dyiigea

(20/73).

Many names

177.

and

of nations

Thus Seaxe was

analogy.

tribes took

this

weak masc.

originally a

-e

by

plural,

whence the absence of mutation, and the gen. Seax[e)na,


which was afterwards extended to older
Mierce, gen. Miercna.
'

'

sitter,'

settler,'

So

also -sate

whence not only gen.

'

Centware

Romans'

'

men

(9/35; 3
a.

but also nom.

ealle

'

(2/57), gen. -ivara in hcllwara (9/35), follows the

analogy of the others, whence nom.


I

-scctna,

out of -sceta

ond Wilsastan (7/13, 7).


Latins,'
of Kent,' Lcedenware

-s&tan: Sumurs&tna, Snmorsieie

-ware in

such as

e-plurals,

made

is

hglwearan

hgllwaran,

g/43)-

There can be

little

doubt that -ware was formed from the Latin-

&c. -ware was then associated


noun warn suggesting the further development
of the collective fem. singulars bnrgwaru, &c, whence plur. burgwara
further confusion with -tvare evolved a weak fem. sing, -ware,
(26/86)
as infissere ceasterwaran (App. of Tyre 9).
British ending in Cantuarii, Vicluarii,

with warian

'

guard,' the

Masc.

The u

178.

is

u- nouns.

occasionally written

0.

The

dat.

sg.

some-

times has the nom. sg. ending, as in sunu (32 c/28), meodo

(21/212);

as also occasionally the

may be an

(2/8)

example,

and ivudu sometimes has


179.
class

1,

ivinler

The

pi.

f/iag-u

nom.

of which siodo
pi.

magas,

wudas (9/14).

old long-syllable u-nouns have passed over to

except that some of them keep the dat.


has not only dat.

sg.

sg. -a ( 163).

wintra (4/6), but also a rare

gen. sg. wintra (4/6) instead of wintres.


winter.

pi.,

'youth' has

It

has

pi.

nom.

INFLECTIONS; STRONG FEMININE NOUNS.


andfern,

Blase,

The

180.

r-nouns.

gen. sg. sometimes has the mutation of the

These nouns have regularly

as in meder (13/60).

a back, -er after a front vowel,

same form

lvil

gen.

the

in

sweostor (swustor) has the

besides swyster (13/21) and

sg.,

tt=y

swuster (21/115) with

dat.,

-or after

( 67),

Kt

swezstar (32^/46).

feeder has in Angl. the gen. sg. -fadur (30), feadur (31 a/2);
has an occasional gen. sg. in -es, as in heahfezderes

WS

Note the following

(14/136).
bropro

(10/122),

bropor,

plurals

moddru (14/125);

-ur (10/126;

(32 b/41), gebropru, -a (13/87)

Kt

31 a/i),

gesweostor (5 a/72)

-ar

Angl.

fezddras (31 g/33).


nd-nouns.

Note the occasional

181.
(

an d the

2 5/3)>

sometimes take
ending

ticiple

gende

pi.

dat.

-e in

sg.

pi.

forms feond (31 c\/z),feondas

These nouns

wlggende (23/45).

other cases

by

the influence of the par-

as in Hcelende Crist (34/51), randwig-

-ende,

(23/11, 20).

STRONG FEMININES.
182.
classes

The

regular strong fern, nouns

those with

fall

under two main

ace. sg. in -e (1 a), such as giefu, synn,

and those with unchanged

ace. (1 b), such as deed.


1

a.

183. In this class the nom. sg. ends in -u (rarely

-0)

when

short, as in giefu, gefo, the -u

being

long syllable, as in synn, sorg, as well as

when

the preceding syllable

dropped

after a

is

two syllables precede, as

in firen

'

crime,' sdwol.

184. In the oldest texts the oblique cases of the


the nom.pl. have -w, as in -Jlrru: ace.

and

dat.

(30

c,

sg.,

b)

and

= WS

GRAMMAR.

lviii

fare (nom. faru), weflce pi. (30 c). In Merc, the nom. pi.
ending is -e
thus 31 has plurals synne, sawle, scotunge.
;

Kt

generally has -a, as in saula (32), pearfa (32 b), agreeing


with WS, which however has occasional -e in the poetry, as
in dene 'valleys
a.

The

(24/24).

getvitnysse in 12 c

pi.

OE

of all

'

as

into

an anticipation of the

is

185. In the early period the only gen.


(giefa, gefd), the

WS

and Kt -ena being a

from the weak declension.


as in

weakening

pi.

most frequent
it

is

ending

is

-a

later importation
after a short

often shortened to -na,

lama.

Nouns

186.
sg.,

It is

After a long one

root-syllable.

ME

e.

as

in

fandunge

for

in -ting
ficere

have

in

wilnunga

WS
(2)

and Kt -a in the

by the

of

side

-e

dat.

as

in

gepafunge (13), this -a being sometimes extended to the ace, as inymb Uornunga (2), and to the gen.
(3),

187. These are inflected analogously to the masc. ze>-nouns


thus beadu,

168),

occur only in the

we

But

b.

Note the archaic

21/48

has

dat.

gcatum (30 c)
cb

comes between, as

stzece in the

vowel-change

has

ace.

beaduwe,

beadwe,

ornaments,' geatwa

find hp'egeatu used as

188. a often becomes

when

'

'

armour,'

pi.

a.

in

'war'

-0

fraiwa

beadozve, beadewe.

an ace.

before inflectional

in wrcEce gen. (31 g).

oblique cases (20/368).

in geofutn,

sg.

[ 157].

&c,

e,

especially

sacu

'
'

strife

For the Merc,

see 91.

189. Contraction in leak gen. lea [generally


lWS],//-<?a 'misery,' ace. prea, &c.

se

leak in


INFLECTIONS: STRONG FEMININE NOUNS.

lix

I b.

190.
such as
1

To

this class

deed,

fierd

patience,' ast

eween, lyft

Germanic

wyrd

eWS

'

else

WS

in -d,

-/,

wealth,' gepyld

others, such as bryd,

The nouns

fate.'

of this

vowels that were front in

almost the only exception,

is

But many nouns with mutation belong to

191. In

'

meaht=mtht.

a double cons, follows, such as

is

and many

7//z'/2/,

/Id,

gesceafl 'creation,'

together with
a.

tiled,

mutated vowels or

class have

nouns

abstract

military expedition,' speed

'

favour,'

'

air,'

'

many

belong

and Kt

synn, brycg,

h$ll,

when

especially

a,

qcg.

especially in the later period

a tendency to inflect the ace. sg. according to

i a,

there

as in

pa fyrde (22/163) compared with micle fierd (6/5), bryde


But we still find unchanged accusatives in 1WS, as
(13/15).
in due /Id (13/324).

[See also

194.]

192. In the oldest texts these nouns have


vicec/i (?,o)

of

1 a,

the

= mihta,

poetry,

as

dede,

in blede

tide,

mcchte.

'fruits'

These

1WS

these forms because he took

them

WS

mihte.

193.

2b

'

made

is

law

'

into

may have

scribe
for ace.

invariable in the sg.

is

see

(11/7).

(dat. pi. sccni),

and

in the

sees,

which

194.

is

also used as a fem. gen. sg.

Some nouns

uninflected

dat.

sg.

mostly
gfes

ia

We

also find

an

pi.,

new nom.
pi.
pi.

saj(s).

occasionally an

(8/27) 'border,'
is

nom.

In

and nom.

picre

have

13/53), die (12 b/41, 6), which last


texts (5 b/33).

as

and nom.

also masc. with gen. sg.

is

-cc

kept

singulars.

also invariable in the sg.

is

but

pi.

also occur in the

but sometimes has a gen. sg. awe, whence the

aw

as in

(24/25), lyfte (23/348), where,

however, as in other cases, the

10/42 mcEcii

-t,

In Merc, they have the same

as in wyrd<z.

a nouns

pi.

although they soon began to take the

masc.

strdkt

in

(12/66;

the earlier

ace. sg. slrtcl (12 b/70).

;:

GRAMMAR.

lx

inflects like sunu ( 178); and hand inflects


same way, except that it drops the u dat. and gen.
and nom. and gen. pi. handa.

195. clu.ru
in the
sg.,

Mutation-plurals.

196. Note cu

'

cow

pl.cy;

'

furh

For byr(i)g

dat. %g.fyrh.

see 40.

197.
hyrig

is

The

gen. sg.

198. ea 'river'

pare

sg.

but

it

bcec

used as a gen.

appears also as bdce

generally inflected like

is

ea (5 b/19),

pare

eas (4/25), pi.

and gen.

also has dat.

and conversely

sg. instead of burge.

sg.

le,

see (

193)

gen.

nom. ea (50/19);

(8/98, 101).

Indeclinable.

many

199. There are

from

abstract fern, nouns in -u, -0 formed

which keep

adjectives,

ending throughout the

this

sg.

nom. maiigeo (2), menigu (13), Kt helo = hcelu (34)


ace.
mptgu (31); dat. hcelu (31), hcelo (11), mgnio (34), Kt hela
Those with derivative/, /
(32); gen. peostro (9), hdklo (34).
;

( I 39)'

suc h

iermpu

as

generally inflected like

some of them
(

183):

(23)

seo

often

yrmp

dat. cyjjpe

yr??ipa;

gen.

'

'

country

'

peosiru, pystro

peostra (13).

is

dat.

(23)

gen.

Some

(20).

final

ynnpe

of

same way:

ylde (14),

unchanged

aide

in the

are

-u like firen

'

pi.

former

fame'

nom.
group

nom. yld (14)

(34);

nom.

pride/

mdrpe
(20)

the
sg.

'

as well as sg.,

pi.

ace. ofer??iet/o (22),

occasionally inflect in the


ace. fylle (5 b)

ofcrmattu

throwing off their

(16);

mctrpa

misery,'

a nouns in the

pi.

gen.
(9)

strenge.

gen.

pi.

WEAK NOUNS.

INFLECTIONS:

WEAK

NOUNS.

200. In North, these often drop the


foldu

earth

'

the fern.

final

WS

pi.

'

is

which

Easter,'

The

pi.

(32),

gen.

pi.

to -na, as in uhtna (26/8),

Sweon

'

in

Frea

'

where

It

is

it

u of

Weak

'

form

fuller

sometimes shortened

is

earna (34).

when preceded

doubt,' ace. sg. Frean,

Swedes,' dat. Sweom.

'wife' (32), gefcera

203.

WS

generally

probably a mere

Mgna (%2)=Mwena,

lord,' tiveo

202. The masc. ending

the

is

sometimes has the

201. Note the contraction of the endings

by vowels, as

where -u(n)

preserved in

pa Eastron (17/37, 9). -on for


only occasional, as in pcem gemanon

is

-ana, -ona, as in wiotona (2/46).

sort,'

( 150), as in

Eastron,

'community,' namon
mis-writing.

-on

-tin,

noun Eastron

pdm

indeclinable:

This

-an.

-an in other words

tweon,

ace. sg. fern., eorpu dat. sg. fem.,

'"

corresponds to
in

lxi

'

is

kept in the fem. gemcecca

companion,'

'

'

con-

wife' (33).

fem. nouns with short root-syllables often take

the strong inflection, especially in the later period,

as in wicu, wucu, gen. sg. wican, spadu

'

spade,' proiu

'

throat.'

Adjectives.
STRONG.
204. In the oldest texts we find
endings

-nee, -rce, -a's, -ce,

wundnce fem.

pi.

(30

c).

(2/47 H).

pi.

205. -nm

both

So

also in

eWS we

a. -ra

for -re in

where the a

3/250].

is

-e in

the

c),

find eallcz fem.

tracted forms such as hr'eon (20/57) fr

53),

the later

and pi. appears also as -nn,


middeweardan (14/122), and -n

sg.

as in pison (16/16),

-ce for

as in biivorhtcc fem. sg. ace. (30

-on, -an,

in con-

hreoh.

minra swastar gen. (32 b/45), dura dat. (3/232,


the result of the influence of the following para [cp.

GRAMMAR.

Ixii

206. The -u

rarely written -o

seems originally

pi.

two

to

which

syllables the first of

but the

fully

eMerc,

inflected

in which,

of

the fem. sg. and neut.

have been dropped


short

is

forms are

adjectives of

in

[cp. fir en,

frequent,

183];

especially

in

however, adjectives in -sum do not take -u

micel menigco (2/35), waiter micelu (31T/30), opfeallenu fem.

(2/16) compared with opfeallen fem. (2/72 C),


(3/' 2

word

stifilico

1)-

207. In

1WS and

occasionally in

eWS the

z^-inflections

are got rid of by the substitution of the masc. forms, so that

fem.
-e

sumu becomes sum, and

sumu becomes sume,

the

pi.

being also added to long-syllable adjectives, so that neut.

pi.

neut.

ealle
god becomes gode: szvd earme wif (5/77), scipu
ping
the
change
ealle
In
the
first
example
(13/225).
(8/153),
.

may

be result of the natural gender of wif.

208. Sometimes the neut. -u


analogy of neut.

god,

pi.

simply dropped on the

is

&c, as

in

sum hund

compared with hira scipu sumu (8/1 31).


209. In eWS the fem. pi. nom. often ends
nouns

pa

bee ealla

scipa (8/50)

in -a, as in the

ceastra grid ealde byrig

(2/47), ealda

(5/80).

210.

The

plurals_/<F#z^

(2/3i)

= earlier/~<?tf

216), manige

often take -a, apparently through the influence offela

feawa

masc. (2/16), neut. (13/230), manega masc. (3/168).


211.

The ending

-ne disappears in the inflection of such

words as superne, which is both nom. and ace. masc. sg.


Similarly hern has ace. masc. sg. heme (3/152).
(21/134).

The

partic.

ending -ende sometimes

inflects -ende instead of

-endne.

212.

The

endings

-era in later texts

-re,

rarely

-ra

are

in

eWS

often
:

expanded

sumere

to -ere,

(3/'250), celcere

(15/142), cwicera (23/312).


213. w-adjectives, such as gearu, ?iearu, geolu, are inflected


INFLECTIONS: ADJECTIVES.
analogously to w-nouns

masc. ace. gearone,

sg.

nom. of

lxiii

genders gearu,

all

gearu (gearwe), gen. gearora,

dat.

gear(w)u?n.

214. In the u-adjective cwicu the i passed through

and the

( 22),

was then dropped

cucu, ace. masc. cuc?ie, cacone,

215. Note that

followed by a vowel

hwalum
hwectre,

the

which

is

becomes a when

a.

the regular

WS

form.
is

hwate, hwates as well as Jnvatu,

in

hwcelijie),

hwaira.

&c,

in hal{i)ge,

see 35.

216. For the contraction in such adjectives as heah,

hreoh gen.

hreora (24/45), an ^

pi.

weak vowel

WS

In

which
1WS

the older form being heane.

heagum, &c.

143

takes -h in the

The

= wom,

is

sg.

hea,

dat. pi.

masc.

sg.

also frequent in

WS

also has pi. heage, dat.

frlo from Germanic

b).

nom.

(27 c/^)

heah generally has ace.

heanne (25/40) from heakne

pi.

the re-insertion of the

woum

such forms as

in

of woh, see 43.

frige.

into

the following cons,

For the treatment of the weak medial vowels


viicelu,

io

( 157), resulting in

being kept only in such forms as

ee.

-o,

gearwe, gearj/zoe, gmrewe, &c, neut.

pi.

in imitation

*frijo-

of hreoh

contracted \>\.fea, dat. /earn,

is

in

it

WS

often

has a

pi.

expanded

into feawe,feaiva ( 210).

WEAK.
217.

The

dat. sg.

bys andweardwn
218.

The

dat. pi.,

form of the

sg.,

phonetic change

sometimes takes the strong form, as

on the other hand, sometimes takes the

which
('

in

(3/169), J>dm hatum beepe (13/27).

life

in

some cases may be

160): poem hwalestan

the result of

monnum (5/87);

so also 3/193; 23/242.

219.

(8/187)

The
i

gen.

pi.

-cna,

as

generally replaced

in

godena (2/46), riiwena

by the shorter strong

-ra,

GRAMMAR.

Ixiv

more than one

especially in adjectives of

monna (3/156)

eorplicra

so also 13/277

syllable

para

14/2.

COMPARISON.
220. The adverbial comparative
deeply,'

sometimes written

is

The

221.

superlative -ost appears also as

when

the last especially

(5 b/38), ungefoglecest (5

which causes mutation

rarely written

The

222.

'33),

eald, ieldra,

(fierr), fierrest.

heah

scefte

which

hlehst, hehst,

Angl.

Ziest

which

is

also

(sbfte),

is

146

WS,

(neah, near),

Angl.

(eaj?e,

1WS

Ipigest.

feorr, fierra
eapost).

iep,

as well as

mehst,

nehst

geong, gingra,

nest,

223. Note the irregular adverbs


mce = md.

-est

selost.

heahra, hearra (22/29, 37)!

not unfrequent in

a).

(11/4).

(soft).

The

scelra (20), scMla (sal [32 b]),

as in

-ost,

lang, Ipigra (Jpig),

also gingst, Angl. gimgra, gungest.


positive

-est,

The

hwatestan (5/78).

icldest, late ieldst

hierra, hlera (8), late

-ast,

following form their comparisons with mutation

(adverbs are in parentheses)

Strang

-test,

rveorptiste (7/21), westast

infiedted:

is

'more

as in deopor

-or,

-ur, as in rihlur (12/46).

eWS,

(next),

gingest,

1WS

following has

no

scelest.

ivel, bgt,

wiers,

and Angl.

Angl. hasjy in wyrsa (wyrs), wyrresta.

224. Note also

(inne), innerra, innemest.

(norf>, norpor),

norpmest. (xLf&VL),uferra,yferra(32h),yfemest,ymest.

(ute),

yterra, ulerra, ylemest, utemest.

Numerals.
225.

an

the earlier

has ace. masc. cenne, anne (enne in 31,


texts,

and often

anne occurring also in

eWS

also in

46) in

1WS

(2/21, 30).

(13/138; 15/187),
So also nan has ace.

masc. ncenne, ndnne.

226. tweegen has neut. tu (8/2o8)=twd.

The

early forms


INFLECTIONS

NUMERALS ; PRONOUNS.

of ihe dat. and gen. are iwam, twcega, tivega

iwega

twegra.

occurs in 21/207.

still

lxv

= (he later twain,

So

bdegen,

also

neut. ba, bu, butii (6/25), fem. bd(lwa), dat. bcem, bam, gen.
bd'ga, beg(r)a.

227. The numerals 4-12 are not generally inflected except


when used absolutely, in which case they except eahta are

inflected like e-plurals

dnfysep tyne (i6/i2%),fifum (8/193),

syxa sum (4/45).


228. The numerals 20-90 are
absolute in the dat.

nom. and

ace.

-es

-um,

dat.

gen. -ra

(13/156, 94), or are

left

hunde

tions, as
is

often

they have

used as adjectives, they

prttigum nihlum, pritigra daga

uninflected.

pi. -u,

-a (13/250 B)

not used absolutely, as in fcla pusenda ofshrgcnra

(6/18), generally take a


dat.

pi.,

on flftegum moncessa (2/85),

229. The neuters hund and pusend

when

(7/26), the

uninflected, as in twentig

left

When

fifliges glna lange (4/44).

nouns when

sum

they take a noun in the gen.

-um and often gen.

have

inflected as

gen., as in prltiga

being generally

When

(16/128).
dat.

and

is

noun

the gen.

in

m/eower hunde wintrum


left

But the

pi.

eWS

sometimes used in peculiar adjectival construcdat. of time (5/1).

pusend

uninflected, especially in the later language, as in

pusend manna bigleofan (13/139).

Pronouns.
PERSONAL.
For weak -tu=pu, see
230. In the
unc, inc, us,

earlier

15, 139.

period

accusatives being mec, pec, unci/,


is

also
a.

an early gen.

Note the

especially in Merc.

eow are used only as


user,

incit, usic\

}>i\

isolated Merc. ?nic,]><zc (31J/3

1/6).

There

<

and a shortened ur

me,

datives, the corresponding

in

eMerc.

GRAMMAR.

lxvi
231. For the fem.

In

Kt (32 c/13
232.

also as

233.

The pi.
Mo (32 c/42)
hiere,

and 1WS.

sg.

nom.

heo,

Ma

Mo,

(32 b/10) see 98.

33/6) these forms are also ace.


nom. hie appears also as liice (32/35), in Kt

1WS
So

in

1VVS as hy,

hi,

hig

126).

hyre, appears also as hire both in

eWS

also gen. pi. hiera, hyra, hira, together with

eWS Mora, eWS

and 1WS Mora. Merc, has also the originally


hine often
weak heara, which is the only form in 31.
becomes hiene, hyne by the influence of hyre, -a.
1WS has
often hys, hyt, hym.
In Kt and 1WS the pi. him often
takes

the eo of the gen. to distinguish

it

from the

sing.

(32C/12; 16/57; 12C/21).


POSSESSIVE.
234.
to

all

The

old reflexive sin, 3rd pers. sg. and

three genders,

still

pi.,

referring

occurs in the poetry (20/257), being

used also non-reflexively (23/99).


235. ure is shortened to ur in Merc. (31 d/5), and appears
In inflection it shortens rr to
also in the form of us(s)er.
r in

1WS and

occasionally in

eWS,

as in ura hieremgnna

(3/236)-

236. Note the shortened unce, uncum (32/10; c/10) by the


side of the full uncerra (32/5).

INTERROGATIVE.
237. Note 1WS hwane, hwcene=hwone ( 64), and
hwdm hweem. gehwd has an occasional fem. dat. and

1VVS
gen.

gehweere instead of gehwam, gehivas.


a.

Note the old instrumental

in for

hwon

(hwati), to hwon.

DEMONSTRATIVE.
238.

pdm

Note 1WS

pane,

pane

64) and

occurs occasionally in e\VS (1/39

pdmpone, pcem.

3/167)

and appears

INFLECTIONS:
occasionally as

pan

PRONOUNS; VERBS.

lxvii

pan=pam

(13/193;

Sg.

pi.

(3/192),

4/34 51) is probably the result of confusion with the old


instrumental pon, pan in pon ma,forpon, &c.
J

239. pare appears

and occasionally
the gen.

para

and Kt

In

1WS

the vowels of pare and


sg. (32 c/13),

(13/61, 143).

240. pis

often written with j instead of ss in

is

forms, the s of pis

often

eMerc. as pere=pare(?).

eWS

para are often confused, whence pare

pi.

pi.

in

in

becomes y
In

inflected

The

in the early period, especially in pys'[s)um,

eWS

1WS y

In

but also mpys(s)es, pysne.

throughout.

its

being sometimes doubled.

itself

and Kt

often written for i

is

eo is frequent,

z'o,

not only in

piosum, piosan (5/91), but also in the fern, peosse (33).


In
1YVS pisse, pissa are often lengthened to pissere, pissera, which
are sometimes shortened again to pisre, pisra.

Verbs.

nWS

241. In the

dialects the 1 pers. pres. sg. indie,

ends

fearn, pencu, gelociu, gesto (31), biddo (32/47),


But eKt has also the
form, as in ic cype,
hatu (32/c).
in -u, -0

ic

WS

In Angl. the

hate (31 b/i).

?n

of eom

verbs ending originally in a vowel

242.

The

2 pers. sg.

The

later -si

243.
-it,

244.
of

is

the result of the

The endings
as

dialects

extended to other

generally have -J in the

change of wanes pu into

( 139).

in

appears also

mark

nWS

is

beom, dom.

indie; thus 31 has pit asliges, gepidas, gengredes.

wenestu, &c.

-ip,

early

ic

The

in

-es,

-ep

hlimmip (30

appear
c),

in the oldest texts as -is,

iviurbit (30 b).

-at

for

-ap

eWS.

shortening of

WS and

Kt

as

-es(i), -ep to -st,

opposed
e 2

to Angl.,

-p

(-/) is

where

it is

a special

confined

GRAMMAR.

lxviii

Thus

to a few verbs.

31 has nimes, m'mep, lixdep, sglep

But the

nimst, nimp, latt, slp.

eKt, as in forgifep (32 b), cymep (32

WS,

as in pyncep (2),

wyrmscp

= WS

forms are frequent in

full

and occur

c),

also in

For other examples see

(3).

250.

245. For the consonant-changes which result from these


shortenings see Pr.

The

p. 24.

retention

of/

in

wiexp (3/29, 181) is only apparent ( 139).


246. -on appears also as -un, -an ( 31,
(31), wcsrun, -an

The

247.

-e

(1),

form

But the
which

of the subj. appears as

The

(31

1WS, becoming

was kept

in

in

-ce

in the oldest texts,

subj. -en is

confused with the

-on, -an, as in

WS

same way,
as in mote

us

sing,'

hgrgen

we

In

1WS

-on often

becomes

-e in

the

especially in the pres. of the pret.-present verbs,

we

(16/15), purfe
infin.

-an

is

we

(21/34), come ge.

rarely written -on, as

In North,

pincon (16/76 H).


cnyssa (30

in the subj. or indie, so

cwepe in cwepe we, &c. came to be regarded as

248. The

it

becomes

mfaron

(12/8),

-a ( 150), as in

c).

249. The gerund was originally the

and accordingly ended

in

to ymbhyeggannce^oh).

-enne, as in to czvepenne,

occurs also in the earlier

The

let

These forms were afterwards used whenever the

a substitute for civepap.

a.

'

in singen we,

-n, as

pronoun followed the verb whether

Note the

healdon{xi/i^).

in such forms as singe we,

eMerc. preserve the

e, h).

that in

as in dydun

2),

noldan (33), awnrpan (13).

as in weorpcc (30 b).


indie,

eWS/orizesp,

pres.

partic.

isolated

-<z

The form
is

of a verbal noun,

with the original mutation

frequent in

texts, as to

,32 a/20).

all

periods

-onne

wiotonne (2/62).

has also the form

dugimde

dat.

in the oldest texts (161), as in

-indi in the oldest

texts.

inflections; strong verbs.

lxix

STRONG VERBS.

nWS

250. In the

dialects the full endings -es(f), -ep are

generally preceded by unmutated vowels, especially in 31,

which allows only the mutation of e, as in hilpep


stgndes, stgndep fallep ceoscp, 32 b has bibeadep,
,

thus 31 has
c gehaldtp.

1,2

Even

eWS

1WS

has such occasional forms as haiep (2/1).

has not only such occasional forms as standep (4/123 C),

wurpest

wierst

sometimes introduces the

but

(15/216),

in he

unmutated vowels into the contracted forms, as

cwep

(14/134), weorp (22/160).


251. The following strong verbs require special notice.

They

are arranged under the

numbering usually followed

the

as in the Primer,

same groups

Germany being added

in

in().
a.

Note that m

always &, except

in the strong verbs is

where

in the pres. indie,

in the

a mutation of the a of the

is

it

few cases

infin.,

as in

cticeup.

Fall-group.

I (7).

eo-pre/erih's.

[a)

252. Angl. w<zxan


tion as a shake-verb

= \\ S
T

weaxan keeps

pret.

wox

in

its

WS

original inflec-

the ea caused

it

to be transferred to the fall-group pret. w'eox.

253. In

made

1WS

the shake-verb spanan, spon 'entice'

into a fall-verb pret. speon

the influence of the fall-verb spannan, speonn


a.

In such

shake-verbs

as sc[e

is

also

(22/29) probably through

acan, scede the e

'

span,'
is

'

fix.'

only a sort of

diacritic ( 112, 5).

(5)

254.
leort,

Wan,

ondreord,

Q-preieritcs.

ondrctdan, hatan have in Angl. the preterites


heht,

which

last

is

occasionally

found

in

GRAMMAR.

lxx

eWS

ondrddan, sldpan also have the weak preterites

texts,

ondrddde,

slcbpte,

255. fon has

together with the pret. partic. (of)drtedd.

fap

Angl. the pres. he

in

146

meany?

(not foe?), as

sometimes writteny^f

it is

It

a).

occa-

which seems to

sionally has in the older texts a subj. foe,

Cp.

( 75).

3i-

Shake-group.

II (6).

256. Note the occasional


partic. as in ahcefen

For the

slagen (5/58).

ce, e

(47

a in the pret.

a) for

(3/176) by the side of ahafen, slcegen and


pres. he stynt, see 51 b.

257. Note the j-verbs hliehhan, hloh

weak scfpede)

like hifian in

such forms as he swp-ap.

swcrian

steppan, stop,

is

in

scgfrpan, scod (also

1WS

often inflected

The

of sworen

is

due to the influence of the w.

258. Note also the contracted pivean 'wash,' inflected


slean, with pret.

like

pwog.

III (3).

259. findan has

pret.

Bind-group.

fand

as well asfunde, especially in

the poetry (20/1 7).

260. frignan, gefrugnen becomes


( 130),

anew

pret.

fran (pl.frunon)

So

the analogy of the shine-verbs.


breed, brudon,

261.

broden= eWS bregdan,

Note the u of murnan

wurpan=.weorpan, see

lam

(bpm),

'

WVSfnnan,

gefriinen

also

1WS

has bredan,

brcrgd, brugdon, brogden.

care,'

For

mearn.

1WS

23.

262. In iernan (Angl. eornan),


(beornaii),

in

being then developed on

bumen

am

(pm), urnen

bers/an, barst

biernan

from *rinnan,

*brinnan, brestan the r has been transposed (Pr.

7).

For

feolan 'penetrate,' he filhp (Angl. fllep),fealh, fu!gon,folgen,


see 145.

1WS

also a pret. partic. folen.

INFLECTIONS: STRONG VERBS.


IV
263. niman has in

Bear-group.

(4).

eWS pret. no?n, nomon = WVS nam, namon,


The

the last already in 5/33.


in the

1WS

lxxi

So

cvm(pn).

also

pret.

pweran

cwom(on) drops
beat

'

'

has

its

pret. partic.

puren (20/35), where, however, the metre requires another


irregular form gepriien.

nWS

264. Note

sceran, scar, sceron

= WS

scieran, scear,

scearon.

V
nWS

265. Note
&c.

Give-group.

(5).

gefan, go/, gefon, gefen, (on)gelan,

= WS giefan, geaf, geafon, gicfcn,

pret. plurals

wdgon, wagon,

Note

see 70.

lagon,

lecgon,

-gcet,

For the

ongidan, &c.

the yverbsfricgan 'ask,' pret. partic. frigen, picgan 'receive.'

Note

that there

no change of

is

pret. partic. genesen,

266.

r in genesan

compared with ncrian

fr dan 'devour'

elan,

s into

'

recover,'

'

preserve.'

= *for-e/an)

have

pret.

sg.

dt,frdt.

267.

The

whence
(33),

which appears also

Angl. forms are pret.

in

mixed

seek, pres.

VI

(1).

he

WS

the pret. pi. segon

pret. partic. gesegen

texts (10/60).

Other

sip.

Shine-group.

268. Note the cons.-change in


liden,

nWS

contracted seon has in

sa?gon in the poetry (20/172)

lipan,

wrtpan

pret. partic.

wriden.

269. In
tion of FA

*leon

'

lend

+ vowel,

'

and wreon

'

cover

'

the eo

/eon has pret. lah, lag (

is

143

a contrac-

b).

wreon

conjugates wrlhp, wrah, wrigon, -en.

VII

(2).

Choose-group.

270. Note the cons -change


'

fall,' freosan,

in seopan, seap, soden,

pret. participles droren.froren,

in abreopan, partic. abropen

'

degenerate.'

and

its

dreosan

absence


GRAMMAR.

lxxii

271. Note the pret. hreow

repented

'

with -eow instead of

'

-eaw through the influence of cneow, &c.

WEAK
272.

The

VERBS.

of the pret. appears as

-e

as in astglidcz ( 283), tiadce (30)

273. In

1WS

in the indie.

distinction

weak

the 2 sg. pret. subj. -de

and as the

between

the oldest texts,

made

is

'

adorned.'

into -dest, as

became -don ( 46), the


was lost in the pret. of

-den

pi.

and

indie,

subj.

verbs.

Mutation-zwfo.

I.

274.

The

275.

The

its

which causes mutation

oldest texts in

keeps

-ce in

WS aslealde, teode

pret.

vowel

form

original

its

preserved in the

is

as in dcemid (3ob)

= demed.

of the long-syllable verbs always

partic.

in

i,

Angl. when

final

or before a cons., as

in gehered, gesivptced, gemceted, dspided, gefylledne, the vowel

being dropped when an inflectional vowel

WS

gefylde, asgndwn.

-ed drops

its

as in aspid,

vowel
ge??iell,

In

as in geswpict.

inflects in the

with

after d, t

the e

forms; thus 13 has dcennede,


276. So also to the

is

pret.

WS

texts (10/29)

277. Originally,

full

-tan

gebyrian, cons.

+/

as in swftbban

put to sleep

'

16 has gehynede,

participles gestt,

'

Pret. sivgfede.

swebbende, swefed.

nWS

made

[cp. strong

Indie, pres. swgbbe, sivgfest,


szvebbe, -n.

show

swgfep

gehrgdd

Such forms

pi. gesgtte.

was kept only

being otherwise

other consonants,

after

correspond the Angl. gesgted(ne), &c,


as gesgied in

that
//

often restored in inflected

ajyllede,

WS

added, asge/ierde,

the change of td into

and occasionally

1WS

is

same way, except

influence.
after r, as in fp-ian,

into a double cons.,

swefan

swgbbap.

'

sleep

']

Subj. pres.

Imper. swfe, sivgbbap.

Partic.

INFLECTIONS : WEAK VERBS.


278. So also cnyssan

Verbs

scdd, 256].

3i

-g/eJ>,

graphic

knock,' scpbpan [pret. also strong

show such forms

in -ltan

where the doubling of the weak

as sporp'tefr

may be

only

10 1).

279. This scheme

many

'

IXX111

strictly

is

followed in eMerc, but in

WS

of these verbs soon began to take the distinctive forms

Thus

of fpian.

WS

we find frpnian and trymian by


frpnman, trymman, and even swgficui
such forms as dwgllan, wpinan, ppinap (31)
in

the side of original

= swgbban,\x\\\\Q

are entirely supplanted


a.

by dwfiian, wpitan, pgniap.

1WS trymman, &c,

In

are sometimes inflected like original long-

gctrymde {1^/12), get ?ym7?ied (21/22)


trymian (21/17).

syllable verbs such a.%fyllan, as in

by the side of

infin.

280. For such forms as hpgan (30), btscgrgu, swgrgendan,


lifgen (si),/p-igan (14), see 40.

1WS

281. In
of the

these ia?i-verbs often take the inflections

all

more numerous

love-verbs, thus in 13, 14, 16

dgrap,fgrode, dwglode by the side of

282.

On

the other hand,

ctiysode,

283.

the ?'a-forms of a verb

1WS

often contracts, not only

even in cnysp by the side of

The

seek-verbs are, of course, contracted in their

Angl. as well as

WS.

Iggde, also contracts the partic. Iggd as in

But

pret.

&c.

pret. participles in

a.

find

when

have not become firmly fixed,


in such forms as Irymp, but

we

dp-eft, fp-ede.

in

eNorth. we find astilida (30)

Angl. has an anomalous wyrcte (31)

Angl. lecgan,

pret.

WS.

Merc, dstdlde,

WS dstealde.

ivorlite.

284. The seek-verbs with doubled consonants

in

Angl.

are inflected like swebban everywhere except in the pret.


pret.

partic.

pres.

indie,

cwfle,

&c,

and

thus cwllan, wgccan, bycgan have 3 pers. sg.

avrle}),

as in

WS.

wpep, bygrp, together with imper.

sg.

GRAMMAR.

Ixxiv

285. Seek-verbs having -eaht-

and

in the pret.

pret. partic.

often substitute the of the infin. in the later language, as in


pgh/e, r/^/<?= earlier peahte, Angl. pcehte ( 16 a, 21), &c.

286. The

&c. of rohte

infin.

parallel to scecan, but rgccan

'

seems to be always substituted


rgcceleas

287.

'

cared was
whose own
'

for

it,

originally *ra>can
pret. is reahte

as also in the derivative

reckless.'

Some

a-verbs in Iw, rw,

such as wielwan

gierwan, sierwan, originally dropped the

'

roll,'

forms in

in those

which swgbban, &c. have single consonants, and although

WS, we

these distinctions were soon confused in

still

find

such forms as gyrede, gewyled even in 1WS, although the

w is

gengrwde

often kept throughout, as in gegyrwde,

hyrwep

(SO288. Verbs whose root ends

vowel contract

such aspyn

'

stab,' t'cpy, pret.

in a

pyde,

(16),

1WS pydde

of them have unmutated vowels, such as Hon, teode

peon

'

( 42),

Some

(14).
'

adorn/

push.'

289.

Some

verbs

in

smeagan, preagan,

such as

-gan,

freogan, tweogan originally dropped the

and contracted

in

those forms in which swgbban, &c. have single consonants

preagap

pres. indie,

preage (Merc, pregu), preas(t), preap,

pret. preade, pret. partic.

WS
a.

smean,
So

imper.freo,freoga/>,&c.

In

contracted forms are often extended throughout

the

infin.

pread

pi.

pi. hie

also in

Merc, cegan

streowian drop the

smeap, &c.

in

'

call,'

stregan

such forms as he

cej>,

'

strew

'

WS

ciegan,

pret. cede, partic. geced.

Love-verbs.

290. The
-edon, &c.
-ade,
a.

pret.

So

ending appears also as

-ude, -ade ( 31, 2),

also in the pret. partic. -ud, -ad, pi. -ede, &c.

-ad are the most usual forms in Angl.


pret. -ede is rare.

For timbrede,

-ode see 294.

INFLECTIONS
291. -ige-,

and

-ia-

is

forms as lufigan, hifigeap

292. In Angl. the pres.


3

MIXED VERBS,

lxXV

are written indifferently in such forms as

-ie-

hifige, lufigen, lufigetide,

in such

also written -iga-, -igea-

( 112).

has the form -ende; thus

partic.

has gelocende, wuldrende.


Illixed Verbs.

293.
Angl.

Some verbs

pret.

in -zvian

have

getreowdun (3ig/7o)

pret. -zvde,

= WS

such as treozvian,

treoivode, truwode.

294. an-verbs in r preceded by another cons., such as


iimbran, keep
pret.

and

takes

it

the

campaign

'

also

before

pret. partic.

-p in

eWS, and

ian- inflection

full

also insert e in the

In

timbrcp, iimbrede, getimbred.

timbrian,

seems to have developed

'

eWS

-st,
:

in the

1WS

fyrdian

-ode.

same way.

So

eawan, appears as eowian

tewan, Angl. eowan,

in 1VVS.

295.

habban

hafast [note the

together with

has in Angl. in the pres. sg. the fuller forms

-st],

ha/ap, which also occur in the poetry,

ha/u, he/a (30

ic

-abb- interchange

hcebbe,

habbe

c).
;

In

this

verb -abb- and

So

habbap, hcrbbap.

also

nabbe, ncebbe, &c.

296. seegan has in Angl. and in the poetry the

forms sagas
it

(sagas/), sagap,

often has

1WS

ce

and the imper.

sg. saga.

sg. pres.

In

eWS

instead of in such forms as scRgp, scccgean.

has pret. and pret. partic. sdde, gested

130).

297. libban in n\VS texts often has fi,fg instead of bb;


thus 31 has ic lifgu, lifgende, 34 has lifigende.
They also
have pret. and pret. partic. lifde, gelifd.
These forms also
occur in

WS

texts.

298. fetian 'fetch'


In

1V\

it

makes

it

(he /[tap) has pret. /gtode

into cc in such

and

ftte.

forms as mfm. /[ccati, pres.

partic. /[ccende, pres. ic/[cce, pi. /gccap.

299. The two verbs hycgau and hogian were originally

GRAMMAR.

lxxvi

one, these two forms being distributed analogously to


leof-

hycge, hogap,

pres.

eMerc, but

in

hogde,

pret.

These distinctions are


two are confused

gehogod, infin. hycgan.


in

hycgqp,

WS

pret.

still

the

maintained

we

thus

libb-,

panic.

find

hogian, pret. (for)hygde and hogode, the latter by the

infin.

analogy of

lufode.

So also the two verbs of the pairs folgian (folgode) and fyl{i)gan
{Jylgde), wacian and wceccan were originally one.
a.

PRETERITE-PRESENT VERBS.
300. witan.

Note the contracted forms

&c. ( 42, 54), and the

ann

301.

'

eWS

wine,

grant,'

unnon

(249

ge?)iune,

(omnan).

gemyne

eWS

305. mseg.
mdeht{e).

dngan

Subj.

gemunafi,

dugende,

gemune, gemyne (32/45).


gemnnende.

gemunan

and Kt pu meaht,

pret.

meak/e, Angl.

Occasional mghte {nicehteT) in Kt and


Subj. mage,

5/37)-

dohte;

Subj. durre (26/10), dyrre (20/129).

geman

Imper.

Imper.

geunnen.

a).

303. dearr.
304.

iipe

geamie (23/89).
302. deah 'be worth,' duge, dugon
-unde

ndt, nylon, nysle,

pret. wi'sse, nysse.

1WS

306. sceal,

1WS mage

eWS

(4/21;

(14/25).

sceall ( 105),

Angl.

sccel

pi.

sculon,

sceolon (21/5).

307. willan.
a distinction

wards

and

ANOMALOUS

VERBS.

In the pres.

indie,

made between
//

as in the indie.

wyllafi.

wille

1WS

The

there

and

were used indifferently

also in the subj. sg. wil(l)e.


//

(ic)

was

originally

(he) wile,

in

but

after-

the two forms, as

pres. subj. pi. generally has

hasjy occasionally

( 24),

as in wylt,

Angl. has pret. walde, which also appears in the

poetry (27 e/5).

The form wil

(30 c)

is

probably an error.


DERIVATION : PREFIXES.

WS

308. nyllan.
out

he) nyl{t)e,

(ic,

same

the

has occasionally

The

69) for y through-

the use of

nel(l)e, nellap,

as in willan.

e (

lxxvii

imper.

and

being

//

Angl.

nyle, nyilap.

is

has pret. nalde.

309. wesan.

Angl. has

WS

occurs once in a
originally

weak form

in

eWS, though

is

also a lengthened

beom, together with earn, which

ic

The

text (55/42).

which

sint ( 109),

is

well as syn (16/89, 90)

The

seem

These

subj. sie

is

Kt and Angl.

310. don.

Angl. has

Kt

dee (31, 32).

pret.

ic

( 79).

Kt

also

Angl. and Kt have a subj.

dom.

deodan (^)=^dcedan shows the begin-

doan, which latter

infin.

WS

33).

ning of the Kt change ot y into


doa

Angl. has

the poetry (29 82).

in

as well as

latter as

to the influence of

In Kt we find siondon, -an (32).

sie, sy.

has ^"(32^51) and seo (32 c/16

sg.

be due

to

earun (31), and n-earon occurs

pi.

sind has an

sint, synt (22/135) also occur.


There
form sindon, of which occasional varia-

late

tions are siendon (2/88), syndan (16/33).

the subj.

pi.

especially frequent

e (

69).

Angl. has imper.

required by the metre in

is

20/284.

bun

311.

'

dwell

'

has

pi.

and gebud (4/29).


312. gan. Another form

bicap,

budc,

pret.

pret.

partic.

gebiin

partic.

With

is

gangan, imper. gang,

pret.

gegangen, pret. geong, gang (20/45,66,), weak gpigde.

the exception of the pres. partic. gangende

these forms

are hardly ever used in

WS

also gdnde

prose.

DERIVATION.
Prefixes.
313.

In

1WS

a-.

Note

that a- 'ever' has another form 0- ( 72).

and occasionally also

in

eWS

a (or a-

?) is

a weak-

GRAMMAR.

IxXViii

ening of other prefixes, as in aiveg (50/42), aginnan, abuton


=omveg, onginnan, on-,ymb-ulon.

The

314. be-.

But the frequent

bihald (31), bigeat (29)

is

tion of the strong adverb

preposition

more

as in biworhte (30 c).

is bi-,

especially

in

Angl.

as in

probably the result of the substitu-

bi,

which

as in 3/74.

be,

also substituted for the

is

would, therefore, perhaps be

It

correct to write bihald, &c.

315. ed- denotes


'

form

earliest

later spelling bi

change,' edtiiwe

'

The

316. for-.

'

repetition,'

'

turning

':

edhwier/i

turn,'

'

renewed.'
oldest form

is

fer-,

still

kept in ferloren

So alsoyr = the prep. /or (32 c/36).


317. ge-. The oldest form is gi- as in gidanc(2o)=gepanc.

(22/56).

when unmeaning

318. on-

When

onginnan, ondrccdan.
ing
in

it is

a- ( 313), as in

has a distinct privative mean-

it

sometimes made into the noun-prefix un-

in

1WS,

as

unwindan (13/164).
319.

'

becomes

often

fall

ob- expresses

away,'

320.

'

decline,'

wan-

often written

'

un-

departure,'

as in

'

warm-

'

opwgndan

in

'

wanhal

1WS

'

separation

turn away,'
'

(13/149

ill,'

'

'
:

op'feallan

deprive.'

wanspcedig

'

poor,' is

15/228).

Endings.
NOUNS.
Personal.

321.
deorling

-ing, -ling
'

favourite,'

earming
rUpling

'

'

wretch,' lytling

prisoner

'

\rcepan

'

'

little

one

bind,'

'

from

rap 'rope'].

322. -en (1) neut. diminutive, as in mccgden, maiden


'maid'].
'

(2) fem.,

goddess,' peowen

'

\i)UTgj>

generally with mutation, as in gyden

female

slave.'

DERIVATION: ENDINGS.

lxxix

Inanimate.

323. -els masc.

miercels

'

mark,' recels

'

incense,' ivcefels

dress.'

'

Abstract.

324-

-a]>

masc.

fishing,'

'

fiscap

325. -ung has also the form -ing

hergap
in

'

plundering.'

many words

leornung,

homing.
326. -lac neut. [cp.

lac]

fccet

'

accusation.'

'

honour,' glhvstafas 'joy/

327. -stafas masc.pl.

reaflac

[se stcrf],

'

robbery/ wrohtldc

only in poetry

arstafas

Adjectives.

328. -ig, -eg (29), -z"( 126) is weakened to -e in such


forms as grctdelice (13), modelice (21).
\xifokisc popular' there is no mutation, the
329. -isc.
'

being restored by the influence of -ok.

original

330. -bsere
'

[cp. beran\

aiorb&re

'

poisonous,' cwealmbdre

deadly.'

-cund

331.

[cp.

gccynd]

godcund

'

deo/olcund

divine,'

'devilish.'

332. -wende, Angl. also -wynde [cp. windan]

-wyndc

'

salutary,'

hwilwende

'

halwpide.

transitory.'

Verbs.

333. -ettan
sareltan

'

hreow

277): halettan 'greet,'

llcet/an 'simulate,'

grieve.'

334. -sian
'

sad,'

hreowsian

mdre

'

'

repent,' mcersian

famous.'

'

celebrate

'

from

GRAMMAR.

lxxx

Adverbs.

335. -e sometimes unmutates the preceding vowel, as


chine

entirely

'

'

(32 b)

= c/cene

336. -lice sometimes has


the

comp. and

superl.

in

cleanly.'

'

i,

shown by

as

always shorten

the metre (21);

-licor, -liocar

(32 b/13),

-licost.

337. -(l)unga, -inga


the ground,'

'

338. -meelum
styccemcelum

'

in

[cp. pcet

mazl~\

'

suddenly.'

floccmdlum

'

in

troops,'

piecemeal.'

339. Adverbs
superl.

eallunga 'entirely,' grund/unga 'from

completely,' fckringa

compar. ending

compar. end

in the

-ust,

-ost,

-est

-ast,

dropped

is

in

in -or, -ur ( 220), in the

The

deope,

deopor, deopost.

some

irregular forms, as in

lange, Igng, longest.

Derivations

from

Participles.

340. These are often contracted, as


(%i)=forlcctenms, dliesednis.

made
a.

So

also

in forletnis, alesnis

hgrednis

is

generally

in hgrennis, hp-enes (10/38).

In

many

of those in -endiiis, the -end

was

originally the adjectival

-en.

SYNTAX.
Nouns.
CASES.
341.

The dative

com on gemynd
hecftmece

is

often used in a possessive sense

came
Hruntiiig nama

H/

(20/207).

ane

heme

It is

'

often used reflexively

hearstepannan

'

me

my

mind' (2/2); was palm


the name of the hilted sword was
into

'it

that

pat

he him ge-ndme

he should take for-himself an

SYNTAX

NOUNS.

lxxxi

iron frying-pan' (3/150).

This reflexive dative

pleonastically to verbs of

motion:

'

homewards

they journeyed

is

also used to signify

Idtssa

'much

measure with comparatives, as

The

less' (4/41).

in passive constructions instead

dative

oifram

he zvearp him innweardlice gelufod

fxzt wces iinasgcgendlic cenigum

any man'

(1

mgmi

dative to denote

war' (21/130)
mile-distance

fiftiges glna lange

'

(20/1 12)

'

is

wealdan

'

wiges heard

is

it

'

brave in

long' (4/44);
not far from here by

'fifty

ells

willap eow fripes healdan 'we

we

Hence

hold you in peace' (21/41).

mental

by him (13/16)
could not be told by

adverbs, such as anstrgces, gewealdes, &c.


gen. wordes

occasionally used

is

often used like the instrumental

is

manner or measure

nis pcetfeorr heonon iiiilgemearces

will

'

dative

in micle

(by) with the dative

as loved

'

added

7/24).

The genitive

342.

often

The instrumental

(5/23).

'

is

him hamweard ferdon

hi

and ddde (16/86).

So

its

use to form

Cp. the instrumental

also the gen. or instru-

used with verbs of ruling and possessing, such as

and verbs of depriving, &c. take a gen. or

instr.

of

some verbs of touching, taking, &c, such


as hrinan, onfon
Cynewulf benam Sigebryht his rices C.
deprived S. of his kingdom (1/1)
he June heafde becearf' he
cut off his head' (20.340).
The genitive is occasionally
used of time: pees ilean wintra (7/7); winlres and sumeres
the thing, as also

'

'

(24/37)-

APPOSITION.
343. In some collocations the words standing in apposition are left un<'eclined

cyninge, Ceadwealla geciged


Britons, called

(15/7).

(he)
'

wearp ofshegen /ram Brytta

he was killed by the king of the

So

also 15/100, 43.

GRAMMAR.

lxxxii

Adjectives.
The weak form

344.

When

in the gen.

by the

So

woods

is

'

accompanied

maga

Heal/denes,

of H., thou wise

often used without the definite

which would be supplied


war-arrow'

sharp

often

also 20/233.

In poetry the weak form


article,

it is

gepenc nu se mcera

now thou famous son

think

'

prince' (20/224).

'the

especially in 1WS not only

used as a vocative,

definite article

snottra fgngel

used-

is

pronouns, but also occasionally after a noun

after possessive

prose

in

wudu

(20/185);

hearda

heresircel

'best

selcsta

of

(25/27).

Articles.

The

345.

definite

article

is

sometimes added

proper

to

names, generally when the name has been already given, as


in he

wolde adrtefan dune cupeling, se

zvces

Cyneheard

hdten.

Qnd se Cyneheard voces pees Sigebryhtes brbpur He wished to


expel a noble, who was called C.
And (this) C. was the
'

brother

(above-mentioned)

of the

The

13/262 and 14/8.

'my beloved man'

se leofa

(1/8).

So

also

in

sometimes added

pronouns, especially in addresses

to the possessive

min

S.'

definite article is

hczlep

(25/78).

Pronouns.
The

346.

personal pronoun

ordinate clauses

grund zvi/e
he knows

No

'

is

sometimes omitted

No pcesfrdd leofap guinena

one

lives so

in sub-

bearna, peel pone

wise of the children of

men

that

bottom' (20/117). So also 14/190. The


Pier mcegnihta gelnvccm
indefinite man is sometimes omitted
nlpwundor seon There one may see every night a dire
the

'

wonder

'

(20

15).

SFNTAX

VERBS.

lxxxiii

Verbs.
TENSES.
347. habban

also used with

is

independent

indicate

action,

marched' (23/219), but


pened (23/260).

as

many
in

verbs, generally to

gegdn

also in hcefde

hafdon 'they

geworden 'had hap-

'

348. In such preterites as win wearp dteorod wine failed,


was wanting' (13/9), and zvearp gesieclod sickened' (15/170),
'

'

which are exceptionally formed by ivearp instead of woes


with an intransitive past participle, it is simplest to take

wearp

in the literal sense of

ciple as

There
tion,

an adjective
evidently

is

where the

became,' and regard the parti-

'

'became wanting,' 'became

some confusion with

sickened.'

the passive construc-

same

participle often has the

half-adjectival

meaning.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

The

349.
ought

to

be

gedwyldes
error

'

'

subj. is also

lip

It will

(13/240);

fullige on

ponne

used to

state

what

is

proper, what

gepuht pcet ge geswicon

rihllic

eoiveres

then seem right that ye cease from your


tima

is

poet

mhwm geleorscipe

'

pu mid pinum Iroprum

It is

wist-

time for thee to feast with

my banquet (13/294).
In some cases the subjunctive is used inaccurately for the
indicative in simple statements of facts.
thy brothers at

'

350. It is so used in clauses dependent on another clause


containing a subjunctive, by a sort of attraction
pees its
:

scamap swipe peel we


greatly

swd swd

ashamed of beginning repentance,

(16 191).
tive in

Idle dginnon,

In

many

such cases

is

cases

it is

lee

td:co?i

'

we

are

as the books teach'

doubtful whether the subjunc-

simply due to attraction or to some idea

of uncertainty or hypothesis.
f 2

GRAMMAR.

lxxxiv
351.

The

conjunction cer

is

generally followed by the sub-

junctive, even in simple statements of facts

pone

biir

utan

pa mgnn onfwiden pe mid pam cynirige wcerun


surrounded the chamber before the men who were with the

beeode, cer hine


'

king found him out'(i/i2).

pam Pe

So

also

4/103; and with

cer

2/33.

INFINITIVE.
352.

The

infinitive is often

used in poetry

motion where we should use the present


17111

gdn

ealdor pegna

the prince of thanes

'

after a verb of

pa com
came walking in'

participle

(20/394).

GERUND.
353. With the verb
a passive sense

'

be

'

it

expresses necessity or duty in

monige scylda beop

are to be tolerated' (3/24).

So

to

forberanne

'

many

sins

also 3/100.

Prepositions.
354.
such as

355.

Some

prepositions occasionally govern the genitive,

tvi'p.

Compound

prepositions

are

often

separated

into

Thus we can either say


them)
or ymb hie ulan (4/34).
(round
about
ymb-Tdan hie
So also with betweonun in be sdm tweonum (between the seas,
a

preposition

20/47).

and

an adverb.

ME TRE.
356.

OE poetry consists

of lines (long verses) divided into

verses (short verses, half verses) by a pause or

caesura, the

two

bound together by alliteration. In our texts


the pause is shown by a space, and the alliterating letters or
staves are in italics, as in 20/394-6
verses being

Pa

com inn gan

mgnn

dcedcene

357.

and

We

denote the

II respectively.

ed./dor fiegna,

dome gewurpad,

Hropgdr grelan.

hccle hildedeor

first

and second verse of each


is more fixed and

which

II

has

line

only one stave called the head-

in its structure

than

stave, while

has either one or two called under-staves.

358. As regards

by

limited

must be noted

st, sc,

sp

are treated as simple consonants, st alliterating only with

st,

alliteration,

not with j + vowel or


s

+ vowel,

szv,

&c.

sn,

sc,

the

All

it

&c, while sn
vowels

that

alliterates

alliterate

with

together by

reason of their close resemblance as compared with the consonants;

and as

initial

vowels are not frequent enough

OE

to allow

this

would cause monotony, there

each vowel to

alliterate
is

only with

itself,

in

and as

a tendency to alliterate

different vowels together (inn, ealdor).

359.

As

alliteration

is

traditional,

hw &c,

to alliterate with h (hcele, Hrofigdr), c with

c,

are allowed

with g, in

METRE.

lXXXVl

spite of the difference in sound,

even

= Germanic j

alli-

terating with g.

There are traces of rime

a.

OE

in

poetry, especially in the later

poems,

360. The

OE

most essential element of

metre

the

is

natural stress of the spoken language, the rules of sentenceas

well

word-stress

as

OE

proves that

But quantity
quantity

too light

361.

also

is

together

syllables

is

on

being

This

observed.

rigorously

poetry must have been recited, not sung.

an essential element.

The

weight.

constitute

long as the verse

indifferent as

the one hand, or overloaded

Each normal

and

Stress

number of
is not made

on the other hand.

verse has two strong-stressed elements

or lifts, consisting either of one long syllable, or of two short

of which

syllables, the first

a slur, which

we denote by

slurred syllables

has strong
(")

which must

constituting

stress,

over the vowels of the two

be uttered very rapidly

as

in

hdle hildedeor compared with dcedcene mgnn, where hale and

dad

are

metrically of equal

weight.

But

were made into *cyning pegna, the short


verse too light
a.

The

It will,

a line need not

Thus

in

368

if

ealdor pegna

would make the

such a verse would be impossible.

quantity of a final

sum (20/16) type

362.

in fact

lift

lift is

indifferent, as in w<zs piera

of course, be understood that

and indeed

cannot

be

all

all

in dadcene

word

( 6, 7),

mgnn does not

the

lifts

in

of equal stress.

such a verse as ealdor pegna the second

a medium-stressed

-Grpidel

1.

lift

falls

on

while the analogous -cene

constitute a

lift.

We

must con-

sider that there are infinite gradations of stress, so that the

term

'

medium

stress

'

is

necessarily a very vague one.

It is

indeed probable that in the above verses pegna has naturally


METRE.

Ixxxvii

a stronger stress than -cene through being an independent

As we

word.

shall see hereafter ( 369),

metre of such a
tively

medium

mgnn

line as dcedcene

stress

Hropgar we

as

find the

this

weakening of the

original

363.

syllable of such a

stress

forgotten.

important to observe that metrical stress

relative than absolute,

nionn the stress of -cm-

stronger stresses of the two

weak

contrast of the

e,

relative position in the

final e

stress

Thus

syllables.

whole word
it

its

own

compare

as a

weak

length

and

ceres/a ( 7)

syllable.

If the

were cut off the distinctively medium character of

would be

through want of contrast, and the

lost

expanded

into Hropgdres,

in

overpowered by the

while on the other hand the

lifts,

would become almost as weak as


if

is

together with

prevents the ear from regarding

is

strength being measured

its

by comparison with that of the adjacent


dcedcene

word as greian,

being evidently the result of the

meaning of proper names being


It is also

more

often

but in proper names such

second element put metrically on

weak

a level with the short

markedly strong on the

that is neither

one hand nor weak on the other

essential to the

in is

that cene has a distinc-

in

its

stress

Hropgar, which, again,

would be metrically equivalent

to dcedcene.

364. Stress and

OE

metre

alliteration are inseparably

every

in

verse

the

connected in

two words which have

strongest natural stress must join in the alliteration; and,


on the other hand, the staves must be assigned to those
words in the verse which would have the strongest stress in

Thus

ordinary speech.

pegna only the

first

hand pegna ealdor could


with p.

weight of

Hence
stress,

the

in

such a combination

word can

alliterate,

alliterate

number of

as

ealdor

while on the other

only with a word beginning


staves in I

depends on the

double alliteration being only required when

the verse contains

two specially heavy words, especially when


METRE.

lxxxviii

one of them contains a marked medium


the

always begins the

first lift

must belong to the

first lift

and secondly

When

when

the stave of II

whence follows that in


most emphatic word in the

II the
verse,

must not be so heavy as

there

be assigned to the second

of course only

stress in addition to

head-stave

that the verse

require two staves.

may

The

as in hcele hildedeor.

lift

only one stave in

is

as in fid

lift,

the preceding

I,

to
it

com inn gdn, but

{fid) is distinctly the

lift

weaker of the two.


a.

In some late

poems these

and Waccus, modige

We

stave.

rules are often disregarded, as in sEljre

tivegen (21 /So),

mark such metrically

where ALlf^re ought


by f.

b. In alliterative verse the initial letters of

Hence
in II

in the line sigon

pa

to sliepe

sum

weak

syllables are ignored.

save angeald (20/1

do not constitute an incorrect double

weak sum does not count

to take the

defective lines

two

the

j's

alliteration, for the s of the

Hence we may regard the share of

at all.

the medium-stressed sigon in I in the alliteration as also accidental, as


it

certainly

365.

is

unessential.

We now come to the weak-stress

two dips

that

is,

and
ele-

symmetrically

alternate

lifts

and dips

-da

-da

the

number of

syllables

being the same as that of elements, although,


of the

lifts

were a

increase to five or

one

slur (
six.

syllable, as in

syllables

in

dip

may

weak

one or both

more than
number is freany number of weak

also consist of

dome gewurpad, and

this

succession constitute only a single dip.

weak

syllables

atrest gesohte

The

indifferent, as long, of course,

is

as length does not lead to

a verse as

if

361) the number of syllables would

quently exceeded, the rule being that

quantity of

verse

two strong- and two weak-stress

elements, two

In such a verse as ealdor fiegna the

ments.

Each

syllables.

lifts

usually consists of four metrical

medium

stress.

Thus

(23/13) the long syllable

as the following ge-, but

if

arest were

made

in such

-est is

as

into ceresta,

METRE.

lxxxix

would necessarily receive medium

it

and the verse

stress,

would be overloaded.
The weak

a.

syllable of a

of course, to the

slur belongs,

lift,

not

the dip.

The

366.

OE

of

verse

number

the result not only of

its

in the structure

laxity as regards the

of syllables, but also of the freedom with which the

elements of the verse

The

we observe

great variety which


is

the

lifts

and dips

are

resulting varieties are called types, the

A aa

being type

number

weak

of

aa, where

syllables

may

combined.

most frequent

the dots indicate that the

be increased within reasonable

limits.

367.

From

this point of

waves

consisting of two

as

length or even weight

may

which

need not be of equal

regard each verse

each wave containing a

lift,

either

by

or preceded or followed by a dip.

itself,

368. In type
lift

view we

+ dip.

the

There are

two waves
rising

also'

are

falling,

waves,

dip

that

i^,

as

in

lift,

20/162
he iear a

= aa

which we

aa,

sum

call

belbran gengde

type

(double-rising),

aa aa

(rising-falling) or type C.

be observed that these three types exhaust the possible


For in the remaining combinalifts with two dips.
no matter how
tions -daa-a and curd a the two dips coming together
manysyllables they consisted of would count only as a single dip ( 365),
a. It will

combinations of two

so that the verse

would be too short by one element.

369. In these three types the two waves are of equal


types D and E
weight. There are also unequal-wave verses

in

which one wave

that

is,

lift

reduced

without any dip


\\rip

Here hrlp

is

hreosende

constitutes the

first

to a single

long syllable or slur

as in the

hrusan

wave of

D + Aline

26/102

Lindeft.
I,

and

to

make up

fur

METRE.

XC
the

want of an accompanying

half-lift

made

is

the second syllable of hreosende (

simply D)

-a

D+A

26/87

line

D2

a:aa.

has the form a

370.

on

(or

aa:a, as in the

D 2.

wave comes

long

the

If

falls

Idlu stodon.

an example of

also

is

it

consti luting type

7),

ca/d ^nta gezveorc

hale hildedeor

an extra medium-stressed

dip,

In the present verse

obligatory.

we have

first,

type

manncynncs feond (20/26).


This verse is
simply an inversion of the D-verse feond manncynnes, which
a:aa

as in

'a,

also occurs in Beowulf,

dcedcene

mgnn

another example

is

of type E.

We

371.
-

A.

thus have the five normal types

aa aa

aa aa
aa aa

B.
C.

ealdor pegna.

D.

E.

a:aa

*a:aa
*a

he fear a sum.

'

bcforan gengdc.

feond manncynnes.
dcedcene mgnn.

We now

372.

In the

metre.

have to consider certain licences in


first

a long syllable in a

place, a short

or

lift

half-lift

may

immediately preceded by a

strong- or medium-stressed syllable, which

short, and
scedeor

mark

('),

as in peer

monig (20/260

II)

A.

we

call a

dip,

heavy-

Hringdpie (20/29 H) tyP e C,


Hence words of the form daa,

such as rlxode, hearpere are metrically equivalent to

&c, although the inner

OE

be substituted for

syllable

is

ceres/a,

sometimes included in the

as in hearpera marost (34/4 II) A.

In

reading

verses the preceding long syllable must be lengthened

such

and

the heavy-short syllable must be uttered as deliberately as


possible.
a.

heavv-short

lift

Hrunting nama (20/207

after a derivative

II)

A,

is

or inflectional syllable, as

exceptional, as

it

requires a distinct

exaggeration of the natural stress of the preceding syllable, together

METRE.

XCt

it. which is, however, much easier when two or


more consonants come together, especially when one or more of them is

with a dwelling on

a vowel-like consonant, as in
b.
is

As a

evident that

cannot be preceded by a

it

373. Another licence

weak

a verse with a
part of

pause

and most of the instances.

this

heavy-short implies lengthening of the preceding syllable,

the prelude, that

is,

beginning

which does not form an integral

being uttered rapidly so as to be included

it,

frequent at the beginning of the

line,

in the

Preludes are most

beginning of the verse.

the

at

is

syllable

it

slur.

because of the longer

pause there, and are most frequent with type A, as in geworden


in ivicum, fiurh-fon ne mihte

more than one

We

doubtful.

(20/24

2 54

I>

Preludes of

H)-

syllable are, in the nature of things, rare

mark a prelude by a

prefixed -a{a)

and

-a -da

'aa.

374. There can be no doubt that weak vowels were often


elided before another vowel in ordinary

tendency

may

not

poetry,

allowed

much

so

to

as to reduce the

avoid

weak

thus the vowels

may be dropped

mag

hiatus

number

preludes, h in

angeald B,

OE

speech, and this

often be taken advantage of in reading

which

fio?in'K e)

OE

always

of syllables in dips

syllables being disregarded


in

is

and

145 a);

such verses as sum sar{e)

on poem gold(e) ongiian B, gyred[e

K)ine Beowulf.

375.

made

Many

otherwise anomalous or doubtful verses can be

regular by the assumption that a final vowel-like con-

sonant after a consonant or preceded by a parasite vowel


38) did not count as a separate syllable, especially after
a short vowel, as in sell, fcepm, fugol, which are regarded as
(

metrically equivalent to a instead of aa.


sarily the case if

zvuldor, these
to a.

-er, -or

This

is

not neces-

a long precedes, as in tacn, mapm, frofor,

words are taken as equivalent

to da, but also

preceded by a short vowel also #frequently has

METRE.

XC11
the

full

(24

<'i8)

shown

value aa, as

We

376.

now

will

such

with

types,

such verses as ne

in

marked, and are

all II,

unless

biap tvefla (30 c)

ha/elan wfrede

Medium

ge-feng

unless

(20),

marked

pa

be eaxle

I.

'

wldxiip

( 362).

a:hleop

fe'tod,

In

pa

weaker

But we

we'rum.

Beo:wulf

-he ge'feng pafgtelhilt

I,

I.

one or both of the dips are


alliter-

fyrddeop, goldtwine gietnena,

find

also

where the medium

I the alliteration

may

in

II

stress

such verses as
is

very

on the second

fall

gome/a (with prelude), :hra/e wearp

se

wundncE

ypeli'ce I,

where they cause double

I,

breost:n<:tt broden, fitslic

otherwise

wiuiian scolde, pegne mgnegum,

stresses in the place of

generally allowed only in

pa

The

seem necessary.

as

377. A. witig dryhten, swin ofer helme,

ation

we'der

give further examples of the different

explanations

examples are taken from Beowulf

me ni

wearm

C, where the metre requires two syllables.

o?i

lift,

slight

as in

ypwn, the

often joining in the alliteration, as in he ge:/eng

lift

'fgtelhilt

but this double alliteration

is

not essential to

the metre like that caused by extra weight, as in breostngtt


broden.

378. B. In
least two,

this

type, as also in C, there are generally at


initial

weak

is liable

to be

regarded as a prelude, so

would seem too

short.

and often more,

because a single one


that the verse

large

number of

initial

weak

So

syllables,

also

evidently

an exceptionally

syllables in these types

may be

regarded as a combination of prelude and dip, although of


course

it is

two types.
wearp, pat

impossible to distinguish between them in these

Examples of B are peer fyrgenslream, pal ges'yne


on wage geseah I, ac liine wundra pas /ela, peak
:

ic

he peer mgriige geseah.

379. C. In
syllables
.

.ad

da

is

this

coming together of two long


making .aa, da into .a da aa or
hwat wit geo sprdjeon, ic me mid Hrun-

type the

often avoided by

gegar\ dors/e,

METRE.
tmge; geond laguldde (26)
on vigre sidredon ;

I,

XCiil

mine ceare cwipan (26)

gupcedre, sippan goldsele,

cer

and

I,

szva June

fyr7idagnm.

380.

poncsnoilurra (30 b)

mceg Hygeldces

berendum

a.

ward

(30 a)

D2

verses

making

syllable is rare

half-lift

syllable after the first

lift

-da:d

382. If

is

Icoht inne stod,

We

letter

uncup gelad,

sloh,

scelace

laplicu lac

The

I.

ccpel-

Shortening of

gefeah.

extra

weak

I.

would be an extra

members

five

types.

the

two verses the second syllables formed

in the last

would have
* to

of doubtful occurrence.

part of the verse, there

normal

were wuldurfadur

as

does not count in such verses as

dtertdnum fall, mdpniaihta via

E2

reord-

'a ~da:d into 'd:da 'a.

inga beam, nicorhusa /eld

a.

rare

I.

381. E. fyrdwype mann, yrringa

the

sunu

ge'seon

is

lift

not always easy to distinguish from E, a slight shifting of

is

stress-force

zvrceclastas (26) I,

sgcg weorce gefeah, hgnd swenge ne

weard

d'ris rices

such

In

(25/89).

full

the ur does not count ( 375).

hefcenricGBS

ofteah

Shortening of the second

Hreples.

(30 a)

wdddn

I,

feo leanige, samod tcrdcfge

denote such

of the

type

dip,

and

instead of only four,

extended

the verse
as

the

in

types by adding

from which they seem

be

to

formed.

383. D*. -aa a:aa


-

has double alliteration

frequent

is

is

it

aldres orzvena,

confined to

yrre

orelta,

I,

and

brgnd ne

beadomecas, wdriap tvulfhleopu.

384. A*.
'a:d

da

'a:aa

aa

formed from the strengthened

is

(brcosineli broden),

the addition of a

mnium (30

c)

final

although

dip to E.

it

It

would be an example

doubtful by being

II.

may
is
if

also be formed by

rare;
it

hygiponcitm

were not made


METRE.

XC1V
a.

B* :dad wa and C* :aa& da do not seem

da:da a

OE.

to occur in

E*

also doubtful.

is

385. There are also various forms of lengthened or


three-wave verses, which are

introduced only occasionally,

generally in solemn, lyrical passages, as in 28/1:

'Cyning sccal

vfratttlic

'healdan.

'rice

pita

orfianc,

geweorc,

'Ceastra beop -feorraii ge'sine,

fid fie

torpan syndon,

on fiisse

weallstana geweorc.

386. Here the

first

two verses

may

be regarded as length-

ened A-verses, and are denoted accordingly by AA.

orfianc

pita geiveorc begins as an A-verse but ends like a B-verse

and may be denoted by AB.

There

The

last

AA

considerable variety, but

is

is

frequent form, the next most frequent being

wine swd druncen (23).

gefioll fid

an

by

is

BA

AE

verse.

the

far
a' a

most

a-da-aa

Observe that the weight

of the three waves not only favours double alliteration in

but occasionally leads to triple alliteration, as in the


the verses
a.

It

first

quoted.

sometimes doubtful whether a verse

is

I,

last of

to be regarded as

is

lengthened or only extended.

387.
types.

frequent

the

is

Lines
;

most frequent, and

made up

but, as a general rule, there

bine different types in a

being most frequent in


are preferred,

the rarest of the five

of two A-verses (A, A) are therefore

line,

the

is

a tendency to com-

falling

types

while in II the rising types

I,

and

being also more frequent in II than in

388. Further variety

is

given to

OE

B and C
I.

verse by the practice

of making a break in the sense, not at the end of the line but
at the caesura after

sense to the

the following II being then joined in

I,

of the next

Sigon

line, as in

fid to slccpe.

afenrgste,

Sum

20/1, 4

sdre angeald


XCV

METRE.
.

pat

op

pide becwom,

swylt after synnum.

The

389.

other characteristics of the poetry are the use of

archaic words., such as the possessive sin, gamol, dogor, swat,

dag, Mod, after they had become obsolete in the

for eald,

and

language,

prose

use

the

of

compounds and

special

phrases such as hildenadre (war-adder) for


(goldgiver) for

wynn

king,' fugles

'

men

for

')

'

line

this

also a tendency to parallelism, or repetition

is

same idea

way

the

Unriht

widcup werum,
lifde after

Here pide and

Pat

hapstapa
stag

'

strong

death

of

'

and midciip are variations on

and

'

20/129

wundnum

in the poetical

391.

It is

often from

'

golde.

compounds

for

'

'

The same
themselves,

sword,' feondsceapa

'

is

have a very wide range of meanings, diverging

injury,'

Synn, for

prose usage.

the
'

mischief,'

'

only a secondary one

violence,'

'

strength

';

heard

instance,

hala in poetry

is

means

and the prose meaning

hatred,'

hater' but 'persecutor,' 'enemy,' just as nip

and

three

find

important to observe that most abstract words

in the poetry

sin

we

enemy) =' enemy.'

(hostile

'

hornum (rum

to heorot

In

horns).

Another example

evident.'

parallel

ealdgestreonum,

common

is

gesjne wearp

wrecend pa gji

such as heoruwapen (sword-weapon)

'

one

lapum!

(heathstalker)

parallels, feo,

parallelism

petite

swylt, gesyne

the simple ideas of

simply

last half of

half of the next in

op pcct pide becwom

cefnde,

swylt after synnum.

(the

first

'

is

The

in different words.

often connected with

is

'

distributor of gold to

king.'

390. There
of the

(joy of a bird) for feather,'

men ='

goldmine gumena (goldfriend of

arrow,' goldgiefa

'

'

is

is

not only

both 'hatred'

sharp' as well as

'

hard,'

METRE.

XCV1

and may be applied

to the

edge of a sword, as in the

adj.

heardgcg.

392. There

is

doggrel verse with

also

poetical

alliteration,

prose written in a kind of

used

in homilies of a

popular

character, such as 15 and 16 compared with 13 and 14 which

are pure prose.

PARADIGMS.
(EARLY WEST-SAXON.)

Nouns: Regular.
Strong
Singular Nominative 1

Dative

Plural

Masculine.

Neuter.

stan

sct'p,

stane

scipe

hus

Genitive

stdnes

scipes

Nom.

sldnas

scipn,

Dat.

sidnum

scipum

Gen.

sidna

scipa

hus

Strong Feminine.
la.

Sg.

PI.

Nom.

giefu,

synn

Ace.

giefe,

synne

Dat.

gie/e

dcede

dcede

dad
deed

Gen.

giefe

Nom.

giefa

ddda

Dat.

Ztifum

dadum

Gen.

gie/ena, synna

da da

When the
Nom.

as the

lb.

Accusative (Ace.}

not given separately,

it

is

the

same

PARADIGMS: NOUNS.

XCV1I1

Weak
3g.

Masc.

Neut.

Fern.

eage

snnne

eagt

sunnan

Dat.

nam a
unman
naman

eagan

sunnan

Gen.

nanian

eagan

sunnan

Nom.
Ace.

PI.

Nom.

naman

eagan

sunnan

Dat.

namnm

eagum

sunnum

Gen.

namena

eagena

sunnena

Irregular.

U-Nouns
Sg.

PI.

Masc.

Nom.

sunu

</uru,

Dat.

suna

dura, handa

Gen.

suna

dura

Nom.

suna

dura

Dat.

sunum

durum

Gen.

suna

dura

Masc.

Fern.

Mutation-Plurals
Sg.,

PI.

hand

Nom.

fat

boc

Dat.

fit

bee

Gen.

fotes

boce, bee

Nom.

fei

bee

Dat.

fotum

bocum

Gen.

fata

boca

R-Nouns
Sg.

Fern.

Masc.

Fern.

Nom.

brofior

sweostor

Dat.

brefier

sweostor

Gen.

bro)>t>r

rweostor

NOUNS, ADJECTIVES.
PI.

XC1X

Nom.

bropor, bropru

Dat.

broprum

sweostrum

Gen.

bropra

sweostra

sweostor

Masc. ND-Nouns.
Sg.

PI.

Nom.

Jreond, buend

Dat.

friend, buend

Gen.

freondes

Nom.

friend, buend

Dat.

freondum

Gen.

freonda, buendra

Masc. E-Plurals.
PI.

Nom.

Engle

Dat.

Englum

Gen.

Engla

Indeclinable Fern.

bieldo, bieldu

Adjectives.
Strong.

Sg.

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

sum, god

sum

sumu, god

Ace.

sumne

sum

sume

Dat.

sumum

sumum

sumre

Gen.

sumes

sunns

sumre

Sltllli

sume

{sumre)

sin tie

sujiiu,

Nom.

Instr.
PI.

Nom.

god

Dat.

sumum

Gen.

sumra
Instrumental.

sume

PARADIGMS ADJECTIVES, NUMERALS.


:

Weak.
Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

goda

gdde

gode

Ace.

godan

gode

godan

Masc.

Sg.

PI.

Dat.

godan

Gen.

godan

Nom.

godan

Dat.

godum

Gen.

godena, godra

Numerals.
PI.

Nom.

hva

twegen

hvLem

Dat.

Gen.

tweg{f)a

So
P).

Nom.

two.

also begen

'

both.'

preo

preo

prie

Dat.

prim

Gen.

preora

Pronouns.
Sg.

PI.

Nom.

ic

>u

he

hit

Ace.

me

hine

hit

hie

Dat.

me

him

him

hire

Gen.

mln

Pe
phi

his

his

hire

Nom.

we

Ace.

us

eow

Dat.

us

eow

him

Gen.

ure

eower

hira, heora

heo

hie

Me

PRONOUNS, VERBS.
Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

hwa

hwcet

Ace.

hwone

frweet

Sg.

Sg.

PI.

Nom.

ci

Dat.

hivcem

Gen.

hwces

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

se

pcet

seo

pes

pis

peos

Ace.

pone

pcet

pa

pisne

pis

pas

Dat.

pcem

pcem

pare

pissum

pissum

pisse

Gen.

pees

pees

piere

pisses

pisses

pisse

Instr.

Py

Py

{pare)

pys

pys

(pisse

Nom.

pit

Dat.

peem

pissum

Gen.

para

pissa

pas

Verbs.
Weak.

Strong.
'

Indie. Pres. Sg.

Wean.'

'

'

Love.'

binde

Mere

wpiige

bintst

kierst

wpicst

lufast

bint

hierp

wpiep

tufa/)

PI.

Pret. Sg.

Hear.'

PI.

Subj. Pres. Sg.


PI.

Pret. Sg.
PI.

iufige

bindap

hierap

wpiia/?

lufiap

band

hierde

wpiede

lufode
lufodest

bunde

hierdest

wpiedest

band

hierde

wpiede

lufode

bundon

hler don

wpiedon

lufodon

bind,

hlere

wpiige

Iufige

bindtii

hier en

wpiigen

lufigen

bunde

hierde

wpiede

lufode

bunden

hierden

ivpieden

lufoden

PARADIGMS

Cll

Infinitive

Gerund
Partic.

bindan
{to)

bindenne

VERBS.

hieran

ivpiian

lujian

hierenne

wgnienne

lufiennt

Pres.

bindende

Merende

wgniende

lufiende

Pret.

(ge)bunden

hiered

ivned

lufod

Groups of Strong Verbs.


I.

(a)

Infinitive.

feallan

acan

Sg.

Pret Pl.

feoll

fielp

III.

heton

haten

e-preterites.

Shake-group.
scoe on

bint

beran

bierp

sea ecu

Bind-group.

band

bindan

Pret.

feallen

scoe

sccecp

Ptc

feollon

be/

ha>ii

II.
st

eopreterites.

Third Pres. Pret.

(b)

hatan

Fall-group.

bundon

bunden

IV. Bear-group.

baron

beer

boren

V. Give-group.
spreean

spricp

spreec

sprcecon

sprecen

gicfan

giefp

geaf

geafon

giefen

selnan

schip

eeosan

ciest

ceas

curon

coren

lucan

lycp

leac

lucon

locen

VI. Shine-group.
scan

scinon

semen

VII. Choose-group.

cm

VERBS.

Preterite-Present Verbs.
In

Pres. Sg.

Subj.

lie.

Wat

wite

wast

wile

wdl

zvite

PL

wilon

Imp er,

ret. wiste.

zviten

wite, zvilap.

Infin. zv itan

Ptc. Pres. zvitende, Pret. witen.

Anomalous Verbs.
Ind. Pres. Sg.

wile, nyle

2 wilt, nylt

ga
gcesi

de'P

gap

sindion), beop

doP

gap

wolde, nolde

zuces

dyde

eode

woldesl

ware

dydest eodest

wolde

WCES

dyde

woldon

wcsroii

dydon eodon

3
PI.

do
dest

willap, nyllap

3 wile
PI.

Pret. Sg.

eom, beo
eart, bist
is,

bip

eode

wile

sie,

willen

sien, beoti

don

g"
gan

wolde

ware
waren

dyde

eode

wolden

dyden

eode//

wile

wes, beo

do

PI.

willap

wesap, beop

doP

Infin.

willan

wesan, beon

g"
gap
gan

willende

zvesende

Subj. Pres. Sg.


PI.

Pret. Sg.
PI.

Imper. Sg.

Partic. Pres.

Pret.

beo

do

don
donde

gauged*

gedon gegdn

I.

CYNEWULF AND CYNEHEARD.


[From the Saxon

Chronicle.]

The following tragic narrative stands out conspicuously among


the brief dry notices of which the Chronicle up to the time of
Alfred is mainly composed we do not meet with so vivid and
:

circumstantial a piece of history


later.

It

is

few years

till

more than

no doubt contemporary with,

later than the events

it

tells it

hundred years
any rate, only
short, by far the

or, at
is,

in

The

oldest historical prose in any Teutonic language.

style

is

of the rudest character, contrasting remarkably with the polished


language of the later portions of the Chronicle, abrupt, disconnected, obscure and full of anacoluthons. The forms and

orthography are, as throughout the earlier part of the Chronicle,


those of Alfred's reign, with a few occasional archaisms, which
escaped the eye of the ninth century reviser.

The present text is taken from the Parker MS. the only
one of independent authority for the earlier periods. The
Chronicle has been edited by Prof. Earle (Two of the Saxon
Chronicles Parallel; Oxford, 1865), and by Thorpe for the Rolls
series (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited, with a translation, by
Benjamin Thorpe; London, 1861. 2 vols.), which gives the texts
of

all

the

MSS.

in

Earle's introduction
full

full,
is

together with

of silent alterations of the

755.

an English translation.

valuable, but his text

MSS.

is

inaccurate and

Thorpe's text

is

reliable.

Her Cynewulf benam Sigebryht

seaxna wiotan

his rices ond Westunryhtum daidum, buton Hamtunsclre


ob he ofslog bone aldormonrc be him lon-

for

ond he
gest

hsefde ba,

wunode.
*Li

Qnd

hiene ba Cynewulf on Andred adnefde


B

2
5

I.

Qnd he

pair

fetes flodan

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

wunade, op

J^set

hiene an swan ofstang

Cynewulf oft miclum gefeohtum


ond ymb xxxi wintra paes pe he

se

adraifan
10

aet

anne

se waes

aepeling,

feaht uuip
rice

Pry-

Qnd

(Qnd he wrasc pone aldormQm/ Cumbran).

Bretwalum

hsefde,

he wolde

Cyneheard haten (Qnd

Cyneheard waes

paes Sigebryhtes bropur.)

he bone cyning

lytle

Qnd

se

pa geascode

werode on wifcyppe on Mejantune, Qnd

hine paar berad, Qnd pone bur utan beeode,

air

hine

mgnw

pa.

onfunden pe mid pam kyninge waerun.

Qnd pa ongeat se cyning paet, Qnd he on pa duru eode,


Qnd pa. unheanlice hine wejede, op he on pone aepeling locude,
Qnd pa ut raisde on hine, Qnd hine miclum gewundode Qnd
hie alle on pone cyning waerun feohtende, op paet hie hine
ofslaegenne haefdon.
Qnd pa on pass wifes gebserum onfundon paes cyninges pegnas pa unstilnesse, Qnd pa pider urnon
2oswa hwelc swa ponne gearo wearp Qnd radost. Qnd hiera
se aepeling gehwelcum feoh Qnd feorh gebead, Qnd hiera
15

naanig hit gepicgean nolde

ac hie simle feohtende wjeran,

anum

Bryttiscum gisle, Qnd se swipe


gewundad waes.
pa. on morgenne gehierdun paet paes cyninges pegnas, pe
25
him beaeftan waerun, paet se cyning ofslaegen waes. pa. ridon
hie pider, Qnd his aldormQnw Osric, Qnd Wiferp his pegn,
Qnd pa mn pe he beaeftan him laefde aer, Qnd pone aepel-

op hie

alle

lcegon butan

ing on paere byrig metton, paer se cyning ofslaegen


30

(Qnd

Qnd him cypdon paet hiera maegas


hie him paes rices upon
him mid waeron, pa pe him frQm noldon. Qnd pa cucedon
hie paet him naenig maeg leofra naere ponne hiera hlaford,
Qnd hie naefre his banan folgian noldon. Qnd pa budon
hie hiera majgum paet hie gesunde frQm eodon ; Qnd hie
;

35

laag,

Qnd
pa gatu him to belocen haefdon,) Qnd pa. paerto eodon.
pa gebead he him hiera agenne dom feos Qnd lQndes, gif

CVNEWULF AND CYNEHEARD.


cusedon

pam

]?3et taet ilce

hiera

ma

onmunden

'

ofslaegene

wJerun.'

j^on

geferum geboden waire pe

pa cuaidon

cyninge wairun.
J?e

hie

eowre geferan

J?aet

Qnd

nie

J^

hie hie

3
air

mid

pxs ne

mid f>am cyninge


ba gatu feohtende 4

}?e

ym b

ond |?one seeding ofhim mid wairun, alle butan anum,


ond he his feorh gengse waes f?aes aldormgnnes godsunu
rede, ond >eah he wses oft gewundad.

wajron

o]>

slogon,

ond

f>aet
Ipa.

hie

fulgon,

J^serinne

mn

\>e

II.

ON THE STATE OF LEARNING


[From King
Pastoral

Care,

IN ENGLAND.

to the West-Saxon Version of Gregory's


Henry Sweet, for the Early English Text

Alfred's Preface

edited

by

Society, 1871-2.]

Alfred's English version of the Cura


the Great

is

Pastoralis of Gregory
of unique linguistic value as being preserved in two

contemporary MSS., the Hatton (H.) and the Cottonian (C).


The present text is based on these two MSS., the readings of
both MSS. being given in all important cases of difference, one
(generally that of H.) in the text

of the

page.

To

enlarge

interest of this piece

on the

itself,

the other at the foot

historical

would be superfluous:

it

and antiquarian
must speak for

itself.

vElfred kyning hateS gretan WaerferS biscep his

wordum

ond freondllce ond Se cySan hate <5aet me com swuSe


oft on gemynd, hwelce wiotan iu waeron giond Angelcynn, <Eg<5er ge godcundra hada ge woruldcundra
ond hu
(5a wseron giond Angelcynn
gesseliglica
tida
ond
hu (5a
5
kyningas Se (5one onwald hsefdon (Saes folces on Sam
dagum Gode ond his serendwrecum hersumedon gnd hu
hie <eg(5er ge hiora sibbe ge hiora siodo ge hiora 6nweald
innanbordes gehloldon, gnd eac lit hiora eSel 2 gerymdon
lognd hu him (5a speow degSer ge mid wige ge mid wlsdome
luflice

om.

in II.

ot'Sel C.

ON THE STATE OF LEARNING IN ENGLAND.


gnd eac 6a godcundan hadas hu giorne
ge

ymb

lare

ymb

ge

liornunga, ge

hie wseron aeg6er

ymb

ealle

6a

(Slowot-

domas 6e hie Gode don scoldon 9nd hu man utanbordes


wisdom gnd lare hieder on lond sohte, gnd hu we hie nu
Swa?
sceoldon ute begietan, gif we hie habban sceoldon.
clsene hio waes ooTeallenu on Angelcynne 6aet swl6e feawa
;

Humbre 6e

wseron behionan

'5

hiora 6eninga cu6en under-

stgndan 6n nglisc o66e fur6um an aerendgewrit of Laedene


gnd ic wene 6aette noht monige
6n ^nglisc areccean
;

begiondan Humbre naeren.


ic

anne anlepne

furtSum

Temese, 6a 6a
6aette

we

nii

ic to rice

Swai feawa hiora waeron

ne
feng.

maeg

tSaet

20

ge6ncean be su6an

Gode selmihtegum

sie

Qnd

aenigne 6nstal habba6 lareowa.

6onc
6on

for

ic geliefe 6aet 6u wille, 6aet 6u


633m gesemetige, swae 6u oftost

25

6u 6one wisdom 6e 6e God sealde 6air 6aer 6u


Ge6nc hwelc witu us 6a.
hiene befsestan maege, befaeste.
becomon for 6isse worulde, 6a. 6a we hit nohwae6er ne selfe
ne lufodon, ne eac 66rum mgnnum ne lefdon 6one naman
2
gnd swfSe
anne we lufodon 1 6aette we Crlstne waeren

ic

6e bebiode 6aet 6u do swce

6e 6issa woruld6inga

to

maege, 6aet

feawe

6a.

6eawas.

Da. ic 6a. 6is eall

6aem 6e

jier

gemunde, 6a gemunde

hit eall

ic

eac hu

ic

geseah,

forhgrgod waere gnd forbaerned, hu 6a

eall Angelcynn stodon maSma gnd boca


gnd 6a 35
micel m^nigeo Godes 6lowa
gnd
eac
gefylda
swl6e lytle fiorme 6ara boca wiston, for 6aem 6e hie hiora
nanwuht 6ngiotan ne meahton, for 6aljm 6e hie naeron 6n

ciricean giond
3

hiora agen
ieldran, 6a.

ge6lode awritene.

6e 6as stowa

gnd 6urh 6one

mon maeg
1

hie

aar

begeaton

Swelce hie cwseden

'
:

Ure

hloldon, hie lufodon wisdom,


vvelan,

gnd us laefdon. Her


we him ne cunnon

glet gesion hiora swae6, ac

haefdon C.

waEron C.

gefyldae

H.

aegen C.

40

II.

aefter

gnd

spyrigean,

KING ALFRED.

for cSsem

we habbaS nu

ge <5one welan ge Sone wisdom,

Soem spore mid ure mode

Da

45

ic

(5a

Sis eall

aigSer forlaiten

Se we noldon

for <5a:m

to

onlutan.'

gemunde, Sa wundrade

ic

swiSe swiSe

Sara godena wiotona Se giu wasron giond Angelcynn, gnd


tSa

bee

nsenne

ealla
dael

be fullan geliornod haefdon, Saet hie hiora Sa

noldon on hiora agen

geSiode wendan.

Ac

Sa sona eft me selfum andwyrde, gnd cwaeS


Hie ne
50 wendon Saette aifre menn sceolden swae reccelease weorSan,
gnd sio lar swae oSfeallan for Saire wilnunga hie hit forleic

'

gnd woldon Saet her Sy mara wisdom on Ignde waere


Sy we ma geSeoda cuSon.'
Da gemunde ic hu sio 33 waes arrest 6n Ebreisc-geSiode
55funden, gnd eft, Sa 3 hie Creacas geliornodon, Sa wendon
hie hie on hiora agen 2 geSiode ealle, gnd eac ealle oSre bee.
ton,

Qnd

eft

hie hie

Laedenware swae same, siSSan hie hie geliornodon,


ealla Surh wise wealhstodas on hiora agen

wendon

geSiode.

Qnd

eac ealla oSra Cristena

Sioda sumne daM

on hiora agen geSiode wndon. For Sy me SyncS


bgtre, gif iow swai SyncS, Sast we eac suma 5 bee, Sa Se niedbeSearfosta 6 sien eallum mgnnum to wiotonne, tSaet we Sa on

60 hiora

geSiode wnden Se we ealle gecnawan msegen, gnd ge


don swae we swiSe eaSe magon mid Godes fultume, gif we
Sa stilnesse habbaS, Saette eall sio gioguS Se nxi is on
Angelcynne friora mgnna, Sara Se Sa speda haebben Saet
hie Saem befeolan maegen, sien to liornunga oSfaeste, Sa

Saet

65

hwile Se hie to nanre oSerre note ne maegen,

oS Sone

first

Se hie wel cunnen Englisc gewrit araidan lsere mon siS70 San fnrSur 6n LaedengeSiode Sa. Se mon furSor laeran wille,
gnd to hierran 7 hade don wille. Da ic Sa gemunde hu sio
:

ealla:

sumse

H.
7/.

segen C.

nidbeSyrfesta C.

'8a

Sa
'

C.

hieran

17.

otfra:

Crislns H.

ON THE STATE OF LEARNING IN ENGLAND.


lar

LaedengeSiodes

aer

<5issum afeallen

waes giond Angel-

gewrit araedan, oa
gnd <5eah
ongarw ic ongemang ocSrum mislicum grid manigfealdum
bisgum Sisses kynerices <5a boc wendan on Fmglisc ^ e IS 75
genemned on Laeden Pasioralis, gnd on Englisc Hierdeboc,' hwilum word be worde, hwilum andgit of andgiete,
swae swae ic hie geliornode aet Plegmunde mlnum aercebiscepe, gnd aet Assere minum biscepe, gnd aet Grimbolde

mgnige cuoon

cynn,

!gnglisc

'

minum

maesseprioste,

SiSSan

ic hie

gnd

swae

ic

<5a

gnd

aet

Tohanne minum maessepreoste. 80

geliornod haefde, swae swae

ic

hie forstod,

hie andgitfullicost areccean meahte, ic hie

on

gnd 2 to aelcum biscepstole on minum rice


gnd 6n aelcre bicS an aestel, se biS on
wille ane onsendan
Qnd ic bebiode 6n Godes naman tSaetSs
fiftegum mancessa.

Fmglisc awende

nan mow/

(Sone aestel

tSaem mynstre

wolde

tSaette

Gode

(5gnc,

hie ealneg

mid him habban


hwa oSre bi write.

biscep hie
ocxSe

<5aere

uncucS hu lgnge

sien, swae swae nu,


ic

frgm

oSfeallrn C.

bee ne do
tSaer

ne Sa boc frgm

swae gelaerede biscepas

For

wel hwaer siendon.

aet tSaere

ond H.

(5y

stowe waeren, buton se

wille, o'S'Se

hio hwaer to laene

doe

sie,

90

III.

TRANSLATION OF THE CURA PASTORALIS.


Chap. XXI.
[From King

Hu

West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, edited

Alfred's

by Henry Sweet,

for the Early English

Text Society, 1871-2.]

gesceadwls se rgccere sceal blon 6n his oYeaunga ond

on

ond eac on

his olgccunga,

his hatheortnesse

ond 6n

his monwoVairnesse.

Eac is to wietanne (Ssette hwilum bi<5 god waerlice to


miSanne his hleremgnna scylda ond to Hcettanne suelce he
hit nyte
hwilum eft t5 se. cganne
hwilum, oeah hit mon
;

forberanne

cucSlice wite, hit is to

geornlice t5 seceanne

lum

hwilum

hwilum

licSelice

eft

smealice ond

to Sreatianne

ond strseclice to (Srafianne.


Monige sint, swa swa we asr cuaedon, Se mon

10

llcettan,

ond

Sset hie

mgn

?Sa

hwi-

suiolice

scylda

?Se

sceal waerlice

(5eah hwae'Sre eft cycSan, for tSaem SaJt hie ongieten


taile,

ond

<5set

hie diogollice

eacSmodlice geSafigen,

on him selfum forberaS

ond Sonne

hie geornlice

on hiera agnum inwgecSgnce sceawigen, ond on him selfum


'5

demen ond wrecen 2 ond


,

(Sonne

bitS

he

self

scame ond mid


tSsere

his geoylde,

ildinge suiSe wel


1

hie forscamige Saet hie eft sua

geladod

wi(5

ond eac mid

his recceres.

Dryhten Sreade Iudeas,

seceanne H.

don

hine selfne mid his agenre

urecani H.

<Sa

Be

he <5urh

TRANSLATION OF THE CURA PASTORALIS.

0,

Ge sindon leogende nceron ge no


min gemunende, ne ge no ne geSohton on eowerre heortan

Sone witgan cuaeS

'

Saet ic suugode, suelce

He

ne gesawe.'

hit

ic

Safode Sa scylda, gnd Seah he him gecySde

Seah Se he wiS

him Seah sulgende gesaede.


Ac mgnige scylda openllce witene beoS to forberanne,
Sonne Saes Singes tima ne biS Sset hit mgn sidelice gebetan
maege.
Swa se laece, Sonne he on untiman lacnaS wunde,
hio wyrmseS gnd rotaS.
For Saem, buton he Sone timan
Sa scyldgiendan swugode, he

aredige Saes laicedomes,

genda

Sone

forliesS

hit

Sonne biS
his

craeft

20

gnd

ilde,

hit

25

swutol Sset se lacni-

Ac Sonne

laecedomes.

se

lareow ieldende secS Sone timan Se he his hieremenn side- 30

on Sreatigean 1 maege, Sonne biS hit swutol Saet he bierS


geSylde Sa byrSenne hira scylda. Be Saem is swiSe
Da synwel gecueden Surh Sone salmsceop, Sa 2 he cwaeS
He sarette Saette
fullan bytledon uppe on mlnum hrygge.'
lice

on

his

'

Sa synfullan sceoldon bytlan omuppan


openllce cuaede

'

Donne

mann s

ic

me

hine gelaeran, Sonne biS

mlnum hrycge.'
Ac manegu dlglu Sing

suelce ic hine baire

sindon nearolice

maege ongietan be

Saette se r^ccere

hieremgnna mode

eall

Saet Sair

to

uppe on

smeageanne,

sumum tacnum on

Saem witgan gecueden

Sone wag.'

'

Da

ic

'

his 4

gnd on
he maege hwilum

gehyddes

lutige,

Ssem anbide Se he hira fandige, Saet


Be Saem waes suiSe ryhte
ongietan micel of lytlum.
chiele

he 35

his hrycge, swelce

geryhtan ne maeg gnd

Da mgnnes

to Eze-

sunu, SurlrSyrela

Sa Sone wah SurhSyreludne

haefde

V 45

me ane duru beinnan Saem


Ggng inn, geseoh Sa scande gnd
mnn her doS.' Ic Sa eode inn,

cuaeS se wltga, 'Sa lewde he


wealle, gnd cuaeS to me
Sa wierrestan Sing Se Sas
:

tfreagean C.

* jefde

H.

om. in H.

'

man H.

bere C.

eal II,

IO

KING ALFRED.

III.

gnd geseah

Sa anlicnessa

creopendra wuhta gnd


gnd ealle Sa heargas 1 Israhela folces waeron atiefrede on Saam wage.'
Hwaet ejles
meahte beon getacnod Surh Ezechiel buton Sa scirmenn,
gnd Surh Sone wah seo heardheortnes Sara hleremonna?
Hwaet is Sonne sio Syrelung Saas wages buton scearplicu
55 gnd smealicu fandung Saas modes, Saat mgn mid Saare
SurhSyrelige Sone weall, gnd onluce Sa heardan heortan,
gnd gehngscige ? He cuaaS
Da. ic haafde Sone weall SurhSyrelod, Sa geseah ic duru.' Suelce he cuaade
Da ic Saare
heortan heardnesse mid geornfullicre fandunge gnd ascunge
60 gnd Sreaunge 2 toslat, Sa geseah ic suelce ic gesawe sume
duru onlocene, Surh Sa ic geseah on Saam Se ic laaran scolde
ealle Sa innemestan geSohtas.'
Be Saam waas suiSe wel
gecueden
Ggng inn, gnd geseoh Sa heardsaalSa gnd Sa
scgnde Se Sas her doS.'
Daat is Sonne suelce he inn gaa
65 gnd geseo Sa scande, Sonne he ongiet/ be sumum Singum
Saer

eallra

5ealra amscunigendlicra nietena,

'

'

'

'

oSSe Seawum utone 3 aatiewdum

gnd sua
him biS

eall

cuS

mod

Sast hie unaliefedes

waas eac gecueden

'

Ic

70 nessa ealra creopendra


tena.'

eall Saat hie

SurlrfaeiS his gndgit Saat

Sa eode

Da. nietenu

Saatte

For Saam

gnd geseah Sa

getacnigeaS

anlic-

nie-

Sa eorSlican

Sonne beoS hwaethuguningas 4 frgm

eorSan ahaafen, gnd suaSeah onlutaS

Saam

SnceaS.

wuhta gnd eac onscuniendlicra

Da creopendan wuhta

geSohtas.

inn,

innan SgnceaS,

hleremgnna

his

Saare

to

eorSan

for

Da creopendan gnd Sa.


lichgman on eorSan. Da nie-

hie sculon bi 5 Saare libban.

75snicendan 6 licgeaS mid

ealle

tenu Sonne, Seah hie maran sien, hie beoS suiSur ahaafen

frgm eorSan, gnd suaSeah

for Saare

gewilnunge hiera giefer-

nesse hie simle locigeaS to Saare eorSan.

hearga H.

be C.

Sreatunge C.

scniceiidan

H.

utanne H.

Da creopendan
hwaethwugununges C.

TRANSLATION OF THE CURA PASTORALIS.

II

Sam wage getacniaS Sa imzgeSgncas Se wealmgnnes mode, Se sefre willaS licgean on Saim
Da nietenu Sonne Se he geseah
eorSlicum gewilnungum.
binnan Saim wage getacnigeaS Sonne mgn hwset ryhtlices
gnd gerisenlices geSncS Sonne ne ligeS he eallinga on
wuhta beinnan
caS

in Sses

Ssere eorSan sua

Sa creopendan wuhta, ac biS hwsethwugu


from eorSan

lipahsefen sua Sset neat

ac for Scere gewil- 85

nunga 1 woroldgielpes gnd gletsunga 2 he


lice to

So

Sissum eorSlicum, sua Sset neat

onlytt ungerisen-

for gifernesse

on\jU

Eac wses gesewen on Saim wage atifred


3
ealle Sa heargas Israhela folces, ond eac sio gitsung Se sanctus Paulus cuseS Sset waere hearga gnd idelnesse gefera. 90
SuiSe ryhtllce hit wses awnten sefter Saim nitenum Sset Sa
heargas wseron atiefrede, for Sam Seah Se ful mgnige mid
gerisenlicum weorcum arisen frgm eorSan, mid ungerisenlicum gewilnungum Sissa woroldSinga hie hie selfe algcgeaS

to Ssere eorSan.

on eorSan.
for

atiefred,

For Sy waes suiSe wel gecueden Sset hit wsere 95


mgn smeaS on his mode ymb

Ssem Sonne

hwelc eorSlic Sing, Sonne deS he suelce he

hit amete gnd


gnd sua tweolice gnd unfsesSlice he
atiefreS Sses Singes onlicnesse on his mode Se he Sonne
ymb smeaS. Eac is to wietanne Saet airesS biS se wah
SurhSyrelod, gnd siSSan mgn wyrcS duru to. Gif sio Sonne

atiefre

on

ontyned

his heortan,

biS,

scgnd inne

Sonne mseg mgn geseon

gif Sair

biS, sua se witga

Feorrane Su meaht

wah biS

dyde.

hwelc dieglu

ne meaht geseon hwset


Su Sa duru ontyne. Sua Su
meaht selcne unSeaw on Ssem me. nn seresS be sumum tacnum
ongietan, hwses Su wenan scealt, air he hit mid wordum oSSe
mid weorcum cyfe. SieSSan he hit Sonne mid Sara awSrum
geseon, gif se

Syrel, ac cSQ

Sairinne biS gehyddes, buton

gewilnunge C.

ico

gidsunge C.

gidsung C.

105

12

KING ALFRED.

III.

cyS, (Sonne biS slo duru Sajre unryhtwisnesse ontyned Saet

noSu meaht

geseon

eall Saet yfel

openllce Saet Saerinne lutaS.

Monige hira Sonne sindon suiSe 11661106 to Sreageanne,


Sonne he 1 of yfelum willan ne gesyngaS, ac 6f unwlsdome
ond ungewisses oSSe ungewealdes oSSe of flaisclicum gecynde oSSe of wacmodnesse ond of unbieldo oSSe of unii5trymnesse modes oSSe Hchoman. For Seem is suiSe micel
nledSearf Saet mpn mid micelre gemetgunge suelcra scylda
Sreaunga gellSige ond gemetgie, for Saem Se we ealle,Sa 2 hwlle
Se we libbaS on Sissum deadlican flaesce, Saere tidernesse ond
3
Saere hnscnesse ures flaesces we beoS underSiedde. Bi him
122 selfum eelc mpnw sceal geS^ncean hu he oSrum deman
wille, Sylais he sie ongieten Saet he sie onstyred ond onaeled
mid Saem andan his hleremonna unSeawa, ond haebbe hine
Be Saem suiSe wel Paulus us manode,
selfne forgietenne.
Gif hwa. sie abisgod 4 mid hwelcum scyloa he cuaeS
125 dum, ge Sonne Se gaesSlice sindon gelaeraS Sa. suelcan mid
monnSwaarnesse gaeste
gesceawiaS eow selfe, Qylaas eow
becume costung V Suelce he openlice cuaede
Donne eow
misliciaS Sa, mettrumnessa 6 Se ge on oSrum monnum geseoS,
Sonne geSgnce ge hwaet ge sien ond hwelce ge sien; for
30 Saem Saet ge eower mod gemetgien on Saem niSe, Sonne ge
eow selfum ondraedaS Saet Saet ge on oSrum mgnnum taelaS.'
Qnd Seah sindon monige suiSe suiSe to Sreageanne, Sonne
hie selfe nyllaS ongietan hiera scylda, Saet hi Sonne gehler'

'

en
135 hie

Sreagende of Saes lariowes muSe hu micle byrSenne

habbaS on hiera scyldum 8 Sonne

Saet yfel Saet hie

hie willaS

ondraeden for Saes lareowes Sreaunga Saet hie


fegigen.

stemne
1

hie C.

Daet

him selfum

Surh-tugon to suiSe gelihtan, Saet hie Sonne

Sonne biS

hit

him geh-

Saes rgeceres ryht Saet he

Surh Sa

larlowdomes aetiewe Saet wuldor Saes uplican

his
2

medtrymnessa

iSe

H.

3
7

be C.
-an H.

abisegod H.
8

scyldrum C.

becyme costnung C.

TRANSLATION OF THE CUR A PASTORALIS.

gnd hu mgniga digla costunga Saes ealdan feondes


on Sys andweardan life he eac geopenige, gnd Saet

e*Sles

140

lutigeaS

he his hieremgnna yfelu to hnsclice forberan ne

sceal, ac

mid miclum andan ond reSnesse him stiere, Sylaes he sie


scyldig ealra hira scylda, Sonne him hiera na ne ofSyncS.
Nim sume
Be Saem waes suiSe wel gecueden to Ezechiele
tigelan, ond lge beforan Se, ond writ on hiere Sa burg
'

BesittaS hie
gnd sona aefter Saem he cuaeS
gnd wyrceaS oSer faesten wiS hie, gnd beraS hiere
hlaed t6, gnd snd Saerto gefylcio-, gnd SerscaS Sone weall
mid rammum.' Qnd eft he him taehte to fultome Saet he him
gename ane iserne hearstepannan 1 gnd stte betweoh hine
gnd Sa burg for iserne weall. Hwaet tacnaS Sonne Ezechiel 2

Hierusalem.'

145

'

titan,

150

Sa lareowas,

se witga buton

to

Saem

is

gecueden

'

Genim Se

ane tigelan, gnd lge beforan oe, gnd writ on hiere Sa burg

Hierusalem

Sonne

Donne

'

Da. halgan lareowas

hie Sara eorSlicra


hie lecgeaS

mgnna

Sonne him nimaS

tigelan, 155

heortan underfoS to laeronne.

Sa tieglan beforan

hie,

Se him beboden

waes Saet hi scolden Sa ceastre Hierusalem on awritan,

behealdaS

hie

ealle

Sonne

Sa inngeSgneas hiora modes, gnd suiSe

giemaS Saet hie Sa. eorSlican heortan gelaeren, gnd 160


him aetiewen hwelc sie Saere uplican sibbe gesiehS, gnd hu
on idelnesse man ongiett Godes Saet hefonlice wuldor 3 gif
he ne ongiett hu mgnega costunga Saes lytegan feondes him
geornlice

6n
'

SuiSe wel he

feallaS.

wiS

hie.'

hit geicte

mid Sysum, Sa he cuagS

burg suiSe gebyrdelice, gnd getrymiaS eow 165


Da. halgan lareowas ymbsittaS Sa tieglan, Se sio

Ymb'sittaS

Sa.

burg Hierusalem on atiefred

biS,

mode, Se Seah

secS, aetiewaS

Saet uplice

Iff

Sonne

hi

Sam mgnniscan
hu manega him

6n Sys andweardum life frecenlice wiSerwearde unSeawas


him wiS feohtaS, gnd hu aeghwelc sfnn biS saetigende Saes
1

irene hierstepannan C.

Ezechhie!

II.

'

wundor

//.

170

KING ALFRED.

HI.

14

Qnd

Siondan mgnnes.

med onbutan

suai suce se heje sceolde bion getry-

Hierusalem, suae sculon beon getrymed

word Saes sacerdes ymbutan


ne sceal he no
75

Saet

Saet

mod

(5a

Qnd

hieremgnna.

his

an bodigan his hieremgnnum hu a

synna him wiS winnaS, ac he him sceal eac cySan mid hwel-

cum

craeftum he

him wiSstgndan maeg. SwiSe ryhtllce waes


Sa mgn to Saem witgan cuaeS
Wyr-

se eaca Saerto gedon,

ceaS

ymb
ymb

fsesten

(5a

'

Wiotodlice faesten wyrcS se

burg.'

(5a burg Saes modes Se he gelserS Sone


maeg costingum wiSstgndan \ gnd him eac
gesaegS hu Saem mgnnum Se him maegen ond craeft wiexS,
hu him eac hwilum eakiaS aefter Saem maegenum Sa cos-

halga lariow

hu

iSocraeft

hit

Be Saem waes suiSe ryhte gecueden


BeraS hire to
gnd ymbsittaS hie, gnd gaS to mid rammum.' Donne
birecS selc lareovv hlaed to Saes mgnnes mode, Sonne he him
gecy<5S hu sio byrSen wiexS gnd hefegaS.
Eac he araerS 2
ceastre wiS Hierusalem, Sonne he Saem ryhtlicum inngeSgnce

tunga.

'

hlaed,
185

his

hieremgnna foresaegS Sa dleglan saetenga Saes lytegan

wenan maeg. Qnd eac he bierS rammas


ymbutan Saet mod his hieremgnna, Sonne he him gecyS mid
hu scearplicum costungum we sint aeghwgnon iitan be3
hrincgde, gnd se weall ures maegenes SurhSyrelod mid Saem
4
scearpum rammum Sara costunga. Qnd suaSeah nu, Seah

feondes, Se he him
190

gnd openlice gecySe, ne forstent


him noht, ne him nohte Son ma ne beoS forlaetna his
agna synna, buton he sle onaeled mid ryhtwislicum andan
5
wiS his hieremgnna scylda. Be Saem is git suiSe ryhtlice
se lareow Sis eall smealice

95 hit

gecueden

to

Saem witgan

nan, gnd ste betweoxn Se


200

Durh Sa pannan
1

wistondan H.

"Saeui

Is

'

Genim Se ane

iserne

gnd Hierusalem

hierstepan-

for iserne weall.'

getacnod se wielm Saes modes, gnd Surh

araeti

scearpan ranimuin C.

H.
5

-aS H.

be Ciosum

git

is

flan scearpan

C.

ramman

irene.

H:,

TRANSLATION OF THE CVRA PASTORALIS.


Saet isern Saet

maegen Sara Sreatunga.

biterre 2 sie

Saes lareowes

on

ond gegrmige Sonne


upahaefen
baerned,
for his

Mid

(5a

Sisse

he cuaeS

'
:

Singum seoc

OSSe hwa biS


Qnd sua hwelc

'

sulSe ryhte gecueden to


4

sua mid
3

for giemeleste

Saem witgan

Da

Se Qnd Sa burh.'

for iserne weall to s ttanne

for

Sam nu Sa

'

e/t

205

me

Sam Godes

gehlened, ac he

Bi Salm waes

Sgte iserne weall

10

isernan hierstepannan he taehte

betuh 5 Saem witgan ond Saere byrig,

rcceras aetiewaS sua strangne andan

wiellaS Saet hie hiene

gnd

Singa 1 Se

gescended, Saet

biS stranglice wiS Sa getrymed on ecnesse.

betuh

is

sulSur gehierste

hit

se anda Se for ryhtwisnesse biS


pannan hierstinge waes Paulus onHwa biS medtrum, Saet ic ne sie eac

Saem ne scamige ?
andan biS onaeled, ne biS he
for

Hwaet

mode, oSSe

15

haebben on Saem ecan

life

Sy

hie

betux 5 him

hieremgnnum to isernum wealle, Saet is t6 gewit-215


him ne licode, Seah he hit gebetan ne meahte.
For Saim Sonne Saes rgcceres mod wirS 6 to reSe on
Saere Sreaunga, Sonne abirst 7 Saer hwilum hwaethwugu ut
hiera

nesse Saet hit

Qnd oft eac gelimpeS, Sonne


sceolde.
Qnd to Searllice Sreapian wile his hleremienn, 220
Saet his word beoS gehwirfdo 9 to unnyttre oferspraece.
Donne sio Sreaung biS ungemetgad, Sonne biS Saet mod
Saes agyltendan mid ormodnesse geSrysced.
For Saem is
micel Searf, Sonne se reSa reccere ongiett Saet he his hieremQnna mod suiSur gedrefed haefS Sonne he scolde, Saet he 225
Saes

he

Se he swugian

to

sulSe

sona for Saem hreowsige, Saet he Surh Sa hreowsunga gemete

Sa

forgiefnesse beforan Saere SoSfaesSnesse Saes Se he Surh

geornfulnesse his andan gesyngade.

Daet

us bisnade Surh Moysen,

witllce
1

mid

his friend to
s

Sienga H.

betweoh C.

gehwyrfedo

bieterre
8

//.

wyrft

Sa he cuaeS

wuda treow

H.
H.

'

ilce

Gif

abiersft

H.

God

hwa gQnge

to ceorfanne,

giemeliste C.
7

Dryhten

bil-

gnd

sio 230

betweox C.
*

sugiau

//.

KING ALFRED.

III.

Saem

aecs (Sonne awient of


2

slihS

his geferan,

hielfe,

gnd sua ungewealdes


3

he (Sonne sceal fieon to anre

burga Se to friSstowe gesgtte

sint

gnd

libbe,

of-

Sara Sreora
Sylaes

hwelc

gnd
Sonne gefoo gnd ofslea.' To wuda we ga.S mid urum
freondum sua oft sua. we sceawiaS urra 4 hieremgnna unSeawSara nlehstena Saes ofslaegenan for Seem sare

his ehte,

235 hine

as

gnd

bilwitlice

we heawaS Sone wudu, Sonne we Sara

gyltendra scylda mid arfaestes 5 inwgeSgnces lare anweg-aceor-

Ac

faS.

240 hgnda,

mgn

Sreatunga gaS

to

gnd eac us of

hielfe,

Saire

on reSnesse suiSur Sonne

slo lar wint

Ssem

Sio aecs wient of

niede scyle.

Saire

Sam

slo aecs wint of

Sonne Sonne

stiSlico

Sonne of

hielfe,

Sam

word, gnd mid

his

freond gewundaS, oSSe ofsliehS, Sonne he hine on unrotnesse oSSe on ormodnesse gebringS mid his edwite, Seah he
245 hit for

gif

mod

biS sufSe raSe gehwierfed to flounga,

him mgn

suiSur

wudu

SuaSeah

lufum do, Sset he geopenige his linSeawas.

Saet geSreatade

to ungemetllce mid
Sonne mgn Syrfe. Ac
hlewS, gnd sua his freond

Sreapunga oferfylgS

Saire
se

se

Se unwaerlice Sone

him biS nidSearf


7
on sumere

ofsliehS,

burga anre, Saet he

250 Saet he fleo to Sara Sreora

Sara weorSe genejed, Saet he mote libban

gehweorfe

to

sumere, Saet

hreowsunga, gnd
is

sua. fleo to

Saet

Saet he

is

Sara Sreora burga

tohopa gnd lufu gnd geleafa.

Se

to anre

Sara burga gefllehS, Sonne maeg he blon orsorg Saes mgnn2f5sliehtes:

Seah hine

ryhtwisa

meten 5a niehstan

Saer

ne sleaS hi hiene na

Dema cymS,

for

se

Ssem Sonne

Saes ofslaegenan,

gnd

se Searla

se

Se hine on urne geferscipe Surh

flaesces gecynd gemgngde, ne wriecS he mid nanum Singum


Sa scylde on him, for Saem under his forgiefnesse hine
260 gefrieSode slo lufu gnd se geleafa gnd se tohopa.

ungewealSes H.

arlaesSlSes

H.

ofslieS

wuda H.

H.
7

om.

in

aura both.

H.

ura loth.

IV.

THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN.


[King

Alfred's

Version

by Orosius, by the Rev.


edition

J.

of the

Compendious

History

Bosworth, London, 1S59.

by Thorpe, forming an Appendix

to

of

There

the English

World

the
is

another

translation

of

Pauli's Life of Alfred, in Bohn's Library.]

These

voyages are an original insertion of Alfred into his

and are therefore of the highest


specimens of natural Alfredian
prose.
The work is preserved in two MSS., one, the Lauderdale (L.), contemporary, the other, the Gottonian (C), of the
eleventh century. The Lauderdale MS. is unfortunately defective, eight leaves having been cut out, which include the greater
I have, therefore, followed L. (as
portion of our present text.
given in my forthcoming edition) as far as it goes, and given
It will be seen, both from the fragment of L.
the rest from C.
here given, and also from the longer extract which follows,
that the forms of the MS. are slightly less archaic than those
of the Pastoral, although, on the whole, the two texts agree very
translation of Orosius's History,
literary

and philological

value, as

closely.

Ohthre soede his hlaforde, iElfrede cyninge,

NorcSmgnna norbmest bude.


baem lande norbweardum wib
baet baet

land

sie

He
ba.

cwaet)

baet

he ealra

he bude on

He

Westsoe.

swlbe lang norb bgnan

saede

ac hit

is

beah
eal/

on feawum stowum styccemselum \vlciar5 Finon huntocSe on wintra, ond on sumera on fiscabe be

weste, buton
nas,

bast

one

\ixl

omitted in

I..

l8

KING ALFRED.

IV.

paare

He

saa.

hu longe

saade paat he set

paat land

norpryhte

sumum

laage,

be noroan paam westenne bude.

ond

he swa.

oppe seo
siglde oa

gesiglan.

he meahte on paam oprum


land paar eastryhte,

paat

bad westanwindes ond hwon norpan, ond

(Saar

swa swa he meahte on feower dagum

east be lande

sceolde he

pa.

paat

swa.

pa beag

in on Sast lond, he nysse hwaaoer, buton he

saa

wisse oast he

(5aar

bidan ryhtnorpanwindes, for

land beag paar supryhte, oppe seo

he nysse hwaaper.

20 land,

siglde

pa.

lande swa. swa. he mehte on

fff

ea, for

unfripe

for

dagum

(5aat

Ne mette
agnum ham for

?5 paare eas.

his

paat steorbord,

he

land waas
aar

inra

gesiglan.

pa.

paam hie ne dorston forp


paam

saa

on

Saat

he ponan suoYyhte be

hair an micel ea up in on paat land.

on oa

mon

he norpryhte be

for

widsaa

he paglet norpryhte swa feorr

Siem

pa

let

pa.

prim dagum gesiglan.


15

wolde fandian

him ealne weg paat weste land on Saat steoron Sast bsecbord prle dagas. pa waas
feorr nor}? swa. pa. hwielnuntan firrest farap.
pa for

iopaam lande:
bord,

cirre

oppe hwaaoer aanig

Da. laag

cirdon hie up in

bi paare

ea siglan for

gebun on opre

eall

nan gebun

land, sippan

healfe

he frgm

weg weste land on

ac him waas ealne

butan fiscerum ond fugelerum ond huntum,

eall Finnas
ond him waas a widsaa on
pa Beormas haafdon swipe wel gebud 2 hira
Ac para Terfinna
3 land
ac hie ne dorston pair on cuman.
Saar
huntan
gewlcodon, oppe
buton
land waas eal/ weste,

ond

paat

waaron

Saat baacbord.
:

fisceras,

oppe

fugeleras.

Fela spella him saadon pa Beormas aagper ge of hiera

agnum
35 ac

lande ge of paam landum pe

he nyste hwaat

geseah.

pa.

Finnas, him puhte, ond

Swipost he for

neah an gepeode.
1

ymb

paas sopes waas, for

J)anon C.

pa.

<5ider,

hie titan waaron

paam he

hit self

ne

Beormas spraacon
toeacan paas landes

2 gebiin C.

THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN.

sceawunge, for pcem horshwaelum \ for Saim hie habbaS


swipe aepele ban on hiora topum; (pa teS hie brohton sume

paem cyninge); ond hiora hyd 2


Se hwael
lgngra

micle laessa ponne 5(5re

bi(S

Sonne syfan ejna lang

se bgtsta hwaelhuntacS

sciprapum 3 40
hwalas: ne biS he

god

to

agnum

ac on his

lande

is

pa beotS eahta and feowertiges ejna

and pa maestan,

lange,

bi(5 s\vi(5e

fiftiges

?lna lange

para he saede

he syxa sum ofsloge syxtig on twam dagum.

paet

He

mann on paim aehtum

waes swyde spedig

speda on beoS,

paet

is,

He

on wildrum.

45

be heora

haefde pagyt,

deor

hi

hataS

'

hranas

para waeron

'

beoS swySe dyre mid Finnum,

He

syx staelhranas

for t5aem

hy

f6(5

he

c~a

pone cyninge sohte, tamra deora unbebohtra syx hund.


;

pa
6a

pa wildan 50

mid paem fyrstum mannum on paim


ma Sonne Iwentig hrytSera, and
twentig sceapa, and twentig swyna
and paet lytle paet he
ejede. he grede mid horsan.
Ac hyra ar is ma?st on paem
gafole pe (5a. Finnas him gyldacS.
paet gafol bi(5 on deora 55
fellum, and on fugela feSerum, and hwales bane, and on
hranas mid.

lande

waes

he peah

naefde

poem sciprapum, pe beo(5 of hwaeles hyde geworht, and of


seoles.

gyldan

iEghwilc gylt be hys gebyrdum.

mearSes

fiftyne

and tyn ambra

feSra,

twegen sciprapas 8

fell,

and

fif

and berenne

Se byrdesta

sceall

hranes, and an beren 4

fel/,

kyrtel oo"5e yterenne,

and 60

aegper sy syxtig ejna lang, oper sy of

hwaeles hyde geworht, oper of sioles.

He
swySe

saede

tSaet

maeg, paet

li wi(5

swySe cludig

NorcSmanna land waire swype lang and

Eal/ paet his

smael.

<5a.

and

sae;

man

and

licgacS

horschwselum L.

And

paet

is

peah on

oSSe

e,

rian

sumum stowum

wilde moras wi(5 eastan and witS

uppon emnlange paim bynum


eardiacS Finnas.

after ot5Se gttan

paet

here ends L.

C 2

On

lande.

byne land

p3em morum

easteweard bradost,

is

scip-.

btran.

63

20

KING ALFRED.

IV.

and symle

bradre

ocSSe

britig

swa

swa. nor<5or

smalost waire, baet

hit maeg
and middeweard

Eastewgrd

smaelre.

obbe hwene bradre 1

70 bion syxtig mila brad,

and nonSeweard he

hit

cwaecS,

baer

hit

mihte beon breora mila brad to paem

more and se mor syc5pan, on sumum stowum, swa brad swa.


man maeg on twam wucum oferferan and on sumum
stowum swa. brad swa. man mseg on syx dagum oferferan.
;

75

Donne

toemnes paem lande suSeweardum, on oSre

is

op

healfe bass mores, Sweoland,

paet land

norSeweard

and

toemnes paem lande noroeweardum, Cwena land,


hrgia(S

hwllum on

NorSmgn;; on

8 c pa.

geond
land on

fersce

ofer

men;z

NonSmenw
And pair

tSa.

hy.

and

swlo'e

pa Cwenas hyra scypu

pa.

moras

<5a

mras, and panon hejgiacS on

hy habbacS swySe

ofer (Sone
sint

pa Cwenas
mor, hwllum
micle mras

lytle

beracS

<5a

Nor5-

scypa and swySe leohte.

Ohthgre saede

85

baet sio scir hatte Helgoland, pe he on biide.


nan man ne bude be nonSan him. ponne
2
is an port on suSeweardum psem lande, pone
man haet/
Sciringes heal,
pyder he cwaecS past man ne mihte geseglian on anum monoe, gyf man on niht wicode, and

He

cwaet) baet

daege haefde ambyrne wind

slice

90 sceal seglian be lande.

And on

and

ealle

past steorbord

Sa hwlle he
him bio' aerest

and ponne oa igland pe synd betux Xralande and


ponne is pis land, ocS he cymcS to Scirincges

Iraland,

bissum lande.
heale,

and ealne weg on

bone Sciringes heal


95 lond
is

seo

is

And
dagan

baecbord NorSweg.

swySe mycel

bradre bonne aenig

Gotland on

sab lfS

paet

fyltS

ocSre healfe

mans

braedre.

mgn
s

(Saet

hast/ set

}>onne.

(5aet

And
Seo

bset land.

of Sciringes heale he cwae'S

paem porte pe

ofer seon maege.

ongean, and sfSSan 3 Sillende.

maenig hund mila up inn on

to

Wi(5 sucan

up inn on

sac

he seglode on

Haebum
s

srSSa.

se

flf

ste. nt

THE VOYAGES OF OH THERE AND WULFSTAN.

betuh Winedum, and Seaxum, and Angle, and hyrcS in on 100

Da

Dgne.

he J>iderweard seglode 1 fram Sciringesheale,

Dnamearc and on

waes him on baet baecbord


widsae bry dagas

and

twegen dagas

ba,

|?a

baet steorbord

he to Haebum

air

come, him waes on baet steorbord Gotland, and Sill^nde,


and iglanda fela. On biem landum eardodon Engle, aer hi

And hym

on land coman.

hider

Saet baecbord

ba igland be

Wulfstan saede

inra

waes

he gefore of HaetSum,

baet

segle.

105

twegen dagas on

on 2 D^nemearce hyrao\

Truso on syfan dagum and nihtum,

weg yrnende under

(5a

he waere on

baet

bset bast scip waes ealne

Weonooland him waes on

steorbord,

10

and on baecbord him waes Langaland, and Laeland, and Falster, and Scdneg
and bas land eall hyracS to Dnemearcan.
;

And

J?onne Burgenda land waes us

habb.it>

him

sylfe

ponne

cyning.

on bcecbord, and ba
Burgenda lande

aefter

wseron us bas land,

ba synd halene aerest Blecinga-e'g,


and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland on baecbord and

115

Sweom 4

bas land hyraS to

weg on
mycel

And Weonodland

steorbord ocS WislemuSan.

ea,

and hlo

Witland belimpeS
odlande, and

11(5

in

tollS
to

Wftland and Weonodland

Estum

Estmeje

ponne cymeS

mila brad,

and seo Wisle


and

lige<5

man

haet/

And bonne

huru

fiftene

is

5
,

and Wisle sucSan of

of bairn mre west and norS on

paet Estland

is

saS

swycSe mycel, and b;5r biS

seglode.
6

120

benimcS Wisle Ilfing hire naman, 1^5


;

for

cy

hit

WlslemuSa.

burh, and on ulcere byrig


1

baet

Weon-

Estmere of Saem
and cuma<5 ut samod in

Estmre, Ilfing eastan of Estlande

and

swycSe

and
of

liS ut

Estmere

se

is
;

Ilfing eastan in

mre, Se Truso standee^ in staeSe

Winodlande.

waes us ealne

Seo Wisle

bitS

cyningc.
3

omitted.

Eastlande.

And

sylf.

Easlland.

swySe manig
}xer biS
*

swySe

Sweon.

22

KING ALFRED.

IV.

i3&mycel hunig. and fiscnaS

mn

and

se

cyning and

pa.

drincaS myran meolc, and ba unspedigan

beowan drincaS medo.

And

tweonan him.
Estum, ac

ne biS Sair

ricostan

and

pa.

swySe mycel gewinn benainig ealo gebrowen mid

medo 2 genoh. And beer is mid Estum


biS man dead, bast he liS inne unfor-

bair biS

^SSeaw, bonne
basrned mid
twegen

pair biS

f>air

his

magum and freondum monaS,

ge hvvilum

and ba kyningas, and ba oSre heahSungene mn,

swa micle lncg swa

maran speda habbaS, hwllum

hi

healf

beoS unforbaarned, and licgaS bufan eorSan on


'4hyra husum. And ealle }?a hwlle be bast lie biS inne, bair
ge*ar bast hi

sceal

beon gedrync and plega, oS Sone dasg be hi hine forponne by ylcan daage be 3 hi hine to bairn ade

basrnaS.

beran wyllaS, bonne todailaS


bicS aafter

bairn

hi

his feoh, bset bair to lafe

gedrynce and bairn plegan, on

"45hwylum on ma, swa swa

Sonne forhwaaga on anre mile bone maistan


tune,

oSSe

syx,

AlgcgaS

daal

hit

fram bairn

bonne oSerne, Sonne basne briddan, ob be hyt eall aled


and sceall beon se lcesta dail nyhst
Donne sceolon beon
tune Se se deada man on lfS.

biS on baire anre mile


bairn

fif

bass feos andefn biS.

Sa mnn Se swyftoste hors habbaS on baim


on fif milum oSSe on syx milum fram bairn
ponne sernaS hy ealle toweard ]?aim feo Sonne cymeS

i.5ogesamnode

ealle

lande, forhwaega
feo.

se

man

and

se bast swiftoste

to bairn maistan,

hors hafaS to bairn airestan daile

and swa

ailc

aefter

oSrum, ob

hit

biS

nimS bone laistan dail se nyhst bairn


5
And bonne rideS ailc hys weges
tune bset feoh geaarneS
habban eall and for Sy J?air
motan
hyt
feo,
and
mid San
beoS ba swiftan hors ungefoge dyre. And bonne his gestreon beoS bus eall aspnded, bonne byrS man hine lit, and
lOoforbaerneS mid his waipnum and hrsegle; and swiSost ealle

155 eall

genumen; and

se

\iii-.

medo.
5

gexrueS.

omitted.

swifte.

THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN.

2$

hys speda hy forspendao" mid pan langan legere pses deadan


mannes inne, and paes pe hy be psem wegum aleegacS, pe

And pset is mid Estum


to sernatS, and nimao".
peaw pset pSr sceal selces geoeodes man beon forbserned
and gyf par man an ban findeS unforbaerned, hi hit sceolan
miclum gebetan. And pser is mid Estum an msegS past
and py pair licgac- pa deadan
hi magon cyle gewyrcan
men swa lange, and ne fuliatS, paet hy wyrcaS pone cyle
Sa fremdan

16;

him 2 on.

And peah man

otSoe waeteres,
hit sy

hy gedotS

sumor sam
1

aseUe
pset

twegen

ajgper 3

faetels

winter.

Eastum.

tine.

full

oferfroren,

bio"

ojier.

ealao"

sam

70

V.

ALFRED'S TRANSLATION OF OROS1US.


The Amazons
[From

(I,

10).

the Lauderdale MS.]

^Er baem pe Romeburg getimbred waere

hunde 1 win-

iv

trum gnd hundeahtatigum, Uesoges, Egypta cyning, wses

winnende of

siiSdaele

Qnd

underpieded.
5

mid

firde

Asiam,

ocS

him

se maesta dael wearcS

he Uesoges, Egypta cyning, waes sippan

farende on Scippie on

(5a

nofSdaelas,

gnd

his aerend-

racan beforan asgnde to paere Seode, Qnd him untweogendlice

him

secgan het p33t hie ofter 2 sceolden, oppe


alesan,

forhrigan.

iocwaedon

hit

gemalic 3 waere

gnd

Heton him peh

swa hie wseron.

15

him

Hie

paet

cyning gefliemdon mid


wseron,

set

unryhtlic

paet

swa

past

swa

earm

folc

gndwyrde sgegan

ponne gafol
gnd sona pone
gnd him aefter folgiende

leofre wsere wicS hiene to feohtanne

gieldanne.

to

lgnd

Hie him pa gesceadwislice gndwyrdon, gnd

past

oferwlenced cyning sceolde winnan on

paet

(5set

oppe he hie wolde mid gefeohte fordon gnd

gnd

ealle

gelaestan

his folce,

swa,

JGgypte awestan buton paem fn?/lgndum

Qnd pa

hie hamweard wgndon be westan pcere Te


Asiam hie genieddon paet hie him gafol
guidon, gnd pair wseron fiftene gear tSset Ignd hejigende gnd
aowestende, ocS heora wif him sgndon serendracan aefter, gnd

anum.

Eufrate,

ealle

hund C.

has been erased in L, and only the S and


8

gemahlic C.

are

visible.

TRANSLATION OF OROSIUS ; THE AMAZONS.

25

him ssedon Saet hie ocSer dyden, o(5pe ham comen, oSSe hie
him woldon o'Serra wera ceosan. Hi f>a paet lgnd forleton,
gnd him hamweard ferdon.
Qn paire ilcan tide wurdon twegen aepelingas afliemde of
Scippian, Plenius gnd Scolopetius waeron hatene, gnd ge- 25
foran paet lgnd gnd gebudon betuh Capadotiam gnd Pontum neah paire laissan Asiam 1 gnd paer winnende waaron,
Qnd hie Sser aefter hraedocS hie him paer eard genamon.
,

licre

from paim lgndleodum purh searwa 3 ofslaegene

tide

wurdon.

gnd swa

pa.

wurdon hiora

para operra

mgnna pe mid him

wsepna naman,

Qnd

wif swa. sarige

on hiora mode,

pon

to

<5aet

hi pa. hraedlice aefter

hie

ofslaegene waeron, paette hie

heora weras wrecan pohton.

paem ofslogan

waepned-

ealle pa.

mn pe him on neaweste

waeron.

pe hie woldon paette

opere wif warren emsarige

paet hie

sleande,
pa.

pa.

For pon hie dydon swa

sippan on him fultum haefden, Saet hie

heora weras wrecan.

gnd on

<5aet

Hi

pa. pa.

winnende waeron, gnd

folc

hie paes lgndes haefdon micel

Sippan waes hiera peaw

twlf m5na(5 tosgmne ferdon,

don.

ft ponne

hie

maedencild,

pa.

pa.

wif heora

35

him,

ma mghten

wif ealle togaedere gecirdon,

under paem gewinne hie genamon

mn.

swiolice gedrefed, aigpaer ge para sepelinga wif ge

paet

gnd

peer

beam

pa.

waepnedm^nra

on hiora onwalde.

fricS

wiS

40

waepned-

pa.

hie aelce geare

ymbe

ponne bearna

strien-

c^ndon, ponne feddon

gnd paim maeden-45


hit weaxan
for pon hi
paet hie haefden py str^ngran scyte
on Crecisc Amazanas*, paet is on Fmglisc
gnd slogon

pa,

hysecild,

cildum hie fort^ndun past swiSre breost foran, bast

ne sceolde,

mgn
'

haet/

fortf nde.'

Heora twa waeron heora cwena, Marsepia gnd Lampida 50


Hie heora hre on tu lodaeldon oper aet
ham beon heora Ignd to healdanne, 6(5er ut faran to winn-

waeron hatene.

Asian.

hrsed ice.

seara.

Amazasanas.

25

KING ALFRED.

V.

Hie sibpan geeodon Europe grid Asiam pone maistan


gnd getimbredon Effesum pa, burg, gnd monege ooere

anne.
dsel,

55

on

(5sere laassan

Asiam

daal

ham sndon mid

pair

leton

paet

gnd sippan

hiera hres

pone maestan

pone operne

hiora hgrehype, grid

dsel

wearS Marsepia
hres pe mid hiere beaeftan

lgnd to

healdonne.

pair

cwen ofslagen gnd micel paes


Daer wearS hire dohtor cwen, Sinope.
Seo ilce cwen
60 Sinope, toeacan hiere hwaetscipe gnd hiere monigfealdum
dugupum, hiere Hf gegndade on maegcShade.
sio

waes.

On

65

pasm dagum waes

swa. micel ge from (Saem wifmgnEurope ne Asiam ne ealle pa neahpeoda ne


m hton apncean ne acraeftan hu hi him wifrstgndan mehten,
air pon hie gecuron Ercol pone nt pset he hie sceolde mid

num,

paette

Qnd

eallum Creca craeftum beswican.

geneSan

he hie mid

paet

mgn dulmunus

Creca scipun pe

on an
70

'

gearwe hi on

gnd

bestael,

gnd hwaeoere ne mehte

dagum

'

hsett,

msege an pusend manna

scip

pair

wseron

he gngan;z mid

mgn

pe

gnd pa

hie swipe forslog

hie pass lgndes

cwena,

twa.

Anthiopa gnd Orithia

peah ne dorste he

firde gefore, ser

gnd

peer

paet

On

wairon

tSaem

gesweostor,

wearS Orithia gefangen.

on paem Troi-

aniscan gefeohte swipe maere geweartS.

Hit

hwelc

is

scgndlic, cwaecS Orosius,

hit pa. wses,

don gegan pone


ealles

80

on ungnd fordyde

benaaman.

^Efter hiere feng to (Saem rice Pentesilia, sio


75

saegcS past

nihtes

pa.

hie

ymb

swelc to sprecanne,

pa swa earme wif gnd


craeftgestan dael

gnd

swa.

middangeardes, paet waes Asiam

pises

forneah mid

ealde byrig towurpon.

ealle

ejoeodge

haef-

mn

hwatestan

pa.

gnd Europe,

aweston, gnd ealda ceastra gnd

Qnd

dydon

aefter (Saem hie

aagper,

ge

cyninga ricu Sfttan ge niwa 2 ceastra timbredon, gnd

ealle

worold on hiora agen gewill onwgndende wairon

neah

pa.

wintra.

Qnd
1

pa C.

swa.

gemune mn waeron
2

aelces

niwu.

fol

broces

TRANSLATION OF OROSIUS; THE AMAZONS.


neah

psette hie hit fol

to

nanum

nanum

facne ne to

2J
laSe 85

nsefdon psette pa earman wffmenw hie swa tintredon.

Qnd nu, pa oa Gotan coman of


num Germania, pe seg(5er ge Pirrus
ge Alexander, ge

hwatestan mgn-

paim

se re(5a

Creca cyning,

Iulius se crseftega casere, hie alle

frgm him

mid gefeohte sohten hu ungemetllce 2 9


ge R6mware bemurciacS gnd besprecacS past eow nu wyrs
3
sle
on piosan cristendome ponne psem peodum pa. wcere,
for pon pa Gotan eow hwon oferhf rgedon, gnd iowre burg
ondredon

abrsecon,

gnd

pset hi hie

gnd lower feawe ofslogon

for hiora hwaetscipe

gnd

for hiora crseftum

lowra selfra anwald 4 eoweres un-95

lustlice sibbsumes frioes gnd


eow biddende sindon, to pon pset hie eow
on fultume beon moten gnd hit ser piosan genog semettig
Hu
Iseg, gnd genog weste, gnd ge his nane note ne hsefdon.
blindllce mgnege peoda sprecaS ymb pone crlstendom, post
hit nu wyrse sle ponne hit ser waire, pset hie nella'S gep<m-

pgnces habban mhton, pe nu

sumne

dael

landes 5

set

cean oppe ne cunnon, hwser

dome,

oo"(5e

geboren wses, pe
pset

an

pset

psern

ealles

middangeardes

cristen-

is

set

operre mehte

seolfre

Ac

sibb

oppe mid

105

sippan Crist

gnd

fri(5,

nales

betweonum buton peowdome gesibbsume

Hu wene

ge hwelce sibbe pa weras hsefden

cristendome, ponne

heora wlf swa mgnigfeald

donde wseron on piosan middangearde


1

pajm

men/z hie mehten allesan mid feo of peowdome,

ac eac peoda him


wairon.

ser

oppe hwser senegu peod

mid golde o<5oe mid


buton he him underpledd waire.

begietan

cenige feo,

gewurde

senegu peod opre hiere willum fripes baMe, buton

pset

hiere pearf wajre


frit)

hit

ico

mid gefeohten

L.
4

mid gefeohte sohte C.

anwaldes both.

ser

yfel

from

un-.
C.

wyrsie.

10

28

KING ALFRED.

V.

Cyrus

we

Cirus, Persa cyning, be

(II, 4).

beforan saegdon, ba hwile

aer

gnd Romane wunnon on baem westdaMe, ba hwile


wonn he aegjser ge on Scibbie ge on Indie, ob he haefde
maest ealne bone eastdael awest; gnd asfter SSm fird gelcedde
Sabini

??e

be ba welegre waes bonne aenigu oberu burg.

to Babylonia,

Ac

hiene Gandes seo ea 1 baes oferfaereldes lgnge gelgtte, for

baem be

baer scipa nairon

buton Eufrate.
sunde

ba.

pa.

baet

ea oferfaran wolde mid

swa gewrecan wolde,

mode gnd wib


hiere

cneowe

ba.

ealra ferscra wsetera maest,

twam tyncenum

Da gebeotode

lose stream fordraf.


hire

is

gebeotode an his Segna baet he mid

ba,

he swa.

ea gebolgen,

ofer wadan, ]xer

Cirus

aer

he

ac hiene

his <5egn

grom wearS on

baet hie

heo

tSaet

on
his

mehte wifmgn be

waes nigon mila brad,

bonne heo fledu waes. He baet mid daedum gelaeste, ond


upp forlet an feower hund 6a. gnd on lx, gnd sibban
mid his firde bair ofer for. Qnd aefter biem Eufrate ba. da,
seo is maest eallra ferscra wastera, gnd is irnende burh middewearde Babylonia burg, he hie eac mid gedelfe on monige

15 hie

forlet
gnd sibban mid eallum his folce on
gong on ba burg faerende waes, gnd hie gerahte.

ea upp
20

Swa. ungellefedlic
aenig

mgnn mehte

oSbe

eft

abrecan.

is

menn

ainigum

cwen

hie

gesgcgenne, hu

swelce burg gewyrcan swelce sio waes,

MembraS

se ent anganra aerest timbran

Babylonia, gnd Ninus se cyning


25 his

baet to

Saere ea

geendade

aefter

aefter him
gnd Sameramis
him on middeweardum hiere
;

rice.

Seo burg waes getimbred an fildum lande gnd on

swibe

emnum, gnd heo

waes swibe faeger an to locianne

gnd heo is swfbe ryhte feowerscyte gnd baas wealles micelbaet is, baet
ness gnd faestness is ungellefedlic to secgenne
;

from

C.

TRANSLATION OF OROSIUS ; CYRUS.


he
is

is

ejna brad, grid

hund

ii

ejna heah,

hundseofontig mila gnd seofeSa

dael

geworht of tigelan gnd of eonStyrewan


weall

se msesta die,

is

on

baern

is

gnd

his

'20.

ymbggng

anre mile, gnd he

gnd ymbutan bone

iernende se ungefoglecesta

gnd wiSutan bcem dice is geworht twegea lna heah


ond bufan <5aem maran wealle ofer ealne ]?one ymbggng he is mid staenenum wighusum beworht. Seo ilee
burg Babylonia, seo (5e maest waes gnd aerest ealra burga,
stream

weall,

seo
waes

nii lsest

is

30

is

gnd

westast.

weorca

ealra

Nu

seo burg swelc

is,

gnd wunderlecast gnd

faestast

be

35

aer

mjerast,

gelice gnd heo wsere to bisene asteald eallum middangearde, 4


gnd eac swelce heo self sprecende sie to eallum mgmzcynne
gnd cwe]?e
Nu ic ]?uss gehroren earn gnd aweg-gewiten,
hwaet, ge magan on me ongietan gnd oncnawan Jjaet ge
:

'

nanuht mid eow nabbaS faestes ne strgnges fiaette burhwunigean mcege.'


On Seem dagum be Clrus Persa cyning Babylonia abraec \
<5a waes Croesus se h"5a cyning mid firde gefaren Babyloniam t5 fultume ac ba. he wiste baet he 2 him on nanum ful-

45

tome beon ne maehte, gnd baet seo burg abrocen wass, he


him hamweard ferde t5 his agnum rice.
Qnd him Cirus 5
waes

aefter

fylgende,

nu ure Cristne

oS he hiene gefeng, gnd

Roma

ofslog.

bespricS baet hiere weallas

Qnd

for eal-

dunge brosnien, nales na for baem be hio mid forh^riunge


swa gebismrad Waere swa. Babylonia waes ac heo for hiere
;

cristendome

nii giet is gescild, (Saet

anweald

ma

is

aagber ge hio self ge hiere 55

hreosende for ealddome Sonne of aeniges

cyninges niede.

^fter

j^aem Cirus gelcedde fird

an giong cyning mid


him, Damaris.

pa.

abixc.

for,

gnd

his

(Sir

m5dor mid

Cirus for ofer baet lgndgemcere, ofer ba.60

ea be hatte Araxis, him


1

on Scibbie, gnd him

ongean

firde

j^aer
2

se
hie.

gionga cyning
8

baes oferfasr-

weallts.

30

KING ALFRED.

V.

eldes forwiernan
his

folce

mehte

getruwade

<5aet

ac he for baem nolde

\>y

he mid

he hiene beswican mehte, sij^ban

he binnan (53em gemaere waere, pnd wicstowa name.

Ac ba

Qrus geahsade f^aet hiene se gionga cyning bair secean


wolde, gnd eac baet baem folce seldsiene gnd uncucSe waeron
wines dryncas; he for baem of (5aere wicstowe afor on ane
digle stowe, gnd bair beaeftan forlet eall baet beer lfSes waes gnd
swetes baet ba se gionga cyning switSor micle wenende waes
7 (Saet hie bgnon fleonde waeren bonne hie aenigne swicdom
cyban dorsten. pa hie hit baer swa aemenne metton, hie Seer
ba mid micelre bliSnesse buton gemetgunge baet win drincende waeron, 06 hi heora selfra lytel geweald haefdon. He
ba Cirus hie bair besyrede gnd mid ealle ofslog gnd sibban
75 wses farende baer <5aes cyninges modor mid baem twaem dselum
baes folces wuniende waes, ba he bone oYiddan dael mid 'Seem
cyninge beswicen haefde.
Hio ba seo cwen Dameris mid

65

micelre gnornunge

ende

So

heo

ymb

bass cyninges siege hiere

gewrecan mehte

gnd

suna benc-

eac mid
gnd hiere 1 folc on tu todaelde, aegber ge
wifmenw, ge waepnedmewz for pon be boar wifmgnn feohtaS
swa same swa waepnedmen?*. Hio mid baem healfan daele
waes, hQ.

daedum

hit

baet

gelaeste,

beforan baem cyninge farende waes, swelce heo fleonde waere,

0$

hio hiene gelaedde

on an micel

85 waes Ciruse aefter fylgende.

twa piisend
baet

mgnna mid

paer

him.

sl3ed,

gnd

se healfa dael

wearp Cirus ofslsegen, gnd

Seo cwen het ba Saem cyninge

heafod of aceorfan, gnd beweorpan on anne

waere

cylle,

se

mgnnes blodes, gnd bus cwae<5. pu be pyrstende


mgnnes blodes xxx wintra, drync nu bine fylle.'

waes afylled

'

Lier.

VI.

THE BATTLE OF ASHDOWN.


[From the Chronicle.]

87 1. Her cuom se heje to Readingum on Westseaxe, gnd


ymb iii niht ridon ii eorlas up. pa. gemette hie

baes

aldormanw on Englafelda, gnd him br wib


gnd sige nam. pass ymb iiii niht JEbered cyning
gnd ./Elfred his brobur br micle fierd to Readingum gelsedond bser wzes micel wsel
don, gnd wib bone hre gefuhton
geslaegen on gehwaebre hgnd, gnd JEbelwulf aldormgrm
iEbelwulf

gefeaht,

wearb ofslsegen

Qnd
his

ymb

baes

gnd ba Deniscan ahton wselstowe gewald.


niht gefeaht ^JEbered cyning gnd jElfred

iiii

brobur wib alne bone heje on ./Escesdune.

wairun on twaim gefylcum

Qnd

hie i

on obrum wses Bachsecg gnd

Halfdene ba heebnan cyningas, gnd on obrum wseron ba


Qnd ba gefeaht se cyning iEbered wib bara cyninga

eorlas.

getruman, gnd basr wearb se cyning Bags^cg ofslaegen

gnd

iElfred his brobur wib bara eorla getruman, gnd pxv wearb
Sidroc eorl ofslsegen se alda, gnd Sidroc eorl se gioncga, gnd

Osbearn

eorl,

gnd Fraena

eorl,

gas begen gefliemde, gnd


feohtende wairon

Qnd
Alfred

bses
his

gnd ba hreorl
busenda ofslsegenra, gnd on

gnd Hareld

fela

15

o]? niht.

ymb

xiiii

niht

brotmr wib bone

Deniscan sige namon.

iEbered cyning gnd


Basengum, gnd baer ba

gefeaht

he,re set

20

32

Qnd

ba?s

Alfred
25

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

VI.

ymb

ii

monab

gefeaht iEbered

brobur wib bone here

his

set

cyning

Qnd

Meretune, Qnd hie

wserun on tuaem gefylcium, Qnd hie butu gefliemdon, Qnd


lgnge on dseg sige ahton

ond boer wearb micel wselsliht on


ond ba Dniscan ahton wselstowe gewald
wearb Heahmund bisceop ofslsegen, Qnd fela godra

gehwsebere hgnd

ond bser
mQnna. Qnd
3

Qnd

aefter

baas ofer

ricsode v gear

bissum gefeohte cuom micel sumorlida.

Eastron

Qnd

his

gefor ^Ebered cyning

lie lib set

pa feng Alfred ^Ebelwulfing


rice.

alne

Qnd

bses

bone here

ymb anne monab


lytle

werede

set

Qnd he

Winburnan.
his

brobur to Wesseaxna

gefeaht iElfred cyning wib

Wiltune, Qnd hine lQnge on

Qnd ba Dgniscan ahton wselstowe gewald.


geares wurdon viiii folcgefeoht gefohten wib

35 dseg gefliemde,

Qnd

bses

bone here on by cynerice be suban Temese, Qnd butan bam


be him JElfred baes cyninges brobur Qnd anlipig aldormQnw
40

ond cyninges begnas oft rade onridon be mQn na ne rimde


Qnd bass geares wserun ofslsegene viiii eorlas Qnd an cyning.
Qnd by geare namon Westseaxe frib wib bone here.
1

bisc'.

VII.

ALFRED AND GODRUM.


[From the

Chronicle.]

Her hiene bestsel se he.re on midne winter ofer


niht to Cippanhamme, gnd geridon Wesseaxna lgnd
gnd gesaiton gnd micel pses folces ofer see adnefdon, gnd
8

7 8.

tuelftan

pone maistan

pses opres

don,

uniepelice Defter

Qnd

dail hie

pam cyninge

buton

wudum

pees ilean

for

xl

gnd on morfaestenum.

wintra waes Inwseres bropur

dnes on Westseaxum

gnd hiene mgn

gnd him to gecirgnd he lytle vverede 5

geridon,

iElfrede

on Defenascire mid

pair ofslog,

mgnna his hgres.


Qnd pses on Eastron

gnd Healf-

xxiii

scipum

gnd dece mgnna mid him, gnd


]0

worhte JSlfred cyning

geweorc

lytle

werede

set iEpelinga-eigge
gnd of pam geweorce was
winnende wip pone hre gnd Sumursoetna se dail se pair
;

niehst waes.

pa on

paire seofo'San

wiecan ofer Eastron he gerad

Ecgbryhtes stane be eastan Sealwuda 2

ongen Sumorsaite

alle,

behinon

dail

se

hiere

Qnd
ymb

he

for

ane to Epandune

ymb

tuellan.

Wilsaitan,

Qnd him

to

com

to 15

pair

gnd Hamtunscir,

se

was, gnd his gefaegene wairun.

pam wlcum to Iglea, gnd paes


gnd pair gefeaht wip alne pone hre
gnd him aefter rad op paet geweorc,

ane niht of

gnd hiene gefllemde


gnd pair S3et xiv niht.
1

gnd
sai

Qnd

pa salde se heje him foreglslas


2

se.ilwyda.

20

VII.

34
Qnd micle
geheton
25 gelaiston

post hie

a]?as

J^aet

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.


of his rice uuoldon; ond him eac

hiera kyning fulwihte onfon wolde

swa.

Qnd p&s ymb

iii

wiecan

com

ond

hie

{?aet

se cyning t5

sum f>ara mQnna \>e in ]?am here weorQnd pxt is wij) iEjselingga-eige, ond
his se cyning J?aer onfeng a;t fulwihte, Qnd his crismlising
was set WeJ^mor. Qnd he was xii niht mid pam cyninge
30 Qnd he hine miclum Qnd his geferan mid feo weoroude.
him Godrum,

)?uste

waeron

J>rltiga

aet

Aire,

VIII.

ALFRED'S WARS WITH


[From

The

the Chronicle.]

narrative which follows

is,

like the

taken from the contemporary Parker


of this part

of the

MS.

Besides

itself,
its

which

is

two preceding

MSS.

The

ones,

handwriting

bears a close resemblance to that

same may be

of the Lauderdale Orosius, and the

language

THE DANES.

clearly that of the

said of the

end of Alfred's

reign.

great historical value, this piece deserves the most

model of Old English prose. Mr. Earle


'This is the most remarkable piece
of writing in the whole series of Chronicles.
It is a warm,
vigorous, earnest narrative, free from the rigidity of the other
annals, full of life and originality.
Compared with this passage,
careful study as a perfect

justly says (Introd. p. xvi.)

every other piece of prose, not in these Chronicles merely, but


throughout the whole range of extant Saxon literature, must

assume a secondary rank.'


893. Her on bysum geare
ymbe spnecon, eft of bcem

for se micla hre,

eastrice

be we gefyrn

westweard to Bunnan,

Qnd b&r wurdon gescipode, swa boet hie asttan him on anne
sib ofer mid horsum mid ealle
ond ba. comon up on Limene-muban mid ccl hunde scipa. Se muba is on easteweardre
Cnt, set bses miclan wuda eastgnde be we Andred hatacS.
;

Se wudu

is

eastlang

obbe lngra, ond

ond westlang hundtwejftiges mila lang,


Seo ea be we 2er ymbe

britiges mila brad.

On

sprsecon H5 ut of ]?aim wealda.


scipu

ob

bone

weald,

iv

mila

ba.

fram

ea hi tugon up hiora
bairn

muban

ute- 10

36

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

VIII.

weardum, gnd
faestenne

abraecon

pair

feawa

scelon

an geweorc

mgnn

cirlisce

on,

inne on paem
gnd wses sam-

worht.

pa sona aefter paem com Hasten mid lxxx scipa up on


Tmese-muan, gnd worhte him geweorc set Middeltune,
ond se oper hre aet Apuldre.

On

894.
hie

ymb

pys geare, paet waes

on poem

eastrice

twejf monacS pses pe

geweorc geworht haefdon, Norphymbre

ond Eastgngle haefdon iElfrede cyninge apas geseald, gnd


gnd peh ofer pa treowa, swa oft swa
pa opre hgrgas mid ealle hgrige ut foron, ponne foron hie,
oppe mid oppe on heora healfe an. pa gegaderade Alfred

20 Eastgngle foregisla vi

cyning his

hgrgum,
25

gnd 2

fierd,

gnd

paer pair

for paet

he gewicode betwuh psem

twam

he niehst rymet haefde for wudufaestenne

for waeterfaestenne,

swa

paet

he mehte aegperne geraecan,

pa foron hie sippan aefter


bi swa hwaperre fes
swa hit ponne fierdleas waes. Qnd hi 3 mgn eac mid oprum
floccum sohte maestra daga aalce, oppe on niht, ge of paere
Haefde se cyning his fierd
30 fierde ge eac of psem burgum.
on tu tonumen, swa pset hie wceron simle healfe set ham,
gif hie aenigne feld secan wolden.

psem wealda hlopum ond floaradum,

healfe ute, butan

Ne com

opre sipe pa hie


35

nod waare
pa

hie

paem

mgnnum

pe

se hre oftor eall ute of


aerest to

opre sipe

pa.

pa.

burga healdan scolden.

paem setum ponne tuwwa

lgnde comon,
hie of

sio fierd

ser

paem setum faran woldon.

gefengon micle he/ehyS, gnd pa woldon

weardes ofer Tejnese inn on Eastseaxe ongean


forrad sio fierd hie foran,

40

gesam-

gnd him

frian norp-

pa

pa. scipu.

witS gefeaht set

Fearn-

hamme, gnd pone heje gefliemde, gnd pa. hgrehypa ahrddon gnd hie fiugon ofer Tgmese biiton aelcum forda pa
up be Colne on anne igga<5. pa besset sio fierd hie paer
;

utan pa hwile be hie paer longest mgte haefdon


1

fenne.

ond.

him.

ac hi haef-

ALFREDS WARS WITH THE DAXES.

37

don ba heora stemn gesetenne gnd hiora mete genotudne


pnd waas se cyng ba biderweardes on faere, mid baare scire
be mid him fierdedon.
pa he ba. wges biderweardes, gnd 45
sio oberu fierd wses hamweardes
gnd (5a. Deniscan saaton
;

baam hiora cyning waas gewundod on J^sem


hine ne mehton fgrian.

baar behindan, for

gefeohte, baet hi

pa gegaderedon ba be in Norbhymbrum bugeao\ ond on


Eastenglum sum hund scipa, ond foron su<5 ymbutan, gnd 5

sum feowertig scipa norb ymbutan, gnd ymbsaaton an geweorc on Defnascire be baare Norbsaa; ond ba. be suS
ymbutan foron, ymbsaaton Exancester. pa. se cyng bast
hlerde, ba wende he hine west wicS Exanceastres mid ealre
bsere fierde, biiton swibe gewaldenum dalle easteweardes 55
baas folces.

pa foron forS ob be hie comon to Lundenbyrg, gnd ba


mid bairn burgwarum pnd bairn fultume be him westan com
foron east to Beamfleote.
Wses Hsesten ba. beer cumen
mid his hgrge, be aar set Middeltune saet gnd eac se micla 60
;

here wses ba baar to cumen, be


set

Apuldre.

Haafde Hsesten

aar

on Limene-muban
geworht bast geweorc

air

saet
set

Beamfleote, gnd wses ba ut afaren on hergab, gnd wses se


micla hgre set ham.
pa. foron hie to, gnd gefliemdon bone

gnd

here,

baet

geweorc abraacon, pnd genamon

eal/ baat baar 65

binnan wses, ge on feo, ge on wlfum, ge eac on bearnum,


gnd brohton eall in;/ to Lundenbyrig; gnd ba scipu eall o5be
tobraacon, obbe forbserndon, obbe to

obbe

Hrofesceastre

to

twegen

mgn

brohte to

Lundenbyrig brohton,
gnd Haastenes wlf gnd his suna
baam cyninge, gnd he hi him eft

70

baam pe hiora wses ober -his godsunu, ober ^ESeredes ealdormgnnes.


Hsefdon hi hiora onfangen aar Haasten
to Beamfleote come, gnd he him hsefde geseald gislas Qnd

ageaf, for

atSas

gnd

se

cyng him eac wel feoh

ba he bone cniht age/ gnd

bset wlf.

sealde,

gnd eac

Ac sona swa

swa.

hie to 75

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

VIII.

3<S

}>aet geweorc geworct wses, swa


bone ilcan ende be Jeered his cumgnd eft opre sit*e he wses on hejga(5
paeder healdan sceolde
gelnd on paet ilce rice, ha pa mgn his geweorc abraec.
So
pa se cyning hine pa west wende mid paire fierde wiS Exan-

Beamfleote

hejgode he

comon, gnd

his rice,

cgstres, swa. ic air saMe,

pa he pxr
pa.

85

he

gnd

se hgre

eodon

to gefaren wses, pa,


ba. wi<5

bone heje

hcrgas waeron

]?a

seaxum, gnd

pair

pa burg beseten

hsefde,

hie to hiora scipum.

pair waest

gegaderode begen

abisgod waes, gnd

to

ba.

Sceobyrig on East-

geweorc worhtun 2 foron begen aetgaedere


,

up be T mese gnd him com micel eaca to aegber ge of


Eastenglum ge of Norphymbrum. Foron ba up be T^mese
;

ob bast hie gedydon aet Saeferne; pa up be Saeferne. pa


gegaderode ^Ebered ealdormgnrc, gnd ^Epelm ealdorman;?,
90

ond iEpelnop ealdormamz, ond pa cinges pegnas pe pa aet


ham aet paem geweorcum waeron, of aelcre byrig be eastan
Pedredan, ge be westan Sealwuda ge be eastan, ge eac be

noiban Temese, ond be westan

pa hie ba

Norftweal-cynnes.

Saefern,
ealle

ge eac sum

dael paes

gegaderode waeron, ba

hie bone hre hindan aet Buttingtune, on Saeferne


gnd hine baer utan besaeton on aelce healfe, on anum
faestenne.
pa hie <5a fela wucena saeton on twa healfe baare 3
4
west 4 on Defnum wib bone sciphere, >a
6, gnd se cyng wses
waeron hie mid metelleste gewsegde, gnd haefdon micelne
100 dael bara horsa freten, gnd ba opre waeron hungre acwolen.
pa eodon hie fit to (Saem monnum be on easthealfe paare 6
wicodon, gnd him wib gefuhton ; gnd ba Cristnan haefdon
Qnd baer wearS Ordheh cyninges pegn ofslaegen, gnd
sige.
95 offoron

stape,

ofslaegen
gnd se dail be
aweg com wurdon on fleam e genejede.
pa hie on Eastseaxe comon to hiora geweorce gnd to

eac mgnige opre cyninges pegnas

i5 baer

Ble.imfleote.
1

wiewest

we over

worhtuw.

line.

I'egn.

Jjsr.

ALFRED'S WARS WITH THE DANES.


hiora scipum, pa gegaderade sio laf

of

NonShymbrum micelne
gnd

hira wif

hira scipu

hira feoh

gnd

of Eastenglum

eft

hre onforan winter,

gnd

39

gnd

befasston

on Eastgnglum, gnd

foron anstreces daeges gnd nihtes, bast hie gedydon on anre


westre ceastre on Wirhealum, seo
pa.

ne mejite seo

fird

hie

inne on paam gevveorce

is

Legaceaster gehaten.

na hindan

offaran, aar hie wasron

no

besaston peah past geweorc utan

sume twegen dagas, gnd genamon ceapes eall past pasr buton
wass, gnd pa. mgnra ofslogon pe hie foran forridan m eh ton 115
biitan geweorce, gnd past corn eall forbasrndon, gnd mid
hira horsum frtton on aalcre efeneh(5e.
Qnd past wass ymb
twejf monaS pass pe hie air hider ofer saa comon.
1
895. Qnd pa. sona asfter paam, on (Sys gere, for se hgre of
Wirheale in on NorSwealas, for pasm hie (5asr sittan ne 120
mehton: paet wass for oy pe hie waeron benumene asgSer
ge pses ceapes ge pass cornes Se hie gehgrgod hasfdon.

pa,

NorSwealum wgndon mid pasre hgrehySe


genumen haafdon, pa. foron hie ofer NorcShymbra

hie <5a eft ut of

be hie

(Sasr

lgnd gnd East^ngla, swa. swa seo

op

past hie

igland past

Qnd

is

fird hie

geraacan ne mejite, 125

comon on Eastseaxna lgnd easteweard on an


ute

on

pasre

saa, past is

Meresig haten.

hamweard wgnde pe Exanceaster


beseten hasfde, pa, hgrgodon hie up on Suc5seaxum neah
Cisseceastre, gnd pa burgware hie gefiiemdon, gnd hira
mgnig hund ofslogon, gnd hira scipu sumu genamon.
pa se hgre

Da py

eft

ylcan gere onforan winter pa Dgniscan pe on

resige saaton tugon hira scipu

Lygan.

past wass

ymb

twa.

up on Tgmese, gnd

pa.

Mg-

up on

ger pass pe hie hider ofer

sas

comon.
896.

13

135

Qnd 2

py ylcan gere worhte se foresprecena hgre

geweorc be Lygan, xx mila bufan Lundenbyrig. pa.


on sumera foron micel dial para burgwara, gnd eac
1

ond.

on.

pass
swa.

40

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

VIII.

opres folces, baet hie gedydon


140

gnd

sume daage rad

se

mgn mebte

e'a

ut

bremgan.

ba

Qnd

on 1 twa healfe

ongunnen

cyng up be baare

150 hie hie,

gnd

haafdon,

pa,

baarto

gewicod haafdon,
tit

brngan.

gedydon

worhton.

pa.

set

ongft se

pa,

pa. forleton

Cwatbrycge

rad seo

fird

west

baam hejige, gnd ba rngnw of Lundenbyrig gef^todon ba


be hie aloedan ne mghton tobraacon, gnd

scipu,

gnd

ba be

baar staelwyroe waaron

pa, ealle

Qnd ba Dgniscan
aar hie ut
aet

geweorc

tu

oa baat geweorc furbum

ofer land baet hie


2

pa
gnd gehawade hwaar
ne mhton ba scipu

worhton oa

hie

scipu

pa.

be Saefern, gnd baar geweorc


aafter

dydon

(5a swa.

baare eas.

gnd eodon

eaa,

forwyrcan, baat hie

hie

hre baet hie ne mghton

'55

bara Dniscana geweorce,

ba Dniscan him ne mghton baas ripes forwiernan.

baat

145

set

wurdon gefllemde, gnd sume feower cyninges


begnas ofslaagene. pa paas on haerfeste ba wlcode se cyng
on neaweste baare byrig, ba hwile be hie hira corn gerypon,
baar

binnan Lundenbyrig gebrohton.

haefdon hira wif befaest innan Eastgngle,

of baam geweorce foron.

Cwatbrycge.

paet waas

Limene-muSan comon

ymb

hider ofer

pa

saaton hie

bone winter

breo ger baes be hie on


saa.

oysum gere tofor se hgre, sum


tfoon Eastfngle, sum on NorShymbre. Qnd pa. be feohlease
waaron him paar scipu begeton, gnd suS ofer saa foron to
897. Da. baes on sumera on

Sigene.

Naafde se hre, Godes bgnces, Angelcyn/z ealles for swiSe

gebrocod, ac hie waaron micle swibor gebrocede on bairn brim

i65gearum mid ceapes cwilde gnd mgnna;


baam

baet

ealles swipost

manige bara selestena cynges bena be

lgnde waaron forSferdon on baam brym gearum.

sum Swioulf biscop on

Hrofesceastre,

baar

mid
on

para waas

gnd Ceolmund

ealdor-

mgn/z on Cent, gnd Beorhtulf ealdormgnw on Eastseaxum,


170 gnd Wulfred ealdormgnw on Hamtunscire, gnd Ealhheard
1

on.

gewerc.

Alfred's wars with the danes.


biscop

gnd Eadulf cynges begn on

Dorceceastre,

aet

41
Su<5-

seaxum, gnd Beornulf wicgefera on Winteceastre, gnd Ecgulf


cynges horsbegn, gnd manige eac him, beh ic (5a. geSungnestan nmde.

py

ilcan geare drehton

NorShymbrum

scipu

asr

mid olem sescum be

ealra swibust

timbredon.

ongen oa

aescas

pa.

het

ba waeron

hie fela

Alfred cyng timbran lang


ful

neah

tu swa, lange swa.

sume ma; ba waeron aegoer


1
ge swiftran, ge unwealtran, ge eac hierran bonne ba. oSru
2
natron nawoer ne on Fresisc gescaepene ne on Dgnisc, buton
swa him selfum Suhte baet hie nyt/wyrSoste beon meahten.

ba 6(5ru

pa
to

aet

sume haefdon lx

sumum

ara,

comon

cirre baes ilcan geares

Defenum
mid
him bone

bara nlwena scipa;

pa
gnd

forforon

muSan foran on utermeje. pa foron hie mid brim scipum ut


ongen hie, gnd breo stodon aet ufeweardum baem muSan on
drygum; waeron ba men uppe on Ignde of agane. pa
gefengon hie para breora scipa

dum, gnd

pa.

waeron eac

oy on weg

tu aet (Ssem

men ofslogon, gnd baet


mn ofslaegene buton

ba.
3

<5e

muSan

an otSwand
fifum; ba

Sara oberra scipu asaiton.

swiSe uneSelice aseten

preo asaaton on

pa.

healfe, baet hira

ne mhte nan

on baem

comon

pa.

eodan

to

de- 195

6(5ru eall

to ocSrum.

Deniscan frgm baem brim scipum

for

wurdon eac

Ac 6a

baet waster waes ahgbbad fela furlanga frgm bcem scipum,


"5a

190

utewear-

?>a healfe baes

opes Se Sa D^niscan scipu aseten waeron, gnd

on obre

185

het se cyng faran

ge wel hwser be Saem saeriman.


to

180

baer sex scipu

Wiht, gnd pair mycel yfel gedydon, aegfter ge on

nigonum

175

Westseaxna lgnd swiSe be bairn suSstsecSe

mid staelhe/gum,
geara

ba hejgas on East^nglum gnd on

pa.

baem oSrum

prim be on hira healfe begbbade waeron, gnd hie ba bair ge- 200
pair weanS ofslaegen Lucumon cynges gerefa, gnd

fuhton.

hieran.

bute.

w^g.

42

VIII.

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

Wulfheard Friesa, gnd ^Ebbe Friesa, gnd iE(5elhere Friesa,

gnd yESelfenS cynges geneat, gnd ealra mgnna, Fresiscra


pa com
Engliscra lxii, gnd bara Dniscena cxx.
bairn Deniscum scipum beh a?r flod to, air ba Cristnan mehpa
ten hira ut ascufan 1 gnd hie for (5y fit otSreowon.

grid

205

wairon hie to bairn gesargode bset hie ne

m hton

SfiSseaxna

on lgnd wearp gnd


ba. m^nrc mon laMde to Winteceastre to bairn cynge, gnd he
gnd ba mnra comon on Eastgngle be on
2 10 hie <5aer ahon het
lond

fitan

berowan, ac hira bser

tfi

sse

baem anum scipe wasron


1

switSe

forwundode.

altered from ascuton.

IX.

FROM ALFRED'S TRANSLATION OF


BOETHIUS.
[King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version of Boethius' De Consolatione Philoby the Rev. S. Fox. London, Bohn, 1S64. There are also older

sophise,

editions

by Cardale and Rawlinson.]

No contemporary MS. exists of Alfred's translation of Boethius'


De Consolatione Philosophise. The Cottonian MS. (Otho, A 6),
however, which apparently belongs to the first half of the tenth
century, still preserves the original Alfredian forms in most cases.
I have therefore followed that MS., which has unfortunately been

damaged by

The

gives a text

by

fire,

so that here and there a letter

MS.

later Bodleian

its

which

is

is

of

little

doubtful.

is

value for the forms, but

quite independent of that of

C,

as

is

it

shown

retention of the correct reading against C. in several

cases.

Hit gelamp gio


Dracia

hatte,

cSaette

waes

sio

an hearpere wees on

on Creca

swfSe ungefneglice good,

an

(5ses

rice

nama

se

sgegan be 'Sam hearpere,


ba.

bset

(5lode (5e

hearpere woes

wses Orfeus

swicSe aenlic wlf, sio wses haten Eurydice.

wudu wagode, gnd

(Satire

he haefde

Da ongon^ mon

he meahte hearpian

stanas hi styredon for

<5y

poet

se 5

swege, gnd

gnd stgndan, swilce hi tamu


him mgn otuSe hundas wirS eoden,
Da. sSdon hi paet r5a5s
tSset hi hi
na. ne onscunedon.
hire sawle mgn sceolde
gnd
acwelan,
hearperes wif sceolde
Da sceolde se hearpere weorSan swa sarig,
laedan to h^lle.

wildu dlor

rjser

wseren, swa

bset

woldon

stille,

to irnan

<5eah

he ne mihte ongemgng 6c5rum

mannum

l)ion,

ac teah to

10

KING ALFRED.

IX.

44

saet on Seem muntum, aigSer ge daeges ge nihtes,


weop gnd hearpode, Saet Sa. wudas bifodon, gnd Sa. ea stodon, gnd nan heort ne onscunode naenne leon, ne nan hara

wuda, gnd

15

nainne hund, ne nan neat nyste naenne andan ne naenne gge

oSrum,

to

Sa Suhte
(5a

20

for Saire

Saet hine

mergSe

Saes sones.

nanes Singes ne

lyste

Da.

Saim hearpere

on

Sisse worulde,

Sohte he Saet he wolde gesecan hejle godu, gnd onginnan

him olgccan mid

his hearpan,

gnd biddan

paet hi

him agea-

pa he Sa Sider com, Sa sceolde cuman


hund ongean hine, paes nama waes Cerverus, se

fen 1 eft his wlf.

Saere hglle

2
sceolde habban prio heafdu, gnd onfaegnian mid his steorte,

gnd plegian wiS hine


25

for his

hearpunga.

Da. waes Sair eac

swiSe f geslic geatweard, Saes nama sceolde bion Caron, se


Da onggnw
haefde eac prio heafdu, gnd wags swiSe oreald.

gemundbyrde Sa hwile
eft Sonan brohte.
Da.

se hearpere hine biddan past he hine

pe he Seer waere, gnd hine gesundne


gehet he him
30 sones.

gydena 4 Se

t5set,

for

Saem he wass

oflyst Saes

seldcuSan

oS he gemette 3 Sa graman
mn hataS Parcas, Sa. hi scgaS Saet on

eode he furSur

Da.

folcisce

nanum mn?z nyton nane

are, ac aelcum

mn wrecen be

his

gewyrhtum pa. hi sgcgaS Saet walden aelces mannes wyrde.


5
Sa ongunnon hi wepan
Da. onggnw he biddan heora miltse
mid him. Da. eode he furSur, gnd him urnon ealle hejlwaran
ongean, gnd laeddon hine to hiora cininge, gnd ongunnon
Ond
ealle sprecan mid him, gnd biddan pass Se he baed.
paet unstille hweol Se Ixion waes to gebunden, Levita cyning,
for his scylde, Saet oSstod for his hearpunga, gnd Tantulus se
;

35

40 cyning, Se on Sisse worulde ungemetlice gifre wass, gnd

him

6
Saer Saet ilce yfel fyligde Saire gifernesse, he gestilde.

Qnd

7
se vultor sceolde forlstan Saet he ne slat Sa. lifre Tyties Saes

cyninges, Se hine
1

agefan C.

blisse C.

aer

mid Sy witnode

on^an fsegnian B.

filgde Q.

gnd

mette C.

sticces (?) C.

hejlwara

eall
*

metena C.

TRANSLATION OF B0ETH1US.
witu gestildon, Sa hwile be he beforan

Da

Sam

he Sa longe gnd longe hearpode,

wara cyning, gnd cwseS

'

Wuton

45

cyninge hearpode.

cleopode se

(5a

hejl- 45

agifan Saim esne his wlf,

Sgem he hi haefS geearnad mid his hearpunga.' Bebead


him 6a Sset he geare wisse, Saet he * hine naifre under bsec
ne besawe, siSSan he Sgnanweard waere, ond ssede, gif he
for

Ac 50

hine under bsec besawe, Sset he sceolde forlaatan Saet wlf.

Sa

lufe

wei

on

mpn mseg

swlSe uneaSe oSSe na forbeodan

paet

him.

gemsere leohtes ond Seostro

Da. he forS

on

baec witS Saes wifes


2

lseraS

to fllonne,

Saet leoht
;

Sa losade

gehwylcne

ond

to Saes

Sa eode

paet

wlf

fulllce

mon

swa mid

fulle willan his

forlet,

ond

llciaS,

and he

hi

eall his aerran

om.

Sonne

hio

hi ser

mod wnt

fullfremeS,

hi naefre forlaetan

good, buton he

in both..

asfter

him sona.

Das leasan

55

Sara Se wilnaS hejle Slostro

soSan Godes

fuHremme, swa he

la

com

com, Sa beseah he hine under

liohte to

cumanne,

he hine ne besio to his ealdan yflum, swa Saet he

swa

wei

hwaet Orpheus Sa laedde his wlf mid him, oS Se he

spell

dyde

to

ond

for

hi

him Sonne

ne SgncS, Sonne

om.

in C.

air

fulllce

forlyst

hit eft gebete.

'"

eft

Ssem swa hwa

Ssem yflum Se he
hi

Saet

he

60

X.

ACCOUNT OF THE POET OEDMON.


[From

Alfred's

Alfred's Beda, IV. 24.]

translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History

pre-

is

served in several MSS., all of which are, however, at least a


century later than Alfred's time. I have not attempted a critical
text,

but have followed the Corpus MS., at Oxford (279), only


MSS. The read-

occasionally adopting the readings of the other


ings at the foot of the page are those of tne

A new

otherwise denoted.

critical

a great want, Smith's edition

being

Oxford Cp., unless

Beda

edition of Alfred's

now

is

antiquated.

On bysse abbudissan mynstre woes sum broSor synderlice


mid godcundre gyfe gemahed and geweorbad, for bon he
gewunade gerisenlice leo<5 wyrcean, ba be to oefgstnesse
and to arfaestnesse belumpon swa baette swa hwset swa. he
of godcundum stafum burn boceras geleornade, bast he sefter
medmiclum faece in scopgereorde mid ba maastan swet;

nesse and inbryrdnesse

wel gehwser forftbrohte

monna mod
1

bass

heofonlican

monige
leocS

oft to

otSre

and

for his leo'Ssongum

monigra

worolde forhohnesse, and to gebeodnesse


onbaernde waeron.

lifes

setter

him

in

And

eac swylce

Qngelbeode ongunnon

aafaaste

wyrcan, ac naenig hwasbere him bast gellce don ne

meahte-;

for

bon he

gelaered wses bast he


15

geglgncde, and in Englisc-gereorde


;

nalaes

bone

monnum

from

ne burh mon;;

leoScraeft geleornade, ac

he wass

godcundlice gefultumod, and burh Godes gyfe bone spngcrasft

idles
1

onfeng;

and he

leobes wyrcan ne

for
3

naefre

meahte, ac

Historiae Ecclesiasticae Gentis

inbrydiiesse.

bon

omitted.

noht leasunga

efne

ba.

4
,

ne

an ba be to

Anglorum Libb. V. Cantabrigiae, 1722.


4

-unge.

::'

ACCOUNT OF THE POET CJEDMON.


sefsestnesse

belumpon and

his pasre

47

tungan gedafe-

aifaestan

node singan.

Wses he

mon

se

weoruldhade gesgted

in

oc5

(5a

tide

be he

20

wses gelyfedre yldo, and he naifre ainig leoc5 geleornade

pon oft in gebeorscipe, ponne pr wses 3 blisse


intinga gedemed, pxt hie ealle sceolden purh endebyrdnesse be hearpan singan, ponne he geseah pa hearpan him
nealaican, ponne aras he for scome from paem symble, and
ham eode to his huse. pa he past pa sumre tide dyde, past
he forlet pa hus pses gebeorscipes, and ut wass ggngende

and he

for

to neata scypene, para

heord him wass pcere nihte beboden,


4

he pa pair in gelimplicre

<5a

and

tide his

limo on rste gesette

pa stod him sum mon

onslsepte,

set

purh swefn, and 3

and hine be his naman nemde


Caedmon 5, sing me hwsethwegu V pa andswarode he, and
Ne conw ic noht singan, and ic for pon of pyssum
cwasS
gebeorscipe ut eode, and hider gewat, for pon ic noht cuSe.'
HwsecSere pu
Eft he cwsecS se pe mid him sprecende wses

hine

halette

and

25

grette,

'

'

meaht me

singan.'

Cwae<5 he

'

onfeng,

<5a

me

Sing

ongan;z

Scyppendes, pa

fers

para gndebyrdnes pis

Nu we

CwaeS he

'

Frumsceaft.'

Hwset

'

sceal

ic

singan

pa he pa pas andsware
Godes

he sona singan, in hgrenesse

and pa word pe he

ncefre

ne gehyrde,
40

is

sculan hejian heofonrices Weard,

modgeponc,

Metodes mihte and

his

wera Wuldorfa?der

swa he wundra gehwses,

ece Dryhten, ord

He
tSa

onstealde.

gesceop eonSan bearnum

serest

heofon

middangeard

45

Scyppend
mgnwcynnes Weard,

halig

to hrofe,

ece Dryhten,

8
,

aefter

teode

firum foldan, Frea iElmihtig.


1

[>a

all.

a'thwegu.

35

68.
7

oord.

wies.
*

middon-.

-lice.

cedmon.

48
5

KIAG ALFRED.

X.

Da
song

aras he from paem slaepe,

gemynde

in

foeste

and

eall

pa.

pe he slaepende

and paem wordum sona

haefde,

mgnig word in paet ylce gemet Gode wyrpes sgnges togepa com he on marne to pam tungerefan, se pe
his ealdormonw waes, ssede him hwylce gyfe he onfeng

peodde.

55

and he hine sona


destan mn;z and

s^cgan

Da

60

pa.

paet swefn,

d5me gecoren

abbudyssan gelaedde, and hire

to paere

cySde and saegde.

hire

hwpnon

wcere, hwaet oo<5e

word

bebudon him

hit

pa haefde

pa.

and com

eft

waes, paet

him

forgifen.

Da

and godcundre
he mihte, paet he him sum

leoffspnges paet gehwyrfde.

wlsan onfangene,

waere.

halig spel/

pa, gif

swinsunge

'

sum

cumen

paet

from Dryhtne sylfum heofonlic gyfu

sunge, and in

heora

paet leocS singan, pgette ealra

rehton hie him and saegdon

65

and him andweardum het

leorneras,

and

pa waes him eallum gesegen, swa swa


wcere

paet

het heo gespmnian ealle pa gelaer-

eode he

pa.

ham

Da

he

to his hiise,

on morgen, and py bgtstan leoSe geglenged


past him beboden waes.

him aspng and ageaf

Da onganw

seo abbudysse clyppan and lufian

gyfe in paem men;?, and heo hine


70
,

he weoroldhad
paet

wel pafode

pa.

Godes

laerde, paet

and munuchade onfenge; and he

forlete,

and heo hine

mpnode and

pa.

in paet

mynster onfeng mid

godum, and hine gepeodde to gespmnunge para Godes


peowa, and het hine leeran paet getael paes halgan staares and
his

spelles
75

and he

eall

pa.

he

mid hine gemyngade, and

in

swa.

gehernesse geleornian mihte,

swa

in paet sweteste leoS gehwyrfde,

claene neten

and

his

eodorcende

song and

his leocS

wynsum to gehyrenne, (Saet pa sylfan his lareowas


muSe writon and leornodon. Spng he cerest be mid-

wseron swa.
aet his

dangeardes gesceape and be fruman mpwzcynnes, and


80 pset steer Genesis (paet

is

seo aereste Moises boc), and

utgpnge Israela folces of ^Egypta


paes gehatlpndes,
1

lpnde,

be

and be inwgpnge

and be ocSrum mpnigum spellum pass

omitted.

eal/

eft

rgypta.

hal-

ACCOUNT OF THE POET CJEDMON.

49

gan gewrites canones boca, and be Crlstes mnniscnesse,


and be his browunge, and be his upastignesse on heofonas, and bi pses Halgan Gastes cyme, and para apostolaSs
and eft bi bam ge pses toweardan domes, and be
lare
;

and be swetnesse pses heofonand swylce eac optr


monig be bam godcundum fremsumnessum and domum

fvrhto baas tintreglican wites,


lican rices

he mgnig leop geworhte

On

he geworhte.

men
and

pam he

gymde

geornlice

pset

he 9

atuge fram synna lufan and mandaeda, and to lufan

awehte godra daeda;

to geornfullnesse

mon

se

eallum

switSe

aefaest,

modlice underpeoded

for

pon he wses

and reogollicum peodscypum


and

witS

Sam

eatS-

pa Se on opre wlsan

don woldon, he wses mid wylme micelre ejlenwodnesse onand he for pon faegere ende his lif betynde and

95

baerned,

ge^ndade.

For pon pa
fortS fore,

licre

baere

tide

nealcecte

dagum

pa wses he feowertyne

untrymnesse

prycced and

gewitenesse

his

air past

hwaspere to

hefigad,

and

he wses llcum-

pon

100

gemetlice past he ealle pa tid mihte ge sprecan ge gangan.

on neaweste untrumra manna hus, on pam hyra


t5eaw wses pset hi pa untruman and pa pe set foroTore wseron
pa bsed
in lsedan sceoldan, and him pair setsomne penian.
he
of
worulde
gangende
nihte
pe
psere
on
sefenne
pen
his
he
Wses

pair

105

on pam huse him stowe gegearwade, pset he


pa wundrade se peng for hwon he pses bcecie,
restan mihte.
dyde
for bon him buhte bset his foroTore swa neh ne waere
And mid by he
hwsebere swa swa he cwseS and behead.
wses pset he

on r^ste eode, and he gefeonde mode sumu bing' 110


setgsedere mid him sprecende and gleowiende wses pe ]xer

ba

ser

beer

inne wseron, ba wses ofer middeniht bset he frsegn hwaeber

hi aenig husl ]?serinne hsefdon

cwidon:

'

Hwilc bearf
1

is

pa.

andswarodon

hie

and

be husles? ne binre foroTore swa


2

nealecte.

and.

$0

H5neh

nii pii pus rotlice and pus glaedlice to us sprecende


BeraS me hwaepere husl to.' pa he
CwaeS he eft
hit pa on handa haefde, pa. fraeng he hwaeper hi ealle smylte
mod and butan eallum incan blioe to him haefdon? pa
andswarodon hi ealle, and cwsedon paet hi namigne incan
to him wistan, ac hi ealle him switSe blitSemode wseron,
and hi wrixendlice hine baMon pat he him eallum blloe
Mine bropro pa
waere.
pa andswarode he and cwaetS
is,

eart.'

120

KING ALFRED.

X.

'

'

eom swiSe blicSmod to eow and to eallum Godes


monnum.' And he swa waes hine getrymmende mid py heo-

leofan, ic

I2 5fonlican

Da

wegneste, and him opres

inwgang gearwade.

lifes

gyt he fraegn hu neh poere tide waere paette pa bropor

and Godes folc laeran, and heora uhtsang


Andswarodon hi: Nis hit feorr to pon.' CwaeS
he
Tela, utan we wel psere tide bidan ;' and pa. him gebaed,
3 and hine gesenade mid Cristes rodetacne, and his heafod
onhylde to pam bolstre, and medmycel faec onslaapte, and swa
mid stillnesse his lif gendade. And swa. waes geworden
arisan sceoldon,

singan?

'

'

paette

swa swa he

hlutre

mode and

willsumnesse Dryhtne peowde,


S35

deaoe middangeard waes

becom.

And

paet

bylewite,

and smyltre

he eac swylce swa smylte

forlaetende,

and

to

his

Scyppendes lof gestte, he pa. swylce eac pa ytemestan


word on his hejenesse hine sylfne seniende and his gast
Eac swylce paet is gein his handa bebeodende betynde.
sewen 2 paet he waere gewisj his sylfes foroTore of pam pe we

paes

140

gesyhoe

seo tunge pe swa monig halwgnde word on

nii se_cgan

hyrdon.
1

andswearodou.

gesaegd.

XI.

FROM THE LAWS.


The

following extracts from the

MS.

the Corpus

Laws

of Ine are t^ken from

(No. 383) at Cambridge, of the beginning of the

10th century.

mid Godes

Ic Ine

gife

Wesseaxna kyning, mid geSeahte


fseder, gnd Hgddes mines

gnd mid

lare

biscepes,

gnd Eorcenwoldes mines

Cenredes mines

minum ealdormonnum, gnd paim

biscepes,
ieldstan

mid eallum
witum minre

Seode, gnd eac micelre gesgmnunge Godes Seowa, waes

gnd be Sam stapole


Ores rices, psette ryht sew gnd ryhte cynedomas Surh ure
folc gefsestnode gnd getrvmede waaron, paette naenig ealdorsmeagende be

mgnna ne

Saire hselo urra sawla,

us undergeSeodedra

aefter

pam

woere

awgndende

are domas.

<5as

10

Be Godes Seowa
1.

iErest

we bebeodaS

on ryht healdon.

regol

ealles folces sew

psette
.^Efter

gnd domas Sus

regole.

Godes Seowas hiora


pam we bebeodaS

ryhtpsette

sien gehealdene

Be cildum.
2.

ne

xxx

sie,

hsese,

Gif
sie

Gif hit Sonne


mid eallum Sam Se he

scillinga gebete.

fulwihte, gebete

3.

Cild binnan Sritegum nihta sie gefulwad.

he

hit

sie

frloh,

gnd

se

hlaford

to wite.

E 2

gesejle

hit

swa

dead butan

age.

Be sunnan-daeges weorcum.
Seowmomz wyrce on sunnan-da.-g be
he

Gif

his hlafordes 20

xxx

scillinga

EXTRACTS FROM THE LAWS.

XI.

52

Be gefeohtum.
Gif hwa. gefeohte on cyninges huse,

6.

25 ealles

age

his ierfes,

J?e

ond

on cyninges dome

sie

he scyldig

sie

hwsecSer he

lif

nage.

Gif hwa on mynster gefeohte, cxx scillinga gebete.


Gif hwa. on ealdormonnes huse gefeohte oSSe on oSres

geSungenes witan, lx

scillinga

gebete

he,

gnd oper lx

30 scillinga gesglle to wite.

Gif Sonne on gafolgeldan hiise oSSe on gebures gefeohte,


1

xxx

ond paim gebure

scillinga to wite gesejle,

Qnd peah

hit

sie

on middum

vi scillinga.

felda gefohten,

xxx

'

scil-

linga to wite sie agifen.


35

Gif Sonne on gebeorscipe hie geclden, gnd oSer hiora


mid geSylde hit forbere, gesejie se ooer xxx scillinga to wite.

Be
7.

Gif hwa.

stalie swa. his

stale.

wlf nyte Qnd his beam, geseUe

lx scillinga to wite.
Gif he Sonne

40

ggngen

hie ealle

on gewitnesse

stalie

on Seowot.

ealles

his

hlredes,

xwintre cniht moeg blon SlefSe

gewita.

Be gefgngenum Seofum.
1

45

lif

Gif Seof

2 (13).

be

his

were

man

Deofas we hataS
siSoan

bio"

sie

gefongen, swelte he deaSe, oSSe his

allese.
ocS

vn men;/, from vn hloS oS xxxv

hre.

Be feorran-cumenum men
20. Gif feorrcund
50

btitan

wudu gonge, ond ne hrleme ne horn


to prorianne,

oSSe

wege gemetton.

vngnn oSSe fremde butan wege geond

to sleanne,

oSSe

blawe, for Seof he biS

to allesanne.

EXTRACTS FROM THE LAWS.


Be Son be mon wif bycgge, ond

53

Jjonne sio gift

tostande.

mon

31. Gif
agife
his

borgbryce

wff gebycgge, gnd sio gyft forS ne dime,

gnd

feoh,

J?aet

forgielde,

pnd gebete bam byrgean,

Be Wilisces moruies
32. Gif Wilisc
scillinga

gif

swa. 55

sie.

mgn

lgndhasfene.

haebbe hide londes, his wer

he bonne healfe

hsebbe, lxxx scillinga

bio"
;

cxx

gif he

6o

nainig haabbe, lx scillinga.

Be wuda
43.

Donne mon beam on wuda

yppe on pone
scillinga;

Gif
eft

basrnette.

bam

for

mon

on wuda

afelle

ma

he hiora

bon

wsere, for

vvel

mpnega
ailc

mpn bonne

bit)

melda, nalles

74.

sceal

Gif
se

<5e

maigum,

wyr?S 65

Ne

<5eof.

leafe.

aceorfe an treow, bset msege xxx swlna 70

under gestandan, gnd wyrcS undierne, geselle lx


(Se

pnd

scillinga.

geldan, waire hiora swa. fela swa. hiora

sio aesc

Be Son

treowa,

mid xxx

Be wuda onfenge butan


44. Gif

gnd weoro'e
geseHe lx

be ffr biS beof.

undierne, forgielde in treowu,

(5earf

forbserne,

dyde, gielde he ful/ wlte

hit

<5e

cSeowwealh frione

monw

mgnnan

Seowwealh ngliscne

scillinga.

ofslea.

ofslihcS,

bonne

hine ah weorpan hine to hgnda hlaforde gnd

o'S'Se

lx

scillinora iresellan

wiS

his feore.

Gif he bonne bone ceap nelle fore gesejlan, bonne mot


hine se hlaford gefreogan.

Gielden

wer, gif he msegburg haebbe freo.

si<5(5an his

maegas bone

Gif he naebbe, heden his

pa gefan.
1

healfes.

* assc.

ofslea.

XII.

CHARTERS.
The two

following charters are given from the contemporary

from the Stowe, the second from the


Although they are grants of land in
Kent and Mercia respectively, they are in the ordinary WestSaxon dialect of the period.
documents, the
British

first

Museum

collection.

EADGIFU.
961.

bam arcebiscope and Crlstes cyrcean hyrede,


com set Culingon. paet is baet hire laefde hire

Eadgifu cyb

hu

hire land

faeder land

and boc, swa he mid

and him

rihte beggt,

his

Hit gelamp baet hire faeder aborgude xxx

yldran laefdon.

punda aet Godan, and betaehte hirn baet land baes feos to
anw^dde
and he hit haefde vn winter, pa. gelamp emb pa
pa
tld baet man beonn ealle Cantware to wigge, to Holme,
nolde Sigelm hire faeder to wigge faron mid nanes mannes
;

sctte
:o

unagifnum, and agf pa Godan xxx punda, and becwaeb

afeallen waes,

ba

landes wyrnde,
faestlice

Goda

aetsoc
o(5

geclaensian be
ealre
hire

faeder baes aegiftes

swa.

>aet

swa myclan

beode gewitnesse

baes

feos

aegiftes,

pa

on syxtan geare.

baes

Byrhsige Dyrincg

waeron gerehton Eadgife


15

pa he on wigge
and baes

Eadgife his dehter land, and boc sealde.

lange

0(5

pa.

spraec

witan

hit

be ba

heo sceolde hire faeder hand

feo.

And heo

to iEglesforda,

and

be xxx punda ape.

baes

ab laedde on

baer geclaensude
pa.

gyt heo ne

CHARTERS.

XII.

fundon

briican, air hire frynd

m5ste landes

5$
Eadwearde

aet

cyncge baet he him baet land forbead, swa he seniges brucan

wolde

and he

cynincg

swa

hit

gelamp on

pa.

alet.

fyrste baet se 20

Godan oncupe swa swype, swa him man

and

land, ealle

ealle

his are

ba be he

And

ahte.

haefde,

ba and

mid bocum and landum forgeaf Eadgife

ateonne swa swa. heo wolde.

Gode him

dorste for

bee

aetrehte

se cynincg hine

and aggf him

cwaeo heo

pa.

swa. leanian
ealle his land,

swa he

hire to

to

heo ne

baet

geearnud

buton twam sulungum

aer heo wyste hu


landum healdan wolde.
pa. gewat Eadweard cyncg, and fencg ^Ebelstan t5 rice,
pa. Godan ssel buhte, ba gesohte he bone kynincg iEbelstan,
and baed baet he him gebingude wib Eadgife his boca edgift.
And se cyncg ba swa. dyde. And heo him ealle aggf buton
And he ba. boc unnendre handa hire to
Osterlandes bee.

Osterlande

and nolde ba bee agifan

getrlwlice he hi

and

let,

set

ungeborenne,

mid

oberra

bara

sum

ufen an baet twejfa


baet

bis

eaSmettum

aet

Hamme

gebancude

hire ab sealde, for

aafre

gesgtt

And

wib Lsewe.

And

bis

gewitnesse and

his

namon Godan twegen

suna, Leofslan

Eadgife pas twa forespecenan land


Osterlande, and saidon
waes, baet
paet

hy

bam

cilde

rihtur hiora waeren

aet

and Leofric, on

Culingon and

Eadwige, be

bonne

Da.
are, 40

ba.

aet

gecoren

hire.

And he and his


hy manfull reaflac gedon haefden ; and

ba swa waes op Eadgar astipude.

wytan gerehton
hi hire are

baet

gerehton and agefon.

pa nam Eadgifu, be

and

land

betdehte

into

agenum handum up on pone

Cristes
altare

cyrcean
lede,

mid

45

baes

cynincges leafe and gewitnesse and ealra his bisceopa,


bee,

35

Eadgifu haefde land

mid bocum bara twegea cyninga dagas hire suna.


Eadraed geendude, and man Eadgife berypte aelcere
ba.

30

and

geborenne and

waere.

spaec

waes gedon on JEbelstanes kynincges

wytena

25

aet

pa.

hire

ban hyrede on 50

XII.

$6

CHARTERS.

and cwseb paet


sawle t6 re. ste
mid eallum heofonlicum maegne pane awyrgde on
ecnesse pe J?as gife aefre awgnde oppe gewanude. pus com
ecnesse to are, and hire

Crist sylf

cyrcean hyrede.

})eos ar into Cristes

EADMUND.
944.

In nomine Domini nos/ri Jesn Christi! Quom quidem transmundi vicissiludo cotidie per incrementa temporum

eunlis

crescendo decrescit,
pentinis
5

proximo

cunctis in

rebus

et

ampliando minuilur, crescentibusqne re-

variorum incur s\ii\um minis vicinus finis terminus

man sura

Quam

ob

cernitur.

coelestis

Idcirco vanis ac

esse

transibilibus

patriae praemia m\erca\nda sunt.

causam ego Eadmundus, gentis Anglorum rex,

cuidam pontifici meo mihique

dilecto,

nomine JElfrico, ob ipsius

laudabili ob\edi\cntiae zelo ejusdemque servitute placabili, dig-

Mo

impertiri xxx mansas in

sum

io natus

ubi jam dudum

loco

inposuerunt

solicolae illius regionis n\omen~\

Baddan-byrig

aet

Doddanforda and to Eferdune. Tali auiem tenore hoc


praefatae munificentiae munus tradendo concessi, ut possideat
et firmiler teneat hanc praedictam terrain perpetualiter, cum
and

i5

to

omnibus utensilibus quae Deus coelorum in ipso


creavit.

Tarn

in

magnis campis,
tibus

pralis,

ignolis,

silvis,

deserueril,

et

ad

graliam super ni judicis

cumque
notavi.
tribulo

libuerit

aeternaliter

autem

Sit

gramine

tellur is

modicis

in

silvarumque

et

generis

viam

dcsidtrabilem jucunditaiis
adieril,

succedeniium

derelinquat,

praedictum

rus

ecu

liber

in

densita-

humani

donans donabo liberlalcm, ut postquam

fragilitalem
20 per

notis

pascuis,

causis et

sibi

cui-

superius prae-

ab

omni

fiscali

saeculariumque servilutum exactione exinanilum, sine

expeditione

et

ponlis

arcisve

inslruclione.

Praecipioque

in

CHARTERS.

XII.

nomine Dei summi

ad

stahita

tarn

irritum

Quisquis beniv-ola

minime

quispiam

donationem

meant

vilam

gerit in hoc praesenti saeculo

se-

2 =

liberialis

praesumat.

amplificare sa/a-

prospera feliciter

illius

Si quis autem propria

longiturnae uilae gaudia teneat.

feme- 30

violenter invadere praesumpserit, sciat se procul dubio

riiate

tribunal

ante

hujus

praedicantibus

deducere

nienle

quam aetiam

viveniibus

nobis

praecepta

divina

queniibus

57

districti

tremebundumque

tilubantem

judicis

digna satisfaclione einendare

rationem reddiiurum, nisi prius


maluerit.

terminibiis praedicta terra circumgyrata esse videlur, 35

Is/is

Dis sint ba landgemaera and se

embegang bara landa

Baddan-byrig and to Doddan-forda and

bonne
set

aerest aet

bam

beorgas.

oS

on

Sa. lytlan

on

foxhylle

baer

norS andlang Saare

smalan (Somas.

Sa.

dune middewearde 1

Donne US

o'aat

ponne

easteweardre.

Beorhtulfe baas leas and bses


die.

ponne on

Weargedune, betweox ba

to

poet

grafes ende

to

Dset

is

Baddan-byrg westeweardre and norSeweardre

lytlan toclofenan beorge.

beorge norS

to Eferdune.

gerihte of
lytlan

lytlan die

Sam

twegen 40
aet

baas

Donne of (5am bornum up


ponne of Caere dune east
geiuSe

ic

iElfwine

hammes be norSan

and

baere lytlan 45

gemaere on gerihte of foxhylle norSe-

weardre on bone holan weg

set

hinde-hlypan.

ponne of

bam lea ufeweardan. Of (Sam


Of Sam heorotsole norS on
wylle on Saet heorotsol.
ponne of Sam beorge on gerihte 50
gerihte on Sone beorg.
Of
past forS be lea on wiSigwylles heafud.
to Sam lea.
hindehlypan on bone wylle

San wylle norS on

bam

geate

set

gerihte

Sam

stane

on Sa Sornehtan dune toemnes


paet fram Sam geate on
ponne of Sam pytte on gerihte

bsere ealdan byrg.

gerihte east to mserpytte.


to

set

set

bam

wylle wiS norSan mseres-dsel.

suS on gerihte andlang Wsetlinga-strait


1

-dre.

ponne

on bone weg

wa:cl-.

to

55

CHARTERS.

XII.

58

Weoduninga

ponne west andlang weges on Sone


Deet bonan suSrihte on Sone

gemeere.

lytlan beorg, Seer se stoc<: stod.

ealdan mylier, beer ba welegas standaS.


60 burnan,

oS

cymS

hit

oS Sa stanbriegge.
oS Sone hcebenan

beer

BUSe

Daet west andlang

utscyt/.

andlang BliSan

past

andlang

past east of Seere briegge

Of bam

byrgels.

die,

byrgelse forS norS be

wyrttruman oS Sees hgges nde be Weoduninga gemeere.


poet
65

bonan andlang gemeeres on gerihte

easteweardan

bam

Andlang

strait.

Of Sam

lea.

fyrh

beere

to

street

Se

beere miclan street set bees wylles heafde

gemeere.

Sam

peet

eesce

west andlang

andlang

jo ealdan sealtstreet

bees fulan broces

cumbe
ponne

gee}? slo

ut-scyt/

andlang lace

street

beer

scyt/ suSrihte
eet

on Sone

to

Snoces-cumbes
peet fram

sesc.

leas

on Sa

oS BliSan.

me geunnan

hlaford peet he his

mearc forS andlang BliSan

west,

oS

me

wille.

Seet seo

on BliSan wiSufan stanbriegge. peet norS


oS Sa die. ponne andlang die oS Sone weg

JElfric

die

on

beere

Fram bam steorte andlang


Donne is beet land eet Snoces-

biscep

bam

redan

Sam wege be
80 Andlang hriegges to bam wege
Andlang

to

peet

slade.

het
scyt/

to

peere

up

to

on Fealuwesealdan

Sam

die.

hriegge.

be scyt/ fram Fealuwes-lea

ponne of Seere apuldre be


stent wiS westan bam wege burh pone lea to bam miclan
Of Sam hceslwride adun on pa blacan rixa. Of
heeslwride.
bam rixun on ba lytlan hgeggan set peim wege be scyt/
fram Baddan-by to cearwyllun. Andlang weges oS Sone
to

85

on

steort.

be scyt/ to Fealuwes-lea on
lea,

stocce

healf pees cinges healf uncer Brentinges, buton

God geunne and min


75 lacu

Sam

betweox ba twegen

street

oS Sone

to

stocce suSrihte

Baddan-by ane

broc
eefre

lytle hwlle.

Deet west
be scyt/ to Fealuwes-lea to bam forda.
andlang broces oS Sone weg be scyt/ to Steefertune wiS

siiSan

weges

ba.

ealdan burh

oS toemnes

eet

peere

Baddan-byrg.

peet west

andlang

micelan die oS westewearde ba

CHARTERS.

XII.

Andlang

burh.
norcS

and be bSre byrg westeweardre


is toclofen on

Sajre die

tobrocenau beorg, Se b^r

<5one

ocS

59

norSweardre and on westweardre Baddan-byrg.


Acta

est

haec praefaia

donatio anno ab incamatione

Dominis

nos/ri Jesu Christi dccccxliiii, indictione n.

Ego Eadmundus rex Anglorum praefatam donationem cum 95


crncis confirmavi.
Ego Eadred ejusdem regis
rater
praedictum
donum
consignavi.
Ego Eadgifu ejusdem regis
f
mater confirmavi cum sigillo sancle crucis. Ego Oda Dorosigillo sa7icte

bonensis

cum

archiepiscopus

ecclesiae

tropheo agiae

ejusdem

episcopus ejusdem regis donalione/n

Lundonicnsis
Wintaniensis

episcopus,

ecclesiae

regis

donationem

Ego Wulfstan archiEgo Deodred


confirmavi.
consensi.
Ego _ZElfheah

subarravi.

crucis

ecclesiae episcopus,

100

iriumphakm tropheum agiae

Ego Cenwald episcopus consensi. Ego Alfred


episcopus confirmavi.
Ego iEbelgar episcopus roboravi. Ego
Wulfsie episcopus consignavi. Ego Wulf helm episcopus subarcrucis inpres\s\i.

ravi.

dux.

iEbelstan

mund

minister.

minister.
minister.

iEbelwold dux.

ASelmund dux.

Ealhhelm dux.

-3l!lfsie

^Elfsie

minister.

iElfred

minister.

yEbelstan

dux.

minister.

Ead-

iElfstan minister.

.Ebelgeard

minister.

Wihtgar

Wulfgar

Wulfric
Wulfric

minister.
minister.

^Ej^ered

minister.

pURSTAN.
1049.

Her cycS
Wimbisc

on bysan gewrile

set

Leofvvare,

into

and

for

baet purstiin

Ciistes-cyrcean
iE<5elgy5e,

purstanes daege and

aefter
1

bam

for

gean bees landes

his

saule

Prcefacta.

and

hirede to fostre,

iEbelgySe, buton

105

twam

for

sefter

hldan.

no

6o
5

CHARTERS.

XII.

And

geloeste

saule

and

twejf
pis

hired

se

JEpelgySe

for

Cristes-C) rcean
r

cet

pam

pund be getale.
syndon pa gewitnysse

and iElfgyfu seo


10 iElfric

Lundene,

pses

cwydes

pses

and Godwine
eorles

purstanes

Eadwfrd kyncg,

and Eadsige arcebiscop, and

hlrefdige,

arcebiscop,

and JElfgar

for

hirede into Sancte Augustine

sunu

and Leofric

eorl,

eorl,

and ^Elfwserd biscop on

',

and ^Elfwine biscop

on Win[tan]ceastre,

and

Stigand preost, and Eadwold preost, and Leofcild scirgerefa,

15

and Osulf

Fila,

and

Wihtgares sunu, and

iElfric

and

Ufic,

and jElfwine Wulfredes sunu,


ealle

pa pegenas on East-

se.xan.

And beon heora m^nn frige setter heora beira daege.


Ond n[e] astinge nan mann sefter heora daege on pset land
buton

se

hyred

20 wyr<5e witan.

set

And

Cristes-cyrcean; 6(5er

Cristes-cyrcean

and yrfan

pissera gewrita sindan


set

Sancte Augustine

preo

hi
:

swa

an

pridde mid

is

hi
set

heom

sylfan.

EADWEARD.
1057-G5.

Eadward kyngc gret wel Wulfwl biscop and Leofwine


and ealle mine peignes on Heortfordscire freondlice;
and ic 2 kype eow past Leofsl Dudde sunu hafacS gegiven
eorl,

Criste
5 hide

and Sancte Petre

landes

unnan.

set

God eow
1

into

Westmynstre pridde healve

Wurmele'a be minre geleafan and be minre


gehealde.

./Elgar )>es eorlles sune.

fc.

XIII.

^JLFRICS HOMILIES'.

The

two following homilies have been

selected, the

first

as

a characteristic specimen of iElfric's simple narrative style, the

second as showing that command of the tender and pathetic in


which he excels. Both are perfect models of style, and deserve
the most, careful study.
The present text is based on a comparison of the three oldest

MSS.

could gain access

Bodleian (B.), and the

are contemporary, or nearly so, with vElfric himself.

the best

is

certainly

to,

MS. used by Thorpe


Royal (British Museum) (R.)> all

the Cambridge (Public Library)

C,

with which R. closely agrees.

namely

(C), the
of which

Of
B.,

these,

on the

and full of omissions, but has


have therefore generally followed C,
only occasionally substituting the spellings of the other MSS.
The various readings of B. have in most cases been disregarded
as obvious errors, my object not being to supply an apparatus
criticus, but simply to select from the MSS. what is most instructive for the student. Nor have I attempted a genealogical classification of the MSS. Such a task could only be attempted by an
editor of the whole body of Homilies, and its difficulties would
be very considerable on account of the large number of MSS.
and the remarkably small divergence of their readings, at least

other hand,

many

is

carelessly written,

valuable forms.

among the
1

better ones.

The Homilies

of yElfric, by B. Thorpe, Esq. (/Eifric Society), 1S43.

62

JELFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIII.

THE ASSUMPTION OF
Iohannes

He

synderlice
5

JOHN THE APOSTLE.

wearS on Sysum
myrhSe burh Godes neosunge ge-

se Godspellere, Crlstes dyrling,

dsege to heofenan rices

numen.

ST.

waes Crlstes moddrian sunu, and he hine lufode

na swa micclum for Saere maeglican sibbe swa

Saere claennysse his

for

He waes on maegSon ungewmmedum

ansundan maegShades.

hade Gode gecoren, and hd on ecnysse

maegShade burhwunode. Hit is gerced on gewyrdelicum


racum baet he wolde wifian, and Crfst wearS to his gyftum
gelaSod.
pa gelamp 1 hit baet set Sam gyftum win wear?)
ioateorod.
Se Hjelend Sa het J?a Seningmgnw 2 afyllan six
-

staenene fatu

mid

and he mid

hliittrum waetere,

his bletsunge

bset wseter to

aeSelum wine awende.

Se he on

mgnniscnysse openlice geworhte.

his

Iohannes swa onbryrd burh

pis is bset

forme tacn

pa wearS

baet tacn, baet he" Saerrihte his

on maegShade forlet, and symle sySSan Drihtne


and wearS Sa him inweardlice gelufod, for San Se

i.^bryde

folgode,

bam

he hine setbraed

flaesclicum lustum.

Witodlice Sisum

leofan leorningcnihte befaeste se Haelend his modor, ba ba he

20

on rodehgngene manncynn alysde, baet his claene llf


daman maedenes Marian gymde and heo Sa on
swyster suna benungum wunode.
;

Eft on fyrste,

sum waelhreow

aefter Crlstes

casere

waes Domicianus
2

.=i

afyllan

ane cyfe

nysse

gelamp G.

rice,

mid weallendum
of

sefter

manna

gehaten, crlstenra

ungewmmed

se waelhreowa

upstige to heofonum, rlxode

on Romana

godspellere paeron het bescufan

Saes

hyre

ele,

and bone

ac he Surh

Sam hatum

Nerone, se

ehtere

se het

maeran

Godes gescyld-

baeSe eode.

Eft, Sa.

Sa

ne mihte Saes eadigan apostoles bodunge


2

Senigmen

C.

* io all.

THE ASSUMPTION OF

ST.

JOHN THE APOSTLE. 63

anum IgeoSe be
PaSmas geciged bast he Saer burh hungres scearpnysse 30
Ac se iElmihtiga Haelend ne forlet to gymeleaste
acwaele.

alfcgan, ba asgnde he hine on wraecsTS to


is

geswutelode him on

his gelufedan apostol, ac

Sam

wraecsiSe

ba toweardan onwrigenwysse, be Ssere he awrat Sa boc Se is


and se wselhreowa Domicianus on
gehaten Apocalipsis
'

6am
and

'

hi

acweald

gecoren.

set

pa wearS Nerua, swiSe

Be

ongean mid micclum

wurSmynte, se Se

wraecsiSe as^nd wses.

Him

faegnigende and cwetSende

man,

Gebletsod

mid hospe

is

se

35

(Se

to

apostol

se

urnon ongean weras and


'

geseWnyssa

arfaest

gebafunge gecyrde

his

handum

his witena

rseddon bast ealle his

anmodlice

ealle

aydlode waeron.
casere

geare wearS

ylcan

to
\\if40

com on

Godes naman.'
Mid bam Se se apostol Iohannes slop int5 Saere byrig
Ephesum, pa baer man him togeanes anre wydewan lie
to byrigenne;

hire

nama

Heo

waes Drusiana.

waes swiSe 45

mid cystiwope Sam lice

gelyfed and aelmesgeorn, and ba Searfan, Se heo

gum mode
folgodon.

eallunga afedde, dreorige mid

Da

het se apostol tSa baere seUan,

Drihten, Haelend Crist, arsere Se, Drusiana

and cwaeS 'Mln


arls, and gecyrr
:

ham, and gearca us gereordunge on blnum huse.' Drusiana 50


ba aras swilce of slaepe awreht and carfull be Saes apostoles
1

ham ge\vnde.
On Sam oSrum daege eode
ofseah he hwaer sum uSwita

haese

haefdon behwyrfed

eall

se apostol be Saere strait

heora yldrena gestreon on

wurSum gymwzstanum, and woldon

tocwysan on

Sa.

folces gesihSe, to woefersyne, swylce to


licra aehta.

Hit waes gewunelic on

ba

twegen gebrdSru, be

laedde

deor- 55

ealles baas

forsewennysse woruld-

Sam

timan

Sa Se

baet

woldon woruldwlsdom gecneordlice leornian, baet hi behwyrfdon heora are on gymwstanum, and Sa tobriecon oSSe 60
;

aweht B.

64

xlfric's homilies.

xiii.

on

sumum gyldenum

laes

Se seo smeaung paera aehta

wcge, and Sone on


1

clypode se apostol one uSwitan Graton him


'

(l

hwa

Dyslic biS paet

awurpan

S33

hejunge 2 and beo on Godes dome geniSerod.

manna

Ydel biS

pi

pa

and cwseS

to,

woruldlice speda forhogige for

lascedom be ne maeg one untruman gehaelan

hremde.

hi 33t Saire lare

se

swa biS eac

ydel seo lar Se ne gehaHS oalre sawle leahtras and unSeawas.

min lareow Crist sumne eniht be gewilnode baes ecan


pysum wordum laerde, bast he sceolde ealle his welan
7beceapian, and pset wurS Searfum daelan, gif he wolde ful/fremed beon, and he sySSan haefde his goldhord on heoSoSlice

lifes

fenum, and Saer-toeacan paet ece Iff.'


Graton a se uSwita
him andwyrde
pas gymwstanas synd tocwysede for ydelum
'

gylpe, ac gif Sin lareow


75

ansundnysse,

soS God, gefeg Sas bricas to

is

heora wurS

paet

maege

pearfum

frgmian.'

Iohannes pa gegaderode SaTra gym;?zstana bricas, and beseah


to

heofonum, pus cweSende

Sing earfooe

dangeard on pinum
80 rode

'

purh tacen paere halg^n

geleaffullum

geedstaSela nu pas deorwurSan gym7stanas Surh Slnra

fngla handa, paet Sis nytenan

and on pe
swa.

Drihten Haelend, nis Se nan

pu geedstaSelodest Sisne tobrocenan mid-

ansunde

paet

naes gesewen.
85 feoll to

fullode

Hwast,

gelyfon.'

mnn

Sa. faerlice

Sine mihta oncnawon,


wurdon Sa gymwstanas

furSon nan tacen Saare airran tocwysednysse

pa. se

uSwita Graton samod mid

Iohannes fotum, gelyfende on God.

mid eallum

openlice bodian.

his hirede,

pa.

and

he*

pam cnihtum

Se apostol hine

ongann Godes geleafan

twegen gebroSra, Atticus and Eugenius,

sealdon heora gymwstanas, and ealle heora aehta daaldon waedlum, and
90 affullra

filigdon

him eac

pa. becom
gamum, pair
1

to

bam

se apostol
Sa.

apostole,

and micel menigu

set

sumum

saele to baere

foresaMan cnihtas iu

Saere C.

gele-

geSeodde.

aer
2

byrig Per-

eardodon, and ge-

herunge C.

THE ASSUMPTION OF

JOHN THE APOSTLE. 65

ST.

sawon heora oeowan mid godewebbe gefraetewode *, and on


woruldlicum wuldre scinende. Da wurdon hi mid deofles
and dreorige on mode, paet hi wsedligende 95
on anum waclicum waefelse ferdon, and heora oeowan on
woruldlicum wuldre scinende wairon. pa undengeat se apoIc geseo pset eower
stol oas deoflican facn, and cwaeS:
flan burh-scotene,

'

mod

awnd and eower andwlita, for San oe ge eowre


speda pearfum daeldon, and mines Drihtnes lare fyligdon
gatS nu for Si to wuda, and heawaS incre byrSene gyrda,
and gebringaS to me.' Hi dydon be his hsese, and he on
Godes naman (5a grenan gyrda gebletsode, and hi wurdon to
readum golde awgnde. ft cwseS se apostol Iohannes: 'GaS
Hi dydon
to Ssere saa strande, and figccaS me papolstanas.'
is

swa ;
sode,

and

hi

se apostol

GaS

'

smiSSan, and fandiaS pises

to

Hi

goldes and Sissera gymwstana.'

(5a

eodon, and

pus cweSende: 'Ealle Sas goldsmiSas s^cgaS


zer

gold ne

claine

swa.

gymwwyrhtan

s cgaS paet hi naefre

gold and Sas

gymwstanas, and

faraS,

San pe ge forluron

6a.

for

eow

paellene

scinon swa. swa. rose,

cyrtlas,
past

paet

do

his

Seowan

rice for worulde,

unwiSmetenlice scinan

for his

NimaS

heofenlican

ge

paet

Ac he

paet hi gelyfon t5

naman

unlruman on
1

pa.

id

lytelre

sgtte

gecamp 2
pa.

pset

he

geleaffullum

ecan welan,

Ge

naman, ge afligdon
"

hwile

BeoS

ge ecelice waedlion.

hwilw^ndan speda forhogiaS.

gefreatewode C.

speda. 115

genihtsume on welan, and 120

geagenne

pees Hdelendes

pis

and bicgaS eow

ne maeg se ^Elmihtiga Wealdend purhneon

la,

sawlum,

'

ge hrasdlice forweornion.

blowende and welige hwilw^ndlice,

Hwset

"

eac Sas

swadeorwurSe gymwstanas

cwaeS se apostol him to

pa.

BicgaS

comon,

eft

paet hi naafre

ne gesawon

read

swa.

ne gemetton.'

landare;

105

ha. on Godes maegenSrymme hi gebletwurdon gehwyrfede to deorwurSum gymmum.

and I5hannes

pa cwaeS

xco

gecamp

(5a.

Se

gehaildon
deoflu, ge

C.

XIII.

66

blindum gesihSe, and gehwilce uncoSe gehaildon


Seos gifu eow setbroden, and ge sind earmingas

125 forgeafon

efne nu

MLFRIC'S HOMILIES.

is

gewordene, ge

<5e

eow

st5d deoflum fram

deofolseocan forleton
i3oheofenlican

Swa. micel ge

wairon maere and strange.

sind

aehta

baet hi be eowere hsese ba ofsgttan

pa
deofiu.
Nacode we

nu ge ondraedaS eow
gemaene.

eallum

us

waeron ac^nnede, and nacode we gewitaS.

prere

sunnan

monan leoht and ealra tungla sind geand Sam heanan. R^nscuras and cyrcan

beorhtnys 1 and baes


,

maene

bam

rlcan

and Godes

duru, fulluht and synna forgyfennys, huselgang

'35neosung sind ealium gemcene, earmum and eadigum ac se


ungesaeliga gytsere wile mare habban bonne him geniht:

sumaS, bonne he furSon orsorh ne bricS

genihtsum-

his

Se gytsere haefS aenne llchaman, and menigfealde


nysse.
scriid; he haefS ane wambe, and busend manna bigleofan:
140 witodlice baet

ne maeg,

bicS aelc

man

gegaderacl"

swa swa

syllan

se wltega

hordaS, and

<5e

Witodlice, ne

bicS

he Sasra

Sonne he hi daelan ne mseg ac he bitS bSra


and baeraehta Seowa, bonne he him eallunga beowaS
baet he*
llchaman,
his
toeacan him weaxacS untrumnyssa on
and
daeges
caraS
He"
brucan.
ne maeg aetes oSSe waetes
;

he

nihtes baet his feoh gehealden sy:

teolunge, his gafoles, his gebytla


150

gedrefed se

aehta hlaford,

145

nanum oSrum

hwam

he hordaS, and nat

" On fdel
hwam he hit

cwaeS
nat

baet

he for gytsunge uncyste

gan 4 he

ful-gaeS

his

gymS

graedelice his

he berypS ba wanspedi-

lustum and his plegan

bonne

faerlice

gewitt he of Sissere worulde, nacod and forscyldigod, synna


ana mid him ferigende ; for San be he sceal 6ce wite

Srowian.'

155

Efne oa Sa se apostol pas lare sprecende waes, Sa baer


sum wuduwe hire suna lie to bebyrgenne, se haefde gewifod
1

beorhnys C.
4

wannspedigan C.

uncyste C.

gebytlu C.

* folgt'S

B.

THE ASSUMPTION OF

toles

67

Seo dreorige modor ba samod mid


licmannum rarigende hi astrehte set f>ses halgan aposfotum, biddende pset he hire sunu on Godes naman

britigum nihtum

bam

JOHN THE APOSTLE.

ST.

aer.

swa swa he dyde ba wydewan Drusianam. Iohannes


oa ofhreow j?sere meder and Saira llcmanna dreorignysse,
and astrehte his Hchaman to eorSan on langsumum gebede,

araerde,

160

aras, and ft upahafenum handum langSa he Sus Sriwa ged6n hsefde, Sa het he
unwindan }?ses cnihtes lie, and cwseS: 'Eala Su cniht, Se burh
Sines flaesces lust hrsedlice Sine sawle forlure eala bu cniht,
bu ne cuSestSinne Scyppend; pu ne ciiSest manna HaHend;

and oa
lice

set

baed.

nextan
pa.

165

and for Si bu beurne


bu ne ciiSest Sone soSan freond
mine tearas, and for
ic
ageat
on Sone wyrstan feond. Nu
of deaSe arise, and
geornllce
bsed,
bset
bu
nytennysse
Sinre
;

bisum twam gebroSrum, Attico and Eugenio, cySe hii micel


wuldor hi forluron, and hwile wite hi geearnodon. Mid
Sam ba aras se cniht Stacteus, and feoll to Iohannes fotum,

and begann to Sreagenne ba gebroSru be miswende waeron,


Ic geseah Sa. englas be eower gymdon
bus cweSende
dreorige wepan, and Sa awyrigedan sceoccan blissigende
on eowerum forwyrde. Eow wses heofenan rice gearo, and
:

17

'

scinende gebytlu mid wistum afyllede, and mid

ecum

leohte

175

and ge begeaton eow


ba. ge forluron burh
and mid brastliafyllede
mid
dracum
wununga
Seosterfulle
gendum ligum, mid unasecgendlicum witum afyllede and
mid anSraecum stencum on Sam ne ablinS granung and
unwserscipe,

180

boterung dseges obbe nihtes

biddaS

for Si

mid inmveardre

heortan Sysne Godes apostol, eowerne lareow, bset he eow


fram Sam ecum forwyrde araere, swa swa he me fram deaSe

and he eowre
liflican bee, gekede

arserde;
Jxere

saula,
eft to

be nu

Godes

sind adylegode

gife

and

Se cniht ba Stacteus, Se of deaSe aras, samod mid


gebroSrum astrehte hine to Iohannes f6tswaSum, and
F 2

of 185

miltsunge.'

bam
bset

68
Cole foio"

mid

(5ritig

ealle,

anmodlice biddende

Gode

he him to

boet

Se apostol ba bebead (Sam twam gebrooYum

igogebingode.
hi

MLFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIII.

bset

daga be hreowsunge daidbetende Gode geofrodon,


1

and on bam

baedon baet ba gyldenan gyrda


gecynde awgndon, and ba gymwstanas to
^fter (Sritigra daga fsece, ba ba hi ne
heora wacnysse.
to

e/t

19;

ban

fsece geornllce

serran

mihton mid heora benum

baet gold

heora gecynde awgndan, oa

cwebende

apostole, bus

and

man

bset

hu micele
2co

'

Symle ou

6c5rum miltsode

swIcSor wile

God

and

miltsian

and ba gymwstanas to
hi mid wope to bam
toehtest mildheortnysse,

gif

man ooVum miltsacS,


mannum his

and arian

we mid gitsigendum eagum agylton,


we nu mid wependum eagum behreowsiacSV Da. and-

handgeweorce
boat

comon

poet boet

wyrde se apostol
to ssestrande

hi

'

BeracS oa gyrda to wuda,

synd gecyrrede

to

and

stanas

ba.

heora gecynde.'

pa.

oa

gedon hsefdon, oa underfengon hi ft Godes gife, swa


hi adraefdon deoflu, and blinde and untrume gehaaldon,

hi bis

235 baet

and
cer

is

feala tacna

on Drihtnes naman gefrgmedon,

swa hy

Se apostol pa gebigde to Gode ealne bone eard Asiam, se


and awrat oa
geteald to healfum daale middaneardes
;

2iofeor'San Cristes boc, seo hrpa(S swySost

cundnysse.

Da

6c5re

ymbe

njere, ser

Cristes

god-

oYy godspelleras, Matheus, Marcus,

Lucas, awriton aaror be Cristes mgnniscnysse.

gedwolmgnn on Godes
21 5

swa.

dydon.

pa.

gelacSunge, and cwaedon

he acgnned woes of Marian,

pa.

asprungan
tSaet

Crist

baadan ealle

(5a

leodbisceopas (5one halgan apostol poet he ba feoicSan boc


gesgtte,

and aara gedwolmanna dyrstignesse adwaascte. Ioand he


faasten gemaenellce

hannes ba bead Sreora daga

miclum mid Godes gaste


afylled, bast he ealle Godes nglas and ealle gesceafta mid
2 2ohealicum mode oferstah, and mid oysum wordum ba. godaafter

"5am

faestene

am.

in C.

wearS

swa.

bereows'aft C.

THE ASSUMPTION OF
spellican gesgt/nysse

ongan

verbum erat apud Deum,

JOHN THE APOSTLE. 69

ST.

el

In principio erat verbum,

Dais eral verbum,

el

el

reliqua

on Fmglisc 'On frymSe waes word, and paet word


waes mid Gode, and paet word waes God J^is waes on frymSe
mid Gode ealle Sing sind purh hine geworhte, and nis nan
paet

is

And

ping buton him gesceapen.'

swa. forS

on

225

ealre Saire

godspellican gest/nysse he cydde fela be Cristes godcund-

hu he ecelice butan angynne of his Faeder acgnned is,


and mid him rlxaS on annysse paes Halgan Gastes, a butan
nysse,

Feawa he awrat be

nde.

mgnniscnysse,

his

Sry oSre godspelleras genihtsumlice be


Hit gelamp

set

sumum

ungeleaffulle waeron

saele paet

gecwaedon

GaS

for

San pe pa

2.50

heora bee stton.

pa deofolgyldan pe pa gyt

paet hi

to heora haiSenscipe geneadian.

pam

pa.

woldon pone apostol

cwaeS se apostol

to

Sam

endemes to Godes cyrcan, and 235


clypiaS ealle to eowerum godum, paet seo cyrce afealle Surh
heora mihte Sonne bilge ic to eowerum haeSenscipe.
Gif
Sonne eower godes miht pa. halgan cyrcan towurpan ne maeg,
ic towurpe eower tempel purh Saes JGlmihtigan Godes mihte,
and ic tocwyse eower deofolgyld and biS ponne rihtlic ge- 240
haeSengyldum

'

ealle

Suht

paet

ge geswycon eoweres gedwyldes, and gelyfon on

Sone soSan God, se Se ana is JElmihtig.' pa haeSengyldan


Sisum cwyde geSwairlaehton, and Iohannes mid geswaesum

wordum

baet folc tihte paet hi ufor

temple

and mid beorhtre stemne

pode

eodon fram bam deofles


him eallum cly-

aetforan

'On Godes naman ahreose

pam deofolgyidum pe him on


cnawe

paet

fx'rlice

ahreas

blgggng

is.'

menigu

to-

Ilwaet Sa.

tempel grundlunga mid eallum his an-

licnyssum to duste awnde.

gebigede twejf Susend

and mid

245

tempi mid eallum

eardiaS, paet peos

Sis haeSengyld deofles


paet

pis

On pam

haeSenra

manna

fulluhte gehalgode.
1

fiusenJa B.

ylcan daege wurdon 250


to Cristes geleafan,

JO

TELFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIII,

pa sceorede Sa gyt

mid mycelre

se yldesta haaSengylda

pwyrnysse, and cwseS pset he nolde gelyfan buton Iohannes


255 attor drunce,

oferswiSde.

and burh Godes mihte Sone cwealmbjeran 1 drgnc


peah Su me attor sylle,
pa cwseS se apostol

gylda Aristodemus

and
260

hit
'

me

pu

ne dejaoV

Da. cwasS se hseSen-

scealt serest

oSerne geseon drincan,

hum

Saerrihte cwelan, past

Sin heorte swa, forhtige for

Sam deadbairum drnce.' Iohannes him andwyrde: 'Gif


<Su on God gelyfan wylt, ic unforhtmod Saes drnces onfo.'
2
pa. getengde se Aristodemus to Sam heahgerefan, and genam
on

his

cwearterne twegen Seofas, and sealde him Sone un-

lybban setforan eallum

Sam

265 hi Saarrihte sefter

he"

Sam

folce,

on Iohannes gesihSe

drgnce gewiton.

SySSan

Sone attorbairan drgnc bam

gilda eac sealde

270

'

purh Godes naman

mid rodetacne

his

muS and

and

se hajSen-

and
gew&pnode,

apostole,

ealne his lichaman

and Sone unlybban on Godes naman halsode, and siSSan


mid gebildum mode hine ealne gedranc. Aristodemus Sa
and pset folc beheoldon f>one apostol Sreo tfda dseges, and
gesawon hine habban glaedne andwlitan buton blacunge and
forhtunge

and

hi ealle

Iohannes wurSaS.'

pa,

clypodon

'

An

soS

cwasS se haeSengylda to

God
Sam

is,

se

Se

apostole

Gyt me tweonaS ac gif Su Sas deadan sceaSan on Sines


Godes naman araarst, bonne biS mln heorte gecbensod fram
Aristodeme, nim
selcere twynunge.'
Da cwseS Iohannes
mine tunecan, and lege bufon pcera deadra manna lie, and
'

275

'

cweS "poes Hailendes Cristes apostol me asende to eow, baet


ge on his naman of deaSe arison, and aalc mann oncnawe past
2SodeaS and Iff peowiaS minum Haelende.'" He Sa. be Saes
apostoles hajse boer his tunecan, and alede uppon Sam twam
deadum and hi Saerrihte ansunde arison. pa. Sa se hajSen:

gilda past geseah, Sa. astrehte he hine to Iohannes fotum,

and sySSan ferde


1

to

Sam

cwelnibxran C. R.

heahgerefan, and him


2

genam

Sa,
C,

wundra

THE ASSUMPTION OF

JOHN THE APOSTLE.

ST.

Hi Sa begen bone

mid hluddre stemne cydde.

sohton, his miltsunge biddende.

seofon nihta

Sam

and

faesten,

apostol ge- 285

bead se apostol him

siSSan gefullode

hi

and

hi aefter

heora deofolgyld, and mid heora

fulluhte tovvurpon eall

maga

pa,

fultume and mid eallum craefte araerdon

Gode msere

cyrcan on ass apostoles wurSmynte.

pa

290

apostol waes nigon and hundnigontig geara,

Sa, se

seteowode him Drihten Crist mid

pam oSrum

pa.

apostolum, pe

cum
me tima is past pu mid Sinum gebroSrum wistfullige
on minum gebeorscipe.' Iohannes pa aras, and eode wiS 295
of Sisum

he*

to

life

genumen

haefde,

and cwaeS

'

Iohannes,

paes Haelendes

mines

ac he him to cwaeS

aaristes daege,

pu cymst

to

Drihten gewnde to heofenum.

'

Nu on

me;' and

sunnan-daeg,

aefter

(5am vvorde

Se apostol micclum blissode

on 5am behate, and on pam sunnan-uhtan aerwacol to Saere


cyrcan c5m, and pam folce, fram hancrede oS undern, Godes
gerihta laarde, and him maessan gesang, and cwaeS paet se
Haalend hine on

Het

Sa.

Sam

heofonum gelaSod haefde.


and paet greot
eode cucu and gesund into his byrgene,
daege to

delfan his byrgene wiS paet weofod,

And

ut awegan.

he*

and astrghtum handum to Gode clypode


Drihten Crist, ic
pancige Se paet pu me gelaSodest to pinum wistum pu wast
:

'

35

paet ic
ic

mid

ealre heortan

moste to Se

Se mare

folc

faran, ac

me nahwar

ne

and

pu
ic

sfttest

awrat

gehyrde, and Sa wundra Se


betsece, Drihten

ic

Se baed

paet

andbidode, paet

ic

simle mine sawle onlihtest, and 310

pii

forlete.

soSfaestnysse word,

Oft

paet ic

pu heolde minne lichaman wiS

gestrynde.

besmitennysse, and

aelce

pe gewilnode.

pu cwaede

ic

on minum muSe pinre

Sa. lare

Se

ic

of

Sinum muSe

Se wyrcan geseah.

Nu

ic

Se

pine beam, Sa Se pin gelaSung, maiden and

moder, burh waeter and pone Halgan Gast Se gestrynde. 315


Onfoh me to minum gebroSrum mid Sam Se Su come, and

me

gelaSodest.

Geopena ongean me

lifes

geat, paet Saera

.ELFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIV.

72

me ne gemeton. pQ eart Crist, Saes lifigendan Godes Sunu, ]?u be be (Sines Feeder haese middangeard
gehaildest, and us Sone Halgan Gast asndest. pe we hejiaS,
and banciaS binra mgnigfealdra goda geond ungeendode
Seostra ealdras

320

worulda 1
^Efter

Amen.'

Sysum gebede aeteowode

heofenlic leoht bufon

Sam

apostole binnon Saire byrgene, ane tid swa beorhte scinende


3 2 5 baet

nanes mannes gesihS bass leohtes leoman sceawian ne

mihte

and he mid J>am leohte

be hine to his

his gast ageaf

He

rice gelaSode.

bam

Drihtne

gewat swa freoh fram

deaSes sarnysse of Sisum andweardan


aelfrgmed fram lichamlicere
33

San wses

his

life swa swa. he waes


gewemmednysse. SoSlice syS-

byrgen gemet/ mid mannan

afylled.

Manna

waes gehaten se heofenlica mete be feowertig geara afedde


Israhela folc

on westene.

Nu

waes se blgleofa gemett

Iohannes byrgene, and nan Sing

ejles

and

se

mete

is

on

weax-

oS Sisne andweardan daeg. pair beoS fela tacna


and untrume gehaMde and fram eallum frecednyssum alysede j^urh Saes apostoles Singunge. pses him getiSaS Drihten Crist, bam is wuldor and wurSmynt mid Faeder
ende on

hire

335 aeteowode,

and Halgum Gaste a

Amen.

THE NATIVITY OF THE INNOCENTS.

XIV.
Nii

biiton nde.

Godes

to-daeg

gelaSung

mairsaS bxra eadigra cildra

Herodes

for

Cristes

geond ealne ymbhwyrft

freolstlde,

be se wselhreowa

acennednysse mid arleasre ehtnysse

acwealde, swa swa us seo godspellice racu swutellice cyS.


5

Matheus awrat on

bcere

forman Cristes bee Sysum wordum

be Saes Haelendes gebyrdtide, and cwaeS: 'pa Sa se Haelend

acenned wses on

bJere Iudeiscan Bethleem,

worulde C. R., woruld D.

on Herodes dagum

THE NATIVITY OF THE INNOCENTS.


comon fram

cyninges, efne oa

eastdaele

middangeardes

tungelwitegan to Saere byrig Hierusalem,

"Hwaer
sawon

Iudeiscra leoda cyning, se

is

on

socSlice his steorran

]?us

We

is?

and we comon

eastdable,

Jjry

befrinende

acenned

(Se

Jof

ge- 10

to

(5i

Hwaet oa Herodes cyning bis


gehyrende wearS micclum astyred, and eal/ seo burhwaru
samod mid him. He oa gesamnode ealle ba ealdorbiscopas

baet

we us

and

(Saes

him gebiddon."

to

and befran hwaer

folces boceras,

stow waere.
socSlice is

'

Crlstes canning- 15

on (5sere Iudeiscan Bethleem. pus


Eala bu
awriten fmrh oone wltegan Micheam

Hi

ssedon,

'

Bethleem, Iudeisc land, ne eart

nateshwon wacost burga

(5u

on Iudeiscum ealdrum: of oe cymcS se hejetoga se Se geDa clypode Herodes ba 20


wylt and gewissao" Israhela folc'
Sry tungelwitegan on sunderspraece, and geornlice hi be1
fran t5 hwilces timan se steorra him aerest seteowode, and
Fara<5 ardlice, and
asende hi to Bethleem, Sus cweoende
:

Sam

'

and bonne ge hit gemetaS, cyoacS me,


him gebiddan.' pa tungelwitegan ferdon
aefter baes cyninges spraece, and efne <5a se steorra be hi on
eastdaale gesawon glad him beforan, ocS baet he gestod bufon
bam ggsthuse beer baet cild on wunode. Hi gesawon Sone

befrinaS be
J?3et ic

mage 2 me

steorran,

cilde,

to

Eodon

and bearle blissodon.

gemetton mid Marian

his

(5a

and

inn,

25

baet cild

meder, and nioer feallende hi

to 30

Hi geopenodon heora hordfatu 3 and him lac


Hwaet oa God
geoffrodon, gold, and recels, and myrran.
on swefne hi gewarnode, and bebead baet hi eft ne gecyrdon
to (San reSan cyninge Herode, ac burh doerne weg hine forEfne oa Godes 35
cyrdon, and swa to heora eSele becomon.

him gebaedon.

^ngel aeteowode I5sepe, Saes cildes

cweoende
to

'

and nim

Aris,

Egyptadande, and beo

toweard
1

is

baet

xrst C.

bis cild

mage

fosterfaeder,

mid

baer oft baet ic

Herodes smeaS hu
2

C.

on swefnum,
and fieoh

poere meder,

be

eft

secge

he" J?aet cild fordo.'

hurdfutu C.

soolice

Ioseph

cildes C.

4C

MLFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIV.

74
Sa aras
lande

nihtes,

and
and

ferede,

mid pasre meder samod to Egypta


wunode oS past Herodes gewat past

past cild

pasr

seo wltegung wasre gefylled, pe be Sasre fare


'

Of Egypta-lande

Nu
45

scgaS

pam

to

Sus cwasS

geclypode minne sunu.'

wyrdwriteras

wearS gewre'ged
geard on

ic

air

past

Herodes betwux Sisum


casere, pe ealne middan-

pam Romaniscan

timan geweold.

gewgnde he

pa.

to

R5me

Sass caseres hasse, past he hine betealde, gif he mihte.

be

pa

betealde he hine swiSe geaplice, swa swa he wges snotor-

wyrde to San swiSe past se casere hine mid maran wurSfomynte ongean to Iiideiscum rice asende. pa pa. he ham com,
pa gemunde he hwast he asr be San cilde gemynte, and geseah
past he wass bepasht fram (Sam tungelwltegum, and wearS
pa. Searle gegrgmod.
Snde 6a. his cwglleras, and ofsloh
(5a,
hysecild pe wasron on pasre byrig Bethleem, and
on eallum h}Te gemasrum, fram twywintrum cilde to anre

ealle
55

nihte,
pa.
'

be Sasre tide pe

waes

Stemn

gefylled

San Se

hi

set

Sam

ne

On Sam

and nolde beon

cildru,

acennedan

comon Sa
axodon be Sam

twelftan dasge Cristes acennednysse

cilde

and

pa.

pa gewendon hi wiS pass

pass caseres hasse,

pa

hi his

cenningstowe geaxodon,

and noldon Sone reSan cwejhe het. pa. ne mihte he forbiigan

cildes,

6 S lere eft gecyrran, swa. swa.

his langsume fasr pasra


ponne he gemynt hasfde; and

and wass Sa purh

cildra slge geuferod swiSor

on Sysum dasgperlicum dasge wuldorfullice geswaSeah pass geares pe Crist acenned wass,
twegra geara ymbryne asfter Sass waslhreowan ham-

wurdon

Sa.

martyrode;
70 ac asfter

gefrefrod, for

sind.'

Sry tungelwitegan to Herode, and hine

hi

tungelwitegum.

gehyred on heannysse, micel wop and Soterung

is

Rachel beweop hire


6o

geaxode

he"

Hieremias witegung, pe Sus witegode

na.

cyme.
1

lande C.

THE NATIVITY OF THE INNOCENTS.


Nses

Da com

c5me.

Crist sylf

bam cynecynne
becom

swa swa Moyses be Sam

ne
to

awrat,

Iudeisce cynecynn op pset


on Sam timan pe seo cyneaelfremeda Herodes pses rices

ne sceolde ateorian

paet

to

ac mid syrewungum and swicdome he

Saire cynelican geSincSe

lice

him naht

aeSelboren, ne

he"

gebyrode

J5

J?set

75

Crist

ateorode, and se
pa wearS he micclum afyrht and anSracode j^oet
feallan sceolde purh tocyme pass soSan cyninges.

maigS

geweold.
his rice

pa clypode

Sa tungehvitegan on sundersprajce, and ge- So


on hwilcne timan hi aerest pone steorran

he"

ornlice hi befran,

gesawon

San Se he ondred, swa swa hit gelamp, paet


pa. het he for Sy acweUan ealle
paire burhscire, fram twywintrum cilde oS anre

for

ne gecyrdon.

hi eft hine

Sa hysecild
nihte

Sohte, gif he hf ealle ofsloge, paet se an ne setburste 85

Ac he

pe he sohte.

Se cwyS

'

wses

ungemyndig paes halgan gewrites,


ne nan reed naht ongean

nan wisdom

Nis

God.'

FaraS,
Se swicola Herodes cwaeS to Sam tungelwitegum
and geornlice befrinaS be Sam cilde, and cySaS me, paet ic 90
Ac he cydde sySSan his
eac mage me to him gebiddan.'
'

facenfullan syrewunge,

Sa Sa he

mette,

ehtnysse.

Sy

inges

pearfleas

he wolde

past

mid

wolde

hu he ymbe wolde,

"his

riccetere

he syrwde ymbe Crist


eorSlice rice,

him

geteon

to

to

Sy

poet

ac paet he waire

ne

com he

for

oppe amiges oSres cynac to Si he

his heofenlice rice geleaffullum

com he

gif he hine ge-

efenealdan adylegode for his anes

ealle his

mannum

com

past

forgyfan.

Ne

he waere on maerlicum cynesetle ahafen,

mid hospe on rode-hengene genaeglod.

He

wolde Seah paes waelhreowan syrwunge mid fleame forbugan,

na

he deaS forfluge, se Se sylfwilles to Srowienne

for Si paet

middangearde genealaehte

Sa on

ac hit wsere t5 hraedlic, gif he

cildcradole acweald wurde, swilce


1

niseigtf

95

he

C.

Sonne

J)e;.rfi*s

C.

his

tocyme

100

.ELFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIV.

76

manwcynne bedfglod

wsere

forhradode

bi

Godes ?ngel

iosboes arleasan gebeaht, and behead baet se fosterfaeder bone

heofenlican aeSeling of (5am earde ardlice fejede.

Ne

forseah Crist his geongan cmpan, Seah Se he lichamon heora slgge andwgrd nsere ac he as^nde hi fram
bisum wrsecfullum life to his ecan rice. Gesaelige hi wurdon
lice

nogeborene

bset

Eadig

heora

is

and moste

for

hi

moston

yld,

for

his

intingan deaS browian.

ne mihte Crist andettan,

seo Se ba gyt

Criste

Hi waeron

browian.

gewitan, Seah Se hi hine Sa gyt ne cuSon.

pode

beah swulton to

to slgge, ac hi gesceliglice

San Se
andweardan lifes.

ii^sailig wses heora acnnednys, for

ece

lif

on

instaepe paes

baes Haelendes

Natron hi geri-

hi

life.

Ge-

gemetton

baet

Hi wurdon

ge-

gripene fram moderlicum breostum, ac hi wurdon beteehte

bosmum. Ne mihte se manfulla ehtere


mid nanre Senunge bam lytlingum swa micclum fr^mian
i2osw-a micclum swa he him fremode mid Saere reSan ehtnysse
hatunge.
Hi sind gehatene martyra blostman, for San Se
hi wairon swa swa up-aspringende blostman on middeweardan cyle ungeleafful/nysse, swilce mid sumere ehtnysse forste
forsodene.
Eadige sind pa innoSas be hi gebairon, and Sa
125 breost be swylce gesihton 3
Witodlice Sa moddru 4 on heora
cildra martyrdome browodon
baet swurd Se baera cildra
lima builrarn 5 becom to Saera moddra heortan and neod is
baet hi beon efenhlyttan baes ecan edleanes, bonne hi waeron
Hi waeron gehwaede and ungegeferan Saere browunge.
pjerrihte ngellicum

on bam gemamelicum dome


mid fullum waestme and heofenlicere snoternysse. Ealle we
cumaS to anre ylde on bam gemaenelicum seriste, beah Se
we nu on myslicere ylde of byssere worulde gewiton.
paet godspel/ cweS baet Rachel beweop hire cildra, and

130 wittige acwealde, ac hi arisaS

gyt C.

2
1

so all.
so all.

gesycton B., gesicton


-an) C.

R,

THE NATIVITY OF THE INNOCENTS.

Rachel hatte

nolde beon gefrefrod, for San pe hi ne sind.

Iacobes

wif,

Sses

hire gastlican

swa beon gefrefrod, pset hi

135

and heo getacnode Godes

heahfsederes,

gelaSunge, pe bewepS

JJ

cild

ac heo

nele

woruldlicum gecampe

to

eft

gehwvrfon pa pe aene mid sygefsestum deaSe middangeard

yrmSa setwundon

oferswiSdon, and his

mid

wuldorbeagienne

to

140

Criste.

Eornostllce ne breac se arleasa Herodes his cynerlces mid


langsumere gesundful/nysse, ac buton yldinge him becom seo

godcundlice wracu, pe hine mid mgnigfealdre yrmSe fordyde,

and eac geswutelode on hwilcum suslum he moste sefter


Hine gelsihte unascgendlic
forSsiSe ecellce cwylmian.
adl

he

eal/

his

lichama barn wiSutan mid langsumere haitan, and

innan samod forswseled wses and toborsten.

waes mgtes micel

lust,

ac Seah mid

He

nysse gefyllan ne mihte.

and angsumlice siccetunga


gyrdle to

nanum

San swiSe

hriSode, and ggeslice hweos, 150

teah,

swa

pset

he*

and stincende

attor

gesceapu maSan

his

pset

Him

return his gyfer-

earfoSlice

Wseterseocnyss hine ofereode beneoSan

orSian mihte.

singallice

of

Sam

pam

weollon,

toswollenum fotum

Unaberendlic gyhSa ofereode ealne Sone lichaman,

fieow.

145

155

and ungelyfendlic toblawennys his innoS geswgncte. Him


stod stincende 3 steam of (5am muSe, swa pset earfoSlice senig
lsece

him mihte genealsecan.

cwseS

paet hi hine gehselan

Fela Ssera laeca he acwealde

mihton, and noldon.

Hine ge-

drhte singal slsepleast, swa pset he purlrwacole niht buton 1G0

adreah

slaepe

and

gif

he"

dr^hton nihtlice gedwimor


buhte.

pa.

Sa. ea.

hsefde hate baSu, pe wseron


1

swa

Sa hd mid swiSlicum

hine fe/igan ofer

he"t he*

hwon hnappode 4
6

bewvptf C.
*

Imappoae C.

pset

him

Sderrihte hine

Sses

slaepes of-

luste his lifes gewilnode,

pa

Iordanen, Seer peer waeron ge-

Lalwgnde gecwedene adligendum


3

so all.
5

stincende C.

gedwimor

C.

165

WearS

Hchaman.

70

MLFRIC'S HOMILIES.

XIV.

78

pa.

eac

geSuht

laicum

his

on

hi

paet

wlacum ele hine gebeSedon. Ac Sa (5a h6 wses on Sissere


beSunge gele"d, pa. wearS se lichama eal/ toslopen, swa. paet his
eagan wendon on gelicnysse sweltendra manna, and he" laeg
cwydeleas butan andgite.
Eft, 6a. Sa he com, pa, het he
hine ferigan to Saere byrig HierichS.

pa he wearS his Hfes orwene,

pa.

ba.

gelaSode he him to

Sa Iudeiscan ealdras of gehwilcum burgum, and het

ealle

on cwearterne beclysan, and gelangode him


'75

Salome and

hire

Sis Iudeisce folc

wer Alexandrum, and cwaeS

micclum

blissigan wile

hi

to his swustor
:

'

Ic wat baet

mines deaSes

ac

ic

maeg habban arwurSfulle licSenunge of heofigendre mgnigu,


gif ge

willaS

minum bebodum

swa. ic gewite ofsleaS ealle


1

ponne beoS heora

So cwearterne beclysde,

geneadode,

Sa

his

]?a

cempan

cum

fiftig

fram

Sam

gehyrsumian.

Sam

slfge

blodes gyte ne wiSbrudon.

185 angsumnysse waes gecwylmed,

pa,

on

He

faegnian.'

genamode, and het heora

pa

Sa. he"

sel-

handa

sceatte syllan, past hi heora

scyllinga to

ic

sib^lingas to heofunge

Se wyllaS mines forSsiSes


to

Swa. ricene

Sas Iudeiscan ealdras Se

mid ormcetre

het he his agenne sunu

Antipatrem arleaslice acwejlan, toeacan

pam twam

pe

he" air

acwealde.

JEt nextan, Sa

laecunge, pa. het he

aenne aeppel, and

him

he gefredde his deaSes nea-

Sa.

his

seax araecan to screadigenne

hine sylfne

hgtellce

Syde

past

him on

paes

Herodes forSsiS, be manfulllce ymbe


heofenlican aepelinges tocyme syrwde, and his efeneal-

dan

lytlingas unscaeSSige arleaslice acwealde.

igoacwehte.

pyllic waes

Sa. Godes ngel, aefter Herodes deaSe, aeteowode


Aris
swefnum on Egypta-lande, bus cweSende
on
Iosepe
and nim paet cild and his moder samod, and gewnd on-

Efne

195

gean

ymbe

to Israhela-lande

'

soSlice hi sind forSfarene, Sa.

paes cildes feorh syrwdon.'

H^

Se

Sa. aras, swa. swa. se

^ngel him bebead, and fejode paet cild mid paere meder to

THE NATIVITY OF THE INNOCENTS.


pa gefran Ioseph

Israhela-lande.

Iudea-lande

sefter his fseder

wiste genealaecan.
J?set

he

to Galilea

bast

79

Archelaus rixode on

Herode, and ne dorste

his nea- 200

pa wearS he eft on swefne gemynegod


gewende for oan oe se eard nass ealles

gehende fiam cyninge, J^eah Se hit his rice ware, past


cild ca eardode on J^sere byrig be is gehaten Nazareth, bast
seo witegung wasre gefylled, be cwascS bast he sceolde beon
pa sind
Se ngel cwseS to Iosepe
Nazarenisc geciged.
swa.

205

'

foroTarene be

embe

tSass

worde he geswutelode

INIid

bam
embe

smeadon ac him getimode swuSe rihtlice J^aet


mid heora arleasan hlaforde ealle forwurdon.
Nelle we oas race na leng teon, py lass (5e hit eow setSryt

Cristes cwale

hi

cildes feorh syrwdon.'

bast ma. <5asra Iiideiscra ealdra

]?ince;

ac biddacS

martyrum.
swa.

hwider

setle

twigu

Hi

eow bingunge

sind

<5a.

swa. he" gas

Se Criste
;

and

bysum

unscas'5(5igum

on hwltum gyrlum

hi standa<5 astforan his

Srym/w-

butan aslcere gew^mmednysse, hasbbende heora palm- 215

on handa, and singaS bone niwan


j?e leofacS and

iElmihtigum t5 wurSmynte, se
gnde.

aet

folgiacS

210

Amen.

lofsang,
rixatS

bam

a butan

XV.
iELFRICS LIFE OF KING OSWALD.
The

following text

is

taken from

MS.,

as given in the Cottonian

iElfric's

Julius E. 7.

Lives of the Saints,


It

is

here published

for the first time.

JEfter
setSele

tSan tSe

swybe on God.

and

Auguslinus

to

Engla-lande becom, waes sum

cyning, Oswold gehaten, on NortShymbra lande, gelyfed

magum

Se ferde on

Ceadwalla geciged, and

Crist gelyfed, fram Brytta cyninge,

twegen
walla
10 setter

binnan twam gearum

and se Ceadsceame tucode ba NortShymbran leode

his sefterg^ngan

sloh

and

to

heora hlafordes

wicS feaht

fylle,

otS

mid lytlum werode, ac

and Crist him

gefylste

araerde ane rode sona

Sam gewinne

to

Gode

his

Oswold
to,

eadiga his

se

and him cenlice

his geleafa hine

feonda slge.

to wurtSmynte, ser

c5me, and clypode

feallan to tSaere rode,


ahre. dde witS

baet

Oswold him com

yfelnysse adwajscte.

15

fram his freondum

his iugotSe

on ?, and baer sona weartS gefullod,


and his geferan samod be mid him slbedon. Betwux bam
weartS ofslagen Eadwine his earn, NortShymbra cynincg, on
to Scotlande

to

his

ban be he

geferum

and bone iElmihtigan biddan

bone modigan feond be us

getrymde,

Oswold ba

baet

afyllan wile

to

'Uton

he us

God

we winnatS rihtlice witS bysne retSan cyning


Hi feollon ba ealle mid Oswolde
to ahr^ddenne ure leode.'
20 cyninge on gebedum
and sybban on 6<5erne mergen eodon
to bam gefeohte, and gewunnon bser sige, swa swa se
sylf

wat geare

bset

KING OSWALD.

2ELFRIC"S LIFE OF

XV.
Eallwealdencl

heom

Oswoldes geleafan

u<5e for

and aledon

heora fynd, bone modigan Cedwallan mid his micclan werode,

be wende

bast

him ne mihte nan werod wlSstandan.


tSe Oswold beer araarde on wurSmynte

Seo ylce rod siSSan

And wurdon

baar stod.

eac

burh Sa ylcan rode, swa. swa us rghte

swilce nytena

Beda.
lseg

Sum

25

untrumra manna and

fela gehaslde

man;?

on

feoll

ba on bdde gebrocod

fse, bast

his

earm

for <5earle, ot5 bast

and

tobaarst,

man him

fgtte

(Sasre foresasdan rode sumne daal baas meoses be heo mid


beweaxen waas, and se adliga sona on slaape wearcS gehaaled
on (Sasre ylcan nihte burh Oswoldes geearnungum.
Seo stow is gehaten Heofonfeld on nglisc, wicS (Sone
langan weall be ba Romaniscan worhtan, baar baar Oswold

of

'

'

And

oferwann bone waalhreowan cynincg.


arasred switSe maare cyrce

Gode

]?aar

wear<5 sibban 35

wurSmynte, be wunaS a

to

on ecnysse.
Hwast

ongann

Oswold

<5a

smeagenne, sona swa he

and

embe

bam

to

baat hi his

baas

getibod.

Gode gewe'man
Hi sendon ba sona bam

and him
gesaaligan

cyninge sumne arwurSne bisceop, Aidan gehaten.


maares Hfes

to

<5a,

sgndon, be his leoda mihte to

wearS

willan

lifigendan

to Scotlande, baar se geleafa waas

mnn

Godes

geweold, and wolde gebigan

Gode. Snde 40
and baad (5a heafodbenum getibodon, and him sumne lareow

his leoda to geleafan

Sa

rices

mann on

Se woes 45

munuclicre drohtnunge, and he ealle

woruldcara awearp fram his heortan, nanes binges wilnigende

butan Godes willan.


cyninges

gifum

oSSe

Swa

hwast swa

rlcra

manna,

him becom of

bast

he

bass

hraSe daalde

bearfum and wasdlum mid welwillendum mode.

Hwast

<5a

Oswold cyning

his

arwurollce underfeng his folce to

wurde awnd

gft

gewende wasron.

to

(Searfe, bast

Gode fram bam

Hit gelamp ba swa


G

>so

cymes fasgnode, and hine


heora geleafa

wibersaace be hi to

bast se geleaffula

cyning

Hz

JELFRIC'S LIFE OF

XV.

KING OSWALD.

witan on heora agenum gereorde pses bisceopes


bodunge mid blipum mode, and wses his wealhstod for pan
pe he wel cupe Scyttysc, and se bisceop Aidan ne mihte

55 gerehte his

gebigan his spidece to NorcShymbriscum gereorde swa hrape

NorShymbra
to Godes
geleafan, and him wel gebysnode mid weorcum symle, and
sylf swa leofode swa swa he lserde oftre. He lufode forhasfednysse and halige raMinge, and iunge mn;z teah georne mid
lare, swa poet ealle his geferan pe him mid eodon sceoldon
sealmas leornian oS5e sume rcedinge swa hwider swa hi
pa

Se biscop pa ferde bodigende geond

git.

6:>land 1 geleafan

65

pam

ferdon

and

folce

fulluht,

eall

and pa leode gebigde

bodigende.

Seldon he wolde ridan, ac

siSode on his fotum, and munucllce leofode betwux (Sam laiwe-

mid mycelre gesceadwlsnysse and sopum maegnum.


Oswold swlSe aslmesgeorn and eadmod on peawum and on eallum pingum cystig, and man
2
cyrcan on his rice geond eall and mynsterlice
arserde
dan

folce

pa

70

wearcS se cynincg

gesgtmyssa mid micelre geornfulnysse.


Hit gelamp on sumne saM

past hi saiton aetgoedere

Oswold

and Aidan on pam halgan easterdaege pa baer man pam


cyninge cynelice penunga on anum sylfrenan disce and sona
;

75

pa inn eode an paes cyninges pegna pe his aelmyssan bewiste,


scede paet fcla pearfan ssetan

and

cumene

to

paes

geond pa

cyninges aelmyssan.

pa.

strait

gehwanon

sgnde se cyning

pam pearfum pone sylfrenan disc mid sande mid ealle,


and het toceorfan pone disc, and syllan pam pearfum heora
pa genam Aidanus
selcum his dael, and man dyde (5a. swa.
se aeSela bisceop pass cyninges swypran hand mid swlSlicre
sona

80

blysse,

and clypode mid geleafan, pus cweSende 3 him

Ne
And
'

on brosnunge peos gebletsode swySre hand.'


him eac swa geeode, swa swa Aidanus him baed, past
swlSre hand is gesundful/ oS pis.
forrotige

s5

>

to:

norhvmbra

lanJe.

ahrarde.

cwascSende.

his

KING OSWALD.

ftLFRlC'S LIFE OF

XV.

83

Oswoldes cynerice weartS gerymed ba swytSe, swa. boet


feower beoda hine underfengon to hlaforde, Peohtas, and

and Angle, swa. swa se aelmihtiga God hi


oam for Oswoldes geearnungum Je hine aefre 90
He ful'worhte on Eferwfc boet aenlice mynster be

Bryttas, Scottas,

geanloehte to
wurtSode.
his

moeg Eadwine

cer

begunnen 1

and he swanc

haefde;

for heo-

mid singalum gebedum swibor bonne he hogode


hu he geheolde on worulde ba hwflwendlican gebinco'u, be
fonan

rice

he hwonlice lufode.

He

wolde

uhtsange oftost hine 95

Defter

gebedum of

gebiddan, and on cyrcan standan on syndrigum

sunnan iipgange mid


hwcer

swa he woes

handbredum

On bam

witS

oirbryrdnysse

swySlicre

wurtSode

he

and swa

God upawndum

aifre

]^s heofones weard.


com eac sum bisceop fram Rome-

ylcan timan

gehaten, se woes
Birinus witodllce

on Rome

tSa.

git

haVSen and

gewende fram

eall

Rome

be

Westsexena

land.

papan

raide

tSoes

and behet baet he wolde Godes


willan gefremman, and bodian bam hoebenum boes Haelendes
naman and bone sotSan geleafan on fyrlenum landum. pa
becom he to Westseaxan, be woes oa gyt hoeben, and

be

t5a

woes,

gebigde bone cynincg Kynegyls to Gode, and


to geleafan

and hine
geafon
Birine

mid him.

Hit gelamp pa swa.

to

cynegas,

ba

him

fulluhte

nam, foegen
Cynegyls

to bisceopstole

his

105

ealle his leode

poet se geleaffulla

Noro'hymbra cyning, wses cumen

Oswold,

100

Westseaxena 2 kyninge, Cynegyls

byrig, Birinus gehaten, to

Cynegylse,

to

gecyrrednysse.

and Oswold,

bam

no

pa

halgan

ba burh Dorcanceaster, and he

wunode Godes lof araerende and gerihtlcecende


mid iare to geleafan to langum fyrste. ot) paet he
and his lie wearp bebyrged on
sipode to Criste

boerbinnan
bajt folc

gesaalig

tS^re ylcan byrig, otS poet

Ic.uiiiiou.

Hoedde bisceop
2

eft

his

westseaxan.

ban fgrode

115

MLFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD.

XV.

84

mid wuromynte gelogode binnan


hine wuroao gyt.
120
Hweet ba Oswold cyning his cynedom geheold hlisfullfce
for worulde and mid micclum geleafan, and on eallum deedum
Wintanceastre, and

to

Ealdan-mynstre, beer

his Drihten

ware on
sylf wses
125

anvurSode,

bam nigooan

bam

his

meeges slfge
se

oo"

he ofslagen wearcS for his folces

geare be he rices geweold, ba ba he

on ylde eahta and brlttig geara. Hit geweartS swa


him warm on Pnda, Myrcena cyning, be set

be

and

man

beet

Pnda ne

folc wses

aer,

Eadwines cyninges, Ceadwallan

fylste

nan bincg, and eall Myrcena


Hi comon ba. to gefeohte to

cu<Se be Criste

ungefullod ba

git.

Maserfelda begen, and fengon togeedere,

oc5 baet beer feollon

Oswolde.

and ba hee'Senan genealcehton to bam halgan


pa geseah he genealaecan 1 his llfes gegndunge,

and gebced

for his folc

130 ba, crlstenan,

2
be beer feallende swealt and beteehte
,

heora sawla and hine sylfne Gode, and bus clypode on his
fylle

135

'God, gemiltsa urum sawlum

'

pa het

se hcebena

cynincg his heafod of-aslean and his swioran earm, and


sgttan hi to myrcelse.
pa.

sefter

Oswoldes

siege

feng

OswTg

his

broobr

to

NorShymbra rice, and rad mid werode to beer his brooor


heafod stod on stacan gefeestnod, and genam beet heafod and
140 his swi'Sran hand, and mid arwuronysse ffrode to Lindisfarnea cyrcan. pa, wearS gefylled, sua. we her forescedon, boat
his swl(5re hand wunacS hal mid bam flaesce biitan celcere
brosnunge, swa. se bisceop gecwseS.

Se earm wearS

gele"d

arwurSllce on serine, of seolfre asmibod, on Sancte Petres


145

mynstre binnan Bebban-byrig be beere


swa,

ansund 3 swa he of-aslagen

waes.

see

strande,

and

llcS

pxr

His brobor dohtor

eft

suSoan on Myrcan wearS c\v6n, and geaxode his ban, and


gebrohte hi to Lindesige

micclum
1

lufode.

to

Bardanige mynstre, be

Ac ba mynstermgnn noldon

gcnealecan.

*weolt.

for

heo

mgnniscum

andsund.

gedwylde bone
ofer

pa.

underfon,

sanct

bast

be

ofer ealle

scire switSe

men micclum

o*a

niht

an geteldi5o

bast heofonlic leoht

up to heofonum swilce healic


and ba leoda beheoldon geond
pa wurdon ba mynster-

wundrigende.

afyrhte,

sloh

85

Hwast ba God

licrste.

he halig sanct wass, swa

ofer bast geteld astreht st6d

sunnbeam

man

ac

halgan ban binnan baare

geswutelode

ealle

KING OSWALD.

JELFRIC'S LIFE OF

XV.

and basdon bass on mergen

moston bone sanct mid arwurtSnysse underfon, bone be

hi

pa tSwoh man ba halgan ban, and basr into


basre cyrcan arwurSlice on serine, and gelogodon hi upp.
And bser wurdon gehaslede burh his halgan geearnunge
asr

155

bast hi

forsocon.

fela

mettrume mn fram mislicum cobum.

160

past waster be

man

ba ban mid abwoh binnan basre cyrcan weanS agoten


swa on anre hyrnan and seo eorSe sibban be bast waster
;

underfeng wearS
afligde deofia

gedrehte.

manegum

to bote.

Mid bam

duste wurdon

fram mannum, ba be on wodnysse

Eac

swilce basr he feol/

mn namon ba

eorcSan to

on wastere wanhalum

wasron 165

adligum mannum, and dydon

and

to ]?icgenne,

Sum

burh bone halgan wer.

asr

on bam gefeohte ofslagen


hi

wurdon gehaslede

wegfarende manra ferde

wi(5

bone feld; ba weanS his hors gesicclod, and sona basr feol/
wealwigende geond Sa eorSan wodum gelicost. Mid bam
be

hit

swa wealwode 1 geond bone widgillan

embe lang basr


feoll, swa swa we asr

se

hit

cyning

foresasdan

feld, ba becom
Oswold on bam gefeohte
and hit sona aras swa. hit

hrpode pa stowe, hal eallum limum, and se hlaford


fasgnode.
hasfde.

Se ridda ba ferde
wass

pa.

basr

an

fort5

on

his

weg

pider

he"

bass 175

gemynt

masden licgende on paralysin 2

He began ba to gerccenne hu him on


rade getimode, and mann fejode bast masden t5 basre foreHeo wear ba on slaspe, and sona eft aw6c
saedan stowe.
ansund eallum limum fram bam egeslican broce. Band ba

lange gebrocod.

(5

wealvvcode.

paralisyn.

180

86

hire heafod,

and

heo gefyrn

asr

ridda be
185

ham

pasr

and

sast

he fundode

can wundon

on

eall

ferde,

gangasnde on fotum, swa

sum asrendfasst
anum clape of

Eft si$(5an ferde

aheng

to

ha gemette he gebeoras bluSe

past

pa.

fyr

set

dust on aenne heahne post,

mid pam gebeorum blissigende samod.

worhte pa micel
190

ham

duste pasre deorwurSan stowe, and lasdde forS

He

huse.

bllcfe

ne dyde.

ylcan stowe, and geband on

(Sasre

bam halgan
mid him

KING OSWALD,

.ELFRIC'S LIFE OF

XV.

Man

tomiddes 'Sam gebeorum, and pa spear-

witS pass hrofes

fyre wearcS,

and

pa,

swySe, oS

past past

hus

fasrlice

gebeoras flugon afyrhte aweg.

pam anum poste pe b^t


on ahangen wass se post ana aststod ansund
mid pam duste and hi swycSe wundrodon pass halgan weres
geearnunga, past past fyr ne mihte pa moldan forbasrnan. And
past

hus wearcS Sa forburnen 2 buton

halige dust

195

manega mgnw siSSan gesohton pone

stgde heora hasle fc-

cende, and heora freonda gehwilcum.

pa asprang his hllsa geond pa. land wide, and eac swilce
and eac sup to Franclande, swa. swa. sum massse-

to Trlande,
2co preost

be anum mn

sasde.

Se preost cwaso

on Irlande gelasred, se ne gymde his


hwon hogode embe his sawle pearfe otuSe
wasre

beboda, ac adreah his


wearcS
205

llf

geuntrumod and

lare,

his

on dyslicum weorcum,
to

csnde gebroht.

pa.

past

an wer

and he

lit

Scyppendes
oc5 past

he

clypode he

pone preost pe hit cydde eft pus, and cwasS him t5 sona
mid sarlicre stemne
Nu ic sceall gendian earmlicum
deape, and to hejle faran for fracodum dasdum, nu wolde ic
:

'

gebetan, gif ic abidan moste, and to Gode gecyrran and to


godum peawum, and min lif aw^ndan eall to Godes willan
210 and ic wat past ic ne eom wyrSe pass fyrstes buton sum
Nu is us gesasd
halga me pingie to pam Haslende Criste.
past sum halig cyning is on eowrum earde, Oswold gehaten.
;

Nu

gif

pu asnig pincg
1

rofes.

hasfst

of pass halgan reliquium, syle me,


'*

forburnon.

ic

KING OSWALD.

JELFRIC'S LIFE OF

XV.

Da

pe bidde.'

sdede se preost

him

'

87

pam

Ic hsebbe of

on stod, and gif pu gelyfan wylt, PQ215


wurpest hal sona.' Hwset pa se maessepreost pses mannes
ofhreow, and scof on halig waiter of pam halgan treowe,
stocce pe his heafod

pam

sealde

and
mid

adligan of to supenne, and he sona gewyrpte,

syc5(5an leofode

eallre

hvvider
sceall

Gode

and swa2 2o

For py ne

he sylfwylles behait/

past

mihtigan Gode, ponne he adlig biS, pe

Nu

weorcum

swa he com, he cydde pas wundra.

nan mann awaegan

gif be alih5

Gode

lange on worulde, and gew^nde to

heortan and mid halgum

lais

pam

pe he sylf

sel-

losige,

past.

cwseS se halga Beda, pe

<5as

boc gedihte,

paet hit

nan

225

wundor nys pset se halga cynincg untrumnysse gehcele, nu


he on heofonum leofat5, for San pe he wolde gehelpan, pa
pa. he her on life waes, pearfum and wannhalum, and him
bigwiste syllan.
Nu hsefS he pone wurtSmynt on paare ecan
worulde mid

pam

Gode

selmihtigan

se halga CuSberht, pa

pa he

git

aenglas fgredon Aidanes sawle bses


to

heofonum

node.

to

for his godnysse.

cnapa

wses, geseah

halgan bisceopes bluSe

pam ecan wuldre pe he on worulde

pass halgan Oswoldes

Eft 230

hu Godes

ban wurdon

eft

geear-

gebroht

gefter

manegum gearum to Myrcena-lande into Gleawceastre and


God pair geswutelode oft feala wundra purh pone halgan wer.
Sy pass wuldor pam selmihtigan Gode pe on ecnysse rlxatS
;

a to worulde.

Amen.

2.^5

XVI.
WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.
The

date of this homily

MS.

is

sufficiently indicated

by

its title in

Sermo Lupi ad Anglos quando Dani maxime persecuti


sunt eos, quod fuit in dies (sic) jEbelredi regis 1 .' Wulfstan (or
Lupus) was Archbishop of York from 1002 to 1023.
His
the

'

address to the English draws a vivid picture of the terrible


demoralization caused by the Danish inroads, in a fiery, impassioned, half poetical language, which forms a complete contrast to the calm elegance of jElfric's classic prose.
The present
is based on the Hatton MS. in the Bodleian
(Jun. 99),
the only one which gives the entire text, compared with three
other MSS., Cott. Nero A I (N.), and the Cambridge MSS.

text

CCG. S. 14 (C. I), and CCC. S. 18 (C. II). All of these MSS.
are defective.
N. omits only a few words and clauses, but the
other two intentionally omit whole passages, C. II being the
most abridged of

all.
It is remarkable that this last MS. sysout all the strongly denunciatory passages,
apparently from the same motives which have induced most
of the Chronicles to pass over in silence the battle of Hast-

tematically

cuts

ings.
Although H. is the most complete, the others do
not appear to be derived from it, for there are several manifest errors in H. which do not appear in the other MSS.
Such an error of H. is manige Jleardre (106) for manig fealdre,
which is preserved in all the others.
An ordinary scribe

This

is

the reading of H.

anno millesimo

xiiii

N. substitutes

for the last clause

ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi.'

the same reading, but substitutes

viiii

for xiiii.

'quod

fuit

has

II

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

XVI.

would hardly have corrected such an error had

it

89

occurred in his

original.

The

two MSS.

last

also

have certain passages (which I have


Although

enclosed in brackets) that do not occur in H. or N.

some of

mere

these passages are evidently

glosses

and interpola-

appear to be original. And yet most of the pasIn


sages omitted in N. are omitted in these two MSS. also.
short, although there is a close affinity between H. and N. (as
tions, others

in their frequent retention of the same anomalous spellon the one hand, and between N. and the two abridged
MSS. on the other, there seems to be no direct connection
between any of them. All the MSS. belong to the latter
In
half of the eleventh century.
I have generally followed H.
conclusion I must state that it has been found necessary to omit

shown
ings)

certain passages

they are

all

marked with

Leofan mnn, gecnawatS

and

ofste,

hit

nealascS

beet soft is

bam nde

and

stars.

Seos woruld

(5y hit is

is

on

on worulde

a swa. lng swa. wyrse, and swa. hit sceal nyde for folces

synnan fram dasge


swycSe

and huru

on worulde 1

to

dasge

hit wyr<5

Antecristes tocyme yfelian

<er

baenne ggeslic and grimlic wide

Understandao" eac georne bast deofol bas beode nu


geara dwglode to swySe, and bast

mannum, beah

hi

wel spcecan

lytle

fela

getrywSa wasron mid

and unrihta to

fela rlcsode

on lande, and nses a. fela manna be smeade ymbe ba. bote


ac daeghwamllce man Ihte
swa georne swa. man scolde
yfel sefter dorum, and unriht nerde and unlaga manege ealles
And we eac for (5am habto wide gynd ealle bas (Seode.
2
and gyf we ainige bote
ba<5 fela byrsta and bismra gebiden
gebidan sculan, bonne mote we bass to Gode earnian bgt
bonne we aer Sison dvdon. For Sam mid miclan earnun-

10

II

adds here: pis was on yEJjelredes cyninges dagum gediht, flower

gf-.ira faece cer


6'

si

'San

he

gewurde.

for'Sferde.

Gime

se

3e

wille

hu

hit
2

pi waere, and hwaet

bysmara

//.

15

20

WULF STANDS ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

XVI.

90

gan we geearnodon ba yrmfta be us on sittacS, and mid


swySe miclan earnungan we ba bote motan set Gode gerceLa. hwset
can, gyf hit sceal heonan forcS godiende wurSan.
we witan ful georne bset to myclan bryce sceal mycel bot
nyde, and to miclum bryne wseter unlytel, gif

And mycel

sceal to ahte acwaencan.

is

man

bset fyr

nydbearf eac manna

gehwylcum pset he Godes lage gyme heonan Tor's georne


bt bonne he air dyde, and Godes gerihta mid rihte
25 geleeste.

On

hceSenum beodum ne dearr man forhealdan lytel


is to gedwolgoda weorSunge

ne mycel bses be gelagod

and we

forhealdao"

And

lome.

and

Godes

gerihta ealles

man gewanian on

to

iite

to

ainig

inne and

iite

clame berypte

[aelcra

gerisena].

And

ge-

beodum

haicSenum

bSra binga be gedwolgodan broht


and we habbacS Godes
lacum betceht bi(5

ne

30 inne

seghwser

ne dearr

bitS

hvis

eac

syndan Godes beowas maJbe and munde gewelhwar be2


benan
daslde; and sume men scgac5 bset gedwolgoda
35

ne dearr

man misbeodan on senige wisan mid


man Godes beowum nu deS

hsejjenum

leodum, swa. swa

bair Cristene scoldan

was

Godes

bearf

soft is bset ic Sfcge,

4 gerihta

wanedan

to lange

is

bcere bote, for

and Godes hus syndon


innan bestrypte

selcra

to

wide fornydde on unriht to ceorle,


swycSe,

to

swySe sySSan

to griSlease wide,

ckene berypte ealdra gerihta and

gerisena

45 wseron nil lange swiSe forsewene]

and gehynede

bam Godes

innan bysan earde on seghwyl-

cura nde, and folclaga wyrsedan ealles


Eadgar gegndode, and halignessa syndon

[and

godcunde hadas

and wydewan syndon


and to msenige foryrmde
;

and earme m$nn sindon

2
gedwolgodan II.
from CI.
from C I and C II ; both read forsawene.
1

wide,

griSian.

Ac

to

and Godes beo-

lage healdan

beiypte

//.

sare beswicene
4

rysena //.

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

XVI.

and hreowllce besyrwde [ge


set

feore ealles to gelome,]

sealde swytSe unfonvorhte

set
1

freme ge

set f6stre

ge

9
feo ge

set

ut of <5isan earde wide ge-

and

fremdum

to gewealde, andcradolcild 5

gebeowode burh wselhreowe unlaga for lytelre byfcSe wide


and freoriht fornumene, and orselriht
gynd bas beode
gengrwde, and selmesnht gewanode. [Frige menn 2 ne motan
;

wealdan heora

bset

ne

bset

Godes

to selmesgife for

bar

hi

ne ateon

willatS,

ne bracks ne moton habban

lufan sealdon;

man on Godes

be

gelaestan

unriht

hi willatS

55

agon on agenan hwilan mid earfeoan gewunnen,


bset heom on Godes est gode menn geuoon, and

hi

riht

ne faran

sylfra,

heora agen swa swa

is

man;/

selc

to

gelitlacS

mannum

wide

scolde

est

0(5(5e

ac ajghwilc selmes-

mid

georne
For 'Sam

rihte

forhealdecS.

gemsene and unlaga

leofe,]

6o

and raSost 4 is to cwebenne Godes laga la?>e and lara forand caes we habbacS ealle burh Godes yrre bysmor
sewene
gelome, gecnawe se (5e cunne, and se byrst wyrS gemaane,
;

man swa

beah

ne wene, ealre

bisse

beode,

God 65

butan

gebeorge.

For Sam
ser

hit

on us eallum swutol and gesyne

is

bonne we

bisan oftor brsecon

beode

fela

Ne

onsaege.

dohte

hit

nii

bset

and oy

bettan,

lange

is

we

bisse

inne

ne

and hunger, bryne and blodgyte on


and us stalu and
gewelhwylcon ende oft and gelome
6
orfcwealm
and uncoSu, hoi
stric
and
steorfa,
cwalu,
ute,

heje

ac wses

and hete and rypera

reaflac

dfrede swySe bearle, and us

ungylda swyfte gedrehton, and us unwedera

for oft

weoldan

unwsestma.

75

For pam on bisan earde wses, swa hit bincan 7 mseg, nu


fela geara unrihta fela and tealte getrywcSa seghwser mid

from

I.

'

m'.
6

stric

from

/.

II.
7

hrscdcst //.

}>incon

H.

"

lance II.

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

XVI.

0,3

Ne

mannum.

bearh nu for

oft gesib<5

gesibbum be

beam

frmdan, ne faeder his bearne, ne hwilum


So faeder,

Ne

ne brocSor ooYum.

ure naenig his

lif

ma

be

agenum

his

ne fadode swa

swa he scolde, ne gehadode regollice ne laewede lahlice ac


worhtan lust us to lage ealles to gelome, and naftor ne
heoldon ne lare ne lage Godes ne manna swa swa we
scoldan.
Ne aenig wi(5 6]?erne getreowlice J^ohte swa rihte
;

8:

swa he

ac maest

scolde,

wordes and dcede


maest

aelc

swicode and 6<5rum

aelc

hum

and

dgrede

unrihtllce [and unj?egenlice]

mid scandlican onscytan and

oj^erne aeftan heaweo*

mid wrohtlacan
90

do mare gyf he maege.

For ]?am her syn 2 on lande ungetrywSa 3 micle for Gode


and for worulde, and eac her syn 2 on earde on mistlice wlsan

And

hlafordswican manege.

on worulde

man

J?cet

mycel hlafordswice eac


4

eaira maest hlafordswice se biS

his hlafordes
bi(5

and

saule beswice

on worulde

J^aet

man

ful

his hlaford

drife
and aegcSer
geworden innan bissan earde. Eadwejd man forrsedde
and sytSoan acwealde, and aefter J^am forbaernde [and iE]?elred

of

life

forraede oc5(5on

of lande lifigendne

95 is

man

draefde ut of his earde]

bearn to

man

fela

And

6
.

forspilde wide

godsibbas and god-

gynd

J?as ]?eode,

toeacan

manegan be man unscyldige forfor 7 ealles


100 to wide.
And ealles to manege halige stowa wide forwurdan
f>urh f>aet be man sume men# aer bam gelogode swa man
na ne scolde, gif man on Godes gri(5e maeoe witan wolde.
6(5ran ealles to

And
nu

cristenes folces to fela

ealle hwlle

105 * * *
J?aet

and

Eac we witan

eal/

man

]?aet is

[ful]

faeder gesealde [his]

10

gesealde ut of bisan 8 earde

Gode

laS, gelyfe se

from C

lifiendum

10

from C

II.

sind

from C

I.

II.

H.

II.
7

wille.

beam wiS weoroe, and beam

modor, and brocSor sealde oberne fremdum

Se

georne hwaer seo yrmo gewearS

forfor

to

ungetrywSe H.

H.

'Sam H.

his

gewealde ut of
*

oXiSe

from C

II.

I, II.

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

XVI.

beode

(5isse

and

understande se
a

msenigfealdre

syndon micle and fgeslice daeda,


And gyt hit is mare and eac

eal/ bset
wille.

<5e

93

Msenige syndan

bset deje'S bisse beode.

no

for-

sworene and swyoe forlogene, and wedaf synd tobrocene oft


and gelome; and bset is gesyne on bisse beode bset us

Godes

yrre

on

he. telice

gecnawe

sit/,

se

Se cunne.

And
hu mseg mare scamu burh Godes yrre mannum
gelimpan bonne us de<5 gelome for agenum gewyrhtum ?
Deah braila hwylc hlaforde sethleape, and of crlstendome
to wlcinge weoroe, and hit aefter bam eft geweorce bset
la

wsepngewrixl weorfte gemaine begene and brcele


baene begen fullice

afylle, liege

gyf se begen bsene

brsel

be he
2

Ful earhlice

gengylde.

gyf

brail

aigylde ealre his maigfte, and

ahte fullice

air

afylle,

gylde be- 120

laga and scandlice nydgyld burh

Se cunne, and
Ne
gelome.
and
fela ungelimpa gelimpcS bysse beode oft
on
geand
hete
wses
here
inne
ne
ute,
ac
dohte hit nu lange

Godes

yrre us syn gemaine, understande se

welhwilcum ende

and

sigelease,

men swa
an

fysecS

strange burh

yrre!

cristenra

burh Godes

manna fram

on gefeohte

and hwilum

And

eal/ 125
flot-

laes,

oft brail bsene

standan.
manige

II,

N., gewilede

Surh bas beode gewelede

eallum to woruldscame, gyf we

Ac

om.

H.

II.

on eornost

we woldan a riht underbysmor be we oft boliaS we gyldaS

earmlice

in the others.

from C

II.

from C

II.

130

o<5(5on

ealne bsene

fleardre

fseste,

Wala. Saire

yrre.

sse to sae ut

[scame] 7 cu'San,

ainige

bset oft

oft twentig,]

wses his hlaford cnyt/ swySe

air

togsedere us

fealleiS

Godes gebafunge

twegen

urum synnum.

eal/ for

to ]?raile

baire

and gelome, and F^ngle nu lange


s
burh Godes yrre, and

and wyrcS
yrmSe and wala
woruldscame be nu habbaS Engle eal/ burh Godes
Oft twegen saimgnw occ5e bry hwilum drifaS ba drafe

begen be

oft

swySe geyrgde

tyne, [and

hwilum ma,

him

to

II.

geyrwde H.
6

feseS

//.,

gewjiede H., gewelede

135

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

XVI.

94

mid weorcSscype bam be us scndac5 we him gyldaS sinand hy us hyna(S dseghwamlice. Hy hej'giacS and
t4ohy bernatS 1 rypacS and reafiaS, and to scipe lcedaS
and la
:

gallice,

on eallum ]?am gelimpum butan Godes


yrre ofer bas beode swutol and gesene 2 ?
Nis eac nan wundor, beah us mislimpe, for (5am we
witan ful georne bret nu fela geara mn na ne rohton
hwost

amig

is

oo"er

hwset hy worhtan wordes

145 for oft

burh

burh

glfernessa,

and

and

bincan

synna and

ac wearcS

swySe

forsyngod

daede

burh
tSurh

stala
4

burh

fela

and burh strudunga, burh manwsylena 3

unsida, burh

swicdomas and ourh searo-

burh lahbrycas and <5urh aSswicas, burh maegrsesas

(Surh manwslihtas,

burh hadbrycas and

burh sibblegeru and Surh mistlice


wide,

o<5(5e

masg,

misdaMa,

(5urh hai<5ene

craeftas

hit

Surh mandceda, burh gltsunga and

msenigfealde

mortSdseda and

150

swa

beodscype,

}?es

swa we

air

geworhte

scolde,

wicSersacan]

eac syndan

leasunga forloren

freolsbricas

And

and

and forlogen
wide

fsestenbricas

eac her syn on earde [Godes

apostatan abroSene, and cyrichatan htole, and

grimme

leodhatan

and

and gelome.

oft

<5urh aiwbrycas,

And

cwcedan, burh aSbrycas and <5urh wed<^-

i^5brycas and (Surh mistlice

ma bonne

forligru.

ealles

to

manege, and oferhogan wide

i6ogodcundra rihtlaga and crlstenra beawa, and hocorwyrde


dysige seghwair on }?eode oftost on oa bing be Godes bodan

and swyoost on ba bing be geornost

beodatS,
gebyriatS

mid

to

Godes lage

rihte.

And by is nu geworden wide and side to ful yfelan


i65gewunan baet menn swySor scamat) nu for goddsedan bonne
for misdoedan; for Sam to oft man mid hocere goddaada
1

hergia'S and heawa'S baendat? and bismria! ? ripa'S


1

tii

tolgesyne H.

I and

Cciie.

II;

mans. H.

haebena

II inserts a before

&c.

II.

swy-

6
5
H.
searacraeftas
from
Godes; C I omits apostatan alro-

wulfstan's address to the English.

xvi.

hyrwecS and godfyrhte lehtrecS

man

and mid

tceleS

olle

ealles to swy<5e,

gegretetJ ealles to

and Godes ge habba be amigum

t5urh

be

bset

man swa deS

scolde hgrian,

burh bset

lufian,

man

and

man

bset

forS

to

eal/
2

laSacS

gebringe<5 ealles to

and swySost

gelome ba

riht lufiacS

man

95

bset

(5e

And

dajle.

hyrweS

man

bset 170

scolde

manege on

yfelan

gecSance and on undaide, swa bset hy ne scamatS na, beah

hy syngian swySe, and


ealle

God

wicS

mid

sylfne forwyrcan hi

ac for Idelan onscytan hy scamacS bset hy betan heora 175

misdseda swa bee taecan, gelice


prytan

life

bam

dwsesan be for heora

nellaS beorgan air hy na ne magan, beah hy

eall willan.

Her syndan burh symzleawa,


gelewede to manege on earde.

swa.

bincan mseg, sare

hit

Her syndan,

swa.

we

ser 180

mannslagan and mcegslagan and sacerdbanan and


mynsterhatan and hlafordswican and albere apostatan, and
saedon,

manswaran and morSorwyrhtan, and her syndan

her syndan

hadbrecan and aiwbrecan, and


mistlice

forligeru

sib^legeru

o\irh

and

tSurh

forsyngode swySe, and her syndan myl- 185

and bearnmyrSran and fule forlegene horingas


manege, and her syndan wiccan and waelcerian 4 and her
testran

syndan ryperas and reaferas and woruldstruderas and <5eofas


and beodscao*an and w dr/logan and wcerlogan, and hrsedest

cwebenne mana and misdaeda ungerlm ealra.


bses us ne scamaS na, ac bass us scamaS swyc5e bast
we bote aginnan, swa. swa bde tsecan, and bset is gesyne on
is

to

iqo

And

bisse

earman forsyngodan 5 beode.

Eala.

mycel magan manege

an mamj ne mihte on
asmeagean hu earmlice hit gefaren is nu ealle hwile
wide gynd bas (Seode. And smeage hiiru georne gehwa.

gyt her-toeacan eabe beS^ncan bass

<5e

raedinge

leahtratf

all but
6

II,

II.

which has

hraeJiiii/e //.

laj)et II.,

sare.

laSet N.,
4

II.

waelcyrian iV.

latfe'5
5

7.

lewe

fonyngodon

II.

195

XVI.

96

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

hine sylfne, and

c^aes na ne latige ealles to lange;


ac on
Godes naman utan d6n swa us neod is, beorgan us sylfum
swa we geornost magan, bi Ices 1 we setgsedere ealle for-

200 weorcSan.

An beodwita woes on Brytta tldum, Gildas hatte, se awrat


be heora misdeedum, hu hi mid heora synnan swa oferlice
swyoe God gegreemedon

beet he let set nyhstan ngla heje


heora eard gewinnan, and Brytta duguSe fordon mid ealle.
205

And

beet wees

geworden, bees be he

seede,

burh geleeredra

regolbryce and ourh leewedra lahbryce, burh ricra reaflac, and


ourh gitsunge wohgestreona, ourh leoda 2 unlaga, and ourh

wohdomas, Surh bisceopa asolcennesse and unsnotornesse,


and ourh lySre yrhoe Godes bydela, be socSes geswugedan
2

to gelome,

10 ealles

and clumedan mid ceaflum

clypian, ourh fulne eac folces geelsan,

beer

and Surh

hy scoldan

oferfylla

and

msenigfealde synna heora eard hy forworhton, and sylfe hi


forwurdan.

Ac
215

soS

utan don swa us bearf

is

bset ic

is,

scge, wyrsan

warnian us be swilcan

and

we witan mid nglum

deeda

sume gewordene bonne we mid Bryttan ahwar gehyrdan;


and Sy us is bearf micel bset we us bebencan, and wio" God
sylfne bingian georne.

bugan
2

to rihte,

And

and be suman

utan don swa us bearf


dalle unriht [ascunian

is,

ge-

and] 3

for-

and betan swyoe georne beet we aar breecan. Uton


to Criste, and bifigendre heortan clipian gelome, and
geearnian his mildse and utan God lufian and Godes lagum

2olcetan,

creopan

fyligean,

we
225

and

fulluht

geleestan

swySe georne

underfengan oSoon ba be

can wasron.

And

beet beet
aet

utan word and weorc

rihtlice fadian,

ure inwgeoanc cleensian georne, and aS and


healdan, and
1

];elaes

all but

we behetan ba

fulluhte ure forespe-

wdd

and

weerlice

sume getrywoa habban us betweonan butan


C

II.

leode
3

//.,

from C

N.

II.

omitted in the other two.

XVI.

WULFSTArfs ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

uncrseftan,

97

and utan gelome understandan bone miclan dom


1
us georne wiS bone

be we ealle to sculan, and beorgan

weallendan bryne hejle wites, and geearnian us ba msertSaa^o

and

(5a

myrhtfa be

God

on worulde gewyrcao".

hsePS

God
1

gegearwod bam

(ire

helpe.

beorhsran H.

Amen.

(5e

his willan

XVII.

THE MARTYRDOM OF iELFEAH.


[From the Chronicle.]

The

two following pieces are

specimens of the highly


The second
is, indeed, one of the noblest pieces of prose in any literature,
clear, simple and manly in style, calm and dignified in tone, and
yet with a warm undercurrent of patriotic indignation. The
former of them is at the same time an instructive parallel to the
homily of Wulfstan. The text of the first is mainly that of the
fine

polished historical prose of the eleventh century.

MS.

I (i), with occasional readings from Tib. B.


Domit. A. VIII (in), and Bodl. Laud 636 (iv). In the
second piece I have partly normalized the corrupt spelling of the

IV

Cott. Tib. B.

(ii),

twelfth century

ion.

to suit that of the eleventh century.

He*r on bissum geare sende se 1 cyning and his 2 witan

me>

(5am hre, and gyrndon friSes, and him gafol and

to

sunge beheton

Hi
5

Laud MS.

wicS

bam Se

ba

hsefdon

hi hiora

ofergan

hrgunge geswicon.

Eastfngle

and

and

Eastsgxe
3

Middels^xe and Oxenafordscire and Grantabrycgscire

and

and Buccingahamscire and Bedanfordscire 4

Heortfordscire

and healfe Huntadunscire, and be suban Temese

ealle

Kgnt-

ingas and SuSsexe and Hsestingas and SuSrige and Bearrocsclre

and Hamtunscire and micel on Wiltunsclre.


gelumpon purh unrsedas,

Ealle bas ungesselcSa us

10

nolde him on

bonne
1

timan gafol beodan obbe

hi maist to yfele

se 7.

be<Jefo:dscire 7.

his I.
5

witS

gedon hsefdon, bonne nam


3

a timan

Grantabricscire
7, 77, to

IV.

7,

man

bset

gefeohtan

mon

ac
friS

Grantabrycgescire IV.
6

gufeohtan

7.

THE MARTYRDOM OF MLFEAH.


and

pe

ferdon asghwider

hi

earme

ure

And na

gritS wi<5 hi.

and gafole

and

folc,

hi rypton

And pa on Sissum

comon puruh

hi pasr-int6

hi becyrde,

And

hi

and slogon.
hi

cSa

15

ymbsaston Cantwaraburh

2
,

syruwr^ncas, for San iElfmasr 3

be se arcebiscop xElfeah

pasr

gritSe

floconaslum, and he/egodon

geare, betweox Nativitas Sanctas Marias

and Sancte Michaeles masssan,

and

pissum

for eallum

lass
1

99

asr

genejede

genaman pone arcebiscop

ast

his

jElfeah,

life.

and

20

iElfweard cynges gerefan, and Leofwine 5 abbod, and Godwine

And

biscop.

wif,

sua

wass

and on

hi tSaer

vveras

and

wndon him pa
mid him.
(5a

syppan wasron swa lange

pasre byrig

And pa

hi woldon.

Wses

mn, and

pa gehadodan

ealle

wass unas^cgendlic asnigum mgn;z hu micel pass

(past

folces

And

iElfmasr abbod hi leton aweg.

genamon inne

hi hasfdon

to scypan,

pasr

man

ealle

25

asmeade,

and lasddon pone arcebiscop


heafod Angelkynnes and

raepling, se <5e asr woes

Ciistendomes.

pa buruh

mihte

geseon

(5a

yrm'Se

pasr 3

man oft asr geseah blisse on pasre earman byrig, panon us 7


com asrest Cristendom and bliss for Gode and for worulde.
And hi hasfdon pone arcebiscop mid him swa lange o3
pasne timan pe

1012.
ealle

hi bine gemartiredon.

Her on pissum geare com Eadric ealdormann 9 and

pa yldestan witan gehadode

pam datarum
op

Idus Aprilis), and hi

past gafol eal/ gelasst

10

hta and feowertig pusend

Da on pone

aeghweder

ge- 7.

I.

leofrune /.

"
ll

(5asr

waes ofer

punda u

pa swa lange wasron

<5a

Eastron

past wass

40

Sseternes-dseg wearS pa se hgre swy(5e astyred

angean pone biscop,

10

35

and laswede Angelcynnes

Lundenbyrig toforan pam Eastron (pa wses Easterdasg on

to

10

for

<5e

cantwareburh

wies 7.

viii

pam

J)usend

om.

7.

in I.

punda 7/7, IV.


11

he nolde him nan feoh


'

J>6

I.

si

I.

ealdorm'

7.

selmaer I.

IOO

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

XVII.

behatan 1 ac 2
,

man nan

forbead paet

he*

ping

ne 3 moste; waeron hi eac swype druncene,

Genamon

broht win suSan.

45

pa.

him

wicS

for

Sam

syllan

pair wses

(5one biscop, lakldon hine

to heora hustinge on Sone Sunnan-asfen Octabas Pasce

(pa,

wajs xin kl. mai), and hine pair Sa bysmorlice acwylmdon


And
oftorfedon mid banum and mid hrypera heafdum.
4
paet
heafod
on
past
eaxe
yre
mid
anre
hiora
an
liine
<5a
sloh
50

mid bam dynte


eoroan

feo!/,

he"

lichaman on

And mon bone

55

nyper-asah, and his halige blod

his haligan sawle

and

t6

Godes

mergen ferode

rice

to

on ba
iisende.

Lundene,

6
and ba bisceopas Eadnop and JElfhun and seo buruhwaru
hine underfengon mid ealre arwuronysse, and hine bebyrigdon on Sancte Paules mynstre ; and prer nu God sutelaS

bass halgan martires mihta.

and friSapas asworene

Da. bset gafol gelcest wses,

wjieron,

ba toferde se hgre wide swa he er gegaderod wses. Da.


bugon t5 bam cynge of Sam hre fif and feowertig scypa,
60

and him beheton


hi fedan sceolde

behaten

aell'un /.

pset hi

/.
7

woldon pysne eaid healdan, and he

and scrydan
ac

/.

scrydon

/.

7
.

ne

/.

ere //.

6n

/.

XVIII.

EUSTACE AT DOVER, AND THE OUTLAWRY OF


GODWINE.
[From the Chronicle.]

And com ba Eustatius fram begeondan


bam biscope, and gewgnde to Sam cynge, and

1048.
aefter

sai

pa he

hine pset paet he pa wolde, and ge\vnde pa hamweard.

com
and

Cantwarabyrig

to
to

east, pa.

Dofran gewnde.

snaedde he pser and his menn,

pa he wass sume mila


his byrnan and

beheonan Dofran, pa dyde he on


ealle,

and foron

hi innian peer

to Dofran.

him sylfum

and wolde wician

set

sona

spaec wio"

pa. hi pider

gellcode.

pa.

otJoe

mare

his geferan

comon, pa woldon

com an

his

manna,

anes bondan hiise his unpances, and

gewundode pone husbondan, and se husbonda ofsloh pone


Da. wearo" Eustatius uppon his horse and his geferan
uppon heora, and ferdon to bam husbondan, and ofslogon
hine binnan his agenum heoroe
and w^ndon him ba up to

10

oSerne.

paire

burge weard, and ofslogon aagSer ge wiSinnan ge wiou-

tan ma bonne xx manna.


And ba burhm^nn ofslogon xix
mgnn on 6(5re healfe, and gewundedon baet hi nyston hu fela.
And Eustatius setbaerst mid feawum mannum, and gewgnde
ongean to bam cynge, and cydde be dalle hu hi gefaren
haefdon.
And wearo" se cyng swyoe gram wi(5 ba. burhware.
And ofse, nde se cyng Godwine eorl, and baed hine faran into
1

geondan.

15

20

THE SAXON CHRONICLE.

XVIII.

102

Cnt mid unfriSe

bam cynge
bonne

his

to

Dofran

bset hit sceolde

ac

hit

noes

agenne

nolde

eorl

se

ban him wses laS

to

na.

amyrrenne

folgatS.

sgnde

Da.

And

swa.

na,

gebwserian bsere innfare, for


?5 his

for ban Eustatius hsefde gecydd


beon mara gylt bsere burhware

cyng

se

him cuman

sefter

eallum his witum, and

Gleaweceastre neh baire sefterran

to

Marie meessan.

pa.

hsefdon

bead

Sancte

ba WeHscan menn geworht

on Hejefordscire on Swegenes eorles folgofte,


2
and bismera bses cynges
30 and worhton selc bsera hearma
mannum bser abutan be hi mihton. Da com Godwine
senne castel

eorl togsedere set


eorl, and Harold
and manig mann mid him, to Son bset
woldon faran to heora cynehlaforde, and to bam witum

Beofres
hi

Swegen

and

eorl,

stane,

35 eallum be mid him gegaderode wseron, bset hi bses cynges

and

raid hsefdon

his fultum,

and

ealra witena,

cynges bismer awrecan and ealles

bses

hu

hi

mihton
Da,

beodscipes.

mid bam cynge, and


forwregdon ba eorlas, bset hi ne moston cuman on his eagena
40gesihSe; for San hi ssedon bset hi woldon cuman bider for
Wses bser cumen Siward eorl, and
bses cynges swicdome.
wseron ba WeHscan

menn

setforan

mid him noroan to bam cynge


and his sunum gecydd bset se
Godwine
and wses bam
cyng and ba mgnn be mid him wseron woldon rsedan on
hi
and hi trymedon hi fsestlice ongean, beah him lacS wsere
Leofric eorl, and micel folc
eorle

45

bset

hi

yfeles

Da

ongean heora cynehlaford standan sceoldan.

gerseddon ba witan on segore

geswac

healfe bset

se cyning

and geaf

Godes

man oa

gri5

and

selces

his fullne

freondscipe on segoYe healfe.

Da

50

gersedde se cyning and his witan bset

oo>e siSe
1

habban
2

acftre.

siSan.

''

-e.

gewitena.

ealra
3

witena 7 gemot
Byferes.

man

sceolde

on Lundene

tsetforan.

to

aegtJer.

EUSTACE AT DOVER, OUTLAWRY OF GODWINE.


haerfestes

emnihte

and het

Da cwaeS man Swegen

bannan

se cyning

ge be sucSan Tfmese ge be norcfan,


eorl utlah,

103

ut h re, aeg(5er
bgtst waes.

eall bset sefre

and stefnode man God-

wine eorle and Harolde eorle to bon gemote swa hra(5e swa

pa

hi hit gefaran mihton.

him man

gemote,

to

hi JMder ut

pa gyrnde he

and

gri(5es

he moste unswicen in to gemote cuman and

Da gyrnde
haefdon

se

and

cyng

eft to

int5

paes

gisla, bast

cyng ealra

Jscera

hi leton hi ealle

him

cynges

comon mid

pa gyrnde

raede.

he hine moste betehan

lit

gisla, baet

of gemote.

begna be ba eorlas
to handa.
pa snde

him, and bead him baet hi

set

55

comon, ]m stefnde

xii

se 60

mannum

se eorl eft griSes

relcum

ser

and

paera JMnga pe

him man on lede. pa wyrnde him man Sasra gisla, and


sceawode him man v nihta gricS ut of lande to farenne.
And gewgnde pa. Godwine eorl and Swegen eorl to Bosanham 2 and scufon ut heora scipu, and gew^ndon him

65

begeondan
pjer ealne

Irlande,

sas,

pone

and gesohton Baldewines


winter.

and waes

And sona

And Harold

bone winter on }?aes cynges gricSe.


pa forlet se cyng ba hlaafdigan,
cwene, and let niman of hire eall

pair ealne

pdes be bis waes,

seo waes gehalgod him to


paet

and wunodon
gewgnde west to

gricS,

eorl

heo ahte on lande, and on golde, and on

seolfre,

and on

eallum pingum, and betaMite hi his sweostor to Hwerwyllum.


1

ae!c.

Bosenham.

70

! !

'

XIX.
CHARMS.
[From Cockayne's Leechdoms,

384 and

1.

3. 53,

and Wiilcker's Kleinere

ags. dichtungen.]

Nim eorpan, oferweorp mid pinre swfpran


handa under pinum swlpran fet, and cweS 1
ic under fb\.
_/unde ic hit.

WicS ymbe.

Fo

'

Hwset,

eorlSe

and

wicS

and

wi(5

maeg

Forweorp 2 ofer
'

wic5 ralra wihta gehwilce,

and wiS <fminde,


pa wzicelan wannes tungan.'

andan,

greot,

Sitte ge, jigewlf,

nsefre

ge z&ilde

ponne

.rigacS

swirman, and cwecS

eorpan

to

to ze>uda fleogan

beo ge swa gewindige


swa. bitS

hi

wanna gehwilc

?;zlnes

gSdes

wgtes and epeles

10
I

II.

WiS

fierstice.

Feferfuge 8 and seo reade

and wegbrade

sern irm-wyxcS,

i/lude wseran hy,


waeran anmode,

Scyld ou oe u,
Ut, lytel spere,

Stod under /inde,


1

cwet.

la
<5a

ngtele,

oe purh

wyll in buteran.

^lude,

oa hy ofer pone ^Isew ridan,

hy

land ridan

[pset]

gif

ofer

pu oysne iS geesan mote

her-mne

sie

under /eohtum scylde,


2

and witS on forweorp.

-fuige.

CHARMS.

X7.Y.

105

Sa zwihtigan wTf hyra wa?gen berseddon


and hy ^yllende ^aras ssendan ;

baer

ic

him JSerne

eh

/"leogende /"Ian
lytel spere,

t,

her-mne syl

gif hit

wund swlSe

Iserne 1

spere,

lytel

Syx

gif

.nniSas jsetan,

ut,

spere

gif

her-mne sy

her-mne sy!
:

zsenes daM

geweorc

sceal gemyltan

h\t

Gif Su waire on/ell scoten,

oSSe waire on/laisc scoten,

oSSe waire on blod scoten,


oSSe wsere on /iS scoten,

noefre

oSSe

wsere sa gescot,

hit

15

zoaelspera z^orhtan

nses imi, spere

/^segtessan

Gif

10

j/6h j^ax lytel

Sddt .rmiS

fit

ssendan

wille

_/brane togeanes

ne sy Sin

hit

/If

20

ataesed

waere jylfa gescot,

oSSe hit waire //oegtessan gescot, nu ic wille Sin /zelpan


Se to bote ^sa gescotes, Sis Se to bote jy\l'-a. gescotes,
ic Sin wille Zelpan.
Sis Se to bote fegtessan gescotes
Fleo 2 on fy rgenheafde 3
:

bis

/ia\

wes-tu

Nim bonne
1

/zelpe Sin

past seax,

iserna.

Drihten

ado on wseian.
*

fled.

haefde.

XX.
BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.
[From Beowulf.]

have

Beowulf's

selected from our great national epic the narrative of


fight with Grendel's mother, which is one of the most

vivid and picturesque passages in the

whole poem.

ment of the preceding portion of the poem

is

The

argu-

briefly this:

Hro^gar, king of the Danes, elated with his prosperity and


success in war, builds a magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot.
In this hall he and his retainers live in joy and festivity, until a
malignant fiend called Grendel, envious of their happiness, carries
off by night thirty of his men, and devours them in his moorland
These ravages go on for twelve years. Beowulf, a
retreat.
thane of Hygelac, king of the Goths, hearing of HroSgar's
calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen warriors to help him.

They

are well received by HroSgar,

who

at

night-fall

leaves

charge of the hall. Grendel breaks in, seizes and


devours one of Beowulf's men, is attacked by him, and after
The
losing an arm, which Beowulf tears off, escapes to the fens.
next night Grendel's mother avenges her son by carrying of
Here the present piece begins 1 .
iEschere.

Beowulf

in

Sigon ba

swa.

him

wnriht fnde,
1

The

standard
rler

work

ful

jare angeald

ok gelamp,

Grendel warode,

sib<5an g-oldseje

Bibliothek

Sum

t5 jljepe.

^fenraeste,

op

for the

baet

/nde becwom,

study of the Old English poetry

Angelsachsischen

Poesie.

is

Grein's

which gives complete texts and

glossary, with releiences to the previous editions.

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

poet gejyne wearb,

jwylt sefter .yynnum.

werum,

zflldcub

sefter

sefter

^uSceare

z'des

se

/ange

zounian scolde,

be Z/3etergesan

wzanwdream

panon woe

zfesten roarode.
^eosceaftgasta

him

<2tgrepe weai(5

aglaica

to

waegenes strange,

him God

'Se

yfnwaldan

and /"ultum

gehncegde

and ^algmod

Com

ba

geond

are gelyfde,

pa he

/zean gewat,

</eabwfc seon,

and

zrzanweynnes feond,

jorhfulne

his

ge-an wolde

to ZTeorote,

<5a3r

bset joeld jwseTun.

i/ringdne

pa

Grgndles modor;

swa

ralggryre zmfes

be wa?pnedmn7Z,

camp.

30

wses se ^ryre lcessa

efne swa ?icle

/zeoru

jona wearS

Sair

sibcSan zhne fealh

^dhwyrft fcrlum,

bonne

25

wodor ba gyt

juna dea"8 3 wrecan.

sT<S,

jweord jwate

20

sealde,

oy he bone _/eond ofercwom,

gast.

//file

dieame belled
gifre

15

bldan,

ze'iges

hwsebre he ge^zunde

and him

fleon,

fela

se aet //eorote fand

//gtelic,

^infaeste 2 ^ife,

/"rofre

10

weartS

uses bcera Grndel sum,

z^seccendne z#er
bser

he ba _/ag gewat,

gez/zearcod

Aeorowearh

Cam

sibSan

angan brewer,

/cgbanan

yaederenma^ge
;;/orbre

modor,

jrmbe gemunde,

aglzecwif

realde streamas,
to

forage,

(9rndles

zcrecend ba gyt

bselte

/abum,

lifde

JO/

bunden,
fah
i

bi<5

woegba

cra:ft,

/zamere geburen,

jwin ofer helme


giinfseste.

sunu feod.

35

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

Io8

/cgum dyhtig andweard scireo*.


pa. wses on //ealle
/zearde.cg togen,
jweord ofer jetlum, jidrand manig
/ie\m ne

/;afen /;anda fsest;

^yrnan

Heo

be

side,

wses on

gemunde,

wolde ut banon

ofste,

ba heo on/unden wses

/Sore beorgan,

hraSe heo ^belinga

anne hsefde

ba heo to /"enne gang;

/seste be/angen,
se wses /frobgare

on gcntSes had

ac waes

sxm tweonum,

be

hone Se heo on
eorn.
Nses Beowulf
inn

<?ber

d?r

wzab'Sumgife

sefter

rseste abreat,
Sser,

geteohhod

zreserum

//ream wearcS

in /feorote.

oibe folme

<reaiu

45

/^seleba leofost

rice randwiga,
blaedfsestne

40

hine se roga angeat.

50

Geate.

Heo under

/zeolfre

geworden in zmcun
ne wses baet gewrixle
jpoet hie on da. healfa
ftcgan scoldon
yVeonda /eorum. pa wses /rod cyning,
:

has /nlderinc,

t/eorestan

Hrabe wses
eode

eorla.

mid

zmlyfigendne,

Beowulf

to ure

sum,

<zpe\e

sefter /"lore
3

his /zandscole

baet

he bone zoisan

pa.

cgfce

wille

z^yrpe gefremman.

mid

cmpa

pair se jnotera b&d,

hwaebre him ^41Avalda 2

Gang oa

60

ftod,

.Samod airdsege

ge.ri"5um,

sefter zfeaspelle

55

^eadne wisse.

.rigoreadig Jcg.

.relf

til,

on hreon mode,

S)<5ban he cldorpegn

bone

genam

waes geniwod,

alfwalda.

_/yrdwyrt5e

65

man

(/zeal/wudu dynede)

wordum
3

nsegde 4

handscale.

huargde.

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

yrean Ingwina

iht getsese.

Zfroogar maj^elode,
'

Ne

bu

frln

Sorh

Z?ead

70

Scyldinga

/;elm

aefter .railum

Z>nigea leodum.
Jrinenlafes

him wasre

_/Taegn gif

weodlaSe 1

aefter

geniwod

is

iEsch^re,

is

jjldra broj^or,

mln runwita

and min raMbora,

raxlgestealla,

(Sonne

we on

75

crlfge

^afelan wredon,

bonne ^niton feban,

wferas cnysedan

s\vy[lc] scolde

[(ztSeling]

z^ajfre

Zfeorote

to

ne

z#at

ic

atol esse wlanc

for j?an

he

Md

^eardum clammum,
/eode mine

He

ge ftoxr hafaS

Ic baet /ondbuend,

on jefan greoteb
nu seo ^and

gesawon

micle wzearcstapan

be hie

bses
1

qo

lige'5,

z^ilna dohte.

/eode mine,

95

^cgan hyrde,

jejeraidende

gecrang

cwom

/egne monegum,

be eow wel-hwylcra

/llorgcestas

83

wolde hyre mveg wrecan,

se be sefter jincgyfan

>$reberbealo /^earde

hie

ze/Ige

yaehtSe gestceled,

be /incean maeg

f)aet

set

and nu opev

wihtig 7ansca(5a,

wrosc,

Grejidel cwealdest

z^anode and z^yrde.

seo

80

hwoeder 2

/ange

to

i^ldres scyldig,

}?D2S

^andbanan

Heo ba^/shoe

bu gystranniht

}?urh //sestne

wesan,

teah,

^ftsiSas

yylle ge/rajgnod.
J?e

eorl

swylc yfischeje wses

<zrgod,

WeanS him on
zaselgsest

109

jwylce twegen

woras healdan,

SSra oSer
gezcnsi-licost

ncodla'Su.

wges,
geze/itan

hwxj)er.

meahton,
3

se.

ico

HO

BEOWULF AND GRENDELS MOTHER.

XX.

wses 1 6(Ser rarmsceapen

/dese onllc,

on zoeres ze/aestmum

ZOTseclastas traed,

m&wi

nefne 2 he wses #/ara

ponne

pone on ^eardagum

indel nemdo[n]

Hie

cyrnra gasta.

windige nsessas,

oler

gewipu

//oessa

_/yrgenstream

wiper gewitecS,

paat se /were stande<5

/wilgemearces,

3
,

^rimge 4 bearwas,

psem ^ongiacS

a/udu zeyrtum

110

Nis paet feoxr heonon

_/lod under /bldan.

peer

lond

</ygel

warigeacS, wulfhleopu,

/recne _/ngelad,

105

at acgnned

hwseper him anig wses

ofer

ooer,

no hie/aeder cunnon,

ybldbuende;

under

senig

oferhelmao*.

ze>aeter

faest,

mSwundor
/rod leofaS

mseg ihta gehwsem

seon,

115

fyt on yiode. No pses


^umena bearna, past pone ^rund wite.
/mndum geswenced,
<5eah pe //aicSstapa
^eorot /zornum trum
_/eorran ge/lymed,

aldor on ofre,

he

air

WQYin to zfolcnum,

poet /yft

ocS

Nu

roderas reotatS.

eh

set

frier

felajinnigne Jcg
Ic pe

pa. /Shoe

faldgestreonum,

amndnum
1

onlicnxs.

golde,
a

is

drysmap,

125

se raid gelang

jEard git ne const,

pe anum.

/recne stowe,

120

wille

p astigecS
ponne wind styrep

pgnon #(5geblond
gewidru,

he /eorh seleS,

Nis paet /^eoru stow:

y^afelan [^ydan].

/acS

//oltwudu sece,
aer

pu/indan miht
sec, gif

pu dyrre

_/eo leanige,

swa

ic

130

at dyde,

gyf pu on zveg cymest.'

nsefue.

stauiSe'5.

hrinJe.

BEOWULF AND GRENDEfS MOTHER.

XX.

Beowulf ma]?elode,

Ne

'

guma

sorga, .motor

J?set

he his/reond wrece

fire

<2gh\vylc sceal

z^orolde

domes

llfes

Ic hit be ge^ate

uton rape

i^o

feran,

"ang sceawigan
2

no he on /io\m

losab,

ne on _/yrgenholt,

ne on gyfenes ^rund,

gz

he

bser

tceana gehwylces,

swa. ic

14 5

pe zoene

pa wses i/roogare

Ziors

Wlsa. fngel

ge_ngde

/indhsebbendra.

^ang

ofer

^rundas

wide gesyne,

^gnum

<xbelinga

j/eap j/anhlioo,

/nge cnpa'Sas,
7/eowle wsessas.

He /"eara sum
op

boet
1

Mm

s/ige

eahtode.

beam
nearwe,

#ncu<5 gelad,

wieorhusa

1C0

fela.

be/bran gengde
ivgng sceawian,

he /airinga

hra])e.

155

j-awolleasne,

bara be mid Zfr6(5gare

mgnna

for

wzagobegna ba?r

ofer w/yrcan mor,

z^Isra

150

Zastas waeron

waldswabum

ba.

gebSted,

^umfeba stop

after

bone jelestan

to.'

boes se

zvlcg zoundenfeax.

Okreode

Gode bancode,
mann gesprosc.

se g-omela,

tfzihtigan Drihtne,

^eatolic

wille

ge/>yld hafa

pxs,

Ahleop pa

135

selest.

ne on _/bldan /sebm,
dys dogor

pset bi(5 c/ryhtguman

magan

Grndles

^elre bi(5 ajghwaim


bonne he_/ela murne

/nde gebidan

cefter

weard

Aris, rices

wyrce se be mote

ser dea.pe

anlifgendum

cgbeo\ves

<$earn

I I I

/yrgenbeamas
2

helm.

gende.

112

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

ofer ^arne stan

/zleonian funde,

z#yn//leasne zvuda.

Dnum

dreorlg and ge^refed.

to ge/>olianne

on bam

<fegne

gehwsem,

<?crla

(/blc

on wndernmsel

jorhfulne

itere

and

ze/yrmcynnes

fela,

175

wicras licgean,

ok bewitigacS

on jeglrade,

jIcS

and

zt/yrmas

saigon)

jund cunnian,

swylce on oes.mleo(5um
Sa.

to

sefter zooetere

jsedracan

jellice

170

i'eba eal/ gesaet

/uslic y[yrd]leoo\

gesawon

^schejes

syftban

//orn stundum song

//eolfre.

(5a

mgnegum,

/zafelan metton.

/zolmclife

i^lod blode weol/


^atan

eallum wses,

weorce on mode,

z^inum Scyldinga,

oncy'5

165

under st5d

z^geter

zc ildeor

hie

Sumne

-u5horn ^alan.

on weg hruron

1S0

^earhtm ongeaton,

ge/3olgne,

(reata leod

ofyfanbogan /eores getwajfde,


//(Sgewinnes,
/^ejestrajl

jundes be
Hraebe

him on

baet

-raenra

\vear<5

(5e

on

/yoiim

nvzss togen

weras sceawedon

190

Gyrede hine Beowulf

rryrelicne ^ist.

nalles for raldre

mearn

/$ondum gebroden,

scolde /ze/ebyrne
sld

mid wferspreotum

and on

zemndorlic ze>Jegbora;

^orlgewgedum,

185

hyne jwylt fornam.

^earde genearwod,

/feorohocyhtum
rSa gehnceged

aldre stod

he on Ziolme waes

^earda;

jund cunnian,

and jearofah,

<5eorgan cube,

<5ancofan

seo

(5e

ba;t

him /mdegrap
1

/kebre ne mihte,
genaeged.

195

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

Torres mwitfgng,
>$\vita

se

wgregrundas

J?e

/fofelan wrede,

//zgngan scolde,

secan jundgebland

since geweoroad,

be/ongen yreawrasnum,
worhte waipna

Naes
baet

ne ^eadomecas

atertanum

aengum

Se

fah,

be

gegan

hit

dorste,
sicS,

baet hit /llenweorc

oefnan scolde.

Hum

zzzago IJcglafes

ne gewzunde

^zfobes

baet

craeftig,

wine druncen,
z/Sa

2I 5

gespraec

<zv

ba he bass zrajpnes onlah

jelran jweordfrecan

under

he

210

mid zzzundum bewand,

naes baet /brrna

ne swac

naefre hit aet ^ilde

J?ara

ryresi(5as

yblcstede /ara

205

HroSgares

raldgestreona

a^yrded /zeaboswate
zzzanna

waegenfultuma,
dyle

^/ranting nama,

waes an foran
fren,

no

ne meahton.

<Sltan

baet bonne weetost


him on Jearfe lah

/eg waes

teode,

baet hine jytSban

waes bairn ^aeftmece


baet

200

swa hine yy-rndagum

wmndrum

smi(5,

bestte .rwinlicum,
/yrond

ll^

aldre gescboan;

helm

ac se

se

cYihtscype oreogan

Ne

/llenmaeroum.

.relfa

gewinw

ne dorste

aldre geneban,
baer he

waes bsem

oome forleas,
oSrum swa,

sySban he hine to ^uoe ge^yred hasfde.


Beowulf maoelode, fearn cgbeowes
Gebenc nu se /waera wzaga Healfdenes,
jnottra fngel,
nu ic eom jlSes fus,

20

'

^oldwine ^aimena,
gif ic aet /earfe
rtldre

linnan,

/orogewitenum

hwaet wit

^eo spraicon

pinxe scolde

baet

ou

me

on /aeder
1

a wajre
staele

2:;

XX BEOWULF AND

114

GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

minum Tragobegnum,
mec M\d nime.
Swylce bti <5a wzadmas, be bu me sealdest,
ZfrotSgar lcofa,
Higdace onsnd.
wes bu wzundbora
/^ondgesejlum,

gif

Mxg

bairn ^olde on^itan

bonne on

gcs-eon junu HretSles 1


]xet ic

eaga

And bu

bast sine stara(5,

^odne funde
<$reac bonne moste.

236

i/hfertS

ralde lafe,

last

wrSt/lic zt'^egsweord,

/^eardgcg /;abban

d6m

gewyrce,

mid

mec

<5rimwylm onfeng

Da

wses ^wil daeges,

on/unde,

bset

se

Grap pa
otolan

clommum

no by

250

^ucSrinc gefeng

tqg-eanes,

iwn gescod

air

lice;

pa.

swa he ne
6

no

pa heo

to

255

^otme com,

(he peah

modig waes)

ac hine zmmdra pass fela

on junde,

^ildetuxum

\b ^ofe sinum,

zrcihte

zaaepna gewealdan,

swencte

mihte,

/apan fingrum.

seo 3rimwylf s

Aringa pngel

Hixdles.

^umena sum

#fan cunnode.

/ocene /eotfosyrcan
Boer

y76da begong

missera,

/mng utan ymbbearh,


heo pone /yrdhom tSurh/on ne

Mian
baet

(5e

baet bair

.graedig,

eard

tz-hvihta

245

on^ytan mehte.

/mnd

^eorogifre be/;eold

^rimwz and

240

nimecV

PFedergeata leod

he bone ^rundwong

Sona

Zfruntinge

c'eacS

nalas andsware

/lne,

//ilderince.

me mid

ic

ob(5e

frdan wolde;

rer

ze/IdcuSne man?;,

zoordum

lifter bairn
efste

(9eata dryhten,

bonne he on

^umcystum
<5ryttan,

230

jaedeor

monig

260

^eresyrcan brae,

hunfert?.

brimwyl.

]xm.

swecte.

XX.

BEOWULF AND GRENDELS MOTHER.

ehton aglajcan.
he

bair

him nasnig

ne him

wihte ne secede,

zoaster

/mnan ne mghte

for ^rofseje

yaergripe y?odes

at-hwylcum wses,

mftseje

[in]

se eor\ ongeat,

(5a

bast

265

/yrleoht geseah,

leoman <5eorhte scinan.


Ongeat pa se gx>da Tund\vyrgenne,
<51acne

wrewlf wihtig

on

bast hire

wasgenraas forgeaf

swgnge /iQnd

/"ldebille,

Da

^rasdig ^uoleotS.

/earfe

set

/aeges /yrdhrasgl

wearp
^rre
j/iS

past hit

oretta,

and

wzasg

wundenmasl 3

tSa.

.r/ylgcg

wundgripe

175

/brma

siS

</6m alasg.

nalas /lnes

gewzyndig

wzasrfta

wass

<5a

bast his

Eft wass anrasd,

fela

asr

oft gescasr,

madme,

</eorum

se ^ist onfand,

#olode

^elm

^ondgemota,

270

ac seo /eg geswac

a/dre scb<5an,

Seodne

ne oftrah,

^itan nolde,

<$eadoleoma

bast se

Aringmsel agol

/zafelan

last,

Hygelaces
ZOTasttum

on ^rSan

280

gebunden

lasg,

j/rnge getrflwode,

ffzaegenes.

Swa

sceal ?;zan don,

bonne he set guSe ge^an bnce(5


/ongsumne /of, na ymb his /if cearao\
Gefeng pa be/eaxe 4 (nalas fory^ashSe mearn)
GuSgeata leod dandles modor;
brasgd ba ^eadwe heard,

/eorhgenlSlan,

Heo him

<?ft

bast

hord swenge.

hylaces.

wass,

gebeah.

290

and him to^eanes feng:

oferwearp pa werigmod
1

/"lt/

andlean 6 forgeald

hrabe

^rimman ^rapum

ba he ge<5olgen

heo on

z^igena strongest,

wundelinxl.

eaxle.

2S5

handlean.

16

BEOWULF AND GRENDELS MOTHER.

XX.

/"epecempa,

and hyre jeax 1 geteah,

wolde hire

frungcg,

<5rad,

he on /ylle wearcS.

paet

pa pone jelegyst

Ofsset

angan

Him on

raferan.

<Sreostnt/ <5roden

paet

295

wrecan,

<5earn

eaxle laeg

ge^earh feore,

mwgang forstod.
fomSod junu cgpeowes
under ^ynne ^rund,
Geata cempa,
nemne him ^eaSobyrne /ie\pe gefr^mede,
and wio /cge

wi(5 ord

Haefde

<5a

and Mlig God

^rent/ hearde,

geweold

ze/igsigor,

rodera i?aklend

eald

zentig
hit

<5a

on jearwum

wigena weorSmynd
wses

hit

to ^eadulace

g6d and

He

305

Sonne

3rsec,

<5il/

jweord wses jwatig,


Lixte se /eoraa,

gebraegd,

rodores candel.

He

z/eaile,

^eard be ^iltum
anrsed.

eal/

315

(Surhwod

heo on_/~lt/ gecrgng;


.recg -\veorce gefeh.

/eoht inne stod,

efne swa. of ^efene

and

/mngmaM

/zeard grapode,

/"aigne _/~lceschoman

hwearf pa be

/reca Scyldinga,

jyrringa sloh,

wiS /wise

^anhringas

310

^Tganta geweorc.

pa. /telhilt,

aldres orwena,
pset hire

ainig ?ngnn 6(5er

set^eran meahte,

^eatolic

gefeng

bil/,

pyhtig,

paet [wses] zreepna cyst,

zraare

^reoh and /ieorogrim;

yxxQ

jigeeadig

/cgum

sweord ^ctenisc

buton

Drihten

on ryht gesced

sypSan he eh astod.

z/(5ellce,

Geseah

300

320

/zadre seine's
sefter

recede wlat,

zrajpen hafenade

//"igelaces (Segn,

Noes seo /eg fracod

325

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

ac he ^rabe wolde

rtilderince,

Gr^ndle for^yldan

^utSrassa fela

Sara be he geworhte

I^estd^num

to

Sonne on <xnne

micle

<?ftor

suS.

bonne he i7r6(5gares weoroganeatas


.rlaspende frast
sloh on jweofote,
/bices D^nigea _/yftyne mgnw
and oer swylc iit offejede,
He him bass /ean forgeald,
/aSlicu /ac.
rebe cmpa,

be he on

to <5ass

^QSwerigne

GV^ndel

aldorleasne,

swa him

wild set 77eorote

sybSan he

<frepe

rim lode fah;

on ho\m

<Slondenfeaxe

on g-eador

ba

<5ass

dasges

asfter

gcrawon.

abreoten.

zwndon
pa. bast

weaboswate

zrlgbil/ zwanian

Gistas saston 2 ,

and on m%xe staredon

z^yscton 3 and ne
jelfne

350

gewat him warn bgnon

goldwine ^umena.
wzodes seoce,

come

wgnige gewearS,

wassj ofgeafon

345

a^roten 1 hasfde.

bast hine seo <5rim\vylf

Da com won

sprascon,

eh ne wendon,

jecean

he .rigehreSig

wwate Scildingas

wliton,

gemnged,

ea\l

ymb ^odne

beoden

//eafde becearf. 340

.mottre ceorlas,

bast hig bass <2(5elinges


bast

browade,

and hine ba

mid Zfroogare

;asrne

335

gescod

<ir

</ea(5e

asfter

bast waes 7/ogeblgnd

^-omele

geseah

wra wide sprgng,

Sona bast gcrawon


(5e

rasste

330

licgan,

weoroswgng weardne,
ba

11/

bast hie

heora zf/inedrihten

jweord onganw

wildegicelum
bast wass zfundra
a

secan.

sum,
3

wistcn-

355

1 1

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

gemealt

hit ea\l

J?aet

Jse gelicost,

bnd

(Sonne /brstes

.Boeder onlceteb',

onwindeS zraigrapas 1
joela

and mosla

Ne nom

he

peh he

jweord

forbarn roden mail

Sona woes on junde

zwghryre

wseron j/5gebland

/acne geardas 2
oflet /Ifdagas

Com

<fry(51ic

poes
<5a

joecce

gebad

370

gesceaft.

/idmanna helm
.yoelace

gefeah,

para pe he him mid haefde

/egna heap,

375

Gode pancodon,

to^eanes,

/eodnes gefegon,

woes of poem /zroran

z#oeter

set

up purhdeaf;

pe hi hyne gejundne

lungre a/ysed:

poes hat,

se ^llorgast

jwuSmod jwymman,

Eodon him pa

se pe aer

and pas /aanan

pa to /ande

wsegenbyrpenne

365
<51od to

ea\l gefaelsod,

pa

somod,

poer-zhne swealt.

z#oeter

ze/ratSra,

Mt

pa.

gemealt,

woes poet

se

tzttren /llorgoest,

oer

JFedergeata leod,

poer ?gnige geseah,

and

/iafelan

jince fage;

360

hafatS

joS Metod.

paim zylcum,

in

zrcaSmoehta ma.,

buton pone

geweald

se

poet is

gejeon moston.
/zelm

and byrne

/agu drusade,

under wolcnum,

380

zyoeldreore fag.

Ferdon y*or'S ponon _/~epelastum


/erhpum /begne, _/bld\veg maeton,
^yningbalde mgn
rupe strcete
;

from poem

/zolmclife

^zrfoollce

heora <^ghwseprum

/elamodigra

^afelan boeron

/eower scoldon

on poem zwoelstgnge zweorcum gefrian


Grendles heafod,
to p3em ^oldseje
1

waelrapas.

eardas.

385

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.
ob

(Saet

jejnninga

to s$\e

comon

/yrdhwate /eowertyne
-umdryhten mid
Geata ggngan
wodig on gewonge 7eodowongas

110.

390

_/"rgme

cSa

com

a^dcene mon

dome gewurbad,

bx\e

i/ro(5gar gretan.

/zildedeor,

pa wses be /eaxe

bser

eodum

and

w/liteseon zcrxtWc

395

on /lt/ boren

Grendles heafod,
/geslic for

traed.

^aldor Segna,

inn gan

^uman

druncon,

bsere zdese

z#eras

onsawon.

mid
400

XXI.
THE BATTLE OF MALDON.
Tins fragment
with the events

is

it

contemporary
Rieger (Altremarks, so im-

a unique specimen of an epic

describes.

was composed,

It

und Angel-sachsiches Lesebuch, Preface,

xiii)

as

mediately after the battle that the poet does not know the name
of a single one of the enemy, not even of their leader Anlaf, and,
in his character of eyewitness, describes only those of their

movements which could be discerned from the English position.


Although the poem does not show the high technical finish of
the older works, it is full of dramatic power and warm feeling.
It has been preserved only as printed by Hearne, to whom some
of

its

errors

The

may

probably be ascribed.

following

year 993

'Heron

the narrative of the Chronicle under the

is

:
Jiissum geare

com Anlaf mid prim and hundnigontigum

to Stane, and forhgrgedon

swa panon

him

peer

to Gipeswic,

J)a?t

and

paet

onutan

and

for

scipuni

pa Ration to Sandwic, and

ofereode, and swa t5 Maeldune.

eall

com togeanes Byrhtno'5 ealdormann mid

his

fyrde,

and him

And
wi"5

and hi )>one ealdormann peer ofslogon, and waelstowe geweald ahton.


And him man nam sySSan friS wiS, and hine nam se cyng sySSan td
gefeaht

bisceopes handa.'

Het ba

hyssa.

ftoxr a/ysan,

/Jrocen

^waene

and

thige.

gangan,

and ^ige 1 godum.

pa* baet Offan maig


nolde

^ors forlxUan,

_/brtS

hicgan to //andum,

bset se eor\

wurde.

dvest onfunde,

_jrhcSo gebolian
2

h-

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

121

him pa of handon /eofne fleogan


^afoc wi<5 paes Voltes,
and to psere Ailde stop;
be bam man mihte oncnawan paet se <rniht nolde

the

/et

K/acian

aet

ham

z#[i]ge,

he to zf/aipnum feng.

ha.

10

Eac him wolde EaAric his ifaldre gelaestan


/rean to ge/eohte
ongan?z pa. ./onS beran
^ar to Upe
he haefde ^6d gepanc,
pa hwile pe he mid ^andum ^ealdan mihte
;

iord and 3rad swurd

^eot he gelaeste,

Da

paer i?yrhtnocS

rad and raedde,

hu

hi

ongan
rincum

hyra randas 2

pa^t

mid /olman,

/aeste

he haefde paet/olc

he

lihte

stod on

pa.

se

on

<5eot

f Me

a^ead

pam

jgndon

25

us

he on

stod

<?fre

pu most jfndan
and eow ^gtere

paet
;

mid ^afole

ge pisne ^arrses

we

pair

jaim^nw jnelle

to pe

ponne 4 we swa
purfe

clypode

^rimlipendra
^>rle,

^eagas witS ge^eorge

Ne

/eofost waes,

z#ordum mcelde,

heton Se jgcgan,

j-paet

him

pair

/zoldost wiste.

j/lollce

.r/aeo'e,

ar,

<zrende 3 to

30

/aegere getrymmed,

mid /eodon,

pair he his ^eorcSwerod

zwcinga

heoldon

rihte

and ne /orhtedon na.

pa.

pa.

eornas trymian,
taihte

and pone j/gde healdan,

sceoldon j/andan,

and baed

15

/eohtan sceolde.

pa he aet/bran his /rean

/^earde
j/>illan,

^iide

ra<5e

forgyldon,

dailon.

ge .s^edap

gif

30

is

to

pam

we willac5 wi<5 pam r olde ^ri(5 fsestnian.


Gyf pu J?set 6 geraedest, pe her ^cost eart,
px't

]?

i-yllan
1

leofre.

u P ine ^eoda

jaimannum
2

randan.

/ysan wille,

on hyra
3

35

scrxnile.

jylfra
*

J-on.

dom
5
.

ulJe.

)iat.

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

122

yeoh wi<5 yreode, and niman /rio" set us,


we willab mid bam .sreattum us to j<rype gangan,
on yiot /"eran, and eow /ripes healdan.'
i?yrhtno(5 mabelode,

wand

hi willatS

^fttrene

hwaet bis folc jgge'S?

bu, jaMida,

eow

set

a^eod

<5oda,

sge binum /eodum


s

ypelredes ear 6.,


/olc and /bldan

unbe/bhtene,
i

_/eallan sceolon

To

air

cer

we

mihte bajr for

com yiowende

hi tq^sedere

ne mihte hyra <snig


2

aettrynne.

ea\\e

y'lod
to

60

syllon.'

stodon.

ze/erod to
aefter

/ang

hit

bam oorum

bban,

65

him buhte,

^aras baeron

6
.

mid /rasse bestodon,

bser

gehyrt.

^afol

rooetere

Pantan stream
and
ifoslseaxena trd,

gegangan

geseman,

3eornas gangan,

tfizstseoe

iucon /agustreamas

Hi

55

gangon

jinc

.rofte

<5ord 3eran,

on bam

hwaenne

binceo*

to .srype

becomon

z'n7Z

^rimm ^uoplega,

beer

me

/zeanlic

us sceal ord and /eg

Ne

50

werode,

bysne,

e bel

ne sceole ge swa

bset hi

his

nu ge bus feorr hider

ne ^ard

Het ba

spell,

mid

eor\

ge mid urum .sreattum

bset

ne deah.

ongean,

eft

^zldres mines,

h5t\>tx\Q set ^ilde.

on

/zilde

miccle /abre

bset her stynt anforcuo"

be wile ge<?#lgian

45

syllan,

swurd,

<?<2lde

ba /^regeatu be eow

2?rimmanna

^aras

to ^afole

and

<?rd

mdelde,

ageaf him andsware

yrrt and anrsed,

t'Gehyrst

hafenode,

<$ord

wordum

zaacne sesc,

40

se <z?schre

<?5rum dejian,

gealgean.

J;e

gofol.

70
5

easte"5e.

beroo.

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

23

buton hwa burh /"lanes _/lyht fy\l gename.


Se yiod ut gewat
J?a _/lotan stodon gearovve,
;

zwcinga

wlges georne.

fela,

Het ba

^ealdan ba bricge

^selet5a h\eo

se waes haten

tzfigan wigheardne,

mid

^afne

his cynne,

(J?aet

pe <5one /brman man;z

JFulfstan,

75

wses Ceolan sunu),

mid

his

/rancan

ofsceat,

on ba bricge stop.
wigan unforhte,
pair stodon mid JFulfstane
be bair

<5aldlicost

and il/accus,

t-iElfere

noldon

pa.

set

wi(5

waipna

pa

baedon
ofer

Da

Mcgweardas <5itere fundon,


/aoV gystas
hi wpgang 2 agan moston,

J^air

ongunnon

boet

bone _/brd /aran, _/"epan


se wrl ongan/z

Onganw

^eallian

-#yrhtelmes

Nu eow

^uman

for his

(<5eornas gehlyston):

ba

gaS ricene

gerymed,

God ana

to ^uj?e;

z^ealdan mote.'
for zasetere

zaselwulfas,

west 3 ofer Pantan,

ofer sdr wseter

scyldas waggon

/idmen;z to /ande
pair

/inda

ongean ^ramum

lutfe.

upgangan.

95

ne murnon,

4
,

bairon.

^-earowe stodon

mid feornum

wyrcan bone zwhagan,


1

to us,

wat,

Zficinga zt/erod,

Z?yrhtn5(5

jo

ofer raid wseter

<5earn,

is

lajdan.

cfermode

/abere <5eode.

ba

hwa. bake waelstowe

Wodon

85

/ytegian ba

alyfan /andes to fela

'

z&ealdan moston.

and georne gesawon

hi bset on^eaton,

baet hi

80

yieam gewyrcan,

(5a_/ynd wejedon,

ac hi/asstlice

ba hwile be

hi

twegen

zrcodige

>am ybrda

and
3

ico

he mid <5ordum het

pest.

{?aet
*

werod healckn
wegon.

linde.

/ir

pa waes /eohte 1 neh

wi5 /eondum.

/aeste

ge/ohte

set

THE BA TTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

24

waes seo /Id

mgn

baet ber_/"3ege

cumen
sceoldon.

_/"eallan

105

^ream a^afen, ^remmas 2 wundon,


eaxn sses georn
waes on <?<?rban cyrm.
Hi leton ba of/blman /"eolhearde speru,
weartS

))Jer

tge^rundene

^aras fleogan

ogan waeron
^iter

^ysige,

<$ord

no

ord onfeng,

feornas feollon

woes se feadurses,

on ge/nvaecSere ^and, /tyssas lagon.


fund wearS 3 PTulfmaer, waelraeste geceas,
I

he mid Milium wearS,

/j'yrhtnoSes maeg,
his

jwiSe forheawen.

jwuster junu,

peer

weanS 4 wlcingum

115

zoiberlean agyfen

onne slSge
ic baet ifodweard
ne wyrnde,
jwurde,
jwgnges
mid
jwiSe
his
baet him set /otum /"eoll _/"sege cempa
gehyrde

paes

pam
Swa

him

eoden

set

paer

Mde,

/>anc gesaade,

120

he byrt haefde.

pa.

j/emnetton

^yssas

hwa

his

(5urpene,

j/rShycgende 6

/zogodon georne

mid orde

mihte

<z?rost

on yaegean mn# _/eorh gewinnan,


wael f eol/ on eorSan.
roigan mid z^sipnum

25

stihte hi

SVodon j/aedefaeste,

dom

be on Z^gnon wolde

Wod

pa wiges heard,

eode swa onrced

eox\

gper hyra oSrum

Sende a
1

fohte.

up

to

wi(5 pass

pam

ahof,

130

Peonies stop

ceorle

jfeles hogode.

juberne gar,

se jaerinc

brenimas.

gefeohtan.

ze>aepen

and

<ford to ge^eorge,

ByrhtnoS,

/zogode to wige,

haed paet ^yssa ge/nvylc

vveard.

wserd.

stifihugende.

wearS

bast gezt'undod

bast spere spr^ngde,

bast hit

se ^QcSrinc

zdancne dicing,

be him ba

he

.Frod wass se_/yrdrinc,

burh Sses ^ysses Ziah

bam

Da. he <?berne

/"asrsceaoan

3yrne tofasrst

/mnglocan,

Se

sprang ongean.

he mid ^are stang

zmmde

forgeaf.

his/hancan wadan

/eorh

140

gerashte.

he wass on <3reostum

him

eor\

135

sceat,

<?fstlice

bast seo

d?tterne ord.

let

25

/$and wisode

burh

<5a

bast se jceaft tobasrst,

scylde,

Ge^r^mod weanS

he on

zvigena. hlaford

Sam

he sceaf ba mid

bast

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

and

:
:;

set

//eortan stod

wund
145

wass be blibra

hloh ba wzodi mann, ssede yl/etode banc


be him ZVihten forgeaf.

</asgweorces

(Saes

sum

Forlet ba dr^nga.

</aroS of handa,

/"leogan of/blman,

bast se to /br<5

burh <5one ^belan

^belredes begen.

Him

gewat

^yse unweaxen,

be ^ealfe stod

mint on gecampe,

se

full

<raflice

braM of bam <5eorne <Modigne gar,


JFulfmasr se geonga
Wulfstanes beam,
forlet ybrheardne /aran eft ongean
ord inn gewod,

be

his

Eode

/eoden
bii

bast se

gejyrwed

reaf and hringas,

s$cg to

<5rad

ba he bass *wles

ba
1

to

bam

eorle,

&sagas gefeccan

#11 of sceaSe

to rabe hine ge/gtte

feoll

lasg,

1
,

and on ba ^yrnan sloh:


/id manna sum,

eavm amyrde

165

/bldan /ealohilte swurd

gefecgan.

160

and gerenod swurd.

-Z?yrhtno<5 <^rasd

and runcg 3

on wrban

155

/earle gerashte.

asr

he wolde bass feornes

Da

150

scc'Se.

-eccg.

T26

XXI.

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

ne mihte he geAealdan
jf'Spnes ?#ealdan.

Mr

^ilderinc,

pa.

//eardne mece,

gyt baet ze/ord gecwseo"

/zyssas bylde,

gode geferan

brcd "-angan forS

ne mihte ba on /"dtum lng

170

/seste gestandan 1

heofenum wlat * * *
/e 2 /ancige 2 <Jeoda VValdend,
ealra bcera wynna
be ic on zyorulde gebad

he

to

'Ic 2

nu
boet

beet

ic

wceste bearfe,

ah, m'ilde yJ/etod,

on /In geweald, /eoden ngla,


mid _/ri]:>e /"e/ian
ic eom _/rymdi

to be,

/zynan ne moton.'

bset hi /^ej/sceaoan

Da

hine

^eowon

180

/zseSene scealcas,

and begen ba Zieornas


tJElfnoS and Wulmajr
(Sa

175

pu mlnum ^aste ^odes geunne,


mln jawul to (5e .nSian mote,

be him ^Igstodon,

begen lagon,

onemn hyra_/rean /eorh

gesealdon.

Hi bugon ba fram <5eaduwe be bSr ^eon noldon


bair wurdon Oddan beam
direst on fleame:
Godrlc fram gupe, and bone ^odan forlet,
be him woenigne

oft

he gehleop bone

eoh,

on bam gercedum

be

185

7earh 3 gesealde

be ahte his hlaford,


hit riht

ne waes,

190

and his ^rooYu mid him <egen asrndon 4


Godrinc 5 and Godwig, gupe ne gymdon,
and bone wudu sohton,
ac wendon fram bam zolge,
and hyra /bore burgon,
flugon on bset _/*sesten,
and wanna ma. J^onne hit amig wzaacS wcere,
195
,

gyf

h!

ba gerarnunga

be he him to dugupe

swa him Cffa on dseg


1

gestundan.

ge Jiance

gemundon,
gedon hsefde;

ftzlle

&>r assede,
3

J?e.

me.ir.

xrdon.

8 godrine.

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

on pam woepelstgde
poet paer OTodigllce

pe

eft

aet

Da wearS

pa

Soer

zmearge
hi

200

poet

gesawon

hyra /zearra 4 teg.

wndon forcS zdance pegenas.


mgrm <?fston georne

205

woldon pa

/If for/aetan

Swa

spraacon,

poes /bices ealdor,

^czlle

^eorSgeneatas

wanega

/olian noldon.

a/eallen
eorl

12J

pa he gemot hgefde,

/earfe 3

.^pelredes

ralle

twega,

<?(5er

/eofne gewrecan.

oc5(5e

hi <$ylde forS

earn ^Elfrices,

zfordum maelde,

zfiga zt/intrum geong,

jEtfw'me pa cwoecS,

(he

on /Hen

210

sprsec):

Gemuna'S para 6 mx\a, pe we oft set weodo spraacon,


ponne we on <5nce eot ahofon,
^oelecS on ^ealle,
ymbe ^eard gewinn
1

nu moeg runnian hwa rene sy.


Ic wylle mine pelo
vallum gecypan,
poet ic woes on Myrcon
wiccles cynnes,
woes min mlda foeder

wis ealdorman;z,

Ne

sceolon

me on

iTalhelm haten,

z^oruldgesaelig.

poere/eode pegenas oetwltan,

poet ic of (Sisse

/yrde /"eran

eard gesecan,

nu

for/zeawen

set

k\\de

mm
;

the woes sagger 7 min

/rynd and
1

mefelsteJe.

gemunu

|>a.

raldor ligeS

me

is

/zearma maast

past

mm

and

zwoeg

his zfoepne.

ge/"eran,
modelice.
segder.

220

wiile,

hlaford.'

pa he/orcS eode, /sehSe gemunde,


poet he mid orde
dime geraahte
yiotan on pam /bice, poet se on /oldan
fonfegen mid

215

Onganw

poet hi _/brc5
3

J>acre.

pa.

225

loeg

zmnas manian,

eodon.
heorra.

forlaetun,

'

THE BATTLE OF MA L DON.

XXI.

I2cS

Offi\
'

gemollde,

Hwast

on

/earfe

nu ure /eoden

to

us

<?<?r(5an,

Jperne bylde

pa hwlle pe he z^aspen masge

to wige,

^abban and

liS,

<?allum pearf

is

<ghwylc

past ure

zdgan

230

gemanode,

hafast ea\\e

/egenas
eovl

scholt asceoc:

pu, J^lfwine,

235

/^eardne mece,

/iealdan,

^ar and god swurd.

Us Godric haefS,
Oddan beam, mile beswicene
wende pass for woni wanw, pa he on weare
earh

rad,

on wlancan pam wicge, past zt/asre hit fire hlaford;


for pan wearS her on yelda _/blc totwasmed,
tscyldburh to^rocen

a^reoSe his angin/z,

swa wanigne

past lie her

Zeofsunu gemaslde,

wan;/ aflymde.'

and

his /inde ahof,

pam

/3ord to ge^eorge,

he

Ic past ge/^ate,

past ic

'

/5eorne

wrecan on

geze/inne

mlnne

Ne

me embe

S"/urmre

ze;ordum

nu mln

astz/vltan,

^am

past ic /^lafordleas

wende fram zwge

zmorne

pa.

cv/asS,

me

ac

na,

sceal

waspen niman,

wod,

he forhogode.

darolS acwehte,

wandian

/rean on /bice,
pa.

250

255

ofer eal\ clypode,

ceorl,

Ne masg

j/defasste haelecS

suSie,

basd past <5eorna gehwylc


'

245

roinedrihten.

zedne gecranc,

ful jyrre

f learn

feaht /"asstlice,

Z^unnere

He

ord and fren.'

oncwaeS:

/feonon nelle

ac wille yurSor' gan,

/"leon _/otes trvm;,

purfon

240

ne

hi _/brS eodon,.

for

^yrhtnocS wrasce:
se pe

w recan

penceS

/eore murnan.'

/eores

hi

ne rohton

ongunnon pa. /riredm^nn ^eardlice feohtan,


Tame ^arberend, and God basdon

260

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.
bset hi

moston gewrecan

and on hyra

Him

He

fy\l gewyrcan.

ongann

^eornlice fylstan

se gysel

NorShymbron

bam

set

and ^eornful/

/otmaM

pa his

ofer foec <Sugan,

<5tera

06 bset he his jincgyfan


4

he on

ser

Swa dyde ^peric,

and

pa.

wearS

he on

he <5eotode

pset

hi

sceoldon ^egen

hz\e to /;ame,

he

lseg dfegenlice
a

gearc.

his ^eahgifan,

on

Z>urh

290

ridan,

on hexe crincgan 5
zoundum sweltan

ze/aelstowe

feoll,

he his/rean gehet,

pset

oc55e

on

genehe.

wi<5

air

2S5

<?<?r<5an

^rund gesohte

he hoefde (5eah ge/brpod


swa.

weredon,

Offa for^eawen

/tilde

set

2S0

o-uSe sloh

set

pset

sselidan,

Gaddes mseg

t5ser

lsege.

and seo yrne sang

bserst hordes laerig,

tratSe

z^sele

eornoste,

<rene hi

clufon cellod bord,

bone

275

and jwiSe maenig ober

tSibyrhtes biocSor

Offa

keg 3

#?pele gefera,

/us and /orSgeorn, /eaht

^ryreleoSa sum.

sprsec,

landes.

and wi5 (5a. <5eornas feaht,


on bam jsemannum

he brsec bone fordweall,

zemrolice rorsec

271

wealdan moste.

gylpwordum

he nolde/leogan

pset

hwilon <5eorn taisde

i^zdweard se langa,

gyt on orde stod


2

he sealde rame wunde,

embe j/unde

ba hwlle Se he wxpna.

Da

zmgplegan,

/Ian geneahhe

_/br<5

hwilon he on ord sceat,

^earo

265

^eardes cynnes,

him wses ^"scferS nama

^cglafes beam,

he ne w/andode na
ac he _/ysde

129

hyra winedrihten,

/eondum

wses on

tsefre

deodne gehende.
3

leg.

wrec.

crintgan.

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

130

Da

wearcS <k>rda gefroec

gar

gu$e ge^remode;
tpurstanes sunu

JFfgelines

zt'erige

zoaipna neotan.

3ord hafenode,

i?yrht\vold mapelode,

^sc acwehte,

se wses ea\d geneat,

be

sceal be ?are,

her lrS re ealdov

eall

^eorte be cenre,
iire

wsegen

bis roigplegan

nu fram

lytlatS.

forheawen,

a mseg ^nornian

^od on ^reote;
se tSe

310

feornas lcerde

3aldlice

//ige sceal be /zeardra,

'

305

/olian sceoldon,

baet hi beer set <fearfe

mod

hwile,

ralle

feornas trymedon,

wordon baedon

hyra winemagas

he

300

zwgend cruncon,

Oswold and jEaldwold

ful

lajge.

fseste

wasl feol/ on eorban.

3egen ba ge^ropru,

unwaclice

on bam wsele
j/odon

wigan on gewinne,
zt'undum

hyra /reora bana,

beam

gemot

peer wees j/kS

295

burhwod

bas jecgas feaht

wi<5

3
he wses on ge/range

him

rimmen/* wodon,

oft

/ortS ba 1 eode Wistan,

/Sges /eorhhus.

air

3 '5

wendan penceS.

eom/rod/eores: /ram ic ne wille,


minum /iMorde
ac ic me be /zealfe
be swa /eofan men /icgan bence.'
Swa hi y^belgares beam mile bylde
Ic

Godric

to

^ube

oft

he gar

320

forlet

on ba wicingas,
swa he on pam /bice /yrmest eode,
4
heow and /zynde, ocS beet he on Ailde gecranc
325
be (5a ^uSe forbeah.
nces past na se Godric

wselspere ztfindan

*
1

forOa.

snna.

*
s

ge)>rang

od.

XXII.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS


[From the

so-called

Caedmon.]

It has been for a long time admitted that the collection of


Biblical

poems attributed to Cxdmon


shown that a

is

really the

work of several

large portion of them, in-

hands, and Sievers has

is nothing but a translation from an Old


by the author of the Heliand (an epic on

cluding our present text,

Saxon
the

original, possibly

life

of Christ).

The more important

of the specifically Old Saxon words and

phrases which occur in our text will be pointed out in the notes.
I.

/ngelcynna,

Hsefde se yll/walda

purh /tandmoegen,

full^an 1 wolden,

^iongorscipe

bon he him gezvitf forgeaf


^andum gesceop, haWg Drihten.

u/yrcean his

and mid

Drihten,

psem he ge/ruwode wel

/ene ge/rymede,
paet hie his

z^alig

zf/illan

his

for

Geyett hsefde he hie swa. gejaMigllce

renne hsefde he swa

.ywlSne geworhtne,
swa. wzihtigne

on

his ffzodgepohte

he

let

hine swa

77/icles

swa

/zwltne

wealdan,
/zehstne to

him on /zeofona

rice

hsefde he hine

geworhtne
swa.

wynlic waes his zasestm on heofonum,

p?et

him com

from weroda Drihtne:


ge/Ic

wses

he

pam /eohtum

10

steorrum.

Drihtnes wyrcean,
1

fyligan.

K 2

Zof

sceolde

he

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII.

132

dyran sceolde he his </reamas on heofonum,

baes /eanes be

bam

he him on

/eohte gescejede

bonne

he his hine /ange wealdan

lete

aw^nde

ac he

and sceolde

bancian

his Z?rihtne

him

hit

to z^yrsan binge,

origan/;

him

ze/inn

up-ahgbban
wiS bone /zehstan ^eofnes Waldend,

Mlgan

be

on bam

siteS

stole.

15

urum

Z>eore woes he Z^rihtne

ne mihte him

1
;

bedyrned

weor<5an

ongan

baet his ^ngyl

ahof hine

gylpword on^ean,
cwseS

baet his /ic

he

ne meahte he

yblcgestealna 2

i^eala

worda gespaec

he

Hwaet

zmindra gewyrcean

^yrwanne

//earran
1

on

j?aet

hine his /rige speone

wyrcean ongunne,

30

^eongra weonSan

ic

ic

^odlecran

//eofne.

craeft

geworhte,

cwaeS

winnan?'

^earran to ^abbanne

to

j/51

cwaeS him Aveo J^uhte

Gode wolde
sceal ic

25

pohte burh his anes

hu he him j/rgnglicran
3
on heofonum
//earran
baet he west and norcS

'

cwae<5 he.

'

Nis

me

maeg mid ^andum

wihte 4 bearf
swa. fela

haebbe geweald micel

35

stol,

Hwy

sceal ic aefter his ^yldo Seowian,


2

corrected from ure by a different hand.


3

findan

zwaran haefde

craeft

//abban mihte,

se /ngel ofermodes

b>aet

20
his h\ge

^eongerdome,

God

/rymede ge/imbro

aet

/uhte him sylfum

he waegyn and

]?onne se //alga

/eoht and scene,

wsere

Code wolde

/>eodne /eowian
bset

sohte //tespra}ce,

Gode beowian

nolde

^wit and /nowbeorht


baet

ofermod wesan,

witS his /tearran,

heahran, altered from heanoran

(?).

folcgestaelna.

wihtae.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII.

bugan him
swa

he.

BigstandatS

me

swilces g-eongordomes

ba ne

j/range geneatas,

God

maeg wesan

ic

133

me

willao"

bam

set

sfrvSe geswican,

^aelebas

^eardmode

rofe rincas

hie habbatS

me

^earran gecorene, 40

to

mid swilcum maeg man

raed geb^ncean,

Frynd synd

/"on mid swilcum /blcgesteallan,

mine

hie

georne,

on hyra /zygesceaftum,
rxdan on bis nee
swa me

/zolde

awiht

baet ic <?lccan

Gode

aefter g-ode

maeg hyra ^earra wesan,

ic

ne

baet riht

bincetS,

|?urfe

aenegum

45

ne

wille ic lng his

^eongra

wurban.'

pa

hit

se ^411walda

his /ngyl

J?set

gehyrde,

ea\\

ongan

ofermede micel

and

a/2bban witS his i/earran,


Z>rihten sinne

</ollice witS

wore

baes

gewinnes gedeelan,

ealra 7;/ortSra ;sest

be

mid wane

swa

Waldend

witS his

witS

dabd ongyldan,

pa.

and sceolde

detS

word

spraec ^ealic

sceolde he

mourn

his z#ite

50

habban,

gehwile,

z#innan ongynnetS

bone nmrnn Drihten.

pa wear

se

Mih-

tiga gebolgen,
/zehsta /zeofones

Waldend,

HeXe

aet

haefde he

wearp hine of ban

his Zfearran

/zean stole. 55

gewunnen,

/tyldo

hasfde

[he] his ferlorene,

^ram

weartS

him

se

^oda on

mode

his

bon he

for

sce-

olde ^rund gesecean


/zeardes /zejlewites,

baes

be he wann

witS /zeofnes

and hine on

AcwaetS hine ba fram his /zyldo

Waldend.

/zejle

wearp,

do
on ba ^eopan fl'ala, baer he to ^eofle weartS,
/"eollon ba of heofnum
se /eond mid his ge/erum eallum
1

p\i\b.

[swa] l9nge

swa /reo niht and dagas


1

f>a

ufon.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII.

134

/nglas wfon 1 on heUe,

J?a

and heo

noldon zaeorSian,

for }?on

under

on

sgtte jigelease

peer hsebbatS

for

Sum

cald

man

worhte

/brman

^asterne wind,

fyx

o(5(5e

70

gar,

^abban sceoldon

him

hit

65

God

wngemet lange

symble

^eard geswinc

dSd and word

edneowe,

_/~yr

his

.rweartan heUe.

j?a

ponne cymS on zmtan

/yrnum

forsceop

ea\\t

heo

heo on wyise leoht

heo on efyn

ealra _/"eonda gehwile

/brst

J?e

cclmihtig 3

neoSan

<?r?>an

bon

Zfrihten to fl'eoflum

hyra z^oruld wses gehwyrfed,

to zente,

_/ylde hlle

si(5e

Heoldon /nglas forS


air Godes /n'ldo gelseston.
}?e ser swa
/"ynd on bam _/~yre,

mid fiam andsacum.


t^eofonrices

Lagon

pa.

ocSre

75

be

/zehtSe,

_/"eala

haefdon
wite
gew innes wicS heora PTaldend
Mtne /ieacSowelm /zejle tomiddes
;

and ^rade

<frand

/rosm and

for

G^odes for^ymdon
/ngles oferhygd

z#ord z^eoijrian

^ejle

haefdon wlte micel,


5

./yre to botme

_/yres_/"ser micel.

heora wziclan

and

]?urh ofermetto

the

and wses

mod

zmta unrim

and

aellm.

>urh wiht

90

Godes,

ralra swiSost.
2

ufon of heofnum.

MS.

/Iges full,

i^ynd ongeaton

hie hsefdon gezmixled

f>urh

8$

Jmrh /zygeleaste
sohton oper land,

wses /eohtes /eas

|?set

80

/egnscipe

hie

noldon v41waldan

and burh ofermetto


J^aet

bon

hie hyra gal beswac,

wseron ba be/eallene

on ba Mtan

swilce eac ba 3iteran recas,

ligas,

J>ystro,

{joliaS

he

comes after the second

gewriuc.

hell.

for

Son

in

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII.

135

II.

pa

ofermoda cyning,

spraec se

on ^eofne

//witost

Z>rihtne dyre,

him

f>aet

wzihtig
i(5er

cwaecS

and

nalles

bass

sceolde

wiS

God winnan 8

jorgiende sprsec,

^rundes

on ^eofne,

otS

wses

Codes engel

a;r

hine his ^yge forspeon

and

his <?fermetto

^alra switfost,

bset

he ne z^olde

z^ereda Diihtnes

word wurSian.

ymb

'

bes

Is

bam
/jean

cengd. styde

be we

<?5rum

on 5

romigan ures

<zr

cuSon,

be

bam

rices.

Mtan,

^earra onlag,

agan ne moston,

Nsef'5 he beah riht

gedon

115

_/yre to botme,

benumen,
mid wzonweynne

/feofonrice

hafacS hit ge/wearcod

to gexgttanne.

me min

yll/waldan

he us hsefS be/selled

helle baire

no

angelic swiSe

/jeofonrice,

beah we hine for

bset

him utan

ha wses

he ba zoorde cwsecS

105

Weoll him oninnan

his ^eortan,

zmte

ze/raSlic

100

^ealdan sceolde,

helle forS

pieman

hyge

95

sylfa wearcS

het hine pa^re .rweartan hehe

Satan macSelode,

/Avit

God

Mtan

se /zehsta
,ri(5(5an,

^rundes ^yman,

Se

wses /ngla scynost,

on mode yrre, wearp hine on pret worSor 1 innan,


on bst niob^dd, and sceop him aman si<5(San,

Satan

se

<r

wurdon,

hie to dole

oc5

for ^alscipe

be

his ./Yearran leof,

paet

me

is

.rorga maest,

^4dam sceal, be wses of <?0rc5an geworht,


minne j/ronglican slol behealdan,

bset

morSer.
4

e corr.

pact inserted

/row

ae.

by another hand.
5

Jjrst n cor r.

a J /<;</ 6y
(

120

cfrjf".

from

hand.

d.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII.

136

him on z#ynne,

zoesan

and we

//earm on pisse ^elle.

and moste dne

tld

Wa.

me _ymbe

rideS racentan

habbaS me
//fan

Her

ofer

me

is

//eardes Irenes

and

be

hafaS 1 //ringa gespong,

/et synt gebundene,

ymb
Ac

mid

\>y

me God
Swa.

^ealse.

139

gewur'San

jyfele

minra //anda geweald.

peer ic ahte

we nu /rea on hehe,

^rimme, ^rundlease

hafacS

wat he minne hlge cuSe

ic

z^eroda Drihten,

eac

nc ^fdame

past //eofonrice,

<5oliap

geslasgene

//ate
:

135

mid wihte ne maeg


ZicgaS me ymbutan

swa, ic

pam

past zoiste

past sceolde

130

ne aswamatS

of pissum /iocSobejidum.

ge//sefted

micel

synt pissa //ejdora

z^egas forz^orhte

^rindlas ^reate

fyx

clommas,

a ne geseah

mIn_/"e(Se,

//anda ge//asfte

125

stSes amyrred,

^liShearda sa\

a/yrred

/ig

Me

//ejle.

mid pys z^erode ...

ic

rices leas

//ehe

ic

/aSran /andscipe;
//at

ponne

eom

Ic

sal.

and neocSone

minra ^anda geweald,

/renbenda,

swa. //earde

/asste be/angen.

ic

weorSan,

tite

z^esan ane zfinterstunde,

ac licgacS

pis wite polien,

ahte

la

God

hafaS us

fomvapen on pas xweartan

syndon ^ystro and

poet

sylfa

Swa.

mistas.

hasto,

145

he us ne maeg

asnige .rynne gestaslan,


past

we him on pam /ande


peah

gefr^medon,

/a<5

he hasfS us

pass /eohtes bescyrede,

bez^orpen on ealra

z^Ita

masste

ne

magon we

pass zerace

gefr^mman,
ge/eanian him mid /acSes wihte

past

he us hafatS pass /eohtes

bescyrede.
1

habba"5.

corr.

from ymbe.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII.

He

hsefS nu gewearcod anne widdangeard,

Itf

J?cer

he hsefS

viQnn geworhtne

150

mid J^am he

his <?nllcnesse,

sefter

We

mid /jluUrum saulum.

/zeofona rice

wile eh gesfttan
baes sculon /jycgan

georne,

we on

baet

and on

A dame,

gif

we

tzive

maegen,

fafrum swa some

his

onzfgndan him

andan gebetan,
zmllan sines,
gif we hit maegen wihte

j?ser

aj^encan.

Ne

gelyfe ic

baes pe

baes /eohtes furSor,

he him

/ange nlotan,

}5nce(S

baes *<zdes

155

me nu

mid

his /ngla craefte

magon we

ne

baet

on

aldre gewinnan,
J^aet

we

Twihtiges
hit

J^aet

Godes wod onwaicen.

Uton oo\vndan

nu wonna bearnum,

we

Aeofonrlce, nu

gedon

/zabban ne moton,

hit

baet

hie his /zyldo forlseten,


J?aet

hie baet

J?onne

onw^ndon,
wyrS

ahwgt/ hie from

baet

he

mid

zoorde

his

bebead

he him zoraS on mode,

/iy\do

his

bonne sculon

160
hie

}?as

/zejle

secan

and has ^rimman ^rundas

bonne moton we hie us

to

giongrum habban,
/"Ira

Gif

beam on bissum /sestum clommum 2


ymb ba /yrde bncean.
/eodenmadmas
ic senegum />egne

^eara for^eafe,
gcraelige jaaton,

J^onne he

mine

me na on

^ife ^yldan,

/eofran tld

gif his ^Ten

he up heonon
1

OnginnatS nu

bfnden we on ban ^odan rice


and haefdon ure jetla geweald,

mlnra /egna hwilc


bast

weorcJ.

165

/eanum ne meahte
wolde

ge/afa wunSan,
uie mihte

170
*

clomme.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

XXII,

138

cuman burh bas

and haefde

<rlustro

he mid _/e5erhoman

bset

rfindan on wolcne,

bser geze/orht stondacS

A dam

?r5rice

mid

and Eve

on

Nu

a'alo.

be we on ^eofonrice

mid

rice

wonna

rihte

agan

past

^abban sceoldon,

me

Gif

gescyred

se raid

on minum

is

swa

s'ar,

baet hie z#ord

Godes,

sona hie him be /aSran beoS

/are for/seten,

brecaS

his

bonne he him

ge^odscipe,

a<5olgen

wurSeb;

185

and wyrcS him

siSSan biS him se z^ela onz^gnded

gegearwod 2

sum ^eard
hu ge

hi

//ycga<5 his ealle,

si<5(5an

r^stan on byssum racentum,


ge/cestecS,

me

ic

gif

jofte

him

to aldre

ma?g

bast rice losacS.

him biS /ean gearo

we her-mne magon
on byssum _/yre /brS _/r^mena gewinnan
swa. hwa
jittan laete ic hine wi(5 me jylfne
csfter

ze>ite

/zearmscearu.

beywicen;

Se be baet

180

eower dimg msege

hit

mid wihte,

7/2ode

baet hie /zeofonrice

/zyge /zreowecS,

to aldre

geze>ndan

hie

is

cynne.

on minum

175

hie Z?rihtne synt

and moton him bone zcelan agan,

zemrSran micle

gif

and we synd azyorpene hider

tfelan bezwunden,

on pas </eopan

mid him,

^raeft

_/"leogan meahte,

190

bees

swa. baet

jgegan

cymecS

on bas Mtan
unsxmrSlice

/zehe,

baet hie

Zfeofoncyninges

wordum and daidum

195

lare
1

Jirst e

corr.from

ae.

corr.
sef.e.

from gegarwod by a

diff.

hand.

XXIII.
JUDITH.
Of this poem only the last three cantos have been preserved.
Enough, however, is left to show that the complete work must
have been one of the noblest in the whole range of Old English
poetry.
It clearly belongs to the culminating point of the Old
Northumbrian literature, combining, as it does, the highest
dramatic and constructive power with the utmost brilliance of
language and metre. The text has been revised with the MS.,
which was slightly damaged in the great Cottonian fire. We
are, therefore, obliged to rely on Thwaites's text for a letter
The concluding lines of the
here and there in the margin.
poem, which seem originally to have been written cursively and
indistinctly, are

in oys

now

nearly illegible.
*

finnan ^runde

wundbyrd

set

Sam

Aveode gifena

heo Sar ba ^earwe funde

peodne, ba heo ahte waiste bearfe

wzaeran

^yldo baes Aehstan Deman,

he hie wiS baes /zehstan

bset

brogan
gefri(5ode,/"rym<5a

/orhtmod
a to

Sam

/IcSe

Waldend

yE'lmihtigan.

^dle Sa j'ldestan Segnas


rcefndon rgndwiggende,
1

hyre Sags i'aeder on roderum

Gefraegen

zm'nhatan ze/yrcean georne,

^irwan up swaesendo

be heo ahte /rumne geleafan

gefrgmede,

to
:

ic

(5a

Olofernus

and eallum zemndrum brymlic

Sam

het se

^umena

hie Saet ofstum

comon

to

Sam

Holofenius throughout.

baldor

miclum

rican beodne

io

paet wses by /eonSan dogore


^leaw on geSonce,

_/eran /bices raiswan.


bass

JUDITH.

XXIII.

1-4

iudith hyne

<5e

ides cBlkclnu,

gesohte.

<zrest

X.

Hie oa

Sam

to

wlance to

jymble

/bile

aefter

peer wseron follan steape

^umena,
^lydde,

Da wearS

on ^ytesalum

20

6>lofernus,
;

and dynede,

/Slynede

mihten/ira beam /eorran gehyran,

paet

hu

_/Sge poegon

peah Saes se rica ne wende,

/gesful/ ?rla dryhten.

Moh and

swylce eac <5unan and orcas

hie paet

rofe rondwiggende,

^oldwine

15

zwagesioas,

ealle his

<5ncum gelome,

l^t/sittendum

eodon,

jrittan

zerfngedrince,

<5ealde <Syrnwiggende.

oren

j/yrmde and gylede,

se .r/iomdda

Z^ncsittende

Swa

past hi

zhwidda

se

ofer ealne daeg

a^ncte mid wine,

rfryhtguman sine

jwiomod

oo

winces brytta,

oferdrncte

his

25

wanode geneahhe
ge&erdon wel.

wodig and wedugal

dagufte

past

ealle,

hie

on jwiman lagon,

swylce

hie

wairon

30

(/eaSe

geslggene,

i^otene ^oda gehwylces.

yylgan /Igt/sittendum,

to his ie.ddre.sie

het se

^umena

baldor

bearnum
Het oa iSa geblonden

otS past _/ira

nealJehte wiht seo pystre.

pa eadigan msegS

Swa

ofstum fftigan

eagum

35

gehlseste,

Hie ZrracSe frgmedon


swa him heora ^zldor bebead,

//ringum ge^rodene.

ambyhlscealcas \

^yrnwigena
1

symle.

<5rego
-

J>egon.

fearhtme stopon
3

aldor, with erasure before the a.

anb.

JUDITH.

XXIII.
to

bam

fundon

J?a

bam

to /rsefe

hyne

se rica

40

/romlice

(5a

ongunnon

/aidan

/orhtan msegcS

foer

and

_/erh(5glea\ve,

/indwiggende

bair hie /udithe

^ysterne,

hean,

on symbel,

reste

TVigrgende la

wihtes inne,

45

pajr waes ^allgylden

6)lofernus.

/"leohngtZ/aiger

dqdd ahongen,

ymbe

}?a5S

_/blctogan

se ^ealofulla

f^set

zoigena baldor,

mihte zditan burh,

on i^ghwylcne

com

be (Saljr-mne

50

/jaeleca bearna,

and on ^yne nrenig

?;zonna cynnes,

nym<5e se

him be

mcSe rofra

;zear

rinca to rune gegangan.

Hie

(5a

eodon

/zseleft

heora /zearran cycSan

jnoteran idese;

bohte

on rste gebrohton

(5a.

jweorcendferhSe

]?a

baet wses seo ^alige

ge^roht on his ^urgetelde.


/3urga ealdor,

hwsene

zrcodiga

hete

jnude

/31i(5e

14T

wearS se <5rema

pa.
(5a.

55

meowle
on mode

/3eorhtan idese

mid zoomme besmitan


ne wolde J>3et
Dema,
gefcinan, /rymmes Hyrde, ac he him bres/inges gestyrde, 60
Gewat (5a. se </eofulcunda,
Zfryhten, </uge(5a Waldend.
^alferhS ^umena Create

mid

z^idle

and

zmildres

^ealofull

his

/3eddes

neosan,

he

bser

sceolde

his

laid

foileosan

#dre binnan an re nihte


on

for'San wnswaislicne,

<5a

his

/nde gebidenne

swylcne he

air

fffter

hoefde

/^earlmod /eoden gumena,

wunode under wolcna


se rica

on

his rste

on gezdtlocan
1

iudithSe.

worhte,

hrofe.

Gefeol/

middan,

swa.

(5a.

wine swa druncen

he nyste raida nanne

;iggend stopon
*

65

]?nden he on <fysse worulde

and ymbe.

ste[rced]ferh'Se.

JUDITH.

XXIII.

42

ut of o"am

mne

ofstum miclum,

zweras winsade,
/a one

70

pe (5one wjerlogan,
/aeddon to bgdde
pa wses JVgrgendes

/eodhatan,

7/ehstan su5e.

/>eo\ven /rymful/

/earle gemyndig

hu heo pone atolan

benoeman

raldre

raoost mihte

Genam oa

7opmfull onwoce.

SVyppendes mseg'8,
arurum heardne,

75

se wnsyfra,

air

zoundenlocc,

jvrearpne mece,

and of

abreed

.sreaoe

ongan oa .rwegles Weard


be waman wemnan, iVgrgend ealra
ztwuldbuendra,
and bset word acwasS

rwloran folme

So

'

_/rym5a God,

Ic oe

i?earn Alwaldan
wziltse

bearfendre,

and

on/zaeted

pysne

forgif

me, jwegles Ealdor,

mid pys jweorde mote


bryttan
geunne me wzinra

and joone geleafan,

geheawan

oa

geomor,

/zige

swyoe mid jorgum gedrefed


.rigor

85

me nu

dearie ys

cfrynesse cfrymm.
/zeorte

Gsest,

iddan wylle

me

pinre

and /rofre

poet ic

/worores

gesynta,

9o

/>earlmod /eoden
wiltse

pon wzaran pearfe

/orhtmod
/zate

gumena

on

brytta,

/ires

/zreoYe

gewrec

minum.'

ic

/Inre noefre

nii,

wzihtig

me

ys pus /orne

Hi Sa

se ^ehsta

pDet

swa he

dre mid /lne onbryrde,


//er-buendra

nahte

deft

Dryhten,

on mode,

Dema

anra gehwylcne

95

pe hyne him to ke\pe sececS

mid raMe and mid rihte geleafan. pa wearS hyre nime


on mode,
genam oa pone ^ceSenan mannan
/zaligre ^yht geniwod
/aeste be/eaxe slnum, teah hyne/blmum witS hyre weard
;

heorte ys.

XXI II.

JUDITH.

and bone

^ysmerlice,

edftost mihte,

swa heo Sses wnlaidan

Sloh oa zemndenlocc

we\ gez*;ealdan.

bone /eondsceaoan

/agum mece

/eteboncolne,

heo

bset

bone jweoran him,

/zealfne forcearf

zdes /llenrof

sloh oa

he on jwiman

bast

10,5

laeg,

Nses oa dead ba gyt,

and ablhwund.

dalles flrsawle

ico

<5ealofullan

/aSne mannan,

/istum a/ede,

<fruncen

143

mnoste

siSe

<?bre

bone ^aeSenan /mnd, bset him bast /zeafod wand no


/brS on (5a /lore; lseg se/ula leap
^esne beseftan, g&st ejlor hwearf
under weowelne ?i&ss and Sser ge/zySerad woes,
.syStSan cefre,

jusle gejseled

zfitum gebunden,

ztyrmum bewunden,

Ne

sefter ^insTSe.

/ystrum fordylmed
of

Sam

awa
in

wyrmsgle,

to aldre

Sam

115

in /zejlebryne

/zearde ge/zcefted

Searf he ^opian no,


bset

he ^onan mote

ac Sser ze/unian sceal

butan /nde forS

^eolstran

Mm

/zyhtwynna

120
leas.

XL
/bremajrne blaid
swa hyre God uSe,

Hasfde oa ge/bhten
/udith

set

gufie

jwegles Ealdor,

be hyre

pa seo jnotere maego"


bses

AgrewseSan

.rigores onleah.

jnude gebrohte

125

^eafod swa blodig

on Sam /setelse, be hyre /oregenga,


Mchleor ides, hyra <5egea nest
/eawum gecfangen /yder on laidde,
and hit Sa swa heotfrig hyre on /zond

ageaf,

130

JUDITH.

XXIII.

144

Mm

/^igeftoncolre

to berenne,

Eodon

Tudith ^ingran slnre.

ba

ba

z'desa

otS baet hie

oS
to

hie

Sam

herige,

135

gcreon mihten
weallas blican,

baere zylitegan byrig

Hie

<rollenferh(5e,

ut of

baet hie jweotollice

_/eSelaste

^-ggnum banone 1

dlenbriste,

beiromon

<?adhrec5ige maeg(5

i?ethuliam.

(Sa

<5eahhrodene

<5a

_/brS onettan,

^kedmode

ge^-an haefdon

140

JFlggend sceton,

(Sam zvea.Uga.te.

wearde heoldon

z^eras z&aeccende

Sam /aestenne, swa Sam yblce


^eomormodum /udith 3 bebdad,
in

aar

ba heo on .sicS gewat,


Waes oa rft cumen
/eodum, and <5a /ungre het

.rearoSoncol maegS,

145

z'des /llenrof.

/eof to

^umena sumne

^leawhydig wif

hyre tq^eanes gin

and

of Saere finnan byrig

inn forlauan

hi cfostllce

burh Saes zaealles geat,


to

Sam

jigefolce

'

Ic

4
,

150

word acwaeS
eow sqcgan maeg
and

baet

/oncwyrSe /ing, bxt ge ne /yrfen leng


wmrnan on mode
eow ys .Metod bliSe,
ryninga wuldor
baet gerySed wearS
:

155

geond z^oruld wide,


/orhtlic

/oweard

eow

baet

and

/Ir

ys zfuldorblaed

gifeSe

be ge /ange drugon.'

bara /aeSSa

pa wurdon HSe <$urhsittende,


sySSan hi ge^yrdon hu seo /zalige
ofer
1

Jeanne

]>anonne.

transposed in the

'

MS.

Here

weall.
hie hie.
5

spraec

160

waes on lustum,
Iudithe.

forlg ton.

these

two half-verses

pses /sestengeates

wi(5

/rymmum /rungon and

/reatum and

geonge

ealde ge

merui on

and

mid

urnon

_/>usendmcelum,

^ghwylcum

ongeaton

to eSle,

hie

msegS

165

weartS

??iod areted,

?7zedobyrig

(Saire

sy(5(5an hie
eft

/eodnes

<5a

fo\c onette,

z^ornum and heapum,

weras wif sgmod,

ongean

M5

JUDITH.

XXIII.

pset waes /udith

cumen

ofostllce

(5a.

<?tf(5medum

forleton.

i"n

170

pa seo ^leawe het ^olde gefrsetewod


hyre ^Inenne /ancolmode
pses

^grewseSan

and hyt

pam
'

31odig setywan

hu hyre

Ziurgleodum,

Spraec

(5a.

seo

Her ge magon

.rvveotole

on

(5aes

/zseSenes /zeaSorinces

pe us zrconna

?sest

^arra Jorga,

and

yean wolde

gyt

God

he mid /seSSum us
him raldor 0(5prgng

past

fifes,

ic

randwiggendra,

Nu

ic

ge recene eow

sy55an /rymtSa God

azstan sgnde

Cyning,

185

^umena gehwsene

<5iddan wylle,
past

to ge/eohte

/eohtne /eoman,

3reostum

helmas

1S0

zworoYa gefremede,

past jwytSor

pyssa (5urgleoda

scire

.rigerofe haeleS,

/zeafod starian,

purh Godes fultum.

<5ord for

175

folce

/aSestan

ac him ne (5e

/glan moste

arfsest

pam

nlyfigendes.

(5lofernus

yysan

/)eaduwe gespeow.

3St

to vallum

<s(5ele

/eoda raeswan,

/engran

onwnSan,

//.eafod

to 3ehc5e

beraS /inde forS,

and /)yrnhomas,

in .srca'Sena
1

gemong,

|>eot$nes.

190

146

JUDITH.

XXIII.

/agum sweordum,

/yllan /blctogan

i^ynd syndon eowere

./aige _/rumgaras.

gea'emed to
tix

set

swa eow ge/acnod

/ohtan,

Dryhten

/tfihtig

pa weanS

werod

jnelra

/brS on

under //elmum

w aslgifre
_/ylle

fugel

him

jang

Stopon

/;ea<5orincas,

ordum beSeahte,

him

air

bast

215

^earde wearS

rallum forgolden

<zscplegan

sySSan iTbieas

ge^an hcefdon

Sam /yrdwicum.

Hie Sa /romllce
/"lana

leogan

^ildenSdran 2

j/yrmdon hlude

^rame ^uSfrecan, ^-aras sendon


^aelecS wairon
in /ieardra gemang ;
westan.

220

sciiras,

of /zornbogan,

j/dehearde

last

210

ba Se ^wile

under giioTanum

j/rselas

tilian

^dwit boledon,

AaiSenra /josp

leton _/br<5

begen

hildeleotJ,

^wealfum lindum,

Sam

205

hrgfn,

wrigfeSera,

eornas to 3eadovve

ylssyrium,

/jaligan byrig
scildas,

ac him /"leah on

georn,

^yrnednebba.

dSeodigra

wanna

se

zf/iston

on /"segum

jalowigpada

to

aynedan

/eodguman /ohton

(5a

earn. <tes

gerihte,

(Sdere

paes se ^lanca gefeah

and

zmilf in ze/alde,

set

of

Soet ategred sylf;

^lude /Summon,

200

bseron [,rige]bufas,

foron to ge/eohte

bast

^nude gegearevvod,

stopon rynerofe

j^cgas and gcfiSas,

on

hafacS

burh mine hand.'

tenra to <rampe

/ioeleS

195

and ge ^om agon,

</ea<5e

yrre,

[hilde]uaedran.

225

XX III. JUDITH.
/acSum cynne,

/andbiiende

j/opon j/yrnmode,

j/ercedferhcSe

raldgenuSlan

wrehton wnsofte

zwundum brugdon

wzedowerige,

jdrmseled swyrd

jrealcas of .sreacSum

/cgum

oret/maecgas,

?zanne ne sparedon

wfShycgende,

Jeanne ne ricne 1

bass ^erefolces

fwicera

230

slogon ^rnoste

gecoste,

<<4ssiria

147

manna

pe hie ofenruman mihton.

2.55

XII.

Swa

on

wzagobegnas

<5a

fhton dSeoda

(5a

ocS baet ono-eaton

tSa

(5e

^rame

y$erefolces

baet

him jwyrdgeswing

jwiSlic

Hie wordum

z^eras Ebreisce

bam

raldorbegnum

_yldestan

and him /brhtllce


zwedowerigum

haeletS

pa

Son

<5e

/nlde

him

baet se <5eorna

tobredan

jlaepe

Sam

rice.

^urgeteldes

/nvearfum bringan

hogedon aninga

wsaegen Ebrea.

in

245

<dre gefraegn

ic

witS J?ses <5ealofullan

hyra ^laforde
aer

bodedon,

/"serspel/

weras [^reowig]ferh(5e
;

240

ffzorgencollan,

ctolne ^cgplegan.

Olofernus

eowdon
baet

wrehton ^umbolwigan

cy<Szn eodon,

and

waeron,

^eafodweardas,

<5aes

jle. gefaige

worgentfd

ea\\e biage,

wxron
s

ebrisce.
I.

saete,

ealle

and seo

ztditegan traefe
a

on fan

se /gesa

J/ynton
rego

250

bodian,

<5eorhte maegtS

setsomne,

tobredon.

255
4

hyldo.

and

Vudith seo seSele

and afor

/gesfull
]?e

se ^alrnoda,

nan,

hu Sone mmbolwlgan

oa Mlgan msegS

A/etodes weowlan.

^sefde geworden,

260

Afsegen nealoehte,

_/uhlon bearle

//eardum ^eoruwaepnum,
hyra _/yrngeflitu
;

/^aiste

guidon

_/agum swyrdum
Assyria wearS

^fSoncan
on Sam </segeweorce

ealde

dom

265

geswiSrod,

i?eornas stodon

foraged,

Z>selc

<?0rla

az#ccan dorste

ocSSe geainnian

/blc Ebrea,

oeah

nses

Sone z#Iggend

wicS

JUDITH.

XXIII.

148

ymbe hyra /eodnes

^earle gebylde,

trsef

Hi Sa jgmod

.rweorcendferhoe.

ealle

ongunnon <rohhetan, firman hlude,


270
and ^nstbitian Gode orfeorme,
ba wses hyra /Ires set nde,
mid /ooon /orn boligende
pa fwlas hogedon 2
.Fades and dlendseda.
him wiht ne speow.
awccan hira winedryhten
;

pa wearS

jiS

and

late

pset

para <5eadorinca,

sum
he

to

Sam

arod

275

in bset <5urgeteld

mSheard weSde, swa hyne wyd fordraf:


funde <5a on <5dde <Macne began,
his ^oldgifan

^cestes gesne,

He

be/idenne.

/ifes

/zreoh

and

on mode

pset

and

word acwseS

Her

his ^raegl

to

sgmod,

Sam zwggendum,

ure jylfra forwyrd,

ys gcwutelod

/oweard ge/acnod,
\nu] mid

2S0

te wseron

be Sser wnrote
'

ba /ungre gefeoll

ongan/* his/eax teran

/reorig to/oldan,

wiSum
J

bset baere /ide

285

ys

eah geSrungen,
hxfte.

h.

t>.

eo.

JUDITH.

XXIII.

149

+be we sculon losian somod,


set

jsecce fonveorSan

be^eafdod /^ealdend

wurpon hyra
on

/zreowigmode

Ziilde

to

/aSra /ind.

last,

maista, dail

gesaiged

jweordum geheawen,
willan,
and eac waslgifrum
/rofre.
i^lugon Sa Se lyfdon
Him on /aste for

jweot Ebrea

290

gewitan him zoerigferhSe

.rigewonge,

zmilfum to

/uglum

otS se

folc,

/friges laeg

on Sam

<5a

Him mpn /eaht on

/"learn sceacan.

J?3es

jweorde geheawen,

li(5

Hi

of dune,

zflaipen

wzaegeneacen

her

ure.'

295

jigore geweorSod,

dome gedyrsod

him feng ZJryhten God

/aegre on /ultum,

300

i^rea selmihtig.

Hi Sa/romlice _/agum swyrdum


/^rpaS worhton

^seleS /^igerofe
}?urh /aSra

gemong,

.srildburh .wseron

/inde heovvon,

jceotend wairon

305

gwSe gegre. mede, ^uman Ebreisce *,


/egnas on tSa tfd /earle gelyste
paer on reot gefeoll
^argewinnes.
^eafodgerimes

se //yhsta dsel
-<4ssiria

^ldorduguSe,

/aSan cynnes

cwicera to rySSe.

zdggend on

Cirdon rynerofe,

z#iSertrod,

reocende hnew

/ondbuendum

rum
on Sam
;

hyra <?tfldfeondum
^eolfrig /ze/eredf,

madmas.

wselscej/ oninnan,

wass to nimanne
/aSestan,

wnlyfigendum
Zyrsta scyne,

ord and ^rad swyrd,


dyre

310

/ythwon bec6m

irane helmas,

Hx'fdon </6mlice
1

ebrisce.

315

on (Sam

_/ynd oferwunnen

yblcste. de

jwyrdum ajwffede
pa tSe him to /ife

hie

seo meoris

Mre

^elmas and ^upseax,

^umena

wadma

eal/ past <5a

byrnan,

^olde gefrsetewod,

ponne

?nQr\n aenig

330

jearoponcelra

#eodguman /rymme geeodon,


on 1 fompwlge

under cumblum

^leawe

purh Tudithe

Hi

waegtS wodigre.

of

325

laiddon

i?ethuliam

to (Sa^re <Seorhtan yrig

ajfcgan maege

eall,

fyrst,

wagon and

zdanc zmindenlocc

rgston,

wasron

anes moiuSes

mxgfta. wzajrost,

zrcaerra

on jwafte

/acSost

Da

cwicera rynna.

^uSsceorp

320

raldhttende

^(Sehveardas,

<rene

JUDITH.

XXIII.

150

Sam

eor\a.s

lare,

wede hyre

to

<5lofernes

<rscrofe

jweord and jwatigne helm,

gerenode readum golde,

jwiSmod

335

brohton

jylfre

.rioTate

jinces ahte

swylce eac

and

0(5<5e

3eaga and feorhtra macSma,

byrnan,

jundoryrfes,

340

hi pset paire <5eorhtan idese

Ealles Sses /udith saegde

ageafon g-earoppncolre.

pe hyre weonSmynde geaf,

zemldor z#eroda Dryhtne,

wserSe on wzoldan

.ride

eal/ pset se rinca baldor

swylce eac mede on heofonum,

rice,

jigorlean in ^wegles wuldore

pass tSe

heo ahte socSne ge-

leafan
[a] to

345

Sam ^lmihtigan

pses /eanes pe

hum

heo /ange gyrnde.

wuldor to widan
roderas and

aldre,

pe gesceSp wind and

rume grundas,

and jwegles dreamas

pam /nde ne tweode


pass sy Sam /eofan Dryhtne
set

purh
1

lyfte,

swylce eac repe streamas


his jylfes miltse.
and.

350

XXIV.
THE HAPPY LAND. FROM THE

PHCENIX.

[Ascribed to Cynewulf.]

There

can be

doubt that the poem of the Phoenix,

little

the majority of those preserved in the Exeter book,

is

the

like

work

of the Northumbrian poet Cynewulf. Although the subject is


apparently taken from the Carmen de Phoenice, ascribed to
Lactantius, it is practically an original work, with all Cynewulf's
grace and harmony of thought and language.

Haebbe

ge/rugnen

ic

^astdselum on

yirum

wgngum

wQng

se

/eorr heonan

gefere

ac he a/yrred

is

wzanfremmendum.

burh J/eotudes meaht


fFlitig is

is

lgnda

Nis se ybldan sceat

ge/nege.

ofer raiddangeard

ybldagendra 1

bcette

(Z'belast

wynnum

eall,

geblissad.

mid bam /aegrestum ybldan st^ncum


nlic

baet

is

tfzodig,

Dair

zglgmd

weahtum

bitS

<2bele se

spedig,

eadgum

ok open

on^liden /zleobra wyn,


pset

is

se

Wyrhta,

ba woldan

zoealdas grene,

Ne moeg

riime under roderum.

bair

ne /brstes /hxst,

ne_/yres

ne ^aegles

/zryre,

ne Crimes dryre

ne junnan

hsetu,

ne jincieldu
ne

tt/ihte

folc-.

is

ren ne snaw,

blcest,

15

2
,

zf/interscur

ac se

geztyrdan,

iadig and <?nsund

10

/zeofonrlces duru.

wynsum WQng,

ne zaearm weder,

gesgtte.

togeanes,

WQng

seomacS

bast tebele

Ignd
a

sincaldu.

20

THE HAPPY LAND.

XXIV.

152

2?eorgas brer ne muntas

<51ostmum gc31owen.

ne

j/eape ne j/ondatS,
/zeah

ne

ne

^laiwas ne /zlincas,

ac se
wnsmebes wiht
ze/rida(5 under z#olcnum
;

Is

j^set

us,

ne tfunscrafu,

ne da\u,

</ne

j/anclifu

swa hzv mid

/jlinacS,

60

pair /zleonatS

25

frbela feld

zyynnum geblowen.

Avlfum herra

/orhte lpnd

swa us ge/reogun gleawe


on gezoritum cy^aS
bonne amig bara feorga be her <Seorhte mid us

yblde/se'Sm rimes,

zwtgan jjurh zwsdom

Ma.

/zllfiacS

.Smylte

is

under ^eofonlunglum.

feorhte lede,

zflsestmas

gehongen;

/eaf under /yfte,


difre to ea\dre,

35

zfudu

bi(S

gelice

nsefre /3rosniao"

ne him fig sce]?e(S


xr bon edw^nden
Swa. iu zpaetres

zoorulde geze/eortSe.

ba se

eorftan j/mbhwyrft,

<gghwses onsund
ge/zealden stod

wnwgmme,

*4>ela

wong

wi<5 yoTare

^reora wgega
J?urh est

geblowen

Z>ryhtnes domes,

40

prymm

wejeflod beahte

ealne raiddangeard,

Ji3d\e)>a.

lixeo",

dreosacS,

swa him God bibead;

zwntres and sumeres

bidetS swa.

ne

ac ba <Seamas a

^rene stondacS,

zdig,

^un^bearo

se .yigewong,

z&uduholt wynlic

/31edum

30

ocS foeles

bonne

45

Godes:
cyme,

</ea(5rseced,

on/zliden weorbao*.

feolstorcofan

on bam /onde /aogenuSla,


Nis
ne z#5p ne zwacu, weatacen nan,
ne se pga deatS,
j'ldu ne j/runfiSxx,
bser

Cjjud.

50

FROM THE
ne

ne jar wracu,

ne synn ne sacu,
ne wsedle

ne welan onsyn,

gezf;in

ne sorg ne

ne

raldum ^ylegicelum

ne

<rnysec5

pser ne hzegl ne ^rim

se /zearda foist
1

senigne.

/zreosa'S to foldan,

ne

ne zenndig z#olcen,

wyllan onspringa<5,

zOTset/lice

/segrum ybldwylmum /bldan


pa ;;zonpa gehwam

is

slpum

pset

Sindon pa fearwas
zflitigum z^aestmum

<51edum

/3eorhtast ^earwa.

on /awe,

wunap geond
dike to caldre,

/ealwe blostman,
75

/elgan gehladene,

^rene stgndap

//fdiges

No

meahtum

ge/3rocen weorpetS

pair se /zalga stenc


pset onwgnded ne bio*
pon /ndige
se hit on /iympe gesceop.

z#yn/zlgnd
aer

/rod /yrngeweorc,
cnyseti.

in ralle tld.

.gTceswonge

ge-^roden //yhtllce

z&aniaS

ac paar [beocS] wrset/lice

on pam /reowum symle

^olt

Voltes frsetwe,

ne feallaS pser on /bldan


ze/udubeama zdite,

70

gehongene

ne

pser

^alge under ^eofonum

^drriwe

/eodnes gebod

pset /Irfseste

/agufloda wynn.

/ond geond/ace

On pam

65

of pajre 7/zoldan tyrf

/3earo ealne geondfara<5

/3recat5,

/ragum /rymlice

c>fett

lfccap,

of pass zmida midle,

waeter ze;ynsumu

psette Avejf

60

pair zfseter feallep

ac pser /agustreamas,

gebysgad;

Mmcald

gebregd

ze^edra

^reoh under ^eofonum,

/yfte

55

ne .rwar leger,

.deep,

ne zointergeweorp,

zemndrum

1'rf

ne /apes cyme,

lyre,

/Ifes

PHCENIX.

''

no wuuiaS.

So

XXV.
THE DREAM OF THE ROOD.
[By Cynewulf.]

This poem, of which

the

first

half

is

here given, forms an in-

troduction to the Elene, or the Finding of the Cross, which

is

unmistakeably claimed as Cynewulf 's own by an acrostic introduced into it in Runic letters, which forms his name. The Runic
inscription of the Ruthwell Cross in Dumfriesshire also gives a

fragment of the poem

in the old

Northumbrian

seventh or eighth century, of which the


late

West-Saxon

transcription, differing

MS. text
in many

dialect of the
is

evidently a

respects from

The text I have given follows the Vercelli MS.


Cooper's Report) as much as possible, both for the
sake of uniformity, and because of the fragmentary character of
the older text, which has, however, suggested several ementhe older one.
(as given in

dations.

Hwaet,
hwset

ic

jwefna cyst

me gewceUe

sy<5ban reordberend

me

puhte

on /yft
eama

bset ic

ppe

<Seorhtost

on

wunedon.
jyllicre

treow

/eohte bewunden,

/sedan

set

middre nihte,

rste

gejawe

eall

be^oten mid ^olde


ysegere

.rgcgan wylle,

to

bast

^immas stodon

_/bldan sceatum,

bam

swylce bajr y*ife wseron

^zxlgespanne

Dryhtnes

eacen waes

2
.

Beheoldon

baet

/ngel

/aegere burh /brogesceaft

ne waes

<5aet

huru /"racodes

gealga,
1

haet.

10
a

eaxlegesp.

3
f>aer.

dryhtnes

ealle.

THE DREAM OF THE ROOD.

XXV.

and

beos

eall

gesceaft.

zrcaere

and ic jynnum fah,


mid rogmmum. Geseah ic z#uldres treow

wges se .rigebeam,

^Syllic

forwundod 1

zosedum gezyeorobd 2

zyynnum

^immas

ge^yred mid ^olde,


beze/rigen

HwaecSre

scinan,

15

haefdon

z#ealdes treow.

z#eort51Ice

onytan meahte

burh baet ^old

ic

&7rmra ^rgewinn,

baet hit <2>rest

jwdetan on ba .rwfSran healfe.

onganw
mid jorgum 4

Eall ic waes

gedrefed,

/brht

55

Mlige gastas,

ac hine bsr be/zeoldon

m%x\n ofer wzoldan,

20

waes for

ic

gesyhcSe

bsere _/aegran

geseah

ic

baet

/use beacen
and bleom

ze/gndan z^sedum

hwilum

hit

waes mid z^cetan

bestemed,
bejyled 5

hwilum mid

mid jwates gange,

HwaecSre

beheold /zreowcearig
o<5 Saet ic ge/zyrde

^eara zu

a^eawen

aj/yred

j/e/ne

of

AleoSrode

wudu
baet

(ic

bast ic waes

gegyrwed.

i/aelendes treow,
baet hit

onganw ba word sprecan


'paet waes

.since

/ange hwile

bair /icgende

ic

Voltes

25
;

selesta

yta geman)

on nde,

Genaman me

minum.

j/range

(Saer

feondas,

geworhton

30

him

bair

zyeargas 6

baeron

me

gefaestnodon

heton

waefersyne,

me

heora

hgbban

bair feornas

<5eorg

to

on eaxlum,

otS

(5aet

hie

me

on

ic

ba

as^tton

me

baer

yeondas genoge.

Geseah

/Yean manwcynnes
^fstan /lne micle,
1

forwunded.

beswyled.

baet

he

me

geweorSode.

wcrgas.

wolde on gestlgan.
3

bewrigene.

sargum.

THE DREAM OF THE ROOD.

XXV.

I56

peer ic ba ne dorste

ofer

ugan oSce

p>a

^erstan,

?roan sceatas

eaWt

/"eondas ge/yllan,

ZVyhtnes word

35

geseah

^ifian

ic

mihte

ic

hwaeoVe

stod.

ic _/aeste

Ongyrede hine ba geong hseleS, b<et waes God aslmihtig,


j/rang and j/iSmod
gej/ah he on gealgan heanne
40
OTodig on zwanigra gesyhcSe,
p>a he wolde ?ancyn lysan.
;

Bifode

me

ba

ic

to

i?od waes

ic

me mid

burhdrifan hi

dorste

ic

me

sceolde yseste standan.

ic

ricne cyning

ic

ne dorste.

45

tfeorcan naeglum,

on me syndon ba

//yldan

/jeofona /^laford,

ac

ahof

araered,

ne

eorcSan

/bldan sceatum,

_/eallan to

ymbclypte

<5eorn

se

hwasSre ^ugan

oblg gesiene
<?pene

zhwid^hl^mmas

Bysmeredon
<51ode

ne dorste

unc

hie

<5u.Lu

ic

hira

aetgsedere

^nigum 1 sce&San.
eall ic wses mid

bestemed,

beo-oten of baas

^uman

siSoan he haefde his ^ast

sidan,

onsended.
Feala

on bam George

ic

z#ra.(5ra

z^yrda

/earle /gnian
bezorigen

geseah

z^eruda

JFealdendes hnew,

.sreadu foroeode

z#ann under wolcnum.

JFeop

cwicSdon <ryninges

Crist waas

fyll

HwaetSere pilr J~usq


tcSele to

Save

ic

anum 2

eal/ gesceaft,

on

beheold.

mid jorgum 3 gedrefed,


jecgum to handa
wses

nxnigum.

from R. ; omi/ted

Genamon
2

in the

sejijiilae til

MS.

55

rode.

cwoman

_/eorran

ic baet ea\\

eafimod /lne mycle.

50

God

/ystro hsefdon

mid z^olcnum

jdrne jdman

ge<5iden haebbe
ic

hie bier

hnag

ic hwaacSre

bam

^lmihtigne God, 60

anuin Rttthw.; to

j>ani seiSelinge

MS.

THE DREAM OF THE ROOD.

XXV.
ahofon

'Sam

of

hine

/^fian

wite

157

me

forleton

ba

^ilderincas

j/andan

bedrifenne

j/earae

eall

mid

wses

ic

j/railum

forwundod.

Aledon

hie hine

heafdum
beheoldon hie

gestodon him

/imwerigne,

his

set

/Ices

and he hine

^eofenes Dryhten,

cSser

S-jer

/nvlle rfste

weSe

Sam

aefter

Ongunnon him ba

gewinne.

wziclan

wzoldern wyrcan

65

feornas on <5anan gesyhoe,

curfon hie

of ^eorhtan

(5oet

stane,

ges^tton

hie

<5seron

Ongunnon him

Wealdend.

jigora

ba jorhleoo' galan

earme on ba

ba hie woldon

(zfentide,

bam

fram

raeoe

/wairan

beodne

<e-fc

re.ste

simian

he

(Sser

;ete

weorode.

Hwseoere we

Soer

stodon on j/aoole
^ilderinca

/irstw

/seger /eorgbold.
<zlle

t5 wrcSan

Bedealf

^eotende 2 ^ode hwfle


j/efn 3 up gewat
colode
pa.

man on

us

us man_/yllan ongan/z

bset waes /geslic

70

cfeopan

wyrd

seabe

me

hwaecSre

baer

Z>ryhtnes begnas

/reondas ge/runon

^yredon

Nu

me

me

Is

nu

7?2nn ofer #zoldan

hiu.x

R.

to
;

mm

se leofa,

ge^iden hsebbe

cumen

So

zmde and side

zyeoromo'

gebiddab him

jsel

*,

seolfre.

^seleS

^ealuwara weorc

.rarra jorga.

^olde and

ou miht ge^yran,

baet ic

baet

75

and

byssum

'tSxv

MS.

eall

beos mzHre gesceaft

<Jeacne.
2

On me

reotende.

^earn Godes
3

sySSan.

XXV.

158

THE DREAM OF THE ROOD.

/rowode hwlle

<sgh\vylcne anra
iu ic

rihtne

J?ara

waes geworden

/eodum

/aoost,

gerymde

/rymwfaest

for J^an ic

and

under ^eofenum,

hllfige

ic

/jiilan

nil

maeg

pe him biS /gesa to


wlta.

air ]?an

ic

heardost

him

/ifes

reordberendum.'

weg

S5

me

XXVI.
THE WANDERER.
These shorter poems, of which the Wanderer, the Seafarer,
and the Wife's Complaint, are the chief representatives that
remain, together with the noble fragment of the Ruin, show lyric
poetry in its earliest stage, in which the narrative and descriptive
element still predominates over the purely lyric. The present
piece has been selected in preference to the Seafarer, which is
undoubtedly the finest of them all, as being less fragmentary and
corrupt.

Oh him anhaga

are gebideo*,

J/etudes

beah be he 7#odcearig

zftiltse,

geond /agulade /onge sceolde


/keran mid ^gndum
^rimcealde
avadan

zf/rseclastas

wyid

ic

mine
be

him

nvlban

Ne mseg

nu rwicra nan,
10

mdryhten beaw,
/seste binde,

his //ordcofan,

hycge swa he

ztyrde wicSstondan

zf/erigm5d

ne se hreo Ayge

winne durre

he his /eiolocan

healde

Ic to jobe wat

jweotule asecgan.

baet

nis

ffzodsefan

bset bib in eorle

whtna gehwylce

sceolde ana

<reare

ic

arsed

winemjega hryre

z^rabra z^selsleahta,

Oh

sse,

ful

rarfeba gemyndig,

Swa. cwsetS ^ardstapa

'

bi(5

/klpe gefr^mman
1

healdne.

wille.
15

XX VI.

ifio

Son domgeome

for
in

THE WANDERER.
dreorigne oft

&ndaS

hyra <5reostcofan

Swa.

ic

wodsefan

ok ^rmcearig

bidceled,

<?Sle

/ieomaegum ftoxr /eterum

wod

and

biwrah

K/intercearig

7;/eoduhealle

obbe mec /reondleasne

wenian mid zyynnum.


hu

^lTben biS

bam be him
waraS hine

25

meahte

w/ine wisse

/refran wolde,
jrat se be

hafaS

/yt

wraeclast,

cunnaS

.rejejecgas

to zwste

30

/eofra geholena

nales zemnden gold,

nalses _/bldan blaid;

hu hine on ^eoguSe

wenede

_/"indan

jorg to geferan

/erSloca /reorig,

gemgn he

gebind,

jinces bryttan,

hwser ic/eorr obbe neah


in

^ean bpnan

ic

wabema 2

ofer

sohte jeje dreorig

bone be

20

saslan,

^oldwine minne

sibban ^-eara zu

^rusan ^eolster

faeste.

;!nne sceolde

and s'mcpqge,
his

^oldwine

35

z#yn eal/ gedreas.

For bon wat se be sceal his zwnedryhtnes


/arcwidum /onge forbolian,

/eofes

Sonne jorg and jlsep jgrnod aetgaedre


rarmne anhagan 4 eft gebindaS
binceS him on wzode bast he his wzonwdryhten
dyppe and cysse, and on meo lecge
^onda and /ieafod, swa he ^wilum air
in

^-eardagum

^iefstoles

breac

Sonne onzraecneS eft zyineleas guma,


gesihS him bi/bran /ealwe wegas,
Fabian ^rimfuglas,
fcedan febra,
1

heolstre.

-las.

wabena.

4o

-lease.

45

anhogan.

THE WANDERER.

XX VI.

^reosan ^rim and snaw

ponne
.rare

sorg biS geniwad,

jwajsne,

bonne maga.

mod

gemynd

50

geondhweorfe(5,

^eorne geondsceawaS.

gretecS ^liwstafum,

jwimmatS

<Scga gcrgldan

gemgnged.

'

Aeortan benne,

beoc5 by /^figran

sefter

eft

on weg,

no baer/ela bringecS
^earo bi(5 geniwad
cwidegiedda

/"leotendra
fiiSra

Aaegle

l6l

_/"en5

55

bam be jndan sceal jwlbe geneahhe


werigne sefan.
ofer wabema gebind
For bon

hwan

for

bonne

ic

ic

hu hi/serlice

mm

ea\l

eorla lif

geondbgnce,

Swa

gehwam

zmntra

wac

to

and

fealleb

wer,

wis

he age

ne to wanhydig,

to

ne

to _/orht

ne

nsefre gielpes to ^eorn,

zt'iga

ne to /eohgifre,

ne to _/segen

asr

he ^eare cunne.

bonne he 3eot
<runne gearwe

Z?eorn sceal ge&dan,


bset rollenfenS

hwider ^rebra ge^ygd

spriceS,

70

/^weorfan wille.

hu ^sestlic bi<5,
bonne eall 5 bisse worulde wela zt'este stondet5,
swa nu wissenlice geond bisne widdangeard
Ongietan sceal gleaw

zflinde

biwaune

/mme

bi^rorene,

'

hagle.

oft.

hsele

weallas stondab,
hrylSge ba ederas.

waldend

WoriaS ba winsalo,
</reame bia'rorene

65

ne to ^rsedwyrde,

Mtheort

ne

op

cer

PFita sceal gebyldig,

dsel in woruldrice.

ne sceal no

60

bes widdangeard

tfreosecS

bon ne mseg weorban

for

ne gesweorce,

_/lt/ ofgeafon,

zwodge wagubegnas.
ealra <^ogra

geond /as woruld

ge/>ncan ne maeg

raodsefa

licgacS

rfuguS eal/ gecrong


3

modsefan.

wearfan.

ealle.

75

l63

THE WANDERER.

XXVI.

-olpnc bi wealle

: :

surae wig fornom,

80

sumne _/ugel obbaer


ofer Jeanne 7/olm
sumne se /zara wulf
sumne <freorighleor
^/eatSe geafelde
frede in /bitSwege

in ^rtSscrsefe

gehydde

eox\

ybde swa bisne mrdgeard


ob

fald /nta

<zlda

^reahtma

^urgwara

bset

geweorc
1

bis deorce

gemgn

and pas word

waelsleahta zoom,
'

Hwlr cwom

wise gebohte,

deope geondpe.ncetS,

lif

y~eorr oft

in /ertSe

85

zdlu stodon.

Se bonne bisne weal/steal/

and
/rod

Scyppend,

lease,

wearg,

90
acwitS

cwom

hvvair

>wago?

hwair

cwom

wabbumgyfa ?

cwom jymbla

hwair

Eala ^eorht ^une,


eala

ge^etu

/eodnes fixymm

gewap under

hu seo /rag gewat,


swa. heo no waire

7zihthelm,

wundrum

zuyrd seo maire,

and pas j/anhleobu


/zreosende

bindetS,

bonne wgnn cymetS,


worpan onsendecS

nipetS mhtscua,

is

on andan.

/fcelepum

<mfotSlic

f or pan

her

biS
bicS

ea\l bis

/eoh

105

rice,

onwgndecS wyrda gesceaft

Her

100

j/ormas cnyssatS;

Ztrusan

wintres zooma,

Ea\\

ze/yrmlicum fan

sca 2 prype,

zoaepen zoailgifru,

/zreo /zaeglfare

weoruld under heofonum.

lsene,

her

bitS

_/reond

/won// lame,

her

bitS

w/jeg

^orpan gesteal/
1

95

dugupe

/eofre

heah,

twlas fornomon

/zrlt5

StondetS nu on /aste

iveaU

hwaer sindon jejedreamas

eala ^yrnwiga,

(ieornce.

zdel
2

lsene,

lame

no

weorpeoY
a^ta.

hruse.

XXVI.

Sua

cwsecS jnottor

T\\ bib se J>e

his

THE WANDERER.

on mode, gesset him jundor


/reowe gehealdeS

aet

63

rune.

ne sceal nSfre

his

/orn to rycene

btom

of his

<5reostum

nembe he

acyban,

cer

pa &5te

cunne,
eor\

mid

/lne

gefrgmman.

Wei

bi(5

pam

pe

him

are

secec5,

/rofre to i'seder on heofonum,

stondeS.

pair us eal/ seo

/sestnung
115

XXVII.
SELECTIONS FROM THE RIDDLES OF
CYNEWULF.
There

can be no doubt as to the authorship of the riddles ot


first of them being a riddle on the name

the Exeter Book, the

Cynevvulf

Many

itself.

taining beautiful

of these riddles are true poems, con-

descriptions of nature, and

CynewulP s charm and grace

all

of

them show

of language.

I.

iTraegl

min swigaS,

bonne

ZAvIlum mec a/^bbac;


/zyrste

Artisan trede,
drefe.

ofer /zaeleba byht

and beos

mine

ic

obbe wado

obbe ba wlc buge,

and mec bonne zwde

hea.

lyl't,

zcolcna strengu

Frxtwe mine
jwogatS hlQde
and .rwinsiacj,
/orhte singa(5,
bonne ic ge/nge ne beom
yiode andybldan /erende gast.
ofer/blc

byre's.

II.

Mec on

bissum </agum

/aeder and modor:


ealdor onzhnan
zve\

hold

me

2
.

pa.

um.

swa

Jrlice
2

mec

me /eorh

hire

ininnan.

ba.

gen,

ongonw

[ides]

gez^iedum bgccan

^eold and freobode,


suse

deadne ofgeafun

ne waes

/zleosceorpe

wrah

agen beam,
3

gewedum weccan.

sne.

under

bset ic

Mec

swa

.sreate,

z^ngesibbum weanS

ob

acen

mm

65

gcsreapu waeron,

gaeste.

zwddor meahte

10

heo haefde jwaisra by


.run a and dohtra
py heo swa. dyde.
a^ttan

_/edde sibban,

seo _/riJ)emceg

baet ic azt>eox,

.ribas

RIDDLES OF CYNEWULF.

XXVII.

ob

lses

III.

Ic waes z^aipenzfliga

nu mec

Hwilum

TOura zwrbogum.
hwilum

to /nlde

ic

wilgehle^an

mec

sum

&5sm ^eaghroden

byreb

;/nnne gefyllecS

hwilum

ordum

ic

^eard /jeafodleas

be/^lybed licgan,

hwilum ^ongige

^yrstum frgetwed

zalitig

_/reolic

on wage
z#egac5

w lonce

ic

[toj

to z^Ine,

j/efne minre

ic

z^inde sceal

of jumes bosme.

jincfag jwelgan

Hwilum

gereordum rincas laSige


hwilum wraSum 1 sceal

fon7olen hr^ddan,

yiyman /eondsceaj?an.

i^rige hwaet ic hatte

IV.

Mec/eonda sum /eore


zf>oruldstrnga

dyide on

binom

wsetre

10

hwilum /blcwigan

]?onne

sceal

bair z^eras drincatS

yyrdsceorp

zt>icge

_/rsetwum beorhtne

fejecS ofer /"lodas

wzsegtSa

bonne

ze/ycg

hwilum wejehngest

ofer wzearce,

hwilum

sylfore,

zceras cyssaS

//leobre

hwilum

ze>lonc bcecS,

^olde and

^eong hagostealdmgmz

besnybede,

z^aette

dyde
1

eft

sibban,

bgnan,

\vraJ)J)um.

15

SELECTIONS FROM

XXVII.

66

on junnan,

sgtte

^aarum

bam

'

sna(5 jeaxes

cg

jwlbe beleas

bair ic

be

//eard

^sefde.

ic
2

mec

sibban

jindrum begrunden,

and mec yiigles \vyn


spyrede geneahhe

/ingras _/eoldan,

geond[sprngde] j/eddropom,

<$eamtejge swealg,

ofer <5runne 3rerd,

j/reames

s/op

dcele,

Mec

.ripade jweartlast.

mec mid ^olde

gierede

smiba

wrset/lic z#eorc

Nu

and

ba gereno

beb^nede,

bon me ^liwedon

for

10

wrah

.ribban

hyde

/deobordum,

^Deleft

on mec,

eft

wire bifongen.
se

reada tejg

and ba z#uldorgesteald wide mceren


nales dol wite.
(/ryhtfolca Helm,
Gif min

wera

<5earn

15
4
,

3rucan willaS,

and by .rigefsestran,
and by ^ygeblibran,
habbab /reonda by ma,

hy beo?> by gejundran

^eortum by ^waetran
/erbe by /rodran

and ge/reowra,

gstum

ba hyra

tyr

and ead

and hy arstafum,

J/cac5,

and

/issum bi/ecga<5,
/seste clyppacS.

wibum

20

jobra and godra,

and gciibbra,

j-wsesra
/ilra

to wytte

hi /ufan
ic

hatte

ama min

is

majre,

and Mlig

^selepum gifre

faebmum

/rige hwset

25

sylf.

V.
Ic

zfliht

geseah

wundorlice

^ornum bitweonum
/yftfaet

Mbe

/eohtlic

to

Mm

bam

/^ube lcedan,

/istum gegierwed,

of

bam

walde hyre on baire ^yrig


1

herum.

ecge.

hype.

maere.

^greslbe:

bur atimbran
5

horna abitweomim.

-am.

THE RIDDLES OF CYNEWULF.


jearwum

gif hit swa. meahte.

ajttan,

Da cwom wundorlicu
seo

^tfllum

is

ahredde ba

wreccan

and

Ziupe,

gewat

wera. gewiste

bedraf 1

onette

deaw

Z?ust stone to heofonum,


foro*

Mm

to

gewat hyre west bonan

ofer zoillan,

yajhbum /eran, ybr(S


;;iht

ofer ze/ealles hrof,

z#iht

mSbuendum

cucS

pa.

\6\

feol/

on eorban,

wienig sibban

bajre ze>ihte

sitS.

VI.
.fl/bc5(5e

word

frcet

ba

wnet/Iicu wyrd,
boet se

wyrm

me

buhte

ba?t

wundor

beet

ic

wera

forswealg

gefrnegn,

gied^Z sumes,

/eof in ,ystro /ryrrwzfaestne cwide


and bass j/rangan j/abol
j/selgiest ne wa?s
:

wihte by gleawra

be he

bam wordum

VII.

Deos

/yft

byrecS

/ytle

ofer <5eorghleo|?a,

jwearte, jalopade.

^eapum

feracS,

swibe,

<51ace

Ganges rowe,

/i\ude cirmaS,

tredao* fearonoessas,

zibba bearna

wihte

ba sind

hwllum

mna'S hy

bedraef.

<5urgsalo
sylfe
*

onetteS.

swealg.

XXVIII.
GNOMIC VERSES.
The so-called gnomic verses show poetry in its earliest form,
and are no doubt of great antiquity, although they may have
been altered in later times. While abrupt and disconnected,
they are yet full of picturesqueness and power: the conclusion of
the present piece

Cyning

is

peculiarly impressive.

ba be on bysse wrSan syndon,

geweorc.

ze/eallstana

zm-et/lic

^unor 1 byS/>ragum

Wyrd

hludast.

he

vSo<5

^reSeadegost,

bi(5

on

lyfte

svviftust,

Crlstes myccle.
5

by<5 /gngest ceald,

//seleSum bringecS

ba be him

jwutolost

bycS

jwegel byS hatost,

junior junwwlitegost,

^-eares waestmas,

Wind

^rymmas syndan

JEinter bycS cealdost,

by(5 switSost.

/gncten hrimigost.

/^aerfest

Ceastra beocS feorran gesyne,

sceal rice healdan.

tfrSanc /nta geweorc,

God

sendetS.

by3 deorost
and ggmol snoterost,

sine

^old ^umena gehwam,

ic

/yrngearum /rod, se be aer/eala geblde<5.


f-Folcnu scrltSao\
JFea bit) zfundrum clibbor.
Geongne seeding sceolan gode gesuSas
and to 3eahgife.
<5yldan to feaduwe
^llen sceal on
y^ilde

zoilde

gebidan.

gezfmnian
1

Jmnar.

eorle

cg sceal wiS helme

15

//afuc sceal on glofe


;

wutf sceal on bearowe


'"'

swicolost.

hellme.

GNOMIC VERSES.

XXVIII.

earm

anhaga

Monies wyrcean

^ar ^olde fah

gimtn sceal on hringe

jegelgyrd jeomian

^ynren fgnnan

and

/irfaestra

ge/rum

iMaedum lowan

^rene standan

rum
/sest

mid

/yrd

wudu

God

recedes muc5

.sreote

sceal
sceal

tfuru

on foldan
on eorpan
on heofenum

sceal

sceal

<5eorh

30

sceal aetsomne

/reow sceal on eorle,

on

35

healle

rand sceal on scylde

yingra gebeorh

/acan on /yfte

on haeSe

ea of-dune sceal

_/eran

Jemend

era sceal

wisdom on were

t/seda

25

on hlaewe
/"isc sceal on waetere

cyning sceal on healle

/gesfull

ybldgraeg

on ceole

jweord sceal on bearme

tfYaca sceal

<5eagas daslan

j/ream sceal on yo\im

waest sceal

/rod, /raetwum wlanc

i?ald

20

on handa

oaro?) sceal

wgncgan 2 wgreflode
Tsern

on eSle

sceal

/il

j/andan j/eap and geap

rfrihtlic

on holte

eofor sceal

/otSmaegenes /rum

169

uppe

_/ugel

sceal

/eax sceal on wcele

Scut sceal of 4 heofenum

scruSan.

winde geblanden in pas woruld cuman.


J>yrs
^>eof sceal gangan /-ystrum wederum
;

4c

sceal

on fnne

gewunian
ana

mnan

/semne

lande

hire

z'des

sceal dyrne crasfte

yreond gesecean,

gif

heo

nelle

on yoke ge-

peon,
pset hi

man 3eagum

ge^icge

ymb

/yfthelm and /agufiod

yiowan /"irgenstreamas
/ydran and /yman
1

earn.

<5rim sceal sealte weallan, 45

ealra /anda

yeoh

sceal

gehwylc

on eorcSan

/ungol sceal on heofenum


mecgan.

flodgrseg.

on.

GNOMIC VERSES.

XXVIII.

i;o

swa him behead Meotud.

^eorhte scinan,

God
/If

sceal wicS yfele

sceal wicS

deabe

ymb

jynne

ymb

stcslan

a,

50

wi(5

ooYum,

/and sacan,

sceal .motor

bysse zworulde gez^inn

y'aegere ongildan

/eoht sceal wicS bystrum,

/eond

yyrd \vio\/yrde,
/a5 wicS /abe

^eogocS sceal witS yldo

bast

he

air

hycgean
z^earh hangian,

55

/"acen dyde

wanna cynne. iJ/eotod ana wat


hwyder seo sawul sceal jycScSan hweorfan,
and ealle ba pastas, be for Code hweorfatS
domes bldacS
sefter (/eaSdsege,
on Feeder y*aeSme. Is seo /brogesceaft
Z>rihten ana wat
</igol and dyrne,
woeni eft cymeS
rgende Faeder

60

^ider under /zrofas,

wannum

Sfcge,

.yigefolca gcretu,

be

bset

her for s6(5

hwylc sy iJ/eotodes gesceaft,


bser

he

jylfa

wunao\

65

XXIX.
THE SEAFARER.
Maeg

be

ic

me

^rfoShwIle

softgkdd wrecan,

jylfum

hu

fgcgan,

slpcis

ge^wincdagum

ic

oft

browade,

^itre <5reostceare

ge&den

gecunnad

ypa. gewealc.

<?tol

earo withwaco

hsebbe,

rearsejda

in reole

peer

fela,

mec

oft

bigeat

wacan stejnan,

oet

bonne he be difum cnossa'S ralde gebrungen.


Wa^ron _/et mine
/brste gebunden,
'

cl^mmum beer ba <:eare seofedun


Mt[e] ymb ^eortan
^ungor innan slat
<raldum

io

wre\verges mod.

paet se

be him on/bldan

/aegrost limped,

hii

rarmcearig

ic

mqv\n ne wat,

zscealdne

see

wmnade zerseccan lastum


twinemsegum bidroren,
zdnter

bi/$ongen ^rimgicelum
pair ic ne ge^yrde

zscaldne waig,

dyde

ic

me

to

wzsew singende

SVormas
fsigfebera

hwilum

tiirigfebra.

_ylfete

ful

sgng

fleag.

see,

^anetes hleobor

20

fore Aleahtor wera,

fore wedodrince.

beer j/anclifu beotan,


;

scurum

butan //limman

^omene

and ^uilpan sweg

>$aegl

15

beer

him

j/ear[n]

oncwaeS

oft hset <?arn bigeal/

Neenig hleomeega
1

mine

25
fet.

/easceaftig /erS

For pon him


gebldetP

^urgum

in

^rimlade

Nap

/"[r|e[f]ran meahte.

ge/yfecS lyt

/zrim /zr'usan

band

hu

30

on eorpan,
nu

/zean streamas,

cunnige

35

wsela gehwylce

lust

_/erc5 to _/"eran,

cnyssatS
ic

j^cet

jylf

monacS modes
/lpeodigra

/zaegl feol/

7/eortan gepohtas,

feoxr heonan

ic

j^aet

eaxd gesece.

;odwlpnc

nis pses

<faedum

his

to

vionn ofer eorpan.

ne in ^eogupe to paes hwaet,

ne his ^ifena paes ^5d,


in

z^erig oft

ic

For pon

^ealtypa gelac

ne

wynw,

//orpan sniwde,

<:aldast.

For pon

/Ifes

idan sceolde

wihtscua,

torna

pe ah

se

fealoslpa hwon,

and zMngal,

z^lonc
in

THE SEAFARER.

XXIX.

172

ne him his Z^ryhten

^eor,

paes

40
to

pass hold,
paet

to

Ne

he a his

hwon

jorge nsebbe,

jgefore

gedon

hine Z>ryhten

wille.

bip him to /zearpan /zyge,

ne to

zyife

ne ymbe

wynn,

nefne

<?wiht /lies

ac a hafa(5 /pngunge

se

pe

i?earwas /)lostmum nima(5,

gewpniacS

jefan to

4?

_ySa gewealc;

on /agu

fundatS.

3yrig fegriatS,

zodes fusne

pam pe jwa

.rioe,

ymb

ze>oruld onettecS:

ze-'gngas zolitig[i]at$,

ealle pa.

ne to /zringpege,

ne t5 worulde hyht,

50

pnce<5,

on /"lodwegas feoxr gewitan 2


Swylce ^eac mpnaS ^eomran reorde,
.

singecS
/yittre

.mmeres weard,
in

/Jreosthord.

seeg esteadig
1

-en.

4
,

rorge beodecS
past se /3eorn

hwaet pa
2

-aS.

ne wat,

55

jume dreogaS,
3

bitter.

eft. s.

THE SEAFARER.

XXIX.
\e

zwdost

ze/rseclastas

ba.

73

If cgatS

ofer /zreberlocan,

For bon nu min /fyge ^weorfecS


min wodsefa mid /wereflode

60

^weorfecS wide

ofer ^waeles ebel,

cyme's

me

wrban sceatas,
and ^rcedig, glelleft anfloga,
hwfteS on [Ajwaelweg /Sreber unwearnum
for bon me ifcatran sind
gelagu
ofer
to

efr

^ifre

Mma

]?onne

Z>ryhtnes flYeamas
/dene

on /gnde

him

bset

aer his /Id

M obbe

ece stondacS

<?0ro\velan

sum yMnga

Simle y&reora

aga.

1
.

Aveon weorbe(5:

to

obbe /cghete

ji'ldo

bset

/astworda

he gezayrce,
3
on /oldan

baet hine <elda

onweg

scyle,

wifS/eonda nib

fveme

fifeorum a'aidum

<eftercwebendra

bftst,

he

aer

oo"bringeo\

gehwam

<?orla

[is]

/of /ifgendra,
J5set

65

lif

gehvvylce

/jegum /romweardum /"eorh


For bon

deade

J>is

ge/yfe no,

ic

beam

and

his /of si]?ban

fl\va

to ealdre,

75

togeanes,

a'eofle

fter hfrgen
/ifge

mid nglum
bleed

lifes

<?~can

80

Z>agas sind gewitene,


</ream mid </ugebum
eorban rices
ealle onmedlan
!

nearon

ne ^okhjiefan,

bonne

ne raseras

nu ryningas

hi wcest

swylce zu wairon,

and on cfryhtlicestum
gedroren

is

wserba gefremedon

mid him

]?eos

dome

a'ugucS eal/

85

lifdon:

tfreamas sind gewitene;

wuniatS ba zaacran

and bas zooruld healdab,

brucaS burh ftsgo.

-#laed

-tS.

ege.

is

gehnceged

freniman.

blaetf.

naron.

THE SEAFARER.

XXIX.

174
wrban zhdryhto

f<zlda(5

and

swa nu wzonna gehwylc


y\do him on

beam

seara?5

geond zwiddangeard

90

cnsyn blacaS,

farecS,

wat

^omelfeax ^-nornao',
crbelinga

his

mwine,

forban forgiefen[n]e.

Ne maeg him bonne

se /"laeschoma,

tonne him

bast

/eorg

losacS,

'

ne jwete fomvelgan
ne ^gnd on/zreran

peah he ^raef
/3robor his

flzabmum

ne jar gefelan

c^

ne mid ftyge bgncan.

^olde stregan,

wille

3yrgan be deadum

ge^orenum

baet hi

zzzislicum,

ne mgeg balre jawle,

ne

;id wille

be bib jynna ml/,

100

Godes fgsan,
bonne he hit cer /zydet), benden he her leofatS.
Mice] bib se J/eotudes egsa, for bon hi seo zzzolde oncyrreS,

^old to ^eoce

for

se gej/abelade

j/ibe

iforban sceatas

and

grundas,
zzprodor.

105

Do\ bib se be him his Z>ryhten ne onaYakleb


cymeS
him se </ea(5 unhinged.
adig bi<5 se be ealpmod leofa<5
cyme<5 him seo at of
:

heofonum,
Afeotod

him

bset

?nod

weahte gelyfeS.

gestabelatS,

for

bon he

in

his

XXX.
NORTHUMBRIAN FRAGMENTS.
A.

C^EDMON'S HYMN.

Nu

scylun /zgrgan

Dryctin.

He

<rist

^eben

Tha
<Fci

til

or astglidae.

scop

<zlda

Arofe,

y'lrum foldu,

barnum

/mteg Scej>[p]en[d].

w/iddungeard,

Dryctin,

uard,

his ?/zodgidanc,

sue he tundra gihuses,

erc wuldurfadur;
ezi

/zefaeniicaes

nd

vl/etudses ;aecti

wzpn^cynnaes uard,

fter tiadae

Fiea

allmctig.

B.

BEDE'S DEATH-SONG.
Fore there

t5

than him

ymb/zycggannse

huset his ^astae


sefter
1

^eothdsege
uuiurthit.

wainig uuirthit

weidfaerse

Moncsnotturra

a>r

sle,

ffra.ii'

his /;ingongae

2
,

-odses seththa yflaes,

^cemid uueorthae.
a

hinioni'ae.

NOR THUMB RIA N FRA GME NTS.

XXX.

76

C.

LEIDEN RIDDLE.

Mec

/it-rum

Serh

biworhtae

me

#rea[t]un

me

ni

mec

/yrmas

ni biaS
2

<ihi[ua]n[a]

aam

Si ^eolu

ni ic ua.rp hefae,

z/eflae,

^risil

aefun

ni

wullan fliusum,

#red

giSraec

/zrutendum

mec

A[y]gido[n]cum [minum].

//ehcraeft

frundnee

ne

freorig,

cevtst caend[ae].

ni Serih

Sa

wundrum

se eta uong,

ob his zhnaSae
Ni uuat ic mec

me

hlimmith,

scelfaeS,

sceal cnyssa.

wyndicraeftum

3
,

g-eatum fraetuath.

^odu^b/)

mec hudrae suae Seh uidae ofaer eorSu


Mtan mith ^eliSum ^yhtlic giuaede.

tUil

Ni ancegnu 5

ic

Seh Si ni[maen
1

me

<xrigfaerae

_/*lanas

biuorthae.
4

goelu.

/gsan brogum,

_/rac]adKcge ob cocrum.
3

Sret.
5

ancegtin.

uyrdi-.

XXXI.
MERCIAN HYMNS.
Lytel

\s betwih broSur mine, Qnd iu[n]gra in hiise

ic

dydun
hwelc

organan

mine

fingras

Dryhtne

s<?gde

geherde mec

Hc-nda mine

Ic fcedde seep feadur mines.

feadur mines.

He

mlnum?

he snde ngel

wyrctun

his,

Qnd

hearpan.

Dryhten,

he

allra

Qnd nom mec of scepum

mec in mildheartnisse smirenisse


his.
BroSur mine gode ond micle, ond ne xres welgelicad
in him Dryhtne.
Ic ut eode ongd'gn fremSes cynnes men;;,
9nd \vrgc\veodelade mec in h<?rgum heara; ic soSlice
gebrogdnum from him his agnum sweorde ic acearf heafud
his, Qnd onweg afirde edwit of bearnum Israela.

feadur mines, Qnd smirede

Ic ondettu
is

Se Dryhten,

hatheortnis Sin,

Hselend min

Qnd

str^ngu min Qnd hf renis


in haelu.

ic

Seem dege

in

earS mec.

SehSe

dom, Qnd ne ondredu

in gefian of

God

for "Son

min Dryhten, ond geworden

GehleadaS weter

ond cweoSa'S

Son eorre Su earS me. Gecejred

for

frcefrende

getreowlice

is

me

wejlu[m] HaMendes,

QndettaS Dryhtne

his.

ond gecegaS

CuSe 2 doS in folcum gemcetinge his


geSon heh is nQma his. SingaS Dryhtne, for Son
s^ggaS Sis in aire eorSan. Gefeh ond
micellice dyde
hre eardung Sione, for Son micel in midum Sin halig

nQman
munaS

10

for

Israel.
1

frofrende.

cyfSe.

i<

XXXL

i;8

Ic cwelS in

MERCIAN HYMNS.

midum

da?ga minra

Ic sohte lafe gera minra;

ic

God

Ne

eorSan lifgendra.

in

eardiend.
5 is

from Saim weofendan

min;

lif

Of marne oS

acearf mec.

mgn mse gnd

ic

wiSkeded

swe swe geteld heorda.

Dryhten

Ic ne gesio

gelociu

min

Gestilde cneoris

me

from

Ic fearu to gete helle.

cw*S:

gnd befalden
is swe swe

is

Forcorfen

nu get gehefeldad
mec frgm efenne

mit-te

efen geendas

oS margen swe swe lea swe forSneste all ban min


of
marne ot efen geendas mec. Swe swe bridd swalwan swe
io ic cleopiu
ic smegu swe swe culfre.
GeSynnade sind
;

min

egan
Srowiu

gelocendu

gndsweora

me

gndsweoraS

weolerum
SehSe

mec.

alle

dege.

to

ic

mine, 6set

synne mine,

Sine

lifes

cweSe, oSSe hw^t

Ic

Sencu

min

Ne

sie

Son

for

bidaS

Sa.

oSSe

geliffetes

Su

soSlice

Qnd awurpe on

nales hej/ gndetteS Se, ne

ofdune

steogun in

lifgende, lifgende he gndetteS

doa

lifd,

gnd

bittreste

ne forwurde.

ger min

all

Dryhten, gif swe biS

ic

ic

ic

F^der bearnum cuSe dceS

Dryhten, hale us

dfgum

min re.

in sibbe bitternis

deaS hejeS Sec.


20 soSfestnisse

h\v<?t

gastes mines, geSreas mec,

lif

generedes sawl
b^c Sin

me,

ned

Dryhten,

heanis[se].

in

Saet ic seo[l]fa doa.

in bitternisse sawle
15 in

fore

Se,

seaS

swe gnd

soSfestnisse Sine.

gnd salmas Ore we singaS allum

Ores in huse Dryhtnes.

D.
Gefoeh heorte min in Dryhtne, gnd up ahrfen
in

for
is

Gode
Son

muS min

is

geblissad ic earn in hallu Sinre.

Dryhten, ne
1

Gebneded

mine.

-e.

soSlice
a

Sinne.

is

is

horn min

ofer feond mine,

Nis halig swe swe

oSer butan Se, gnd nis strgng


3

onddettende.

doS.

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.
swe swe

God

NyllaS gemgnigfaldian spreocan oa hean

ur.

wuldrende; gewlten

aldan of

Sa.

God wisdoma Dryhten


Boga

geSohtas.

Gefylde

dun, gnd Siowincelu werun

cgnde mgnge, gnd

sie

Dryhten cwaelmeS,

muSe eowrum;

mongu l

geliffcsteS,

hlafum h[l]e bihyr-

air fore

gefylde,

oS

unbeorendu

Saet

beam geuntrumad

wfs.

gelcedeS to hej/wearum,

gnd

h<?fde

Dryhten Searfan dceS, gnd geweolegaS

eft alaideS.

modaS gnd geheS

wuldres

sitte

nime. 2

in

gnd

strgngu

arlease in

biS

his

geeaS-

mid aldermgnnum,

Dryhtnes

Seostrum geswigiaS

gestrgngad

his, gnd
ofer him
DcemeS ndas eorSan
cyninge his, gnd geheS horn Cristes

in

Dryhten.

Feet haligra

Son

for

Dryhten

wer.

wiSerbrocan

heofenum

gnd

15

sind

soSlice

heorras eorSan, gnd sgtte ofer hie ymbhwyrft.


his heold,

10

a\vc[c]ende of duste weSlan, gnd of

scearne up-rserende Searfan; Sset he

sundurseld

for 'Son

gnd him earun gegearwad[e]


oferswiSed is, gnd untrume

is,

strgngra

bigyrde sind strngu.

gnd

179

nales

forhtiaS

hleoSraS 20

cynedom

s leS

his.

E.

Singen we Dryhtne; wuldurlice soSlice gearad is. Hors


gnd onstigend awearp in see; fultum gnd gescildend geworden is me in hailu. Des God min, gnd ariu hine God
feadur mines, gnd ic up he. b[b]u hine. Dryhten forSreestende
gefeht;
Dryhten ngma is him. Scrid Pharaones gnd 5
weoredu 3 his awearp in see
gecorene up-stigende Sreo
;

fceSan besncte in Sere

bicwomun

in

gewuldrad

is

grund swe swe


in m<?gne

sie

See

wldsas oferwrah hie

SwiSre Sin, Dryhten,

stan.

swiSre hgnd

Sin

Dryhten,

gnd Sorh mgngu m^genSrymmes Sines Su


wiSerbrocan.
Du sgndes eorre Sin gnd et

gebrec[e] feond
forSrsestes

Readan

monce.

nimeS.

-a.

'

honda.

Sine.

10

w<?ter.

is

hrereaf

midre

in
]

gnd Sorh gast eorsunge Sinre todailed


Heardadun swe swe wall wder heardadon ySe

swe swe halm

hie

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

l8o

Cw<?S feon[d]:

sae.

sawle mine;

gefyllu

Du

waldeS hgnd min.


hie sse

cehtende

se.

ndes gast Sinne

forebecen

Du

Su

aS^nedes Sa swiSran Sine, gnd forswalg

Ypped earS

gefreades.

gereordnisse Sere halgan Sinre.

werun
25

befengun

sar

in [me]gne Sinum, gnd in


Geherdun Siode, gnd eorre

ineardiende

aswundun

alle

Filisteos.

Moab

ladtowas Edomes, gnd aldermn

cung;

Da

cefestun

gegrap hie cwse-

ineardiende [Canaan].

Gefalle ofer

gnd cwaecung micelnisse earmes Sines sien swe swe


oS Saet leoreS folc Sin, Dryhten
oS Saet Sonne

hie ge
stan,

geondfcreS
30 in

minum

Steordes mid rehtwl[s]nisse Sinre folc Sin Sis

eorSe.

hie

m<?genSrymmum, donde

wuldurfcst in halgum, wundurlic in

tSaet

daelu

gnd oferwrah
bisenctun swe swe lead in wdre Seem strengestan.
gelic Se in godum, Dryhten?
Hwelc gelic Se,

Hwelc
20

sweorde

ofslea

ic

hefoo

ic

munt

e.

Su bigete, in gelaedes, plantas hie


gegearwadum eardunghuse Sinum Saet

folc Sin, Sis Saet

rfes Sines,

gegearwades,

Dryhten

gegearwadun hgnda

Sine.

halignisse

Sine,

Dryhten,

Saet

Dryhten, Su ricsas in ecnisse, gnd

gnd nu get. For Son in eode eorud Faraones


mid feoSurtemum gnd up-stigendum in sae, gnd gelaedde ofer
hie Dryhten wder sae; beam soSlice [Israhel] eodun Sorh
in weoruld,

35

dryge Sorh midne

sae.

F.

Dryhten,

ic

geherde gehernisse Sine, gnd ondreord

sceawade were Sin, gnd


cuSas

cymeS
5

min

in

ic

ic

In midle tweega netna

forhtade.

Sonne to niolaecaS ger, Su oncnawes Sonne to


oSeawes 2 in Son. Donne gedrcefed biS sawul
eorre mildheortnisse, gemyndig Su bist God from
;

tid,

dsellu.

odeawes.

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

CymeS gnd

Libano.

cum

ful/

is

hgndum

str^ngu

swe

his

is

m<?gen wuldres

ecnisse

hselu.

Cw^S

cyneSrym7.

10

gnd onstyred wes


tobrocene

hyllas

sind

SlSfctas

ecelice.

Geteld Sigelhearwena

weres.

Ah

[Madian].

flodum

in

Sines 15
sse

Son astlgende astlges ofer hors Sin, gnd


Dgnnende Su aSgnes bogan Slnne ofer

for

in

ond Sftte
gceS word

Dryhten, oSSe in flodum hatheortnis Sin, oSSe in

eored Sin

eorSan

geteld

onrces Sin

eorSe

tofleowun Seode

tofleowun

gewinnum

fore

his

forhtiaS,
earres,

gnd

swlSUce,

stodun,

his

sind

his,

Biforan onslene his

his.

Gelocade, gnd

eorSe.

hornas

biS;

leht

ut gaaS in feldum feet his;

muntas

Sic-

m^genSrymw

Der getrymed

his.

birhtu trume

gnd

Birhtu

eorSe.

munte sc<?dehtum gnd


his, gnd lofe

halig of

heofenas

oferwrab

l8l

Dryhten

Mid

geseaS Sec gnd sargiaS

flodum

biS

tosliten

Stvegdende w^ter in 20

folc.

slSfctum his, salde nlolnis stefne his frgm heanisse scinhlowes


his.

Up

his.

In lehte

ahrfen

is

sunne, gnd

mona

stod in gndebyrdnisse

gaS in birhtu legite wepna


In neoweste Slnre gewgnas eorSan, gnd in hathe-

Slnra.

ortniss[e]

Sines,

scotunge Sine

Slnre

teles

hale

Saet

Slode.

f)u

gestode

gedoe Cristas Sine.

haMu

in

Sondes

in

folces 25

heafudu

unrehtra deaS; Su awaehtes bgnde oS swlrban; forcurfe in

afrmSunge heafud msehtigra.

BiS onstyred

ontynaS muSas heara swe Searfa eotende


Sndes

in

sae

gnd forhtade

in

in

Son Slode
degulnisse.

Heold

hors Sin gedrcefende w<?ter micelu.

wgmb mln

frgm stefne gebedes weolera

mlnra,

gnd inn eode cwaecung in ban mln, gnd under me gedrcefed


m^gen mln. Ger^stu in d<?ge geswncednisse mlnre, Saet

is

ic

astlge to folce

leornisse

mlnre.

For Son

flctreo

bringeS western, gnd ne biS cneoris in wlngeardum.

were

eletres,

gnd

feldas

mte seep, gnd ne

ne doS mttas.

bioS in binne
1

beolera.

no

to-

LegaS

Asprungun frgm

cexen.

Ic soSlIce in

35

Dryhtne wuldriu

God mfgtn
hcan

40

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

83

geste(5

Gode HSlende mlnum.

gefio in

min, gesgte

mec, Z aet

feet

mine

in

oferswioe in birhtu

ic

Dryhten

gegndunge; gnd

ofer

c~a

his.

G.
Bihald heofen, gnd spreocu, gnd gehere eor?$e word of

mu<5e mlnum.

Sie

abiden swe

sw[e] regn

min,

gesprec

swe swe deaw word min, swe swe scur ofer


gred, ond swe swe snaw ofer heg for (Son ngma[n] Dryhtnes

ond

astlgen

5 ic

gecegu

his,

gnd

wegas his
him rehtwis ond

alle

wlsnis in

Gode urum. God, sd(5 were


domas. God getreowe, gnd nis unreht-

micelnisse

sella<5

Syngadun

halig Dryhten.

nales

him beam unwemmu 2 cneoris o\veoru ond forcejredu (5as


Dryhten geedleanades, swe folc dysig gnd nales snottur.
;

10

Ahne

ces

ilea 'Sin

Sec.

In

mode habbaS

feder gesitecS 'Sec;

cneorisse cneorissa.

weorulde

f<?der <5inne

gnd

wrter.

sge(5 fte aeldran

YmblaMde

oe,

gnd gelcerde
Swe swe earn

hine,

swe swe slan egan.


20 ofer briddas his ges<?t.

hine,

gnd

ele of

nest

his,

gnd onfeng
Dryhten ana lairde

gnd

A3e. nede fioru his,

To

strngu eon5an, fcedde hie cennende lgnda.


stane,

gnd heold hine

o'gceo'

gnd onfeng hie ofer gescyldru his.


gnd ne w<?s mid him God fr^mcSe.

25

ongeotao ger

Sonne todcelec5 se hea Siode, to SiJem


gemete tostrigdecS beam Adames. Sgtte ndas (5leda ehev
rime ng[l]a Godes.
Qnd geworden wes daal Dryhtnes folc
his, [IacobJ rap rfewordnisse his [Israhel].
Genyhtsumiendne hine him dyde in wcestenne in (5urs[t] hcetu oer ne wes
Sine,

15

Frign

gnd cweoca(5

dyde cec, gnd gescop


1

das.^as

trumum

gelsedde

hie,

hie,

hie

in

Sucun hunig of

stane, geclystre oxna,

gnd mile

scepa mid smeorwe lg[m]bra gnd rgmma, bearna fearra gnd

buccena mid
1

smeorwe eSra hwsetes gnd blod wlnbgrgan.

sotJe

-e.

illce

Su

ear.

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.
DrinceS win, gnd
Fast/

se liofa.

Iacob,

et

gnd

gefylled

geworden w^s, gnd

forleort

God

Sajm halwyndan

his.

w<?s,

faettade,

183
gnd sporetteS
gnd gebraaded

dyde hine, gnd gewat from Gode


Onscunedun mec in fremSum, in 3
onscuningum heara awehtun mec. Ons^gdun deoflum, gnd
nales Gode godas Sa. hie ne cuSun niowinga cwomun, to
Saim Sa" nystun fcddras heara. God se Sec cende Su
forleorte, gnd ofergeotul earS God fcedendne Sec.
Gesseh
Dryhten, gnd wreocende w^s, gnd onscunad w<?s fore eorre 35
bearna his gnd dohtra.
Qnd cw^S Ic acerra onsiene mine
frgm him, gnd oteawu hw^t biS him ot nestan
for Son
cneoris Sweoru gnd forcerredu, beam in Ssem nis geleafa
Hie in hatheortnisse neddun mec, gnd nales in
in him.
Gode in eorre awehtun mec in deofulgeldum hear[a]. Qnd 40
ic in hatheortnisse onweg adrifu hie, gnd nales in Siode, in
Siode unwise bismeriu hie.
For pon fyr bgrn frgm eorre
minuw, gnd bgrn oS hel/wearan ofdune. Et eorSe c nnende
heara, h?rnde steaSelas munta.
Ic gesgmniu in him yfel,
gnd strelas mine gefyllu in him
aswindende hungre, gnd 45
mete werun fugla, gnd aSgnenes b^ces ungehcelendlic. TceS
wildeora van sendu in him mid hatheortnisse telendra ofer
eorSan.
Utan butan bearnum biscejeS hie sweord, gnd in
hordmium ege gunge mid fiemnan, mid steaSulfestum aldum.
Cw^S: Ic tostregde hie; biscergu soSlice of mgnnum 5
gemynd heara. NybSe fore eorre fionda Sy lses lgnge tid
sien ofer eorSan.
Dset hie ne geSeafien wiSerbrocum, gnd
cweSen Hgnda ure hea, gnd nales God dyde oas all. For
Son Siod forlorenum geS^hte is, gnd nis in him Siodscipe.
Ne hogedon ongeatan Sas; onfoS in towordre title, 55
w^s,

gnd

se

swe

^fter

Susendu.

God

fylgeS an

gnd twoegen onwgndaS ten


Son Dryhten underSlodde hie, gnd
For Son nis God Or swe swe godas heara

NemSe

salde hie.

Susend,

for

fiond soSUce ure ungndgetfulle of wingearde soSl[ice]

Sodom-

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

184

wearena wlnlreo heara, gnd owestem heara of Gomorra.


Wlnbrgan [heara] winbgrgan gallan [bitternisse him seolfum];

60

hatheortnis

getacnad
65 him, in

win heara, gnd


Ahne Sas gesgmnade
goldhordum minum ? In

droecena

ungeheeledlic.
in

on

(5a

asliden

d^g forloren[n]isse

heara,

tid

Son doemeS Dryhten

bi"S

mid mec, gnd

d^ge wn?ce

For

heara.

fot

nedrena

hatheortnis
sind

geldu

ic

(Son

neh

folc his,

ond

Slowum

in

is

For

gnd Sas sind gearu eow.

his biS frcefred.

Gesseh soSlIce hie geswncte, gnd asprungne in wiSlsednisse,

gnd

Qnd cwS

tolesde.

7ge getreowdun

in

Hwer

sind godas heara, in S,iem

him, Seara smeoru ons^gdnissa ge eton,

gnd druncun win ons^gdnisse heara ?

men

eowic gnd slen eow gescildend.

God, gnd nis oSer butan me.


gedom slea, gnd ic gehcelu gnd
75hgndum minum. For (Son ic afirru
ic

Arisen nu

earn

*
;

gefultu-

GesIaS, gesIaS for

Ic ofslea,
nis se

gnd

Son

lifgan

Se genrge of

hgnd mine,
gnd swgrgu Sorh Sa. swlSran mine, gnd cweoSu Ic lifgu in
ecnisse.
For Son ic ascejpu swe swe legitu sweord mln,
gnd dceS dom hgnd mln. Qnd geedleaniu dom feondum,
in heofen

gnd Sissum Sa flodun mec ic geldu 2


Indrgncu strelas mine
gnd sweord mln iteS flsesc. From blode gewundedra gnd hrftnede frgm heafde aldermgnna feonda.
BlissiaS
.

So in blode,

heofenas

Godes.
hine

all

^5scilded;

sgmud mid

hine,

gnd weorSien hine

alle

nglas

sgmud mid folce his, gnd getrymen


beam Godes. For Son blod bearna his biS gegnd he gescildeS, gnd geedleanaS dom flondum,
BlissiaS Slode

gnd Sissum Sa flodun hine


eorSan folces

gildeS,

gnd geclasnaS Dryhten

his.

H.
BledsiaS

all

were Dryhtnes Dryhten.

BledsiaS heofenas

Dryhten, bledsiaS fnglas Dryhtnes Dryhten.

Sa ofer heofenas sind Dryhten, bledsiaS


1

ne.

al/
-

BledsiaS wrter

m^gen Dryhtnes

sildu.

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.
Dryhten.

gnd raona Dryhten,

sunne

BledsiacS

Dryhten.

heofenes

steorran

Dryhten, bledsiaS

alle

l8^

gastas Dryhten.

bledsiatS

grid

scur

BledsiatS

fyr

BledsiatS

deaw
gnd

sumur Dryhten, bledsiatS nseht gnd deg Dryhten. BledsiatS


tSeostru gnd leht Dryhten, bledsiatS cek gnd haetu Dryhten.
BledsiatS forstas gnd snaw Dryhten, bledsiatS legite gnd
wolcen Dryhten. Bledsie eortSe Dryhten, bledsiatS muntas

gnd

hyllas Dryhten.

gnd

sae

bledsiatS

hwalas gnd

all

oa

biotS

BledsiatS waellan Dryhten,

onstyred in w^trum Dryhten.

gnd

BledsiatS fuglas heofenes Dryhten, bledsiatS wilddeor

netenu Dryhten. BledsiatS


Dryhten.

Dryhtnes

tSlowas

rehtwisra

beam mgnna Dryhten,

biscopas

BledsiatS

bledsiatS

gnd saw[l]e

gastas

Dryhten, bledsiatS halge gnd eatSmode on heortan


BledsiaS [Azarias] gnd [Misahel] Dryhten.

Dryhten.

all

bledsie Israel

Dryhten,

Dryhtnes
BledsiaS

Dryhten.

10

acennende eortSan Dryhten,

BledsiatS all

fiodas Dryhten.

bledsiaS

Bled-

hgrgen
sien we F^der gnd Sunu gnd tSone Halgan Gast
we gnd up hfbben we hine in weorulde. Gebledsad eartS in
trymenisse heofenes, gnd hgrgendlic gnd Qpahden in weo;

20

rulde.

Gebledsad Dryhten

dyde alesnisse

God

folces his,

gnd

Israel,

neasede, gnd

'Son

for

arehte horn heelu us in huse

DavitSes cnehtes his; swe spreocende w<?s tSorh mutS haligra


his,

witgena

tSa.

frgm weorulde

Qnd

sind.

frgm flondum urum, gnd of hgnda alra

donne

mildheortnisse

cytSnisse his haligre

Abrahame

hgndum
gnd

frder

mid

tSone

fedrum

(5a

urum,

swrgendan

atS

urum, sejlende hine us;

fionda ura gefreade

rehtwisnisse biforan

we

gefreade usic

usic flodun

to 5

gnd gemunan

tSone he swor to
oVt

butan ege of

tSiwgen him in halignisse

him allum dsegum urum.

Qnd

tSu 10

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

86
wltga

cneht,

wisdom

hailu

ou

hestan

oVs

geced

bist

folce

his

in

ufancumende of heanisse,
gnd in so?de 2 deaoes siitacS,

soSlIce

sejlenne

to

oajm neasade usic

in

tSissum oa in oeostrum

inlihtan

gergccenne

to

his,

synna heara 1 oorh

forletnisse

innooas mildheortnisse Godes Ores,


15

foregcest

Dryhtnes gearwian wegas

biforan onsiene

weg

ure in

feet

sibbe.

J.

MiclacS sawul min Dryhten, gnd gefaeh gast min in Gode


halwyndum mlnum 3 For Son gelocade eacSmodnisse menenes
.

his

sehoe

cneorisse.
5

ond

halig

of (Sissum

soolice

For

(Son

noma

his

me

dyde
;

mic

eadge
6a.

cweooao'

miclan se

gnd mildheortnis

his

alle

maehtig

is

frgm cynne

in

ondredendum hine. Dyde msehte in earme his tostregd


oferhogan on mode heortan his
ofdune sgtte msehtge of
selde
gnd up ahof eaomode. Hyngrende gefylde godum
gnd weolie forleort Idelhende.
Onfceo Israhel cneht his,
10 gemyndig mildheortnisse his; swe spreocende w^s to feadrum
Drum, Abram, gnd sede his 0$ in weoruld.
cvn/2

K.
Birhtu fcderlices wuldres, of lehte leht fonSbringende, leht
lehtes,

gnd

wselle lehtes, de% daega inlihtende,

gnd

socS

sunne

in

wege,sclnende midsciman orowian,gndlioma[n HalgesGastes


]

ingeot
5

urum gehygdum.

Willum cegen we

to Ffder, F<?der

eces wuldres, F^der msehtigre gefe, scyld gebegecS glidder,

gewyngnd rgcecS
getreowum lichgman. Se rehta geleafa mid haitu
Facnes atur nyte. Qnd Crist us sle mte, gnd drync

gehiowa'S dede

strece, to<5

sumie rceSe, sehe


clsene
walle.

10 ur sle geleafa.
1

niinra.

to

gebege(5

donne

Blloe drincen
2

deaSes.

ge(e.

<?fes[tigne],

Mod

fael/

steoreS

we geoungenllce druncennisse 4
3

minnum.

drinc-.

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

BluSe deg Ses leore, clsennes

gastes.

rehla

se

geleafa

Sunu, gnd

all

in

on ajrmargen,

mod

swe swe midne deg, d^gred

D^gred ryne forowegeS, d^gred

ancendan

sie Saet

187

worde

nyte.

In F<?der

for<5ype<5.

all

Wuldur oV, F^der, wuldur &em


oy Halgan Gaste in Sere ecan

F^der.

mid

somud

all

15

weorulde.

God
mid

sc^ppend

gnd heofenes

alra,

wlitige lehte, naeht slepes gefe.

reccere,

genvende d*g

Liomu tolesdu 1 Sset

sie rgst

gnd mod wcerigu gelihte, gnd wopas


Dgncas gedoenu nU-Sa. d^ge gnd nashte
onlese genenvde.
2
upcyme bcene gehatum scyldge Sset t5u gefultume, hymen 5
agefe gewinnes gewunan,

Dec

singende we onlesaS.

heortan oa niSerlican hleoSriaS.

Dec stefn smceSu hlydeS. Dec lufaS clsene lufe. Dec mod
weorSaS geoungen. Qnd mit-te grand biluceS d^g dimwmes
nsehta, se rehta geleafa oeostru nyte, gnd nceht getreowum
slepan

lihteS,

mod

ne

let

Slepan scyld cunne

ou.

claene 10

smec gemetgie. Onggred gehygde


geleafa
Dylces fiondes eVs
glidderre Sec heortan (5a hean slepatS.
Crist bidden we gnd Ftder
ffestgan facne fyrhtu stille awcce.
ccelende slepes

Cristes,

Drines.

gnd Feadur gast an maihtig Sorh


Wuldur Se, F^der.

all, hirt

biddende
*5

M.
Cyning

ece,

Dryhten wlsena Scgppend, alra

weorulde aa mid F<?der Sunu

<5u

Su middangeardes

were

in

air

fruman

[Adam] gehiowades 4 mgn, Sxm Sinre onltcnisse gndwliotan


saldes gelicne, Sone dioful biswac, fiond mnnesces cynnes
o>s Su hiow lichgman genioman gemeode[mad] Su were, 5
Sset mgnw Su alesdes, Sone air soSlice gehiowades; gnd usic to
1

tolesde.

humeri.

ttxc.

-as.

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

88

Gode gegadradcs So[r]h

flaisces

gemsennisse, Sone acgnnedne

mode

of fsemnan forhtaS ylc sawul, Sorh Sone usic arisan holde

we

Sorh fulwiht forgefe forgefen[n]isse, we

gelefaS, se us

ioearun numene mid bgndum gebundne mid inwgehygde


[rode] fore

15

mrm onfon gemeodemad

tire

haMu weorS.

ond

all

Du

fiondes S^s aldan

mid Sere

we

Weotudlice wagrift

eorSe cwaecade.

usic

Du

beoraS.

hine from us aa
Eefre

deaSes borggeldum

to

onweg

is,

forSraistende,

Su were
mid Sine blode.

adrifan

m<?ge gedej'gan alesde

fore us

heJAvearum astlgan gemeodemad Su were,


lifes

forgefe gefe

Se on margentid

hymen wcepende we singaS. Forgef us, Dryhten


ondettendum, for Son Su geweota gnd dcema earS, Sone
;

Da. deglan

setstondes lece.

Du

alra

Du

forgef
nsenig

inwgehygde Ore gesionde sw^Se,

Su ura breosta ana aspyrgend earS.


weorulde.

Su

blod

awehtes, Dry hten.

m^gen Sorh rode deaSes

Du

god

temples tosliten

Du monge slependra

Sa?t

m<?g biwsegan.

25

ftes

'Sin

gesegnade on foranheafdum guSfgnan gelea[fa]n

gemeodemad, ne

were, saldes

Du wunda

earS Su on cuSe

tid

lutiendra

sejlende ende

geeorningum rehtwis geedleanend earS.

Su halga we halsiaS Saet ure haMe wunde, Su


earS mid F^der Sunu aa mid Sy Halgan Gaste. Wuldur Se,
F^der wuldur ancendum somud mid Halgum Gaste in Sere

Dec

soSlice

ecan weorulde.

XXXII.
KENTISH CHARTERS.

OSWULF.
805-831.
Ic

Osuulf aldormgnn mid Godes

min gemgcca

s^llatS to

gaefe,

gnd

BeornoVyo'

Cantuara-byrg, to Cristes-cirican, Saet

Stanhamstfde, xx swuluncga, Gode allm^htgum gnd

lond

aet

(Sere

halgon gesgmnuncgae, fore hyhte ond fore sedleane Sees

Eecan

gnd

Sses

towardon

lifes,

gnd

fore uncerra saula hela

gnd

Qnd mid micelre eaSmodnisse biddao' Saet


wit moten bion on Sem gemanon Se Saer Godes Slowas
siondan, ond Sa mnn Se
Sail" hlafordas waeron, gnd Sara
monna Se hiora lgnd to Saere cirican saldon gnd Saetta?
mgn unce tide ymb tuaelf monaS mgn geuueorSiae on 10
godcundum godum gnd 32c on aalmessan suae mgn hiora
uncerra bearna.

dceS.
1c

Sonne Uulfred mid Godes


fullia?, gnd bebeode

denan uuord
hiora

tid

gaefe arc. epis.


Saet

mgn ymb

Sas forecuaetuaelf

monaS

bcega Sus geuueorSiae to anes daeges to Osuulfesi5

ge mid godcundum godum ge mid gelmessan, ge aec


mid higna suesendum. Donne bebeode ic Saet mgn Sas
Sing sf lie ymb tuaelf monaS of Liminum, Se Sis forecuaedene
lgnd to-limpeS, of Saem ilcan lgnde aet Stanhamstfde
cxx
tide

ond.

Sa.

20 huaetenra hlafa

mi

gnd

scaep,

x pund

gnd xxx

clenra,

gnd v

flicca,

tua.

gnd an hriSer dugunde, gnd


gees, gnd x h<mnfuglas, gnd

caeses, gif hit fuguldaeg sie.

Gif

Sonne

hit

festendaeg

mgn uuaege caesa, gnd fisces, gnd butran, gnd


Scet mgn begeotan maege, gnd xxx grabra godes

sejle

sle,

cegera
25

KENTISH CHARTERS.

XXXII.

190

Uuejesces aloS oVt limpeS to xv mittum, gnd mittan fulne

mgn Sonne

huniges, oSSa tuaigen uuines, suae hwaeder suae

begeotan maege.

Qnd

ham mgn

gesejle

exx gesuflra hlafa to aelmessan for hiora

sauia, suae

mgn

ast

30 cuaedenan suaesenda

of higna

gemaenum godum

agefe

mgn Saem

he brytniae swaa hlgum maest red

iEc

scelest.

sawlum

mlnum

Se

gnd Saem sawlum


l
gnd hiora

agaefe to cirican

man

hit

sie

ymb xn monaS

hlafa

gnd swae
set

tfette

bebeode

ic

Burnan

set

Saet

foran to Saere tide gegeonvien ten

feola

mgn

sufla grid Saet

gedele t5

gnd him se reogolweord on


hwonne slo tld sie. Mc ic bidde
Sas godcundan god gedon aet Sere tide fore

Crlstes-cirican,

byrg gebeode foran


hie

hiora sawlum

jEc

fore ddeS.

Sere tide fore mine sawle gnd Osuulfes gnd

set

BeornSrySe

Sas fore-

reogolwarde, gnd

sefterfylgendum Se Saet lgnd haebben

relmessan

40 hlgon

weax

Saet

nytt gedoe

35 hiae simle

bund

mgn

Qnd

hlaforda tldum dceS.


all

Saer aet

to

Saet aeghwile m^ssepiiost gesinge fore Osuulfes

sawle twa m<?ssan, twa, fore BeornSrySe sawle

gnd

aeghwile

diacon arede twa passione fore his sawle, twa fore hire

gnd

aeghwile

Godes Slow gesinge twa

flftig

fore his sawle,

mid
mid Sem godge me gemynen

45 twa fore hire, Saette ge fore uueorolde slen geblitsade

Sem weoroldcundum godum gnd


cundum godum.
aet

Mc

ic

Sere tide mid suilce

Synce,
50 lufon

ic

hiora saula

biddo hlgon Saet

godcunde gode

suilce

Se Sas gesgttnesse seUe ge hu^der ge

ge Seara saula Se haer-beforan hiora

siondon.
1

ciricican.

ond.

namon

low cynlic
for

higna

auuritene

XXXII.

KENTISH CHARTERS.

B.

ABBA.
835.

Abba

Ic

gnd wrltan hate hu

geroefa cySe

mm

willa fs

mgn ymb min aerfe gedce aefter mlnum daege.


JErest ymb mm Ignd ]?e ic haebbe, 9nd me God lah, gnd ic
set mlnum hlafordum begset, is min willa, gif me God bearnes

baet

unnan

wille, Saet hit fee to

lgnde

aefter

me, gnd

his bruce

mid

mlnum gemeccan, gnd sioSSan swae forS min cynn Sa. hwile
pe God wille Saet Seara aenig sie ]?e londes weorSe sle ond
Gif me Sonne gifeSe sie Saet ic beam
land gehaldan cunne.
begeotan ne maege, }?onne
hwile Se hia hit

is

mid

min

(5a

min

broSar Alchheje hire fultume

gedde
to

gnd him man

habbanne gnd

saelle

willa

Ipzet hit

haebbe min

clennisse gehaldan wile;

wiif

gnd

paet

gnd

10

lgnd hire nytt

an half swulung an Ciollan-dene

to brucanne,

wiS San Se he cy geomliocar

ond mgn sehe him to Sem


ond l Scarpa, gnd aenne horn. 15
Gif min wiff Sonne hia nylle mid clennisse swaa gehaldan,
ond hire Hofre sie oSer hemed to niomanne, Sonne foen
mine megas to Sem lgnde, gnd hire agefen hire agen. Gif
hire Sonne Hofre sie [on myjnster to ganganne, oSSa suS
to faranne, Sonne agefen hie twaegen mine maegas, Alchhere 20
gnd iESel .... hire twa Susenda, gnd fon him to Sem londe.
Qnd agefe mgn to Liminge l eawa gnd v cy fore hie, ond
mgn selle to Folcan-stane in/z mid mlnum lice x oxan, gnd x
cy, gnd c eawa, gnd c swina, gnd hlgum an sundran d
pendinga wiS San Se min wfif Jxxir benuge innganges swae 25

hire Searfa

lgnde

mi

bega ond bewiotige

oxan, gnd

mid mlnum
hire

Hofre

cy,

lice

swae sioSSan yferran dogre, swae hwaeder swse

sie.

Sonne oSSe hlaford past nylle


siolf nylle, gnd hire oSer
>onne agefe mgn ten hund pendinga inn mid

hire mynsterllfes

Sing Hofre

11

sie,

Gif hlgan

geunnan, oSSa hia

XXX II.

192
30

minum

me wiS

lice

hund pendinga

Qnd
ambra

legerstowe Qnd

fif

monn se Saet min lond


Sem higum set Folcan-stane l

he Sice gere agefe

malles, Qnd vi ambra


gnd cccc blafa, Qnd an

niQnn

higum an sundran

mine sawle.

bidde Qnd bebeode swselc

ic

h<?bbe Saet

35 ceses,

fore

KENTISH CHARTERS.

Se

se

minum

to

Qnd in wega

gruta,

Qnd

hriSr,

serfe

vi seep.

spices

Qnd

Qnd

swaelc

Sonne gedele he selcum

fee,

messepreoste binnan Cent mancus goldes, Qnd selcum Godes

Qnd

Siowe pending,

Sancte

to

Qnd FreoSomund

min wgergeld twa

Petre

minum sweorde, Qnd


Qnd him mQn forgefe Ser-an
40 agefe Ser-set feower Susenda
Sreotene hund pending[a]. Qnd gif mine broSar serfeweard
gestrionen Se lQndes weorSe sie, ]?onne ann ic Sem iQndes.
Susenda.

to

foe

Gif hie ne gestrionen, cSSa him sylfum selles-hwset


Defter

ann

hiora d<?ge

ic

Gif him elles-hwset

45 biS.

FreoSomunde,

his

gif

Sonne ann

sseleS,

sweestar suna, swselcum se hit geSian wile

Qnd

biS.

Seet Ser
foe

Seara nan

se hlaford to

minum
Se

gif pset gesele ]?oet

se

minra

ne

se

An

set

minra

Qnd him

gifeSe

San clane gewite

to

Sas redenne

forespreoca

ic hit

ponne
Qnd hit

sie,

Kristes-cirican,

Sider sejle

min Qnd
Qnd mundbora, Qnd an his

Se Kristes-cirican hlaford

erfewearda

lifes

his

ic

Se lQndes weorSe

Qnd Sa higan

gaste nytt gedcen.

mQnn

sie

min cynn

saale,

he Sonne

sie, s[i]e

hlaforddome we bian moten.

C.

ALFRED.
871-889.

dux hatu writan Qnd cySan an Sissum gewrite


Qnd allum his weotum Qnd geweotan, Qnd ec
swylce minum megum Qnd minum gefderum, pa msenw be ic
mines serfes Qnd mines boclQndes soelest Qnn, Saet is ponne
Ic iElfred

JElfrede regi

XXXII.

KENTISH CHARTERS.

93

Werburg min wif gnd uncer gemene beam, poet is bonne 5


airestan an Sgndenstede gnd on Seles-dune xxxn hlda, gnd
on Westarham xx hlda, gnd on Cloppaham xxx hida, gnd on
Leangafelda vi hlda, gnd on Horsa-laege x hlda, ond on
Netelamstyde vi hida. Ic yElfred dux sejlo Werburge gnd
et

Alhc\v(5e

uncum gemenum bearne

lgnd mid cwice

aerfe

mlnum

aefter

d^ge

pas 10

gnd mid eanSe gnd mid allum Sin gum

lgndum belimpacS. Qnd twa pusendu swlna ic heom


mid pern lgndum, gif hio hlo gehaldetS mid pare
Qnd hio
clamnisse pe uncer wordgecweodu seondan.
gif
oVt
Godes
wergeld,
mm
twa
Petre
get
Sancte
gebrenge
Qnd getter Werburge
willa seo \ei heo paet faereld age.
daege seo AlhtSrySe pa lgnd unbefliten on Sgndemstyde
Se

to

sejlo

15

gnd on Selesdune ond Leangafelda. Qnd gif heo beam


gif heo
h3ebbe, feo Saet beam to <5aem lgndum sefter hire
beam risebbe, feo (Sonne an hire rehtfaederen sio neste hgnd 20
;

to pern

londe gnd to

oem

aerfe,

gnd swa hwylc minra

faedren-

San gehagige paet he pa 6<5oro


lgnd begeotan maege gnd wille, ponne gebygcge he pa Ignd
Qnd swe hwylc mgn;z swa "Soet
aet hire mid halfe weorSe.
minne daeg on Cloppaham,
ofer
bruce
lgndes
sio paet oVs

mega swa

Saet sio paet hine to

panne geseUe he cc peninga eghwylce gere

Qnd

for iElfredes sawle to feormfultume.

mlnum sunu

[ane]s hides an Gata-tune,


gif se cyning

in hida boclgndes:

him geunnan

gnd him

sejlo per-to c

gif hit paet

selle

hio wille,

Horsa-lege, swe

<

swlna; gnd

t5aet

Hmetedune,
swina; gnd

wille paes folclgndes to

ponne haebbe gnd bruce


hio him swa hwacSer swa

minum mege an

iESelwalde

ic sejlo

hida on

lgnde,

an Leangafelda.

hide boclgndes

Qnd

swa

ne

oajm bocsio,

lgnd an

<5aet

ic sejlo

30

ponne

Berhtsige

on Laencanfelda, gnd

gesejle hio c swina to Cristes-cirican for

per-to

me gnd

mine sawle, gnd c to Ceortes-ege; gnd pone ofenecan


mgn gedaile gind mynsterhamas to Godes ciricum inSupregum
fer

25

to Ceortes-ege

35

gnd

in Caent,

Sigewulfe

ba hwile be hio lestan

minum mege

40 Netelhaemstyde
to

to

gnd

willasn.

Werburge daeg

oem

Sigulf geseUe of

Qnd

Seem lgnde

to

ofer

foe,

Qnd
baet

ic

sello

lgnd an

lgnde c pseninga

eghwylc para cerfewearda be aefter


bonne ageofen hfo ba ilcan dmessan

Cristes-cirican for ^Elfredes sawle, ba hwile

be fulwiht

sio,

man on <5cem lgnde begeotan maege. Qnd ic sejlo


Eadrede minum mege pet lgnd on Fearnlege aefter jEoelgnd

45

Cristes-cirican.

him

KENTISH CHARTERS.

XXXII.

194

hit

redes daege, gif he hit to


of

oem

c^stre

gnd

him geearnian

wile

gnd he

gesejle

lgnde xxx .... cornes alghwelce gere to Hrofessio

Sis

lgnd

gewriten

gnd

unbefliten

aefter

Eadredes d^ge in vElfredes rehtmeodren-cynn oa hwile be


50 fulwiht

sio

on Angelcynnes ealgnde.

pas gewriotu be her-beufan

Deos foresprec gnd

awreotene slgndacS,

ic

Alfred

gnd wille baet hio sion sooTaestlice forSweard getrymed


me gnd minum aerfeweardum. Gif tSset Sonne God aellmaehtig geteod habbe, gnd me boat on laene geliS bast
55 me gesibbra aerfeweard for'ScymeS wepnedhades gnd acaenned
weorSeS, Sanne ann ic Seem ofer minne daeg alles mines
willio

him leofust sio. And swa hwyle


gnd
pas geofe gnd bas gewrioto gnd
mgnra swa, oas god
bas word mid rehte haldan wille gnd gelaestan, gehalde
fohine heofones cyning in bissum life gndwardum, gnd eac
gnd swa. hwyle mgnra swa. hio
swa. in bairn towardan life
wgnie gnd breoce, gewgnie him God almahtig his weorldare
aerfes

to

brucenne

swa.

gnd eac swa

his sawle are.


1

fulwihtc.

XXXIII.
CODEX AUREUS INSCRIPTION.
In nomine Domini noslri Ihesu Christi, ic ^Elfred aldormgn;/
gnd Werburg min gefera begetan <5as bee set haeSnum hrge
mid uncre clasne feo; 6aet Sonne wres mid claine golde.
Qnd Saet wit deodan for Godes lufan gnd for uncre saule
1
<5earf[e], gnd for Son <5e wit noldan
Sset Sas halgan bcec
lncg in Saere h<5en[n]esse wunaden, gnd nu willatS heo
gesgllan inn to Cristes-circan Gode to lofe gnd to wuldre gnd
2

weorSunga, gnd his Srowunga to Sgncunga

to

godcundan geferscipe

t5

dseghwsemlice Godes lof

for

raJracS;

monaSe

arede eghwelce

brucen[ne]
to

<5e

gnd

for

gnd Jem

Cristes-circan

in

SSm gerade

for iElfred

cSset

heo

mon

hcebbe Soet fulwiht

Ec swelce

^Elfred

ic

asejle

mgn

seo to

dux gnd Werburg


Son

bidda<5

gnd halsiaS

allra his haligra

^EIfre[d].

Werbur[g].
1

<5a3ti5

gedyrstig Ssette Sas halgan bcec

oSSe aSeode frgm Cristes-circan Sa hwile

stgndan mote

<5e

Seosse stowe beon mote.

set

on Godes almsehtiges ngman gnd on


noenig

AlhSrycS eorum
a

nolc?an.

O 2

10

Werburge gnd

AlhSrySe, heora saulum to ecum lecedome, Sa hwile

God gesegen

[filia].

S'oncunca.

<5e

fulwiht

XXXIV.
KENTISH PSALM.
formed

Z>avid wses haten


/sraela braega,

(zSelse

fyninga cynost,

and

hseleo
rice

Criste liofost.

Wses he under ^iofenum


Sara we an /oleum

^earpera mserost,

ge/rigen hsebben.

jangere he wses jooTsestest,

jwioe geSancol,

/lodum sinum
wiS pane wildostan wanna Scppend.
to <?ingienne

Wses

se Zfryhtnes (5iowa

jigeegmpa,

jotS

jearocyne

Z^avid

set

wige,

man \

ponne rumbulgebrec
on gewinndagum weoroan scoldan.
HwsecSere him gewde,
swa. ful oft gedeS
<rasere creaftig,

psette

^odferhte

purh Achaman

Gehmp

^ylt gefrsemma'S

/ene geoohtas.

him anj-ende 2 jaula Ngrieml


ze/itgan mid zrordum
weorada Dryhten
and jgegan hdt, jelfum gecySan
pset

:;

ymb
pset
for

his

se

z^pmwdeda

yVuma

waire

"Sam pe he 7riam het

/iomne

ferdrinc

and him i?ezabe

doom

PFaldendes

his y'eores sceldig,


<?ldre

beneman,

_/e[o]re beserode,

^rohte to wife

KENTISH PSALM.

XXXIV.

and

.relfa

Code

gyltas georne

Su me,

J/iltsa

....

zwast

pines anes,

Qnd

eac

Zhyhten weoruda,

ASweah me
Se

pa.

on

ic

wziltsa

adilgd.

35

Sinra,

min unriht

pilule

fram

wammum.
4

^eltas geclansa,

aldre

<gfre

gefremede

/eSre geSohtas.

Surh /ichaman

For San

of jennum,

Scfppend,
ic

God

^aste mlnum.

to for^efenesse

gasta.

wnriht

min

ea\l

oncnawe

and eac .anna gehweer jelfum set eagan


be/bran standeS,

/"irendeda geSrec
jcelda jrinaS;
/ifes

and

Sinre /ufan blisse.

Jnum Se

ic

ok syngode

eac gefrsemede

feola

_>fela

^elta ^ramhegdig,

Aelende Crist
Sx-t

an

me

ic

pastes

forg-efene

50

wunde

_/eran mote,

zyeorSan gefelde,

py Sine ze/ordewidas
2

g6d.
1

Se, -asta breogo,

/telpe bidde,

ybrSgesceaft

45

forgef me, 6Veppen[dJ min,

/iohtfruma

Nii

30

w/ildhiortnesse.

wenio

rfter

^andgeweorces

ce\me\ii\g

pinre wiclan

ffter

wanna geSohtas

min

help Sii Zfcelend

ontende,

andhette,

and Sus zflordum space


7eahta Walden[d],

z^eoruda Dryhtne,

nu SO

Zhyhtne gebaed

to

jynna hord

his

25

/ioda aldor

#ingode

Z>avid georne

and

jona anfunde..

weorc

his jelfes

Him Sa

97

pe he Codes eorre

for g-itsunga,

purh

6:;c\vawe.

Cara miclan.
an.

6n.

&et

ne

(5u

Ac

zoeora ainiges deatS.

ztdlnast

Criste herdon,

hio rgrrende

tSaet

and hiom

/if

mid

\vilce

aet

dome

eal/ra

Ic

(Sii

wzaehtig

and

ic

(Saet

<5?ldran

and

eac

by

jelfa

.yelva,

ic

(Se

mid /5enum

and

me,

.SVgppend min,

gecerre,

65

beeode.

an

jotS

lufast

ftddan wille

wncucSe

hord

jelfa

70

eac (San derne

ontendes

God,

77/eahtig

burh jrsopon

me

forgef
jelfa

/iohtes aldor,

me

binre .metera

ic

God,

/isse,

for (San (SO

bonne

?6dor gebaer
:

.rio(S(San

(Sii

Du

me

ax geworhtan,

Ac
/ifes

ana wast,

(Saet

fram (Saim synnum

ba oy mine
ic

synnum

^zc San in

jreldum

in

Go

jaula Ne. riend.

hu

Dryhten,

in ..vrame

Z>ryhten oferswiddest

?Su

/angsum begaiton

(Se

jynna cynn 1
on zmrihtum,

geeacnod wses

55

jimle lcerdes,

jyn/rfulle

(50

KENTISH PSALM.

XXXIV.

)8

2
.

and

zilde

blitSe

^al/ne ahluttra,

gecliinsod

and eac ofer jnawe

Criste hero,

75

scinende

jelf

jona gemete.

binre .ribbe lufan

Ontyn nu, -fflmrfuig, <?arna hleotSor,


/zehtful weortSe
bset min ge/zemes
on ge/ean bliSse
(Sanne bio(5

on

_/bro\veard to

rc'enne,

ba ge^rocenan ban,
(Sa

be on /^senSum

Dryhten

ftlwit

bine anslone
1

cynn.

4
,

on-.

jaula Neriend,

wlnra gylta

<2lmeahtig
2

air /zwile wairon.

Ahwerf nu fram jynnum,


and fram /wisdedum

So

(Se

PFaldend, simle

85

God,
3

dns.

an-.

KENTISH PSALM.

XXXIV.

in

min

nriht

adilga.

edW.

tJ3c Su, Dryhten Crist, rlsene hiortan


me, w<?htig God, wodswiSne geSanc,

Ne

minum _/^ste
Su me,

geniowa.
ze>eoruda Dryhten.

me

haligne

-ast

i^rea selmeahtig,

arna

me

eall

nu

^liSse

me,

Saele

pinre &elo

ne bescenve.

Dryhten

3ilewit

selfa

getreme,

a forS sioSSan

Sinum Lilian

ayeorSan mote.

ic

selfa to

eh gecejdan

Se

Surh jibbe lufan


Befreo

pastes

mundberd

me an/erSe,

i^asder

and 3ealaniSum

Cod

lifigende,

ylta geclansa,

//elo

and ^elpend,

Sanne /unge min


for Sines jelfes

/nofenrices

manwcynnes,

weard

115

/riowfest blissaS
.roSfestnesse.

Ontyn nu, z^aldend God,


swa min mu<S sioSSan
2

Junre.

no

jeocan scoldan.

fram <51odgete

105
lairde,

saula hiorde,

to hiora .yelfra
,

wanhogan 3

Sine z^eogas

Sset hie arlease

Cod 4

100

/iohtes hiorde,

Cod,

Sset ic aldorlice

Simle

/zelm alwihta,

Zieht,

and me, /ifgende


t^aste Sine,

to

95

pinra miltsa,

eaXxz.

ne Sane ^odan fram


a/erredne,

pinra

rodera Waldend,

gast,

az^eorp

fram <znsione

domas

^alige

to /^ealdenne

and Su rihtne
in /"erSe

90

<2mne willan

to ^olienne

and

99

wzeahta pinra

and Surh ;mltsunga

Su

dtls.

weoloras mine,

wzaehte Sine
3

wan-.

god.

KENTISH PSALM.

XXXIV.

200
and

/iodum to bliSse

georne

/of

z^eoruda Dryhtne,

Su

(5aet

ne

baet

ic

<5e

fifes

br5

/ziorte

geclansod

zhwgebancum

and geJadmeded

Su <zlmaihtig <z;fre ne sewest.


Gedoo nu /ioemsume /rofre 'Sine

to <5inum ^-odan
<5sette

and

.rigefcst

slon

7^'eallas

weoroe,

lifiende

135

an/ehst sibcSan

Swa, bu. i'rea meahtig,


/ioda binra

i/aHend manna
3

hio

iJ/eotod w?ancynnes
Sa.

on

Swse /ingode

rynedomes

seco.

])inre.

w/sehtig

140

Dryhten

5
,

giogecSe

mid /ufan binre

145

^lid[an] mote,'

/lode aldor

deda gemyndig,

Z>auid to .Dryhtne,
bast hine wzaehtig

ge/rsemed hsebbe,

/eahtra hegeleasra,
^astae for^eofene

oSSe on

a-lde

yiseschaman

Saes

Mlige cealf

jaule wunde,

jorlrfullan
ic

forgef me, /ifigende

/iohtes aldor;

t5aet

(Saet

milium asettaS,

zrigbed bin

t ba Se

getremed

ze>ynfseste

God

fiofwende lie

130

pastes willan,

6'ione diin

Zfterusolimse,

in

125

mehtig Dryhten,

/iicwer<5e

se ge/mysta gast,

on

bretta,

<5re[n]gan moste

?a,

;;zicle

fifiende Crist,

(5a

swa,

z/olde

<5vi

Z>ryhtne to willan.

<2eadra neata

Ac

(5er

Aifedest,

<$<?rnelac

<5e

120

wses.

jona brohte,

Ic tSe on.yegednesse

(5a.

jecgende

JO'S -Slgedryhten

God

raannum

to frofre

Crist neriende
=

on.

man-.

150
5

dns.

on.

KENTISH

XX.WF.
w/aldende
for

God

Son he

weorftne

PSALM.

munde

mid eaftmede nwge\>a.r\ce,


2
ge/raemed
<5a <5e he on /eroe

J?aet

Forge f

we jynna hord

and us gerarnian
an

talaniSa hord

ge^ette

pastes wunde.

us,

Cod

hsefde,
1

maeahtig,

smile oferwinnan.

cece

dreamas

/andes wenne.

/ifigendra

P 6d.

20J

on.

155

NOTES
CYNEWULF AND CYNEHEARD.

I.

Earle's edition of the Chronicle has been re-edited by Mr. Charles


(vol. i, text, appendices, and glossary, Clarendon Press, 1892),

Plummer

has carefully collated all the texts afresh with the original MSS.
her, literally 'at this place' (in the series of entries in the Chronicle), comes to have a temporal meaning 'in this year.'
.'
'
Cynewulf ond Westseaxna wiotan benamon .
2. wiotan is nom.

who
1.

Hamtunscir, Hampshire.
The reading mid wuncde of the
3. pe him longest wunode.
other MSS. is probably the correct one.
The great forest in Kent and Sussex, now the Weald.'
4. Andred.
'

5.

Pryfetes floda has been doubtfully

identified

with Privet

in

Hants.

ond he wreec pone aldormcnn Cumbran.


Cumbra he referring to the swan.'
11. Merantun, Merton in Surrey.

6.

death of
18.
'

gebierum.

gestures,'

In revenge for the

'

'

In

all

the other passages where

behaviour,' but here

it

clearly has the

it occurs gebmru
meaning of cries.'
'

337/7, where for the words mid reouliche iberen of the


older text, the later has spre wepinge.
The exact construction here is doubtful. The
20. ond radost.
later MSS. evidently felt the difficulty, for two of them omit the words
altogether, and the two others omit pnd, giving stvd hwylc swa ponne
gearo ivearp hrafost. Tnio is an evasion of the real difficulty, which
The most probable explanation is that hrapost is not
lies in the pnd.

Cp. Layamon

ii.

'whoever was ready and quickest,' which


whoever was soonest ready.'
not to the king's men, but to the selling's; this

the adverb, but the adjective


is,

of course, equivalent to
30.

hsefdon

refers

abrupt change of subject


of the
31.

whole

he

is

piece.

the Keeling.

is

'

quite in keeping with the rude archaic style

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

2C4
33.

from noldon.

Observe the omission of the verb of motion.

Cp. 21/317.
37. pset
39.

Wkejxr^e for fat pe (Gr. 139").


Observe the sudden change from the indirect to the

\1 Bz\,=pcct }>izt,

eowre.

direct narration, so frequent in Icelandic.

STATE OF LEARNING IN ENGLAND.

II.

This change of person occurs also in /Elfric's preface to


of the Heptateuch
/Elfrie munuc gret yE)>elweard
.'
ealdormann eadmodlice. )>u baede me leof }>aet ic sceolde
25. pissa woruldpinga simply = ' worldly affairs,' or 'these worldly
affairs around us.'
This use oi pes for the definite article is not uncommon. Cp. Finnesburg, 1. 7, nu seine]) )>es mona waJ)ol under
hate.

2.

translation

his

'

'

wolcnum.'
to

psem swffi pu oftost msege, as


Abrupt change of person.

63. ge.
is

inadmissible here

often as you can.

The plausible reading gedon


gedon always implies causation or something

analogous, as in 4/170.
68. to nanre operre riots

ne masgen, cannot be

employment.
77. andgit of andgiete.

'Sense by sense,' which =' sentence by

set to

any other

sentence.'

TRANSLATION OF THE CURA PASTORALIS.

III.

to seeeanne.

S.

menige
from the

The

original has

refers to scylda

'

peiscrutanda.'

hie in the next line

is

an abrupt transition

sins to the sinners.

11. licettan,

'

nonnulla

'

vitia)

dissimulanda

sunt.'

eft, afterwards.

12.

ponne must be

it

translated 'then' here, although the Latin has

it is not improbable that


cum, and to be correlative with the
The original of the whole passage is ut cum de-

But the construction

ctim.

was originally meant

other ponne,

1.

16.

is

so confused that

to translate

'

linquens et deprehendi se cognoscit et perpeti has quas in se tacite


tolerari considerat, augere culpas erubescat, seque se judice punia',

quem

sibi

16.

he.

apud

frequent in

spoken

of.

se rectoris patientia

clementer excusat.'

The change from 'they' to 'he,' and the reverse,


our text when an indefinite number belonging to a

is

very

class is

II, III.

32.

be

pfieni in this

some

NOTES.

205

frequent collocation with ctvcep, gecweden, gener-

In
one passage (131/11), where there is no cwepan following, there can
set
be no doubt as to its causative meaning ' be para eac Moyses
sume cierre Githro his sweor
hine tsjlde.'
The Latin has 'hinc
But in another
Moyses
Jethro alienigense reprehensione judicatur.'
passage (433/8) hinc dicitur is translated ymbe pat is gecweden. These
examples would justify us in translating either therefore,' according
to the Latin, or about which,' according to the Old English.
This sense seems to be,
42. on piini anbide pe be hira fandige.
'watch his opportunity of testing them,' but the construction is obscure.
The Latin is entirely different ' interveniente correptione articulo ex
ally translates

causative particle, such as unde, inde, hinc.

'

'

minimis majora cognoscat.'


For this curious intrusion of a c compare scmegan
75. scnicendan.
for smeagan in the Vespasian Psalter (1 18/192), and the Icelandij
sclakkagile for Slakkagili, and the other instances collected by Gislason.
The un-English omission of pingum cannot be
87. eorplicum.
explained from the original, which has ad terrain unless we suppose
;

that Alfred's text read

ad

terrena.

This sentence seems to be loosely


107. hwses pu wenan scealt.
dependent on the preceding ongietan. There is nothing to correspond
in the Latin.

134. preagende evidently has a passive meaning here


rebuked.'
138. ryht,

141. pset

examples

'

duty'

'while being

the Latin has debit um.

pleonastic here, as

is

is

shown by the

indicative sceal.

For

cognates see Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik, iv. 444.


cwsep is here nothing but a periphrasis of the Latin

in the

177. 111911
passive,

and therefore does not

imply an

indefinite subject.

necessarily,

like

the

German man,

This form with elided r occurs again (123/13), but


for for mfolorenan (123/11
fohlt 99/24).
him seems to refer to hieremonna, with the usual confusion

186. ariip.

H.
189. he
of number
only

in

Compare fo

on 1. 16 above).
giemeleste gehlened. They^r is causal, through.' The
Latin has damnari ex negligentia.'
This dropping of h is not uncommon in these texts:
231. ofsliep.
other examples are pur for purh, fort iovforht, &c.
(cp. note

208. for

'

'

241. 111911
necesse

243.
254.

is

here nearly equivalent to

'

it'

the Latin has plus

quam

est.

gewundap. The subject is the he of the


ponne is used here because the preceding

he or gif hw a.

next

line.

se is

equivalent to gif

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

2c6

THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND YYULFSTAN.

IV.

all that is ever likely


first part (OE text and Latin original)
appear of my edition of Orosius has been published by the Early
English Text Society (no. 79, 1883).

The

to

sie, extends.

4.

forp bi peere ea, past the river.


Beormas, Permians.
gebud is simply the preterite.
haefdon

23.

29.

Cp. Beowulf 2707


These are not cases of deliberate substitution of the pluperfect
they point rather to an imperfect differentiation of the
for the preterite
meanings of the auxiliary tenses.
35. sopes for sdj>, attracted by the preceding ^.y.
.

(Grein).

41. se hwael, th's (kind of) whale.

wildrum.

47.

C.,

which

here our only authority, has wiideorum,

is

but with the eo written above the

The

line.

Norse form is krein (or possibly at this early


period hraiii), whence (and not from the OE Aran) our rein{decr).
oppe. The two o/>J>e's are correlative, standing
64. awper oppe
hranas.

49.

real

together in apposition to a~wj>er

'

either-of-the-two, either

or

.'
.

77. Sweoland, Sweden.

Cwenas, Fins.
Halgoland, Halogaland.

78.
84.

Sclr-inges heal, Sklringssalr.

87.

satisfactorily identified.
Ireland can
hardly be meant, still less Iceland, as some explain, altering into
Rieger thinks the Shetlands are meant.
Isaland.

91.

Iraland has not been

93.

Norpweg, Norway.

96.

Geotland, Jutland.

Sillende, Holstein.
This pleonastic use of
99. set Heepum, Heipabcer, now Slesvig.
at with names of places occurs elsewhere in the older writings, as in
'in pare stowe pe is genemned set Searobyrg,'
the Chronicle (552
where the at has been erased by some later hand, showing that the
idiom had become obsolete. Cp. the German ' Gasthaus zur Krone,'
s

Stamboul = es tan polin.


100. "Winedas, Wends.
101.

(7/8)

Dene, literally

in

Wessex,

'the

literally

Danes
'

'

= Denmark.

among

So

also on

wsere on Truso on seofon dagiim, reached T.


Truso, Drausen.
no. Weonodiand, Wend-land.

108.

109.

Westseaxnm

the West-Saxons.'
in seven days.

IV, V.

NOTES.

207

in. Langaland, Lgjland, Ealster; Langeland, Laalnnd, Falster.


112. Sconeg, Skaanen (Schonen). The Old Norse is Skaney
in the
OE form a has become before n, as in mona - ON mani.
113. Burgenda land, Bornholm (Burgenda = Burgundians).
us.
Abrupt change from indirect to direct narration, as in 1. 39.
115. Blecinga eg, Blekingen.
116. Meore, Eowland, Gotland; More, Oeland, Gothland.
118. Wisle, Vistula.
;

120.

Estas, Esthonians.
Cp. 8/9 and note.

lip, flows.

122. Ilfing, Elbing.


123.
124.
145.

pe is genitive on whose shore.


Estmere, Frische Haff.
Bosworth has designed the following
:

these races

III!
v

vi

illustration of the plan of

iv

iii

ii

4 5

'

Where

The

six parts of the


property placed
within one mile.

the horsemen
assemble.

The horsemen assemble five or six miles from the property, at d or


and run towards c
the man who has the swiftest horse, coming
first to 1 or c, takes the first and largest part.
The man who has the
horse coming second, takes part 2 or b, and so, in succession, till the
'

e,

least part, 6 or a, is taken.'

and

to peem rneestan, 'which is also the largest.'


swipost ealle, nearly all. Cp. nicest ale (8/29).
162. pses pe is loosely dependent on legere in the preceding line.
164. gepeode, literally language,' but here ^language as a sign of
nationality, and therefore = nation,' 'tribe.'
167. pset hie seems to mean who,' as in pe hie.
154.

160.

'

'

'

165. pS3S goes with thcj>y in the preceding line

V.

J>yJ>iet

'because.'

ALFRED'S TRANSLATION OF OROSIUS.

A. 3. Asiam. The regular English genitive would be Asie, but


the accusative of Latin words seems often to be taken to represent all
the oblique cases indiscriminately: cp. 11. 27, 55 below, where Asiam is
dative.
7.

33.

oper oppe
to

pon

oppe.

peat hie

Cp. 4/64 above.

wrecan pohton.

This

si

ems

to be a con-

FIRST ANGLC-SAXON READER.

208

two distinct constructions (i) tofori p<?t hie turcecen (in order
and (2) for J>iem pe hie wrecan pohton.
ymbe twelf monap, every twelve month, once a year. These

fusion of
to

.),

42.

words are nearly pleonastic after the previous ielce geare.


This omission of a relative or personal pronoun
51. hatene.

common
'

is

such supplementary sentences of naming. Cp. Orosius 92/2


bysne nyttan cneft
funde heora tictator, Camillis hatte.'
Cp. 1. 3 above.
53. Asiam, genitive dependent on dal.
65. Ercol, Hercules.
in

68. dulmunus.
This word only occurs twice besides here in the
Orosius (50/10; 80/6), and in both places in the gen. pi., so that its
form cannot be determined with certainty. Perhaps we should read
diilmnnas (nom. pi. mascA It is a corruption of the Lat. dromundus

from Greek dromos.

hwelc

11.
'

such

correlative to the preceding swelc

is

sivelc

hwelc =

as.'

neah

neah occurs also in the Pastoral (35/20).


due to the following selfra. This
change of the genitive of a personal pronoun into the possessive occurs
several times in the Pastoral
firm hwelcne f>? /i)=ure hivelcne, fires
iianes (211/14), urra selfra (220/5).
101. pset seems to be here equivalent to ponne, or some such word.
in this frequent phrase the second Jxzt
107. nales pset an paet
83. fol

lowra

95.

for fill

for tower, evidently

is

>

pleonastic.

no. hu

hwelce. This repetition seems to be the result of contwo distinct sentences, how can ye think that they had
peace?' and 'what peace think ye they had?'
The original
1. seegdon in the un-English sense of 'mention.'
B.
has commemoraveram. Cp. however 25/1, where secgan is used in the
.

fusing the

sense of

'

'

tell.'

19. folc

is

used as a synonym of fierd (1. 16 above). Cp.


bonne he on oper folc winnan

here

Pastoral 129/8:

'

se here bij> eall idel,

This usage

sceal.'

is

a tradition of the earliest times, in which the


sum total of the men of a nation, and the

army

consisted simply of the

ideas

'

on

army and nation were therefore convertible.


The reading pn plem eagonge would seem more
'

'

'

peere ea gcng.

natural; cp., however, to piere


23.

Membrap.

The

sie

strande (14/105).

original has

Nemrod,

or, in

some MSS., Ne-

broth.

end. gnd is here relative 'just as if


Lipa cyning. The original has rex Lydorum, but

40. gelice
47. se

.'

seems to have taken lyda or lida for the adjective


added the definite article.

llpe,

the scribe

and so

to have

NOTES.

VI-VIII.
VI.

hre.

1.

209

THE BATTLE OF ASHDOWN.

This word, being associated with hygian =

to be used only in a bad sense, and hence

was

'

harry,'

came

specially applied to the

The native army was always calledjierd.


Readingas, Reading.
10. JEsces-dun, Ashdown.
11. Bachsfcg.
The spelling with a g (line 14) seems to point to
a name Bdgseggr, which would mean war-man.'
12. Halfdene, an Anglicized form of the Norse Halfdanr.
16. Sidroc, perhaps a corruption of the Old Norse Sigtryggr.
17. Osbearn = ON Asbjpm, Os (God) being a translation of Ass.
FriTna ON Frdni (the bright one). Hareld = Haraldr.
21. Basingas, Basingstoke.
24. Meretun, Merton or Harden (?).
31. Winburne, Wimborne.
34. Wiltun, Wilton.
Danish marauders.

'

VII.

ALFRED AND GODRUM.

Cippanhamm, Chippenham.

2.

Inw8er = ON Ivarr.
Observe that the
more archaic form, with the original n retained.
7.

OE

spelling shows a

Defenaselr, Devonshire.

8.

12. .aspelinga-eg, Athelney.

17.

Sumorssetan, men of Somerset.


Sealwudu, Selwood forest.
Wilssitan, men of Wiltshire. Hamtunscire,

19.

Iglea, Highley<?).

13.

16.

genitive.

Epandun, Edington (?).


Alor, Aller.
28. Guprum, probably a corruption of the ON Guttormr, with the
usual shifting of r, the first syllable being perhaps identified with gf/J>.
The name Ormr itself appears regularly as Urm in English charters of
20.
27.

^E])elstan (cp. Gr. 82).

Wepmor, Wedmore.

29.

VIII.
1.

4.

ALFRED'S

WARS WITH THE DANES.

Bunne, Bologne.
Limene-mupa, mouth of the Limen.

Cp. the
9. lip here has the sense of motion = flows,' as in 4/120.
analogous change of meaning with standan, as in Beowulf 726 him of
'

'

eagum

stod leoht unfseger.'

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

2IO
10.

fram psem mupan utanweardum, from

the

outside of the

mouth.
11.

inne on = oninnan.

12.

on, pleonastic.

Middeltun, Milton in Kent.


16. Apulder, Appledore.
foregisel.
The precise meaning of
15.

a subject of conjecture.

It

is

word has long been


mean foremost
The analogy, however, of the comthis

generally assumed to

'

hostage of high rank.'


mon legal term forPaJ) translated antejuramenliim in the Latin laws of
Henry I, makes it more likely that the correct translation is 'preliminary
hostage,'

'

hostage.'
22.

oppe mid

Either with (the other

army\

or on their

own

side only.
24. pser pir

frequently

is,

The for

in this passage

to signify hindrance.

The

seems to be used, as

it

general sense would then be

he pushed up his position between the two armies as near (far) as their
entrenchments would allow.
26. feld secan.
Come out into the open field.
' they were
28. hi refers here, as also 1. 26 above, to the enemy
attacked by detachments both from the king's army and from the
:

garrisons.'

37.

pa refers
ongean,

38.

Fearnhamm, Farnham

36.

to ket'ehype.
to

meet the

ships.
in Surrey.

Coin, the river Colne in Herts.


42. hie refers to the fierd.
43. stemn gesetenne, had sat out (served) their term of
41.

service.

(Earle.)

53.

seems here to be simply equivalent


Exanceaster, Exeter.

55.

gewalden,

45. pa. ... pa,

inconsiderable.

to

'

then.'

This word has hitherto been erro-

neously rendered ' powerful,' considerable,' although the context points


There is a passage in the Pastoral
clearly to the opposite meaning.
which settles the question conclusively, ge moston drincan gewealden
'

wines (319/6), translating modico vino utere.'


easteweardes. Prof. Earle translates moving eastwards.'
59. Beamfleot, Benfleet in Essex.
69. Hrofesceaster, Rochester.
'

'

72.

84.

onfangen, received as sponsors.


Sceoburg, Shoebury in Essex.

88.

Seefern, the Severn.

92.

Pedrede, the Panet.


Buttingtun, Buttington

95.

in

Montgomery

(?).

ATOTES.

IX, X.

21

Defnas, men of Devonshire.

98.

in. Wirhealas, Legaceaster Wirral,


127. M^resig, Mersea in Essex.
;

Chester.

130. Cisseeeaster, Chichester.


134.
150.

Lyge, the Lea.


Cwatbryeg, Bridgenorth.

162. Sigen, the Seine.


163.
is

The

Godes ponces.

inaccurate

}gnces

usual translation, 'thanks be to God,'


>nc = ' thought.'
J> i

the instrumental genitive of

is

by the grace of God.'


Dorceceaster, Dorchester.
172. Winteceaster, Winchester.
182. on Fresisc, on the Frisian model.
1 87. forforon.
A modern reader would be tempted to emend forfaran, but the abrupt change of construction is quite natural in Alfredian
Translate

'

171.

English.
394.

pe goes with the preceding/wy^.

196. pe

is

construction
197.

here used loosely in the sense of

would bej>ej>d scipu on dsetcn

mehte

omission of a verb of motion, as

The more

where.'

usual

in 1/33.

ALFRED'S TRANSLATION OF BOETHIUS.

IX.

ongpnn

4.

'

wceroti.

secgan

is

here a mere periphrasis for

Cp.

satde.

23/20 and 67/3.


10. sceolde is here used like the German sollte, to show that the
speaker is merely quoting the statements of some one else without
Alfred evidently wishes to warn his
guaranteeing their accuracy.
readers not to believe the story, for he afterwards (1. 55) characterises
Pastoral,

it

as

'

19.

pas leasan spell.'

onginnan

pleonastic, as in

4 above, and again further on.

1.

This anacoluthon seems to arise


33. pa hi secgap pset walden
and hi secgap,
from a confusion between J>d, hi s$cgaj>, waldap
feet fid ( = hi walden
37. pees pe = ]>xs, J>ses pe.
57. oppe na, or rather not at all.'
.

'

X.

ACCOUNT OF THE POET CyEDMON.

The OE Bede has now been re-edited by Dr. Thomas Miller (Parts
and II; Early E. T. S. nos. 95, 96, 1890/1), who, following up the
suggestions of Sievers, has shown that it was originally Anglian, thus
I

P 2

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

212

my doubts stated already in the first edition of this


being the work of Alfred.
5. peet is correlative to the preceding szvd hwcet swd.
18. piere.
The reading pa with the un-English ace. may be the
original one, due to slavish following of the Latin, which has ' relifully confirming

as to

book

giosam

ejus

its

linguam decebant.'

The

23. inting.

Latin has

'

Iaetitiae

lator has evidently taken causa for the


40.

The

original

Northumbrian text

The

causa decretum.'

nom. instead of the


of Csedmon's Hymn

trans-

abl.
is

given

fur-

ther on (30).
52. in pset ilee

mox

gemet. The Latin has 'eis (cuncta quae cantaverat)


eundem modum verba Deo digna carminis adjunxit.' The
stiff and unidiomatic
in pat ilee gemet should be on pcem

plura in

translation is

wyipe should govern the genitive and the word-order is


quite un-English.
This passage alone is enough to prove that the
ilean gemete ;

translation

only nominally Alfred's.

is

59.

gecoren,

60.

gesewen,

'

probaretur.'
'

visumque

est

omnibus

.'

These two words are

used here in un-English senses, evidently suggested by the Latin.


68. hsefde pa wisan onfangene, ' suscepto negotio.'
Doubtful
English.
75.

mid

hine,

'

Both the accusative construction and the

secum.'

introduction of the words themselves seem due to the Latin.


77.

pa selfan can only mean 'the same.' It is possible, however,


was selfe, his teachers themselves.' The Latin

that the original reading

'

has 'doctores suos vicissim auditores sui faciebat.'


illaque lingua que salutaria verba in laudem
136. The Latin has
ipsius, signando sese, et spiritum suum in manus ejus commendando
'

clauderet.'

FROM THE LAWS.

XI.
17.

gebete

is

here used indefinitely

paid,' but the father

'
;

let

of course, meant, to

is,

a fine of thirty shillings be

whom

the he in the next

line refers.

45.

wer,

in the sense of

'

capitis aestimatio,' seems to be merely a

shortened form of the fuller wer-gield.


52. gift.

The meaning

taken either in that of


of

'gift,'

that

bride's father

is,

'

of this

marriage

'

in this case, the

word

not certain, as

it

may

be

money given by

the suitor to the

the former seems most probable.

64, 68. fyr bip

peof

slo eesc bip melda.

does its work silently, while the axe


its wielder by the noise it makes.
it

is

(usually expressed by the plural) or

is

Fire is a thief, because


an informer, because it betrays


NOTES.

XI-XIV.
XII.

A.

1.

Eadgifu was

213

CHARTERS.

the wife of

Edward

the Elder; see

1.

39.

Cristes-cyrce, Christchurch, Canterbury.

Culingas, Cooling,

2.

in Kent.

11. setsoc pses feos eegiftes, denied that the

money had been

re-

paid to him.

urged the matter.


used rather loosely
regard to the repayment.'
12. sprsec hit,

17. pses eegiftes is here

38.

B.

Hamm,

108. redan.

Ham

and Lewes,

him.

we must

translate

'

with

in Sussex.

Cp. 22/142.

Is this a derivative of rod,

^ELFRIC

XIII.
16.

Leewe,

uncer Br^ntinges.

102.

'

to measure ' ?

THE ASSUMPTION OF

ST.

JOHN.

Dat. instead of the regular passive construction

/ram

him.
54.

ofseah hweer
where

liar use of

'

'

is

saw a philosopher leading

'

very

common

in

.'
.
This pecuO. Norse, not only after see,'
.

'

but other verbs also peir finna 1 htfli nbkkvorum hvar gygr
found a giantess sitting in some cave (Snorru-Edda).
:

sat,

'

they

'

71. hsefde, subj.

88. sealdon.

'would

Usually the meaning

ment
'

give,'

have.'

Saltan seems to be used here in the sense of

'sell.'

determined by some adverbial completo ceape saltan, ivip ivcorpe saltan ; saltan alone meaning simply
'
give away.'

pam. LUran

300.

XIV.

^ELFRIC:

'

sell

'

is

generally takes a double accusative.

THE NATIVITY OF THE INNOCENTS.

The omission of the personal pronoun is common in


53. sfnde.
such a sentence, which may be regarded as a complement of the preceding one. Cp. Chronicle 8/15
to pa?n Lucius Bretene cyning syide
stafas : bad put he wUre Crist en gedon.
:

72.

him naht

construction

to

pam cynecynne ne gebyrode.

would probably be him naht

The proper

cynecynn ne gebyrode
(although gcbyrian is otherwise only known as an impers. verb), to
governing him.
In the sentence as it stands to is made to govern
the following subst., either from an error of the scribe or from some
confusion in the mind of Elfric himself.
85. pohte.
J

39.

Cp. 53.

gehwyrfoxi = gehweorfon.

to feet

FIRST ANGIO-SAXON READER.

214
140. to

wuldorbeagienne

150. mihte.

A?

Oswold =

2.

is

here passive,

'

in

earlier

by the

Oswald from

os

'god' and wealdan, the a being

(Gr. 94).

to sceame appears to be half adverbial


shamefully ill-treated.' Cp. 17/12.
85. him, for him, on his behalf.
90. to pam, to that degree, so far.

9.

transl.

order to be crowned.'

understood from the preceding him.

^LFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD.

XV.

labialized

is

in

this

combination

'

Eferwlc (Eofonvic), York.

91.

This passage shows how the name of the inhabitants


came to be used for the country itself, for the
wees evidently refers not to the word West-Saxons, but to the idea of
'land.'
Cp. 1. 146, on Myrcum='m Mercia.' The German names
Sachsen, Baiem, &c, all originated in this way.
107. pe waes.

of a country gradually

'

113.
1

24.

Dorcaneeaster, Dorchester.

swa

is

here pleonastic

transl.

'

happened through Penda

it

making war on him.'


138. to pser, to there where, to where.

This form is a genuine English modification of the


144. sancte.
Latin genitive sancti, which was introduced into English at a time when
it

still

ece,

Afterwards, when eci, &c. became


The feminine gender sanctce

retained the old ?-endings.

sancti

was

also

made

into sancte.

(17/16) also followed the other inflectional

ces

of the older language,

and became sancte.


145.

Bebban-burh, Bamborough.

148. Lindesig, Lindsey.


201. gelssred

235.

is

simply the

adj.

'

learned.'

Gleaweeaster, Gloucester.

XVI.

WULFSTAN'S ADDRESS TO THE ENGLISH.

Cp. the text in Wulfstan hgg. v. Arth. Napier (Berlin, 1883), of


first part has appeared, consisting of the text and various

which only the


readings.

12. yfel sefter

61. pses,

oprum, one

through

it,

evil after another.

thence.

114. eft pleonastic.

mssgpe. Dat. commodi, for all


wordes, instr. genitive.
pses pe dependent on the preceding mycel.

116. ealre his

141.
189.

'

his relations.'

XV-XIX.

XVII.

NOTES.

215

THE MARTYRDOM OF yELFEAH.

Grantabrycgseir, Cambridgeshire.
Cfntingas, men of Kent.
8. Suprige, Surrey.
12. to yfele is here adverbial, but practically the subject of don;
when they had done most mischief.'
5.

7.

'

Cantwaraburh, Canterbury.

17.

19. J>3
32. swa
.

they

37.

bis, whose.

lange op pone timan pe,

all

the time

till

(the time

when)

datarum.

All the

MSS.

agree in this reading.

Scandinavian word hiisping in Icelandic is literally 'house-meeting,' an informal meeting, as opposed to the atying,
45. husting.

of parliament.

This word is explained by a passage in the Leechdoms


14/12), 'cnocie J>a ban mid sexse yre,' evidently pointing to the
meaning 'back of an axe = Icelandic oxarhamarr.
should expect swa wide swa, but both MSS.
57. wide swa.
4S. yre.

(iii.

'

We

agree in omitting the

XVIII.
5.

18.

first

swa.

EUSTACE AT DOVER, AND THE OUTLAWRY


OF GODWINE.

Dofre, Dover.

cydde be

daele,

gave a one-sided, partial account.

33. Beofres-stan, Beverstone, literally 'beaver's stone.'


38. sstforan, beforehand.
53. sefre.

form

Here we

see the beginning of the later use of

indefinite pronouns, as in

56. hit gefaran, travel

66.
73.

it,

'

whoever,'

'

'

ever'

whenever,' &c.

travel the distance.

Bosan-ham, Bosham fin


Hwerwyllan, Wherwell

XIX.

Sussex).
(in

Hants).

CHARMS.

A. 1. wip ymbe. 'Against a swarm of bees


that is, to prevent
them from swarming.
Perhaps rather forweorp, as in 1. 8.
2. oferweorp.
B. 14. isernewund swipe refers to the knife
wounded with iron';
that is, beaten with an iron hammer.
'

'

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

0,1

BEOWULF AND GRENDEL'S MOTHER.

XX.

Grein's work is now out of print it is being re-edited by Professor


R. Wiil[c]ker (Part I, Cassel, 1883) as yet only a portion of the text
has appeared. The most convenient edition of Beowulf is Part II of
Holder's (Bcowtilfhgg. v. Alfred Holder, Tubingen, 1884), comprising
;

text, critical apparatus,

and glossary.

The name Beowulf perhaps means

literally
Bee-wolf,' wolf or
Cp. beorn, hero,' originally bear,' and
bcohata, warrior/ in Crcdmon, literally bee-hater
or -persecutor,'
and hence identical in meaning with beowulf. Gryidel means destroyer,' from grind/in, literally the grinder.'
1.

ravager of the

bees, =

'

'

bear.'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

2.

him =

10. se.

them.'

'

The poet

gives Grendel's mother sometimes a masculine

142, 4, 247), sometimes a feminine (43, 254) pronoun, to show her


giant and demon nature, which is that of a woman, because she has
(1.

borne a son, but otherwise has more of the elemental strength and
wildness of a man.
(Heyne.)
14. The metre requires dissyllabicy?,?-<9 or fleo-an.
It may possibly mean Beowulf himself, as in
19. aglifica = Grendel.
1.

261.
22.

him

to

anwaldan are gelyfde

literally,

believed in mercy at

(from) the Ruler for-himself, trusted in the Ruler's mercy.

The metre requires gepriien in II (type A).


andweard may refer either to szvcord (nom.) or swin (ace.)
former seems more probable, in which case it may be translated
35.
37.

to face

'

or

'

with direct stroke,' but the reading

is

the

'face

altogether doubtful.

pe hine, he whom.
54, 5. Literally the exchange was not good, which they had to pay
These
for on both sides with the lives of their friends (or relations).'
allusions to the old Germanic system of establishing a definite pecuniary compensation for every injury, including loss of life, are common
Thus feohleas gefeoht (Beow. 1. 2441) is a homicide
in the poetry.
which cannot be atoned for by money in this case an unintentional
41.

'

fratricide.

one of the earls = one among

62. eorla sum refers to Beowulf


accompanied by earls (warriors).

64. wille.
82.

The

pret.

eftsipas, cognate

wolde

is

more

usual.

ace proceeded

on his return.

88. ealdres scyldig, having forfeited his


94.

seo pe

earls,

life.

eow wel hwylcra wilna dohte

literally,

which availed

NOTES.

XX.
to-you of (for) nearly all joys

= which was

21
able to procure you every

joy.

108. Here, as in many verses, the metre requires the elision of the
inner vowel of windige, giving the older form windge.
cer, for in that case it would be in
simply an adverb, correlative with the con'
he will (sooner) give up his life, before
in the next line

120. slep

is

not dependent on

the subjunctive, but cer


junction cer

he will

.'

A verb

121. wille.

plunge

is

of motion

directly connected with wille

much

gives a

is

154.

is

understood after wille

'

'

ere he will

It is possible that

order) to hide his head.'

in, (in

ere he will hide his

head

in

hydan

it,'

is

but this

less forcible sense.

too short

read with Sievers/i?r heo gzgnumfor.

188. nlpa gehneeged,

overcome (prostrated) by
Cp. 16/141

gen. pi. used instrumentally.

force.

Nlfia

the

is

23/34.

Hrcpre being the object of gescepj>an, him must be re195. him.


Translate his
for him.'
garded as the remoter dative of reference

'

'

heart.'

The

an foran ealdgestreona.

207.

sense seems to be

'

pre-eminent

Taking
the old treasures,' but the construction is doubtful.
foran in its usual adverbial sense, the literal translation would be ' one
But possibly/cvaw is here a prep, with
of the old treasures in front.'

among

the gen.

'

one before the old treasures,' which would give an

intelli-

gible meaning.

209. The probable emendation atertearum 'with


venom has been proposed.

tears (drops)

of

'

215. pset =J>ctt pest, that which.

breae ponne moste,

236.
I

had him (enjoyed

his benefits), whilst

might.

no py

251.

injure the

hond

269.

(type

ier

is

284.

(lit.

here nom.

'

Keep

the

none the sooner did she

lice,

injure inside,' or

'

injure into

MS. order

.').

hgnd sweiige ne ofteah

2).

The metre
The metre

283.

inn gescod halan

sound body

requires getreowde.
requires the Angl. form doan.

332. oper swyle, another fifteen.

consequence of, from.


here an adj. agreeing with hit.
The reading wiggryre (cp. 1. 34)
368. wighryre.
ffifter, in

355.

357. gellcost

is

is

perhaps pre-

ferable.

392. meodowong
(mead-city) stands.'
plain)

393.

is

may be
It is

explained as plain where the medoburg


however possible that mcadowang (meadow'

the true reading.

com inn gan, came going in,

entered.

The metre requires gangan.

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

21

THE BATTLE OF MALDON.

XXI.

The town [Maldon]

lies on a hill
immediately at its base flows one
branch of the river, while another, still crossed by a mediseval bridge,
flows at a little distance to the north.
The Danish ships seem to have
lain in the branch nearest to the town, and their crews must have occupied the space between the two streams, while Brihtnoth came to the
rescue from the north.
He seems to have halted on the spot now
occupied by the church of Heybridge, having both streams between him
and the town' (Freeman).
Prof. Skeat suggests that this phrase is equi34. spedap to pam.
valent to the modern
be good for an amount,' the whole passage
signifying we need not destroy one another, if you are rich enough for
it
(viz. paying the sum we demand).
army,' 'band,' the ideas of nation
45. folc is here equivalent to
and army' being in early times convertible. Cp. gefylce 13/149.
67. hwsenne, till when.
68. Panta, Blackwater.
68. prass.
This obscure word occurs twice in the Saints' Lives
of ^Elfric. ' He }>a Decius se casere, pa he f5r into Efese mid Jirymme
and mid prasse, he pa. his heortan ahof swa upp ofer his msej>e
swilce he God ware
(io6\
Hwset ]>a Sisinnius mid swl])licum
prasse ferde, o)> past he to ]>xie byrig com J)er se bisceop on wses'
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

(165

a).

82. hi, accusative.

feorh gewinnan, reach the life, wound mortally. Cp. 1. 142.


This intransitive use olfyrian is very doubtful, although
there are other examples as well (see Grein)
we should probably read
125.
1

79. ff rian.

feran.
198.

on deeg seems

207.

oper twega, one of the two.

211.

on

mean 'one

to

day,' 'once.'

ellen, boldly.

Cp.

241. folc.

1.

45.

seems to be another name of purstan.


pleonastic lag him = simply lag.

300. "Wigelin

ceding

him

is

XXII.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

See remarks at the head of the text.


giongorscipe, OS.
Apparently an OS idiom.
9. to him, next to him.
(Sievers.)
13. on pam leohte, in this world.
4.

22.

geongerdom, OS.

The

pre-

NOTES.

XXI-XXIII.
27.

ofermodes,

38.

geongerdomes, OS
fon

42.

'

in his pride.'

instr.

gen.

OS.

39. strip,

it

inst. gen.,

219

parallel to gepyican

is

devise a plan, and grasp

it

(carry

out).

OS.

43. hygesceaft,

fyrnum, OS.

74.

fylde seems to be dependent on the preceding man, hyra woruld


w<zs gehwyrfcd being parenthetical.
85. befeallene,

romigan, OS.

122.

him

142. uric
sition to
'

OS

115.

pleonastic

is

Adame.

unc

'be
is

befalled,

1.

116.

for himself.'

In this frequent construction

we-two, that

So also

(in this construction).

Adam

(and

Adame

The unc

I).

is in

appo-

itself asserts

and implies some one else, who is added in apposition.


andan gebetan, satisfy our vengeance.
156. pses pe, by attraction, instead of the accus.
185. gebodscipe, OS.
187. hearmseearu, OS.
197. aefter to aldre, OS.
'

154.

JUDITH.

XXIII.

As
that

regards the origin of Judith

it is

of Anglian origin

that

all that

is, it

may

we can

say with certainty

be Mercian.

As

age, the general character of the metre and the frequence of

regards

rhyme

is
its

(lines

nearer 900
&c.) seem to point to a comparatively late period
than 700. In the latest and best monograph on the subject {Judith,
2, 29,

by T. G.

Foster, Strassburg, 1892) the

the plausible guess

is

hazarded that

its

poem

is

assigned to Mercia, and

composition

may have

been due

who, on
became queen of Mercia, and recovered

to the warlike exploits of ALpclfiHd, sister of the great Alfred,

the death of JE Relied in 910,


'

from the Danes.


Grein supplies no Ti?-metodes.
feran, came travelling, or simply 'came.'
II. comon . .

the five cities

'

I.

39334. nipa, instr. gen.

mingled with hatred,

hostile, cruel.

inne goes with the preceding peer.


pe near, the nearer,' the J>e being quite

45.

'

53.

Cp. 20/

pleonastic.

Compare

J>on ?na (1/39).


55.

65.
after

cum

swercendferhpe, an emendation of Rieger's. Cp. 1. 269.


swylcne he ser sefter worhte, such a one as he had worked
(deserved
Swylcne stands ior the two correlatives swylcne sivyl.

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

220

morpres brytta, murderer, lit. distributor of murder.'


pon maran, greater. The pon (=J>y, the') is pleonastic. Cp.l.53.
tome
hate. The adv. instead of the adj., as in 1. 97 below.

90.

'

92.
93.

98.

129.

haligre refers to Judith.


on goes with pe, two lines above,

tinguished for virtues,

'

virtuous,' or

'

peawum gepungen,

dis-

excellent.'

The construction is involved, as both mpnna and morpra


dependent on mast, which appears to govern mgnna as an

181. msest.

seem

to be

adv., morfira as a neut. subst.

fagum. Cp. 1. 104.


heardra gemang,

194.

225. in

'into the throng of the bold ones.'

lit.

Here we clearly see the origin of the prep, among.


272. pa wses hira tires set gnde
confusion of two constructions:
;

Pa was hira tires ^nde and pa was hira tlr at $nde.


287. nipum. The reading nippum, 'with men,' is perhaps preferable.
291. gewiton him seeacan = simply hurried away.'
Cp. 1. 11, and
'

for the pleonastic

him, 21/300.

Compare

313. wselscel.

(Second A. S. Reader,
'

slaughter

'

= Latin

simply

330.

'

the Corpus gloss, no. 564 co7icisium scelle


and the German zerschellen ; walscel means
:

strages.

The meaning hoary' hardly

328. hare.
late

p. 23)

suits here, unless

'

ancient.'

Grein translates

'

mahra madma.

understood

XXIV.

'

we

trans-

hellgrau.'

The ponne shows


more of noble treasure than
.

that

some comparison

is

.'

THE HAPPY LAND, FROM THE

PHCENIX.

twelfum
fsepmrimes literally by twelve of fathom-measure,' = twelve fathoms (ells).
leaves.'
fruits,' or perhaps
74. blostman here evidently means
28.

'

'

XXV.
8. set

'

THE DREAM OF THE ROOD.

foldan sceatum

literally

'

at the surface of the earth

'=' at

the foot of the Cross.'


10.

purh forpgesceaft, through

the future, in eternity.

how.
The Old English idea of crucifixion was a very
42. ymbclypte.
vague one, whence the inappropriate use of ymbclyppan here, and the
general confusion of crucifixion with the gallows (1. 10) and hanging.
52. pfnian, passive.
26. pset,

anum, to him alone, in his solitude.


heafdum. We have here a remnant of an old instrumental

58. to
63.

singular in -urn.

(Cosijn.)

NOTES.

XXIV-XXVII.
66. of.

221

Perhaps rather on = in.'


This word is probably a mistake for some other, possibly
1. 32), and the original reading may have been on bcorges
'

banan.
beorg (cp.

murderer,'
If the reading banan be retained, in the sense of
can only be understood to refer to the cross, although this is very
improbable.
69. mSte weorode, with a scanty retinue, that is ' alone.'
79. bealuwara = bealu(w)ra of the malicious ones.'
S6. seghwylcne anra para pe him bip egsa to me, all who fear
me. jEghwylc anra is virtually one word, governing the gen. J>e him

sidan.

'

it

'

= to whom.
XXVI.

THE WANDERER.

The Seafarer

will be found further on (no. 29).


hreran, stir = row.
10. pe
him, to whom.
1 2. pset seems to be the pronoun ]xzt correlative with the feet
4.

(conj.)

in the next line.


17.

25.

with

dreorigne goes with hyge in the line before.


sohte sele dreorig sinces bryttan. dreorig

ic,

bryttan

is

gen.

'

sought

in

is

nom. agreeing

sorrow the hall of a distributor of

is rather involved, and it is possible that the


emendation s. sg/edreamas sinces b. (?).
Perhaps rather wegas, the Anglian form of wlgas
46. wegas.

treasure

'

but the order

line requires

(waves).
53.

sgega

The

and of the following

sense of this

line is very

obscure.
58.
83.

geond, here simply in.'


deape gedtelde. The received explanation
'

dem Tode,'
when dead.'

('Ubergab
'

divided

XXVII.

Grein).

Perhaps

it

is

is

'gave to death'

simpler to read deadne,

SELECTIONS FROM THE RIDDLES OF

CYNEWULF.
The connection of the first riddle with Cynewulf seems very doubtful.
The answers to these riddles are (1) aswan, (2) a cuckoo, (3) a horn

(both drinking-horn and trumpet), (4) a Bible-codex, (5) the


the Sun, (6) a book-worm, and (7) gnats.

fyrdsceorp, as a
forp gewat. The context requires some such meaning as
came forth,' approached.'
C.
E.

'

Moon and

13. freolic

13.

'

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

222

GNOMIC VERSES.

XXVIII.
dyrne

43.
'

secretly,'

'

crsefte

seems to be merely an adverbial periphrasis,

clandestinely.'

beagum gebycge,

45.

buys with rings (of gold), that

is

'seek in

marriage.'

Perhaps better

sealte.

syrme

54.

of

'

sin,'

'

stselan:

injury,'

'

= wage
'

hostility,'

the ideas

being convertible.

hostility,'

Perhaps rather bldan.

60. bldap.

THE SEAFARER.

XXIX.
The

sealt (adj.).

'institute sin

lit.

Seafarer,

English lyric

which

or

by common consent the finest of the Oldhalf-lyric


poems, offers many difficulties.
the same class of exile-poems as The Wanderer
is

rather

Although it belongs to
and The Wife's Complaint, it has so marked a character of its own that
we must regard it as the work of an otherwise unrepresented poet. The
'

first difficulty is

as follows
.SVIeran

that in the

MS.

it

does not end at

line 10S, but continues

mon x

sceal

j/rgngum mode

and

J>Eet

on

j^ajjelum

healdan,
sx/Isum clane.
and gewiss werum
mid ge;ete healdan
Scyle wonna gehwylc
+ wij) /eofne and wij> /a)>ne bealo,
+ ]>eah ]>e he hine wille _/yres _/ulne
+ ojijie on 3itle forfemedne

his ge7t>orhtne wine.

Wyrd

Adeotud w/eahtigra

Uton we /zycgan

hwaer

ge/ong
//eofonum

<?ce

we

to

moten,
120

Dryhtnes,

pses sy J)am

he lisic geweorJ>ade,
in eaUe
Dryhten,

It is

//am agen,

pset

in /ufan

fair is /If

fiset

Wynnes gehygd.

.Fadignesse,

])a <?can

Ziyht in

hu we /ider cumen,

and J>onne gr^ncan


and we Jionne eac /ilien
in

we

115

swi[J>]re,

t>if>

];onne senges

no

Mlgan

]>onc

wuldres ealdor,
tld

Amen.

evident that the majority of these verses could not have formed

If we stop, as is done in the present text, just


part of the original poem.
before the text becomes corrupt, we get a conclusion, which, in form as

well as

spirit,

bears the closest resemblance to that of the Wanderer.

mod.

se.

NOTES.

XXVIII, XXIX.
The

use of the

22$

person throughout, and the absence of any descripRieger to the ingenious hypothesis that the poem

first

tive or epic framing, led


is

who

a dialogue between an old sailor,

perienced youth,

who

replies in 33-38.

passages to the older

man

regards the

poem

the youth

the rest of the

in verses 1-33 warns an inexRieger then assigns the following

39-47, 53-57,

T2

Kluge also
whole passage 33-66 to

t0 the end.

as a dialogue, but assigns the

poem he

assigns to an inferior poet

probably

a monk.

The same

objections apply to both theories

headings or divisions in the


are no breaks or contrasts
three parts of the

and the

alliteration

ing

may

poem

MSS.

there are not only no

to indicate such divisions, but there

poem

in the

itself.

On

the contrary, the

by

are connected as closely as possible both

particle

its

exact mean-

connective

rather than

for pon, which, whatever

be in these passages,

is

certainly

disjunctive.
If

we

discard these theories, the simplest view of the

poem

is

that

it is

monologue of an old sailor who first describes the hardships of his


seafaring life, and then confesses its irresistible attraction, which he
justifies, as it were, by drawing a parallel between a seafarer's contempt
for the luxuries of life on land on the one hand and the aspirations of
a spiritual nature on the other, of which a sea-bird is to him the type.
the

In dwelling on these ideals the poet loses sight of the seafarer and his
half-heathen associations, and as inevitably rises to a contemplation of
the cheering hopes of a future
16. Ettmiiller

inserts before

it

life

afforded by Christianity.

assumes that this verse

as a conjectural verse

break in the sense or gap in the

is

the second in a full line, and

wynnum

beloren.

But there

is

no

MS.

25. Grein restores the alliteration by reading ne ienig for mnig;


Kluge by reading heaswigfepra dusky-winged for iirigfepra. Others
assume an omission of two verses.
53. A striking parallel is afforded by a passage in Kennan's Siberia
For two or three months a
stream
(Century Magazine, 38/176)
of escaping convicts runs from the Kara penal settlements in the direcThe signal for this annual movement is given by
tion of Lake Baikal.
the cuckoo, whose notes, when first heard in the valley of the Kara,
'

'

'

announce the beginning of the warm season. The cry of the bird is
taken as an evidence that an escaped convict can once more live in the
forests
and to run away, in convict slang, is to " go to General
Kukushka [cuckoo] for orders "... With many convicts the love of
;

wandering through the trackless forests and over the great plains of
Eastern Siberia becomes a positive mania. They do not expect to escape
altogether; they know that they must live for months the life of hunted
But in spite of all this, they cannot hear in early summer
fugitives
the first soft notes of the cuckoo without feeling an intense, passionate
.

FIRST ANGLO-SAXON READER.

224

longing for the adventures and excitements that attend the life of
a brodyag [vagrant or tramp].'
56. Some editors read esteadig s$cg with inadmissible alliteration of
the weaker wave, which others get over by the curious emendation
sefteadig.

pa sume,

Some

9S.

'

some of those (who).'

editors read byrgan for bycgan

but the whole passage

is

obscure.

XXX.

NORTHUMBRIAN FRAGMENTS.
Hymn.

A. CjEDMON's

From

the

containing a

list

Moore MS. of Bede's History

in

written at the top of a page


of Northumbrian kings, which, from internal evidence,

the University Library, Cambridge.

It is

must have been written about 737, the hymn being in a contemporary
Primo cantavit Caedmon istud carmen.' Comhand. The MS. adds
:

'

pare the \VS. text in ro.

Preserved in a St. Gall MS. of the ninth


B. Bede's Death-Song.
century, in the continental hand, evidently an accurate copy of an Old

North, original.
C. Leiden Riddle. Written at the end of the MS. Voss. 106 at
Leiden in a continental hand of the ninth cent., the writing being much
worn, and illegible in parts. The following is the 1WS. text of the
Exeter book

Mec

se tyreta

wundrum

wpng

of his ennape

<grist

freorig

cgnde.

Ne wat

wulle flysum,
ic mec beTcorhtne
^ygefioncum min.
Aairum burh //eahcrasft
ne ic wearp hafu,
Jfundene me ne beo}) roefle,
fined me ne hlimmej*,
ne J)urh /reata ge/racu
<$rlsil scrij>ej>,
ne set me /mitende
amas cnyssan.
ne mec <?hwonan sceal
wyrda croeftum,
^Fyrmas mec ne aa/aefan
^eatwum frsetwa])
J>a }>e ^eolo ^odwgbb
wide ofer eor}>an
Wile mec mgn hwaejire se])eah
/&atan for //aelejmm

10

^yhtlic gewaede.

improves the metre of II by substituting the gen.


4.
min for the possessive tninum and the former may be the real reading
of the Leiden MS.
1 1. This line seems to give an undoubted example of hw- alliterating

The Exeter

text

on w-.

XXX-XXXV.

NOTES.

11$

MERCIAN HYMNS.

XXXI.

These are given entire from the interlinear version of the Psalms (with
in the Cotton MS. Vespasian A i in the British Museum,
but without the Latin original, which, however, will be found in the text
as printed in the Second A.S. Reader.
The OE. version seems to have
been written in the first half of the ninth century.
It is, on the whole,
as idiomatic as is possible in an interlinear version, although it not

some hymns)

unfrequently mistranslates.
B.
8. for J>on here, as often in this text,
of the late Latin quoniam that.'

is

an over-literal translation

'

10. halig Israel.


The Latin has sanctus Israhel.'
G.
24. geclystre is a mistranslation of botyrum = butyrum 'butter'
which the glosser took for botrus = botrys grape,' or botryo cluster of
'

'

'

grapes.'
I.

7.

K.

3.

pone swe-rgendan af> jnsjurandum."


prowian is a too clo?e translation of
'

MS.

reading perpcti.

KENTISH CHARTERS.

XXXII.
These charters

the

which

from contemporary MSS give a


Old Kentish dialect, but also of the
The places mentioned are mostly well-known names
are

all

faithful picture not only of the early


life

in

of the time.

Kent and Surrey.

XXXIII.

CODEX AUREUS INSCRIPTION.

This deeply interesting entry in a beautiful Latin MS. of the Gospels


in the Royal Library at Stockholm tells its own tale.
It is rendered
additionally interesting by the fact that the three persons mentioned in
it are the same as those of the preceding charter (32 c).

now

XXXV.
This

free

paraphrase

is

KENTISH PSALM.
an

D. VI.

specimen of late Kentish,


from the Cotton MS. Vesp.

interesting

apparently of the tenth century.

It

is

GLOSSARY.
The

following abbreviations require special notice

m., n.,f., masculine, &c. noun.

Cases

nom.,

a.,

d., inst.,

and gen. of

w.d.g., with dat. of person

g.

&c.

thing,

comparative, superlative.

cp., sp.,

transitive, intransitive,

tr., int.,

The

parts of speech are not

reflexive.

rfl.,

marked

in

the case of adjectives, pronouns

and weak verbs, although pronouns are marked no. (noun) and

aj. (adjective)

when

the preterite-

necessary, and irregular verbs are

marked

vb., especially

Strong verbs are distinguished by the number

present verbs, such as cann.

of their class (beran 4).

The words

are arranged in the alphabetic order of their Early

But the

forms.

verbs, except

prefix ge-

when

but ranged under

W.S.

<b, ie

Words

ignored (gebed under

distinctly affects their

e, g, e

are written

b),

<e, ig, ie

a,

West-Saxon

being omitted before


e =

meaning,

p must be sought under

e.

Mercian

in

ce

written

is

and y often under

~ denotes

as

byrgen(n) imply

ie, i.

respectively.

-ing -ung and in -nes -nis are generally given under -ting,

Such headings

inflected byrgenne,

-nis.

&c.

repetition of the head-word.

\ marks words
Words

it

is

or

meanings peculiar to poetry.

enclosed in

are

cognate Old English words, or

else

Latin

originals of foreign words.

'ut ~' break out

a/berstan 3:

3/

218.

av.

13/338,

ever:

'

ne

awa
.

o,'

23/120, 6
not (at

all)

a'bidan 6 await 31 g/2

(for)

(alive),

24/

25.

abbod

m. abbot 17/22.

abbudisse/. abbess io/l,

abelgan

remain

a'blfndan

blind,

ablinnan

3 cease 13/181.

a/borgian borrow 1 2/4.


aVbrecan 4 take (city, fortress)
5/94 8/ 11
a bregdan 3 draw (sword) 23/79.
a'breotan 7 destroy, kill 20/48,

68.

ptc. abolgeu
3 w. d.
angry 22/185.
a'beodan 7 w. d. announce 21/27,
:

>'

49.

aberan

be spared 15/208.

4 bear, support.

349.


GLOSSARF.

228
a'breopan

21/242:

fail

eedre av. forthwith 23/64, 95.

ptc.

abroben

{instead of -den) degenerate, reprobate 16/158.


abutan = onbutan or ymbutan.

abysgian

(i)

occupy, trouble

3/

sefsestnis /. piety 10/3, 18.

efen(n)
,

bear (child) 13/131.

acgnnednis/. birth 14/3, 61.


aceorfan 3 cut 'on weg~'

cut

'of ~ ' cut off


away 3/238
cut down (tree) 11/70:
5 b/S7
;

cut off (head) 31 /lo.


turn 31 g/36.

aci^rran

a craeftan devise 5/64.


acsian tee ascian.
acwfccan shake tr. and int. 21/
255; 14/190.
a'cwelan 4 die 8/100 9/10 13/
;

kill

13/35

'

3 be extinguished.

a'cypan make known 26/113.


ad m. funeral pile 4/142.
a/dil(e)gian (y) destroy

wudum for' 7/6: of time,


6/29 sefter-pam av. afterwards 8/14; 16/96, 8efter-J>ampe cj. after obj. of verb etc. (ask

'aefter

7 pass

(life,

13/

20/72.

and.

13/216;
;

afbbian, ah- ebb 8/198.


sebere open, public 16/182.
secer m. field.
ssdre/. vein.

1/7

av.

from

(on)

all

3/191.

Sg-hwider
_ 17/M.

7 drive.

law 2/54 (of God)

seg-hwanon
sides

marriage,

15/n.
/.

n., pi. -to., -era egg 32/24.


segen = agen.
83g-hwaeach one 20/134. Eeghwses
av. entirely 24/44.
eeg-hweerav. everywhere 16/28, 76.
6eg-(hw8e)]?er each (of two or
more) 8/25 20/386: '-..and'
21/224, '- .ge .(ge)' 2/4, 8

both

the night)

adun sre under dun.


adwspscan extinguish

after-

7/3.

15/203; 14/161.

adrifan

after

byncan.]

185.

adreogan

ne

Sg

erase

adl/. disease 14/147.


adlian be diseased 14/165.
adlig sick 15/31, 167.
adon put 19 b/29.
a'dreefau drive, expel 1/4, 9
a/dr neaii drown.

'

'

wards 29/72.
sefter-fylgend in. successor 32/34.
eefter-ggnga m. successor 15/8.
sefterra second 18/27.
sef-panca m. grudge 23/265. [of-

~ fram reject 22/59.


acwilman. kill 17/47.

acwincan

3/80

never 24/40.
seftan av. from behind 16/87.
eefter prp. (av.) w. d. after (following, pursuit) 2/42; 7/21: along
.

aefter-cwepende speaking

14/4.

a"ewnean quench (fire) 16/22.


a'cweban 5 speak tr. 26/91
'

10/105

_ 214.
sefre, av. ever, always

after)

31.

a-cwfllan

evening

111.

3' c/7.

tefen-tid/. evening time 25/68.


8Bf(e)st/. envy.
ssfestig envious 3 1 k/6.
eefnan perform, accomplish 20/4,

aeennan

iefsest pious 10/11, 93.

sefen-rst/. evening-rest 20/2.

124; 8/83.
ac cj. but and 23/209.
ac/. o;ik.

se(w)

av.

in

all

directions

seg-hwilc

(e, y) each 3/170; 21/


234; 23/50. '~ aura' each 25/86.
segift n. repayment 12 a/11, 7.
8e-gilde without payment, unatoned
[cp. aemgnn.]
16/119.

jegper

see

Eeghwaeper.

sent /. prssession, property 4/46


13/58-

'

GLOSSARY.
serende

eel- see eall-.

selan burn.
oner
Sic
tile no. each 2/84
one
the other 4/154
16/85
any
aj. each 13/142
8/40.
'

'

m.

_ I5/I83ssrend-raca -wreea m. messenger


_ 5/5

fire.

elf,

fairy

sel-frmede

190/23,

(from)

13/329; H/77self-seiene

beautiful

elf-sheen,

as

a fairy 23/14.

selmes-georn

13/46

charitable

15/69.
selmes-giefu/. charity 16/58.
telmes-riht n. almsright 16/53, 8.
selmesse, -ysse /. alms 32/11;
15/76, 8.
2/22
sel-mihtig, -eg 13/31
-ehtig 34/34 -eahtig 34/86
almahtig 32 c/62 allmectig
sellmsehtig 32 c/53 all30/9
mighty.
83-mnne (without men), desert 5b/
;

[cp. aegilde.l

71.

_ 2/25.
se-mynde,

2/7n. letter

2/18.

Serest see ser, serra.


serig- see earh.
ter-god very good (?) 20/79.
se-rist/m. resurrection 13/297.
ser-margen m. early morning 31k/
11.

asm

n.

sernan

house 19 b/2.
ride

4/152

gallop 21/191.

[causative jrom iernan.]

serra cp. former 13/83, 193: sp.


' an
-an first of
serest 5 b/37
[cer.]
all 32 c/6.
'

ser-wacol
ses

n.

awake 13/299.

early

Ber-g'ewinn

former

n.

strife

20/82

carrion

food,

25/19.
21/
;

107.
Danisii
sesc m. ash-tree 12 b/68, 9
war-ship 8/177, 9: t s P ear 21/
:

sem(et)tig unoccupied 5/98.

semetigian w.a.g.

serend-g-ewrit

5.

free

foreign,

bound on an errand

serend-fsest

self

errand, message 21/28.

n.

[ar.]

Sled m.

229

disengage

free,

43; 26/99.
sesc see eax.

i n forgetfulness
sene, av. once 14/139.

senig no. 24/59


23 8/26 any.

25/47

9/5.

aj.

2/

i-8esc-here m. (Danish) army 21/


69.
+83se-h.olt n. spear-shaft 21/230.

24/9.

iaesc-plega m. battle 23/217.


tsesc-rof warlike 23/337.
sestel m. book-mark 2/84, 6. \L.

ser prp. w. d. before (time) 2/72.

se-swic m. (offence), sedition 16/

eenlic unique, excellent


serine see an.

9/4

(h)astula.]

seppel m. apple 14/189.


ser-psem-pe, eer-pon-pe

cj.

w.

2/33; 23/252.
to denote
ser av. formerly 2/39
cp.
pluperfect (Pr. 46) 1/28:
seror formerly 13/212: sp. serest
first 2/54; -ist 30/5.
ser cj. w. sbj. before 1/12
3/107
8/34: more rarely w. ind. 13/

sbj.

before,

214.

i.il-

set

of etan.
(ot 31 g/37) prp. (av.)

at

1/5

8/6

ionrce, from,

gian

aet'

'

to.

d.

deprivation, origin,
animan aet ' ' abor-

2/4

'geliornian set'

motion, to, gebrengan aet


32 c/ 1 5: specification, defining,
'onfeng aet fulwihte' 7/28 equi-

2/78

'

valence, for 32

ser n. brass,

serce-biscop, -ep m.
2/78 aree- 17/20,
ser-daeg m. former day
:

61.

set prt.

archbishop
7.
:

by, 'acweald

b/40: instrumental,
aet

his

dawn 20/

witena hand-

uni' 13/35
of time, at 8/184.
23/210.
set m. food 13/147
eet'beran 4 bring 20/311.
;

GLOSS ARK

2 3
cst'berstan 3 escape 13/85;

18/

1 2/1 1
2/72.

set'bregdan 3 w. d. (inst.) snatch


away, deprive 13/126: rfl. 13/

afedan

17-

[Sage.]
31 f/4 show,
appear 13/292
14/36.
eet'foran prp. w. d. before 13/
264 av. beforehand (time) 18/

seteowian

38.

eetgaedere
25/48.

av.

together

16/199;

set-grsepe aggressive 20/19.


set hleapan 1 w. d. run away 16/
116.

show

eet'Iewan

3/66;

eet-reean w. a.d. declare forfeited,


deprive of 12/21.
8eti t)ren, sstterne poisonous, poisoned 20/367; 21/47 (settryn[ator.]
ne), 146.
aetsacan 2 w. g. deny 12/11.
set'samne av. together 10/104;
23/255eetstandan 2 remain 15/193: be
v

present 31

m/24.

windan

3 w. d. or a. escape
from 14/140.
aet'witan 6 w. d. reproach 21/220,
[cp.

50.

15/17;

kill

birth

14/72.
eepele noble, excellent 20/62
4/
;

39; 13/".
sepeling m. noble, prince 1/9
:

a.

expel

14/

afrfmpung/.

\_pret. partic.

91.

aepre/pl. kidneys 31 g/26.

see

ag-lao (-sec)
aglseca eeg-

20/19

aglsiec-wif

onginnan.
n. affliction.

(persecutor), monwarrior 20/262.

in.
:

n.

monstrous

sin

woman

sax see eax.

b/67 8/63.
13/236; in battle
;

13/200.

numquid 31

ahne nonne

f/

31 g/

10, 63.

a'heawan
a'h^bban

sew-breca m. adulterer 16/184.


aew-bryce m. adultery 16/152.
sewe/. marriage, [se.]

3/223

av. of question,

15: negative

[aJ>rCotan.]

aswan contemn 34/130.

fall

>

[;idre.]

see 89.

p/afyrhtan.]

ah

2 go, travel 5

a-fysan drive away, 21/3.


a'galan 2 sing 20/271.
ag vb. possess 13/122; 21/175;
22/114: 23/91.
a'gan vb. go 8/190.
agen (se) own 1/31; 2/38, 48;
14/185.
agen n. property 16/55.
a/geotan 7 polir out, shed 13/168
15/162: drain, exhaust (of) w.g.
23/32.
a'giefan 5 w. d. give, render 10/67
32/30: pay back, 12/9 eft ~
return 9/20
8/71.

a'gyltan

a'faran

23/257.

20/9.

breath.

afeallan

fierce

fill 5 b/88
13/10, 177, 9.
afyrht frightened 14/78
15/156,

aepm m.

1.

13/

21/243

flight

deprive

alienation 31 f/28.

a-fyllan

sejjelu/. lineage 21/216.

14/2 1

flight,

124; 15/165.
a'flieman put to
banish 5/24.
afor harsh (to taste)

f man 20/44, 34^-

8e-f>ryt tedious

ster
;

onweg ~

of 22/134.
a'fliegan put to

aginnan

edwTtan.]

eepel-boren of noble

Sw

afierran 24/5 34/98


31 a/11 remove w. d.

23/174.

[cp. aetCowan.]

106

11/65

fell

16/119.

seteowan, oteawan 31 g/37, od.

decay

off,

fall

feed 13/47, 331.

a-figllan

17-

83t

21/202:

up 3/76

hew down 25/29.

2 raise, lift

up, often with

14/98; 21/106.
a/hierdan harden 20/210.
a hleapan 1 leap up 20/147.
a hluttrian make pure 34/74.
ahon 1 hang tr, 15/193; 23/48:
;

kill

by hanging 8/210.

23I

GLOSS A Ri;
a/hreddan

15/17; rescue,
27 e/9.
ahreosan 7 fill 13/246.
aht see awiht.

ancra m. hermit.
and, f nd 30 a/2

re-

save

capture 8/39

gnd
27

anda

on any side 30 c/8.


a-hwaer (-ar) av. anywhere, ever
16/216.
a-hwseper (awper, aber) no.

andefn

3/108

oj?J>e

either

oJ)})e,'

av.

'

i/2.

12/50.

altar

32/24.

ambiht

11.

favourable

(wind) 4/89.

10/37;

/.

20/243.

and-weard

present 3/169; 10/


/37 32 c/60 (-ward).
and-wlita in. countenance 13/99,
[wlltan.]
271
31 m/3.
and-wyrdan w. d. answer 2/49
2

13/73-

Angel

n.

Anglen

Angel-eynn

3/97.

(in

Schleswig)

n.

England 2/3,

Angel-peod/.

English

rac"e,

5.

English nation 10/

11.

an-ginn

(ahuays strong) 8/21 1


an, a {indef. art.)
a certain one
alone (both strong and weak)
one

28/43

indecl.

8/22

in
g. pi. anra = singulorum
anra gehwilc' (see g-ehwilc)
'

'

'

not only 3/174.


an-cenned only (child) 31 k/15.
ancor m. anchor.
an,'

answer 5/12.

n.

4/100.

22/133.
an see on.

Jiset

31 c/12.
answer

servant, retainer

in

na

10/122, 8

and-swaru

and-wyrde

a'mirran mar, ruin, destroy 18/


24; 21/165: w. g. hinder from,

'

82.

and-lang prp. w. g. along, 12 b/70.


and-lean . requital 20/291.
and-saca m. adversary 22/75.
and-swarian (eo) w. d. answer

an(d)-fng m. seizing receiving.


an-floga in. solitary flier 29/62.
im g a wk. aj. only 20/12. 279.

= and-byre.]
ametan paint, draw

2/

office.

2/30

av. intelligibly

4/60;

23/38.

an

3/67; 14/170.

[L. amphora.]

ambiht-scealc m.

ambyre

4/145 [ge-

weaver's reed 30 c/8.


a certain measure

proportion

/.

andgietfulhce

57

336.

in.

gelice

but 12/

amber/,

'

andettan, andhettan confess 14/


III; 34/29. [ = and-hatan.]
and-giet n. intelligence, sense 2/77

or 4/64.

aVldlian (y) annul 13/37.


aligdanlead, take (away) 8/153
eft ~ bring back 31 d/13.
a lsetan 1 relinquish 12/20.
algegan lay, lay down 23/101
25/63: overcome, refute 13/29.
aleogan 7 w. d. a. deny 15/224.
alicgan 5 fail 20/278.
allefan w. d. a. allow 21/90.
a'liesan loosen 20/380: release,
redeem, ransom 5/8, icS; 13/

am

dafenian].

ahw^ttan dismiss (?) 22/161.


ahwigrfan tr. turn away 34/84.

altare m.

and

cj.

b/40

m. zeal, indignation 3/143,


196: injury, mischief, hatred 9/
16; 22/154; 26/105.
and-bidian wait 13/308.

])er,

alles(ed)nis/. redemption 31

as if 5

'

a-hwanon, owana from anywhere,

either (of two)

'

n.

13/228

beginning

enterprise 21/242.

Angle

mpl. the English 15/89.

ang-sumlice

av. painfully

14/151.

[?"ge-]

ang-sumnis/. pain 14/185.


an-haga in. recluse 26/1 28/19.
;

an-leecan unite 15/90.


an-liepe, -lipig single 2/21; 6/
18.

GLOSSARY.

232
an-mod

unanimous,

19 b/ 4

resolute

an-rnodlice

av.

unanimously

3/

arisan 6

36, 189.

ann

16/
1/32
23/90, 183; 32b/5,
57 (w. a.)
unnendre handa
45, c/430
voluntarily 12/33.
annis/. unity 13/229.
an-paep in. one-by-one path 20/
vb. w. d. g. grant

'

'

resolute

20/325;

21/44,

anreednis/. constancy 13/11.


an-streces av. continuously 8/
110.
[strec m. (?) 'stretch,' cp.

Antecrlst m. Antichrist 1 6/4.


arrpracian dread 14/78.
an-praice dreadful 13/1S1.
anunga av. forthwith 23/250.
an-wealda in. (monarch), the Lord
20/22.
n. security

12/6.

a postata m.

192.

arllce av. kindly 27 b/6.


prt. of iernan.

am

/.

quick, bold 23/275.

tar-stsef smpl. honour 27 d/24.


ar-weorp (u) venerable 15/45.
arweorpfull (u) honourable 14/
177.

arweorpian

(u) honour 15/122.

12

appletree

b/Si.

[aeppel.]

ar m. messenger 21/26.
ar f. honour
property, revenue
4/54; 13/60: benefit, help 12/
20/22: prosperity 32 c/63
51
kindness: mercy 9/32; 26/114;
:

ascung/. questioning 3/59.


a'scunian see onscunian.
a/secgan say, tell 21/198;

a'Sfttan

send 5/6.
set, place

27 b/ll

found,

build 27 e/6.
7 sink 17/50.

asingan

hand 14/188.

3 sing 10/67.

arcebiscop, see serce-.


ar(o)dlice av. quickly 14/23, 106.
a'rfccan raise up 31 i/2 expound,

a'slidan 6 slip 31 g/65.


a'sme(ag)aii scrutinize

translate 2/19, 82.

arrange 3/28.
cheer, gladden

23/167.

5 run aground 8/194. 5, 6.


2 strike
of ~ strike off

13/

of 16/195
17/26.

treat

consider.

survey, examine

a smipian forge, work 15/144.


sloth
a solcennis /.
16/208.
[asolcen, pic.

[rot.]

arfaest virtuous, good 3/238


37 merciful 23/190.
:

8/3

a sigan

asittan
a slean

arcetan

'hi

25/35;

a-gtton hi ofer,' they crossed

aried inexorable 26/5.


aTtedan read 2/69 32/43.
a'rSran raise, build 3/186.

aredian

26/

1 1.

asndan

'sibas -,' travel

34/99ar/. oar 8/180.


ar n. bronze.
reach,

av. reverentially,

honourably 15/52, 144.


arweorpnis (u) /. reverence,
honour 15/140, 57; 17/54.
a'seacan 2 shake 21/230.
ascian (x) ask 14/62.
geascian (hs, x) hear of, learn 1/
10; 5 b/65; 15/147.
a scirpan sharpen 31 g/77.
a'scufan 7 push 8/206.
-

apostate 16/158.
a'postol m. apostle 13/28, 32.

apulder

13/49,

arleas wicked 14/105, 142.


arleasllce av. wickedly 14/186,

arweorplice (u)

strgccan.]

an-wfdd

10/50

arise

spare,

arod

160.

arScan

an-rsed

arfsestnis/. virtue 10/4.


arian w. d. honour 31 e/i
be merciful to 13/199.

come

of * seolcan,

torpid.']

a'spgndan (ex)pend 4/159.

'

be-

GLOSSARY.
aspringan
122:

3 arise
spread int.

13/212; 14/
15/198: fail

2 33

awaegan annul 15/222.


a-weaxan 1 grow up 27

b/10.
awake, rouse 13/51 23/
258; 31 f/27: incite 10/92.

aweccan

31 f/36.

aspyrgend m.

investigator 31

m/

23-

a'standan

up 20/306.
30/4.
5 b/40

2 stand

a/stellan put, set


astigan 6 rise, ascend 20/123;
31 f/17: descend 31 g/3.
astingan 3 pierce int. w. on lay
claim to, usurp 12 c/18.
a/stipian grow up 12/45.
;

astrfccan
14/161
a-styrian

stretch

(ir.)
stir,

astyred

i rfl-)

13/157

extend 15/153.

move 25/30

{tr.).

agitated (in mind)

14/

13: angry 17/41


cease, 22/131.

aswamian
aswfbban

aweg

under weg.
5 carry (away) 13/304.

int. 31 e/26, g/45.


a'tsesan wear out, injure i()b/22.

appiy, do
a/teon 7 draw 10/91
with 12/24; 1 6/54ateorian fail, become exhausted
13/10; 14/75, 7.
a-liefran paint, draw 3/51, 88,
:

92.

atol

[teafor, colour, paint.]

build 27 e/5.

dire, terrible

20/82, 252; 23/

75, 246.
at(,t)or n. poison

a-wegan
a-wfndan

15/209
11/9;

direct

turn,

change,

transform

alter,

13/12; 22/14; I 3/ I0 4-93 ( int -)'2/83: pervert 1 2/53.


aweorpan (u) 3 throw 22/175;
throw away 15/47
31 e/2
reject 34/95.
a/wcestaii lay waste 5/16
5 b/4.
translate

a wifrgan curse 12/52. [wearg.]


a wi rged cursed 13/175.
anything

aught,

16/22

at all

ahte,'

av.

'

at

to
all

13/255,6; 14/

541 3I k/9atorbsere poisonous 13/266.


ator-tan m. poisoned twig 20/209.

ap m. oath 7/23; 8/19.


ap-bryce m. perjury 16/154.
af ncan devise, contrive 5/64
22/155.
a pne,d)nes/. extension 31 g/46.
-

extend,

awindan 3 slip 3/231.


awrecan 5 avenge 18/37.
awritan 6

draw, write, compose,


2/38 3/158; 16/201.
awper see ahwtsper.
narrate

ba

see begen.
bsedan compel.
n. back
ofer ~ av. back 21/
276 under ~ av. back 9/48, 50.
port,' left side of
ba3C-bord n.

bsec

a'pfnian

weave 30 c/9.

22/45.

[swefan.]

aswfrian 2 swear i"j/?6.


a swindan 3 disappear, wear away

atimbran

see

a-iwi)ht
23/322.

put to sleep

a wefan
-

stretch,

spread

31 e/20, f/18, g/20.


a'peodan, -eodde separate 33/17.

apreotan

7 be weary,

apwean 2
awa see a.
awacan 2

wash 15/162

awake 15/180.

baeftan

see

beseftan.

bsel n. funeral pile, fire 24/47.


bselc m. pride 23/267.

bser bare.
[beran.]
bser/. bier 13/48.
p-ebseran behave, bear oneself 23/
27.

^ebsere

[beran.]
n. gesture:

baernan burn
bserne-lac

tr.

n.

cry 1/18.

16/140

31 g/44.

burnt-offering

34

124.

fail,
;

'

a ship 4/11, 29.

34/39-

bssrnett n. burning
beetan furnish with
149.

[bitan.]

tr.

bit,

11/61.
bridle

20/

; :

GLOSS ARK.

234

bealdlice av. boldly 21/78, 311.


tbealdor m. prince, king 23/9, 49,

bsej) n. bath

13/27; 14/165.
bone 4/39 (ivory) 56
(whalebone); 4/165.
bana m. slayer, murderer 1/35
21/299 25/66.
fban-cofa m. body 20/195.
tban-hring m. vertebra 20/317.
bannan la summon 12/7; 18/
54; 270/4.

ban

n.

339-

bealu
bealu

100, 248.

eode

4/9

along,

[Instr.

in,

straete
be
13/53:
according to, after, aeghwilc gilt
local
be his gebyrdum
4/58
specification (often half instru-

pirre

'

gehasfted be

'

22/140;
to

bi wrltan,'

'

pam

denote object of verb,

he awrat pa boc pe
Apocalipsis

'

13/33

is

form

io

be
2/47
hreowsunge dSdbetende 13/191
adverbs,

'

be fullan

'

'

'

instrumental, by, 'bi p;Tre libban'

3/74

10/316

'

be not])an

'

'

twinkle,'

cp. beorht.]

'

m. breast, bosom 28/25.


n.

27 d/18;

8/66

child

30/5:

bearn-myrpre

be ppere
gehaten

'

bearm

beam

the

10/45
Son 23/

8 4-

healse'

copy 2/91

of bearhtm,

eye-glance

'

'

'

mental'),

ink

27d/ 9
bearhtm m. clang, sound 20/181.
bearhtme av. instantly 23/39.

lande

]);Eni

52.

bealo-si]j m. hardship 29/28.


beam m. tree 24/35 25/6.
wood-dye,
m.
beam-telg

be, bi, bi(g) prp. w. d. of nearness, by 8/52


motion alongside,
be

malicious 25/79.
evil, malicious
23/48,

evil,

bealu-nip m. crime 34/112,

pre/, of beornan.
bat m. boat.
bapian bathe 26/47. [t)se ]'-]

'

n. injury, evil,

bealufull

barn

'

&c.

/.

bearu m. grove 24/71, 80; 28/18.


bearu-nses^ m. grove 27 g/5.

beatan 1 beat 29/23.


be'beodan 7 w. d. bid, command 2/24; 13/190; 23/144;
24/36: commit, entrust ic/139.
n. command 14/178; 15/

prp. w. d. north of 4/9.


be-, bi- (bi) be-.

bebod

beacen

bebyr(i)gan bury 14/154.


bdece/. boc-treow n. beech.

tbeadu
23/175

204.

beacon, sign 25/6, 83.

n.

/.
;

tbeadu-lae

battle,

war

21/185

28/15.

20/3 1 1,
tbeadu-leoma m. sword 20/273.
fbeadu-mece m. sword 20/204.
fbeadu-riBS m. onslaught 21/
n. battle

III.

-fbeadu-rinc m. warrior 23/276.


b(e1-8eftan prp. w. d. behind 1/
26: av. behind 5/58 23/112.
beag m. ring (as ornament and as
money) 20/237; 23/36528/29.
;

be'eeapian

sell,

beeeorfan

3 w. a. inst. cut off

13/7-

fbeag-giefa m. patron 21/290.


fbeag-giefu/. liberality 28/15.
(ptc.)

23/138; 270/9.
beald bold 23/17.

ring-adorned

20/

340.

be'eierran betray 17/19.


be clysan shut up, confine 14/174,
-

[cluse,
80.
clausum.]

'

prison,'

becuman

4 come 13/91
23/ J 34; 31 e/8.

be'ewepan
1

w.

a.

d.

from
;

L.

14/73

bequeath

a/9.

gebedn. prayer 13/161, 323

[bugan.]

beag-hroden

16/

infanticide

186.

31 f/

3I

1
be'dselan w. g. deprive of 10/33
w. inst. 20/25; 26/20.
bfdd n. bed 23/48, 63, 72.
bedd-rest/. bed 23/36.

>

GLOSSARF.
bedelfan

be'heonan (-inon)

3 bury 25/75.

bediegl(i)an conceal 14/104.

bedigrnan

conceal 22/16.
7 w. inst. deprive

be'dreosan

26/

entrust to.

befeallan

26/77.

be'hreo-wsian repent 13/201.

be'hringan surround 3/191.

behp /. sign 23/174. [beacen.]


behwifrfan tr. change, convert
13/55.

fold 31 c/4.
fall

be'feolan w.

be'drlfan 6 drive 27 e/9


cover
(with moisture) 25/62.
be'fbbian strand 8/200.
befaestan secure, make safe 8/
108 apply 2/27 vi. d. commit,

befealdan

prp, w. d. on
of 2/17
7/18; 1S/6.
be hindan av. behind 8/47.
behliepan deprive 27 c/10.
be'hreosan 7 w. inst. cover (with)
this side

79; 29/16.

*35

22/85.

d. applv (oneself) to

9-

be'byran hire 31 d/9.


be'iernan 3 run 13/167.
be'innan see binnan.

belecgan

2/67.

cover 27 d/25.
7 w. inst. lose 27 d/4.

be fifllan throw down 22/116.


be 'fori 1 embrace, encompass, seize
20/45; 23/200; 27d/i4.

be'leosan

be'foran prp. w.

be'lifan 6 remain.

d. before 5

b/83

5/6; 20/162.
be'freon deliver 34/111.
av. before, in front

(man

befrignan

3
14/9, 21, 24.
surround 1/12

be gan

6)

question

belgan
5

gebolgen angry

3 in ptc.

b/12

20/181, 289.

belimpan

3 belong

practise,

do

belipan 6
be-luean

w. g. deprive of 23/

7 close

1/30; 31

be'murcian murmur

34/67-

be'gang tn, circuit 20/247.


bcegen both.
be"geondan prp. w. d. beyond

been /.
J 5/4 2

prayer,

flood

request

bench-sitter

mfn. bond, chain


31 f/27bendan bind 16/140.

be-ginnan

be'neah

begin 13/173; 15/

begrindan

3 polish 27 d/6.

be'gyrdan gird 31 d/9.


be-hangen (ptc.) w.
n.

be'hatan

bend

20/359

>

vb. w. g. enjoy, have privilege 32 b/25.


be'neopan prp. w. d. beneath

hung

be'niman 4
4/125

promise 13/299.
1 w. d. promise 15/104

w. g. deprive of 1/1
w. inst. 22/117.
wound 26/49. [bana.]

8/121

fbenn/.
benuge see beneah.
beo/.

17/43.

be'heafdian behead 23/290.


be healdan 1 hold, keep 22/121:
guard 20/248 behold, gaze on,
observe 3/159; 15/154; 2 5/
:

23/

27.

14/152.
inst.

(with) 29/17.

behat

be"giellan 3 scream around 29/24.


be'gietan 5 find, obtain 5/105
8/161; 13/178; 31 e/29; 32/
24; 34/5 8: occupy 29/6.
92.

13/195

bnc-sittende m.
;

1/8.

at 5/91.

3i 1/5
34/ 6 9be'nseman w. g. or inst. deprive of
23/76 34/21. [niman.]
5/71
bfnc/. bench 21/213 23/18.
;

over,

25/7. 49-

10/

280.

2/20; 18/1.
be'geotan 7 pour

4/120;

4, 18.

bee.

beod m.
beodan

table.

7 w. d. offer 1/2 1, 31, 5

command,

decree

13/217,

86;

16/162: announce 32/39: bode


29/54-

GLOSS A RV.

236
beofian

beor

be sittan 5 besiege 3/147 8/41.


be'smitan 6 defile 23/59.
be'smiteunis /. defilement T3/310.

bifian.
[beow.]

see

n. beer,

^cbeor m. reveller 15/186.

beorg m. hill 24/21


25/32
mound 12 b/39.
beorgan 3 w. d. preserve, save,
beorht bright
clear(soundmg),

besnypian
besprecan

loud 13/245.
beorhte av. brightly

bestelan 4

+beom

beornan

man 25/66

m.

see

10; 21/290.
n. barley.

be'psecan deceive 14/52.


bera m. bear 28/29.
bersedan deliberate on,
19 b/8.

beran 4 bear, carry 3/31,


4/143,59; 20/155.

no,

prepare

7,

148

5/107; 14/

24.

bsre m. barley.
beren of a bear 4/59, 60.
be ridan 6 sv. ^ride round),
round 1/12.
beriepan w. g. despoil
13/149; 16/32, 43.

berige/.

berry.

brn

barn

n.

berstan 3

of,

be'sylian defile 25/23. [sol.]


bgt see wel.
bcetan mend 16/6S: reform, atone
for 3/25; 16/175; 34/152; int.
15/208.
be'tieean commit, entrust w. d.
I2 /5
i3/3 : 4 appoint 16/31.
b tera, bgtst see god.
betellan rfl. exculpate oneself 4 b/
47,8; 18^63.
be'tweonum, -an prp., w. d. between 27e/2; tmesis, 'be seem
among 4/
tweonum
20/47
132
16/227. [twi-.]
betweox(n), -t(w)ux, -tweoh,
-t(w)uh, -twih prp. w. d. between 3/199, 214; 4/91, loo;
8/23 of time, ~ Jiisum (meanwhile) 14/44; 15/5: w a - 3/
:

'

sur-

plunder

'

'

= bgre-aern,

barley-

row round 8/208.


escape 25/36

burst

I5_i;

3i/i-

betynan finish 10/96, 139.


bepgecan cover 23/213.
:

resound 21/284.
be scifrian w. g. deprive 22/147,
9;3i g/4 8 50.
>

bescifrwan

25/21, 48.

be striepan w. g. strip of 16/44.


be swlcan 6 deceive, betray, overcome 5/66 16/92; 21/238.

house].

berowan

moisten

[steam.]

(child)

and rfl. move


5/70 7/1.

int.

be'stleman

biernan.

g'eberan 4 bear

inst.

stealthily, steal

3/324.
29/55.

^ebeorseipe m. banquet, feast 10/


22 7; 11/35; 13/295beot n. threat 21/27
boasting
21/15,213; 26/70. [behat.]
beotian boast, vow, promise 5 b/8,

beow

deprive 27 d/i.
speak about, complain of 5/91, b/52.
b3 standan 2 surround 21/68.

w.

deprive 34/99.

be'J>Bcan
16/194;

[tun.]

to

mind

16/217.
cover 27 d/12.
rfl. reflect

be pman
bpian foment,
167.

be scufan 7 thrust 13/26.


be'sencan sink tr. 31 e/7, 17.
be-seon see 13/76 (int.) 9/49, 50

consider, call

bathe

tr.

14/

[bsb.]

bepung/.

(hot) bath 14/168.

beutan see butan.


be wat vb. watch over,

have charge

of 15/76.

{rfl.).

be'sgttart set about, adorn 20/203.

bswawan

besigrwan

bewsegan deceive 31 m/22.


be'weaxan I grow over 15/31.
be'wegan 5 kill 21/183.

74
w.

ensnare, surprise

b/

16/48 deprive by treachery


34/22.

a. inst.

blow upon 26/76.

;;

GLOSS A RF.
beweorpan

binn/. manger 31 f/37.


b(e)innan prp. (av.) w. d. within,
1113/46,79; 8/66: into 8/154:

3 throw 5 b/87; 21/

148.

be wcepan
-

bewerian

bewail 14/134, 7.
defend
15/305, 10,

of time, within, in 23/64.


birce, beorc/. birchtree.
bisc(e^op (-ep) m. bishop 2/1, 79
[episcopus.]
8/168.
biscop-stol m. bishopric 2/83

531-

bewindan

3 brandish 20/211 encompass, surround 22/175


23/
:

"5!

25/5.

over 32 b/14
accomplish 20/178.
be"wreon6cover25/i7, 53; 26/23.
be wyrcan cover 5 b/36.
bi, bi see be.
bidan 6 w. g. wait (for), await 4/
w. a. endure, ex16
20/18

bewitian watch

perience 16/1 5

25/50:

int.

237

29/

3 '

i5/"3bi-smer (-or, y) nm.

insult,

ig-

nominy 16/14,63, 137; 1S/30.


bism(e)r(i)an insult, ill-treat 25/
48; 5 b /54; 3 1 g/42. L bi and
smtriin,

'

besmear.']

bismerlice av. ignominiously 17/


47; 23/ico.
bitan 6 bite cut 20/204, 73.
bit;t)er bitter, severe, fierce 3/202
20/181; 22/80; 29/4; 31c/
:

biddan

5 ask, beg, w. a. g. 5/97,

103; 13/307: command 18/20.


g-ebiddan 5 rfl. pray 14/12; 15/
96 iv. rfl. d. 25/83.
biegan bend, break, overcome 31 k/
5,6: convert 13/208, 51. [beag,
:

bugan.]

bildan encourage 21/169, 209;


23/268; 28/15. [beak!.]
g-ebielde bold 13/269.
bierhtu/. brightness 31 f/8, 10.
biernati,eo 3 burntni. 31 n/42. 3.
bifian (eo) tremble 9/14 ; 25/36,

16.

[bitan.]

bitternis/. bitterness 31 c/14.


blae pale 23/278: white, bright
[blican.]
20/267.
blae-hleor fair-cheeked 23/128.
blaeian turn pale 29/91.
blacung/. pallor 13/271.
blsec black 12 b/83
27 g/2.
blaed n. leaf, blade,
bleed m. blast, breath: life 23/63
;

prosperity, glory
riches

42.

big = bi.
bi(g)-geng m. worship 13/248.
bI(g)-leofa m. food 13/139.
n.

example, parable, pro-

verb,

bi g -wist/, sustenance 15/229.


bile in. bird's bill,
bil^e'-wit simple, innocent, kind
10/133; 34/ 82
bilewitliee av. simply, innocently
-

'

'

3 bind 29/9 pic. bunden


with the hilt adorned with gold

bindan

chains 20/35.

29/79:

[blawan.]

bleedfsest glorious 20/49.


flame 24/
blsest m. blowing, blast
15. [blawan.]
geblsmd n. mixture, tumult,
blandan 1 mix.

(g-e)blanden
28/41.

(J>tc.)

mixed 23/34;

blanden-feax grey-haired 20/344.


I blow 11/50 (horn),
bleed/, fruit 24/35,8; 28/34 *

blawan

[blowan.]

bleoh n. colour, hue 25/22.


blendan blind.

3/229,37.
bill n. sword 20/307, 17.
wapenia
gebind n. binding
the frozen waves 26/24.

26/33.

23/122

[lib-

ban.]

bi(g)-spell

blcetsian(ds)

bless

13/41,

3ih/i. [blod.]
bloetsung/. blessing 1 3/1 r.
blican 6 glitter, shine 23/137.
blind blind 13/125.

106;

GLOSSARY.

238

bord

blindlice, av. blindly 5/100.

blinnan

3 cease.

bliss, blips /.

= be-linnan.]

bliss,

10/22

joy,

34/S0, ioo. [blibe.]


17/31, 2
blissian (ts) rejoice, w.g. 13/175,
make happy,
14/176:
298;
endow 24/7; 32/45.
blipe cheerful, glad, friendly 15/
182; 23/58, 154; 3lk/io.
blip(e)-m6d cheerful, friendly 10/
;

blood

n.
14/184; 20/172,
366 vein 19/21.
blod-gyte m. bloodshed 16/70;
:

34/112.
;

23/

blostma m.

flower, fruit

14/121,

[blowan.]

24/21, 74.

blotan

5:

21, 3.

75,86; 33/

56,

document, deed 12/3, 10,


[bece.]

bocere m. scribe 10/5; 14/15.


boc-landtt. private land 32 c/4, 28.
g^bod n. command, 24/68. [beodan.]

boda m.
bodian

messenger 16/161
21/49.
w. d. announce, preach
;

3/ J 74: 23/ 2 44. 5 1


g'ebodscipe m. message 22/185.
bodung /. preaching 13/2S; 15/
-

(J>tc.)

borg m.

born, 12/35.

pledge,

[beor-

security,

gan.]

borg-bryce m. breach of

surety

11/56.

15-

bot

mending, reform, remedy


16/10, 4, 8, 20; 26/

/.

satisfaction

botl

[bet.]

house,

n.

[bold.]

m.
[bugan.]

m. bottom 20/256; 22/116.


brad broad 4/68, 70 20/296.
g^brsec n. crash, noise 21/295.
;

brajdan extend,

dilate

26/47

3 1 <V

>

[brad.]

2.

m. fire-brand: fire 22/80:


26/204. [biernan.]
brastlian roar (of flames) 13/179.
breahtm m. noise, revelry 26/86.
j-sword

brecan 4 break, cut 16/68 20/


261,317; 3IC/10: curtail, in;

24/80; 32e /62 int.


break forth, burst forth 24/67.

jure, annul

bred n. board, tablet.


bredan see bregdan.
gvbregd change, vicissitude 24/57.
bregdan (bredan) 3 w. a. or inst.
21/154: draw (sword) 20/
21/162; 23/229: throw
(in wrestling) 20/289
ptc. gebrogden woven 20/193, 298.
fbrego in. prince, chief 23/39;
pull,

314;

56.

bow

21/110;

31 d/8.

bohte pre. of bycgan.


bold n. house, j^ 01 '-]

34/2. 50.
famous, noble 23/57.

11/9.
[Scand.bundi =b\ia.nd\,pres.partic.

of bua, dwell.]

f-bora m. bearer;

traverser,

brceme

(ge)bolgen pic o/belgan.


bolla 111. bowl 23/17.
bolster n. bolster 10/131.
bonda m. householder

ran.]

^boren

brand

ing 24/21, 7,47.

boc/. book 2/36,

boga

27 c/9.

[brecan.]

sacrifice.

blowan 1 bloom, 13/118; 28/34.


pic. geblowen blooming, flourish-

2,

21/15,

ornament

fringe,

botm

126.

shield

bord-weall m. phalanx 21/277.

113.

blodig bloodstained 21/154

borg-gielda m. 31 m/19 debtor.


bosm m. bosom 14/118; 27 c/9,

120, 3.

blipnis/. joy 5 b/72.

blod

n.
board:
110; 23/192.
borda (?) m.

[be-

bre ngan see bringan.


breost n. breast, mostly pi. 14/117,
25
21/144; 23/192.
+breost-cearu/. heart-care 29/4.
fbreost-cofa m. heart 26/18.
fbreost-hord n. heart 29/55.
tbreost-ntt n. corslet 20/298.
;

GLOSSARV.
breotan

brycg-weard m.

7 break.

breowan

brew 4/133.

brerd m. (border),
Bret-walas mpl.
Britain),

surface 27 d/9.
of
(foreigners

water

ocean,

n.

20/344

21/27.

m.

sea-man, pirate

2T /49' 2 95-

fbrim-wielm

ocean

m.

surge

20/244.

fbrim-wylf /.

she-wolf of the sea

[wulf.]
(lake) 20/256, 349.
bringan (e) bring 3/244; 4/39;

13/102;

23/54,

3 2C / I 5

7;

3-1/1 24.

affliction,

trouble

5/84;

= monk

1/ 10; 10/122; 20/


10/1, 126.

4/2, 9; 8/49:

occupy 5/26;
cultivate 4/24, 5, 9, 68.

brun brown 23/318

27 d/9.
brown-edged 20/296

27/2:

b(e)ufan prp. above, on, w. d. 4/


139; 13/323: of distance, above
8/137: w. a. 13/277: av. of
mention 32 c/51.

bugan
9

7
'

bow, bend,

~ him

bow

incline

swilces

4/14,
geongordo-

before

21/185, 276.

flee

20/
;
276/5. [buan.]
gebur m. freeholder 11/31, 2.
burg/, city, fortress 1/29; 8/30,
2;
21/291;
13/43;
32/39;

[beorgan.]

burg-leode mpl.

citizens

23/17:;,

87.

house 27 g/5.
burg-seir/. city 14/84.
burg-sittende m. citizen 23/159.
burg-ware pi., -u sf. citizens 8/
14/13; 18/19, 22:
58, 130;

burg-ssel

city

n. city-hall,

26/ 6.

burne/, burna m.

32 b/5.

21/103.
bryce m.

he-goat 31 g/26.
int. dwell

dwell,

tr.

60

g-ebropru mpl. brothers 13/54, 87.


17. 3; 2 1/305brucan 'jw.g. use, enjoy, possess
20/237;
13/137. 47: I4/14 2

tbrun-ecg

begen.

see

bucca m.
bu(g1an

brosnian crumble, moulder away


5 b /53; 2 4/38brosnung/. decay 15/84, 143.
bropor m. brother (literally and
:

34/123.

5.

see buan.
bune/. cup 23/18 26/94.
bur m. bower, chamber 1/12

23/4; 30C/13.

figuratively)

3;

90,

dwelling 12 b/8l,

n.

bugan

12

bu
bu

him with such


homage 22/3S; 13/237; 16/
218: join, go over to 17/59:

Brittas (y) mpl. Britons 15/89.


Brittisc (y) British 1/23.
n.

conflagration

[breotan.]

mes,'

15/181.
broc m. brook 12 b/71, 87.
broc/. brdec pi. breech(es).
brocian afflict 8/164 15/178.
broga m. terror, danger 20/41

burning,

23/30,

2 37;

tbrim-ceald ocean-cold 24/67.


tbrim-fugol m. sea-bird 26/47.
+brim-lad/. ocean-path 29/30.
fbrim-lipend m. sea-farer, pirate

tbrim-mann

1 3/1 5.
m. bridegroom,

16/21, 70, 229.

28/45.

broc

bride

brytnian distribute 32/31.


+brytta m. distributor, giver 20/

g/ 2 -

brim

bryd/.

bryd-guma
bryne m.

chick 31 c/9,

bird,

bridge-guard 21/

85-

Welsh 1/7.

bridd m. young

239

stream, brook

12 b/60.

bur-^eteld

n.

pavilion

23/57,

276.

breakage 16/20:

frag-

ment 13/74, 6. [brecan.)


brycg/. bridge 12 b/61 21/74,8.
;

bur-pegn (-pen) m. chamberlain


21/121.
butere/. butter 19 b/2 32/33.
;

GLOSSARY.

240

buton, -an prp. w. d. outside of,


off 8/114, 6; 11/48, 9: without 8/40
13/22S: except 1/2;
;

8/32.

= be-uton.]

cafiiee av. boldly 21/153.

buton, -an cj. w. ;&/'. unless, 2/


89 13/254 w. ind. except that,
but 4/5, 15; 26/310: without
verb, except 3/153; 20/364.
butu fee begen.
:

by see bu.
bycgan buy 13/114,6;

dwelling 27/3.

n.

[bco-

[biian.]

cultivated 4/67, 8.

[buan.l

rank 4/58. [beran.]


byrde of high rank 4/58.
^"ebyrdeliee energetically 3/165.
g'ebyrd-tid/. time of birth 14/6.
byre m. opportunity 21/12 1.
byr(i)gan bury 13/45.
byrgea m. one who gives bail,
birth,

byrgels m. tomb 12 b/62, 2.


byrgen(n) /. tomb 13/303, 4,

24,

30.

g^byrian w. d. be due, belong


14/73; 16/163; ip'rs. befit.
byrne /. corslet 18/6; 20/379;
21/144.
?>i.

corslet

23/292.

[cp.

Hc-hama.]

byrn-wiggend

m.

corslet-warrior

corslet-warrior

23/

39; 26/94.

byrst m.

loss,

injury

16/14, 64.

[berstan.]

byrpen.n)/. burden 3/32 13/101.


bysgian occupv, trouble
drive
;

24/62.
bysgu(i)/. occupation, trouble 2/75.
bysig busy 21/110.
bys(e)n/ example 5 b/40.

bysnian(i) give example of, illustrate 3/229: give (good) exan pie
15/61.

bytlan
g-ebytle

23/200.

[L.

cam-

g-ecamp ft.
21/153.

fight

camp-wig nm.

13/121; 14/138;
battle

candle,

/.

23/333.
lamp 20/322.

cann

know 2/53;

vb.

20/127;

26/71, 113; experience 29/5:


be able 2/17.
canones bee,'
canon m. canon
canonical books 10/83.
Cant-ware/"/, people of Kent 12/7.
carfull careful 13/51.
c(e)arian care, be anxious about
13/147 20/2S6.
:

'

e(e)aru/.

care, grief

20/53

>

V9,

55-

castel m. ca'stel 18/29.


ceafl m. jaw 16/210.

ceald

cold

21/91;

[French.]

24/59;

2<

&l

5,6.
cealf n. calf 34/138.
ceallian call 21/91.
ceap w. price 11/76 cattle 8/1 14,
:

22, 65.

23/I7-

byrn-wiga m.

fight

casere m. emperor, king 13/23, 3S


29/S2; 34/11.

surety 11/55.

byrn-ham

m.

pus.]

[L. candela.]

28/45.

dan.]

byht
byne

camp

candel

bydel m. messenger 16/206.

gehjvdf.

caf bold 21/76.

[both]
build 3/34, 5.
71. building 13/149, 77.

cear-sf Id n. abode of care 29/5.


cearu, see cam.
cear-wielle m. (?) 12 b/85.
ceaster /. city 3/158; 8/m;
28/I.

[L. castra.]

ccelan cool 31 1/n. [col]


cellod hollow 21/283.
cempa in. warrior 14/107, 82
[camp.]
ccene bold 21/215, 8 3

20/62.

23/333;

_34/3ccenlice av. boldly 15/11.


cgnnan bear (child), produce 5/44
28/28 30 c/3.
cenning stow /. birth-place 14/15,
;

63-

Cent/. Kent 8/6.

GLOSSARY.
ceol m. ship 28/24

ceorfan

29/5.

hew 3/230

3 cut (down),

25/66.

ceorl m. (common) man 20/341


21/132 husband 16/46.
ceosan 7 choose 5/65
13/38
w. g. 25/22: 'Gode gecoren,'
;

a chosen

man

in

the sight of

God

13/6 decide to/59,


ccepan regard, desire, take to.
cidan blame,
g-ecldan quarrel n/35.
ciegan call, name 13/30 14/206
:

241

clane av. entirely 32 b/47.


clap n. cloth 15/184.
cleofan 7 split 21/283.
cleopian see clipian.
clibbor adhesive, 28/13.
'

cleave to,'

clud in. rock.


cludig rocky 4/66.
clumian mumble 16/210.

clustor

n, prison

^velystre

cnapa m.

icicle,

[ceorl.]

cifrm m. cry 21/107.


cierman cry, call 23/270
cierr m. turn
8/184.

27 g/4.
4/7

time, occasion
'
;

him

to ge-

cirdon,' reduced to subjection

7/4
go 4/22;
int. turn,
23/312;
turn back, return 13/38, 49, 203
34/57- '(hine) eft gecyrran,' return to him 14/65
rfl. 34/107.
;

g'ecierrednis/. conversion 15/111.


ciese m. cheese 32/22, b/35.
cild n. child 14/2, 24, 8, 51.
cild-cradol in. cradle 14/103.
in.

childhood.

n. cluster 31 g/24.
boy, youth 15/231.
know 2/63 (understand);

16/1,64,113.
grcneord intent, diligent.
gecneordllce av. diligently 13/59.
cneoris(s)

f. generation
people 23/324.

tribe,

cierran turn 31 b/i

cildhad

clyppan embrace 10/68; 26/42.

cnawan

sell.

22/171. [L. claus-

trum.]

cie le-giecel m.

cierlise plebeian 8/12.

[clifian,

adhere.']

clif n. cliff, rock 29/8.


clipian (eo) call, exclaim 13/245,
72
16/211 21/25.

31 b/6, i/11.
frost 14/
cifle m. cold 4/168, 9
123 31 h/8. [ceald.]

ciepan

'

[clsene.]

cneo(w)
cniht

11.

(e)

31 c/4

knee 5 b/13
26/42.
boy 8/75; 13/68,
;

in.

165; 21/9: servant 31 i/3.


cnossian int. knock (against) 29/8.
cnyssan tr. beat 24/59 26/101
30 c/8 agitate 29/33 int. crash
;

together 20/78.
cnyttan bind 16/130.

[cnotta,

'knot.']

coeer m. quiver 30 c/14.


cofa in. chamber,
cohhettan cough (?), 23/270.

cir(i)ce /. church 2/34; 13/133,


238.
circlic ecclesiastical,
ciric-hata m. church-persecutor

collen-ferhj) proud 23/134; 26/

16/158.
cleene clean, pure 10/75;

corn

3/ I 9>

20.
;

clamm

n.

corn 8/116, 22, 42

grain

29/3-

clsene av. entirely 2/16 16/32. 43.


clsennis/. purity 13/5
32 b/io.
claensian cleanse, purify 13/275
16/226; 31 g/86 (asn) 34/40
(ans) justify, clear w. a. g. 12/
15, 6.

col cool.

colian grow cold 25/72.

[clsene,]

m. bond, chain 22/1 28, 63


20/85, 252.

grip, grasp

corpor

n. troop.

coss in. kiss.


gecost tried, trusty 23/231.

[ceo-

san.]

cost(n)ian try, tempt.


cost(n)ung/. temptation 3/1 27, 40.

copu/. disease 15/161.


eradol m. cradle.

GLOSS A RF.

242
cradol-cild
crseft m.
1

So,

76,

n. infant

skill, art,
1

courage

strength,

cwalu

16/50.

knowledge 3/29,

5/94; 13/289; 20/33.


crseftig powerful 5/78, 89;
216.
craet n. chariot.
Cre(a)cas mpl. Greeks 2/55
66.

20/

180.

cw ccan
5 a/

Crecisc

/'.,

creopan

n.

16/

gwwceme
cwcen

221.

cringan, crinean. 3 fall (in battle)


20/87; 21/292, 302, 24.
crism-liesung/. chrism-loosing 7/
28.

Crist m. Christ.
cristen Christian 2/59
13/24 ;
16/103.
crlstendom m. Christianity 5 b/
55; 16/116.
cu/. cow 32 b/15.
cucu see cwic.
culfre/. dove, pigeon 31 c/10.
cuma m. stranger, [cuman.]
cuman come 7/16, 25 ; 13/41: w.
infin. com swimman,' came swimming 20/373: com ganga'n.'came
;

'

'

20/390 come to oneself, recover


depart
I4/170:
go,
26/92:
~ forp come oft", be carried out,
:

m. valley 12 b/67, 72.


n. banner 23/333.
cumbol-tfebrec n. battle 34/1 1,
cumbol-wiga m, warrior 23/243,

cumbol

59-

cumpaeder m.

god-father 8/77. [L.

compater.]

cunne see cann.


curmian iu. g.
explore

or

20/176;

try,

test,

21/215;

23/

a.

259; 26/29.

cup known,

familiar 20/53, 384;


26/55cupian be known 31 f/3.
cuplice av. certainly 3/7.
cwacian quake 31 m/13.
cwacung/. quaking 31 e/25, 7.

killer

14/53, *M[cuman.]

agreeable,

queen 5/50,

/.

9;

18/

speak 1/33;

14/

8,

72.

cwepan

5 say,

165.

g'ecwepan agree, resolve 13/233.


cwic, cucu alive 13/304; 23/
2 35; 26/9; 32C/11.

cwide m. speech, proposal 13/243.


fcwide-giedd n. speech, address
26/55.

cwideleas speechless 14/170.


cwigld f. destruction, death 8/ 1 65.
[cwalu.]

cwielman make
afflict

14/185.

dead

31CI/12:

[cwealrn.]

cwiglmian suiter (int.) 14/146.


cwipan bewail 25/56 26/9.
;

w)6m prt.

o/curnan.

cyf/. tub, vessel 13725.


cylle m, vessel 5b/87.

cyme

H/54-

cumb

[cwacian.]

shake,

cwelan 4 die 13/259.


cwgllan kill 20/84. [cwalu.]
cwellere m.

Greek 5/48.

7 creep 3/49, 70, 1

/. killing, violent death 14/


209; 16/72. [cwelan.]
cwealrn m. death, [cwelan.]
cwealmbeere deadly 13/255.
cweartern n. prison 13/263; 14/

53.

m. coming 10/85

>

24/47.

[cuman.]

^tcynd fn. nature 3/1 14, 25S;


13/193, 6,203.
cyne-beald brave 20/384.
cyne-cyun n. royal family 14/72.
cyne-dom m. government, kingdom 1 1/7; 34/150.
cyne-hlaford ?n. liege lord 18/34,
46.

cynelic royal 14/74, 6.


cyne-rice n. kingdom, sovereignty

3/75; 14/H2.
+cyne-rof brave 23/200, 312.
cyne-setl n. throne 14/98.
cyne-prymm m. majesty 31 f/19.
cyn(in')g m. king 1/11 ; 14/79;
23/^55-


GLOSSARY.
cynn

dafenian w. d. befit,
ge&h\ n. separation,

family 21/76, 266;

n. race,

23/311, 24.

cynnlic

cynren
[-ren

suitable
n.

darop m.

32/48.
progeny 28/2S.

kindred

-55

= ryne.]

26/42

kiss

20/309

27 c/3.

13/

[coss.]

excellent, virtuous
charitable 13/46.

'

16/69; P tc dugunde strong


32/20 w. d.g. be equivalent to,

dearr vb. dare, venture 4/23, 30


16/26; 26/10.
deaf) m. death 13/169; 20/138,
;

3/190;

tell

2 4 I._
deapbsere, dead- deadly 13/260.
deaf>-dseg m. day of death 28/60 ;
30 b/5.
deaf-rced n. grave 24/48.
deaf>-wie n. dwelling of death 20/

home 23/

312.

D.
deed/,

5b/i4;

deed, action 1/2;

2 5-

deaiw m. dew 27e/i2; 31 g/3.


^edcefe fitting, [dafenian.]
gedelfn. digging 5 b/18.
delfan 3 dig 13/303.

^22/195.

deed-bcetan atone, repent 13/191.


[dsEdbot.]

dasd-bot/. reparation, repentance,


deed-cene daring 20/395.
daeg m. day 8/29, 144; 20/350;
2 7b/i;
lc / l 23: (life)time
2>
32 b/2. ~es by day, 13/147:
~
to
to-day, 14/1.
dseg-hwamlice {&) av. daily 16/
". 139; 33/9daeg-red n. dawn 23/204; 31k/

dcema m.

dceman

23/4, 59.

w. d. judge 3/15, 120;


decree 10/23: doom,

30 b/5:

condemn 23/196.

dcemend

Dne

m. judge 28/36.
the Danes 4/101

tnpl.

De-ne-mearc (Dena-),

dsegfierlic 'on pysuni ~an


on this very day I4/68.

16/169: 'be sumum

da-le,' partly

(?)

divide
:

16/219.

13/70, 144;

[gedal.]

3ie/i4:

distribute,

28/29:

g ht 21/33: g ai ,

tear

give

g^

'

Den-

Denisc Danish 6/8 8/182.


denu/. valley 24/24.
;

dalle,' at all

/.
(phtr.).

mark, 4/107, 112

dsege,'

d83g(e)--weorc n. dav's work 21/


148; 23/266.
daal n. valley i2b/55;
22/60,
176; 24/24.
dffil to. part, division 2/48,
59 ;
27d/io: 'be aenigum
7/ x 3< 8

dselan

20/

73- 167.

13-

fi

judge 3/257;

[dom.]

>

83

able to procure 20/94.

15/70:

18/18, 21
24/30.
eyjmis/. testimony 31 i/7.
cyj)jj(u) /. native land,

cystig

cypan make known,

injury.

ness

virtue.

21/149,

dead 4/135, 61
20/73.
deadlic mortal 3/1 18.
deah vb. avail, be worth 21/4S
ne dohte hit,' there was no good-

best of anything, ideal

25/1

10/18.

javelin

dead

1 1 6.

cyst m. the

spear,

suit

[dail.]

28/21.

daru/.

eyre m. choice.
cyrtel m. coat, tunic 4/60;

cyssan

243

26/
away
,'

deofol nm.

devil

13/94, I2 4>

I ^/

22 1'60; 31 m/4.
deofolcund devilish 23/61.
7

deofol-gield n.
3ig/4deofol-gielda m.

idol

deofollic

13/98.

devilish

13/240, 7;

idolater

deofol-seoc possessed of
13/129.

deogol

hilde

deop

22/51.

R 2

13/232.
a

devil

see dlegol.
deep 22/60, 176; 25/75.

GLOSSARY.

2-14

dom-geom

deop n. deep water 8/195.


deope av. deeply 26/89.
deor

11.
(wild) beast
deer); 9/7.
deor brave 29/41, 76.

deore dark 25/46

4/48

(rein-

gloomy

sad,

deor-mod brave 34/1.


deor-weorp (-wurj)) precious 13/
55, 107
73, 85

noble.

drian w.

13/257; 16/
21/70; 31 m/17. [daru.]
d. injure

diacon m. deacon 32/43.


die mf. ditch, moat 5 b/33, 4
12 b/41, 76.

diefan dip 27 d/3. [dufan.]


diegol secret, hidden 3/39, 102

m/22

3 X 9-

make

glorious

23/300.

command,

n.

compose,

write 15/225.

dim.

in.

darkness, mist 31 1/8.

dish 15/75.

fdogor

n. day 20/145;
23/12;
26/63 " prose 32 b/26. [daeg.]
dohtor/. daughter 12/10; 27 b/ 12.
dol foolish 29/106: proud 22/95
2 7d/i7.
[cp. gedwolgod.]
>

wound 25/46.
dolg-wund wounded 23/107.
dolg

trouble, afflict
8/175
14/162
16/74.
droefan make turbid 20/167 27/
trouble in mind, afflict 3/225
2
23/88.
5/31
drenc in. drink 13/255, 60, 1.
;

drencan

give to drink, ply 23/29.

[drincan.]

drgng

in.

warrior 21/149.

[Scand.

7 do, perform 20/220.


[druosan.]
in. blood,

dreor
dreorig

blood-stained

20/167

sad

26/17, 25.
dreorig-hleor with sad face 26/S3.
dreorignis/. sadness 13/160.
dreosan 7 fall 24/34; 26/36, 63.
13/47, 95=

dimmnis/.
disc

'

w. a. diverted myself
with) 29/20.
^fdon encamp 8/88, no.
draca m. dragon 13/179; 28/26;
[L. draco.]
31 g/62.
dreefan drive 16/97.
[draf.]
draf/. drove 16/133.
[drifan.]
dragan 2 draw.
dream m. joy 20/25 23/350
'

dreogan

direction.

dilitan appoint, direct

dimm

gamene

drgngr.]

[diere.]

dint

[drincan.]

favourite 13/1.

digrne secret, hidden 20/107; 28/


43- 62; 34/71.
diersian

22/12. [diere.]
diere (eo) beloved 20/59: precious,
costly 4/50, 158; 20/278; 23/
extol, praise

in.

13/163: in place of a verb 13/


159: cause 5/81 ; 22/159: put,
place, &c. 2/71
18/6, 286
3/
177; 2 7 d /3; 29/43 (dispose
make, &c.
of)
dyde me to

drfecan

diegolnis secrecy 31 f/29.

dierling

don

26/79.

dlegollice (eo) av. secretly 3/13.

dieran

av. gloriously 23/319.


do, act 2/24, 64; 5/21, 35

remote 5 b/68.

eager for glory 26/17.

domllce

26/S9.

31

n.

dollice foolishly, presumptuously


22/50.
dom m. doom, judgement, sentence

13/65; 14/130; 28/60: decree,


law 11/10, 14: opinion, decision
21/38:
10/59: choice 1/31
glory 20/138, 241
28/21.
;

drepan 5
drepe in.

strike.

blow 20/339.
drifan 6 drive 16/94, J 33drincan 3 drink 4/131, 2 5 b/
89 (y); 13/255. 8; 27C/12.
g-edrinean 3 drink up 13/269.
stroke,

droht(n)ian

drohtnung

pass

life,

/. conduct,

[dreogan.]

way

of

life

15/46.

drugian int. dry.


drugap in. drought.
druncen {p!c.) drunk 17/44; 20/
217; 23/67, 107.

GLOSSARF.
druneennis

/. intoxication 31

k/

dyrstignis

fall, decay
become languid 20/3S0.
dryge aj., . dry (land) 8/190;
[drugian.]
31 e/36.
dryht /. body of retainers, [dreo-

drusian

13/216.

foolish 31 g/9.
dys(ig)lic foolish 1 3/64

m. king, lord 20/234 ;


23/21: the Lord 13/15; 20/
304; 23/61,300; 30/4. [dryht.]
dryht-folc n. people, nation 27 &/
(i)

17-

dryht-guma

see ea.

eac

av. also, with and 7/ 2 3! 1 h/


27; 32/11: wi'Mge8/30; 'eac
10/10.
eac prp., w. d. besides 8/173; 2I /
swilce,' also

warrior

11

eaca

m.

retainer,

7 dive.
/. excellence

5/61 benefit,
help 21/197: body of retainers,
flower (of a nation) 16/204
23/
61 (hosts); 26/79, 97; 29/80
:

(angels),

[deah.]

dulmun m. war-ship 5/68.


dun /. hill, mountain 34/133 of
dune av. down 23/291 2S/30
adun 12/83.
;

dun-scraef

n. hill

cave 24/24.

eac

pan

av. also 34/61, 71.

increase, addition

in.

feacen

strong, great

20/371

ead

22/156

ead-hroepig triumphant 23/135.


rich, happy, blessed 13/135

n. riches

2 3/ 2

prosperity

7>

eadig

14/111, 24.

eadmod

see

eapmod.

eafera m. child 20/297.


eafop n. strength 20/216.
eage n. eye 13/200, 1 14/169.
;

eahta eight 4/43.


eahtian watch over 20/157.
ea-la

interj.

oh

13/164, 5; 16/

ea-land n. island 32 c/50.


eald old 3/140 5/S0, 1 ~ faeder
:

{see

20/74
[dol.]
;

27b/

[Ptc. of Cacan, grow.]


eacian increase int. 3/182.
8.

ieldra
spl.
ieldran)

grandfather 21/218.

27 e/12.

dwses foolish 16/176.


dw^lian lead astray 16/8.
g^dwield n. error 13/241

3/177;

8/86.

193-

duru/. door 1/14; 24/12; 28/36.


dust n. dust 13/250; 15/164;

15/

igld(e)sta
chief

also

cp.

oldest, highest in rank,

11/4; 13/253 23/10,242.


m. age 5 b/56.
old foe 23/316.
inpl. old foes 23/
;

ealddom

150.

g-edwimor

fantom 14/162.
gedwol-god n. false god 16/27.
n.

[dol.]

eald-feond m.
eald-hettende
321.

^edwol-mann

m. heretic 13/213.
dyhtig strong 20/37. [ tlu g an -]

dyne in.
dynian

4/22, 3; 8/98,147;

river

28/30.

20/138 23/29.
dryhtlie lordly 28/26; 29/85.
dryhtscipe in. valour 20/220.
dryric in. drink 5 b/67 31 k/9.
g-edrync n. drinking 4/141, 4.
dryre m. fall 24/16. [dreosan.]
drysmian become obscure 20/125.
;

15/203.

E.
e

ea (e)/.

gan.]

dryhten

duguj)

/. audacity

dysig

11.

dufan

245

loud noise,
resound 20/67

>

3/ 2 3>

204.

dynt in. stroke 17/50.


g-edyrstig bold 33/16.

ealdian grow old 29/89.


eald-g'mipla in. old foe, 23/228.
ealdor in. prince, king 13/31S;
14/173; 21/53.
ealdor . life 20/88, 184 (vitals);
27b/3
(awa) to ealdre,' for
ever 22/182
23/120.

[durran.]

'

GLOSSARY.

246
ealdor-biscop m.

chief bishop

14/

flower

nobility,

/.

of the chiefs 23/310.


ealdorleas lifeless 20/337.
ealdorlice av. nobly 34/104.

ealdor-mann m.

3V

duke, magistrate

3ig/Si;

21/219;

6/3;

1/3;

33/1-

ealdor-pegn m. chief attendant,


retainer 20/5S
23/242.
eald-gvstreon n. old treasure 20/
;

growing

/.

old,

age 5 b/

ealgian defend 21/52.


eall all 1/17, 23, 42
ofer -, everywhere 21/256; mid ~e entirely
8/4 av entirely 34/99
5 V74
:

swa,
~es av.

earfope

hardship

26/

16/56;

13/7S.
earfoplie difficult, full of hardship
26/106.
earfoplice
with
difficulty,
av.
scarcely 14/151, 7; 20/386.

quite

as

16/132, 78:

difficult

earfop-hwil

/.

time of

hardship

29/3earg cowardly 21/238.

eargian shun,

fear,

earglie bad 16/121.

earh

131, 208.

ealdung
52

earfop
6.

14.

ealdor-dugup

arrow.

n.

earh-faru, serig-/.
30C/13.
earm in. arm 15/28

earm

flight

21/165.

wretched,

poor,

of arrows

despicable

5/11, 77; 13/135; 26/40.


earm-cearig careworn 26/20

29/

14.

earrning

wretch 13/126.
wretched 15/206 ;

16/28:
gpl. w. spl
ealra (mrest) most
of all 16/91
22/92, 106. So

ear/nilic

also gsg. ealles (swijiost) 8/165.

earmllce <w.'wretchedly 16/195.

entirely,

quite

eall-gylden all-golden 23/46.


eallunga av. entirely 3/S3
13/
;

ruler of

all

20/64

fpl.

15/

creatures

34/

earon are.
g^earnung

ealneg see weg.


ealop g. of ealu.
ealu sn. ale 4/133; ealop

earp
4/

169; 32/25.

merit

5/28 13/208 20/127.


eard-geard in. dwelling-place, earth
;

26/85.

eardian dwell 4/68, 105.


eardiend m. dweller 31 c/4.
eard-stapa m. wanderer 26/6.

eardung/. dwelling 31 b/10.


eardung-hus /. dwelling 31 e/30.
. ear

in.

15/32,

90;

arable land 32 c/11.

eastaep n. bank 21/63.


eastan av. from the east 4/122, 4:
be ~ w. d. east of 8/91 wip ~
:

uncle 1 5/6.
in. country, home, dwelling-

in.

place

eare,

/.

east av. eastwards 8/59.


g.

eam = eom.
eard

31 m/25.

IOJ.

earn

9/47; 12/

earn, deserve,

ruler of all

22.
all

Sh-

earman
25

eall-wealdend m.
eall-wihta

earm-sceapen wretched 20/101.


earn in. eagle 21/107; 23/210;

16/15, 7; 32C/46.
earnung/. merit 16/16, 8.

22/1, 85.

16/

121.

3i

47, 145-

eall-wealda m.

in.

34/7S.

to the east 4/66.


east-dail in. the East 5

b/4

4/8

24/2.

east-gnde in. east end S/6.


East-engle mpl. East-Anglians 8/
_ x 9> 12 5Easter-dseg m. Easter day 15/74.
easterne eastern 22/70.
easte-weard eastward 4/6S, 9
12 b/49.
8/5, 55
east-healf/. east side 8/101.
;

:
;

GLOSSARY.

247

av. eastwards 8/7.


east-rice n. east kingdom, empire
8/2, 18.
east-rihte av. eastward 4/14.

^eedlean(i)end

Eastron

ed-stapelian

east-lang

_5;

Easter 6/30;

fpl.

7/1 1,

East-seaxe mpl. East-Saxons 8/37,


2/64

easily

av.

16/194

CP- ie P-

eap-mcedan (d) humble 34/129.


eap-mcedu (-rnettum 12/34), /
reverence (in plur.) 23/170.
(d) humble 15/70; 25/
60.

eap-mod

eap-modian humble 31 d/13.


eapmodlice (d) av. humbly 3/12
10/93.
eax, sex, sesc /. axe 3/231,
11/68; 17/49.

41

9,

32.

the cross intersect (Grein)),

25/

9-

eaxl -o-fste alia

tn.

shoulder-com-

fbba m. ebb 21/65.


Ebreas mpl. Hebrews 23/218,

ed-wenden/.

13/68,72

requite 31 g/78.

change 24/40.

14/93,

T91.

efenehp

/. plain

8/1 17.

efen-hlytta m. equal sharer 14/


128.
52.
d.

along

4/67.
efen-sarig, ems- w. d. equally
sorry with 5/36.
efes /. eaves: border 8/27.
efne av. behold 13/126, 154: just

10/17.
oef'stan wv. hasten

20/243;

21/

206

31 e/24.
;
eft av. again S/107 ;
20/306
afterwards 2/49: back 13/109;

fear

5/62;

13/127;

16/

169.

30/

4; 32/5ecelic eternal 31 f/13.


eceliee av. eternally 1 3/1 18, 228
14/146.
eg /. edge f sword 20/209, 74
21/60; 27 d/6.
gcg-bana tn. sliver 20/12.
eg-hete m. violence 29/70.
fcg-plega m. battle 23/246.
ecnis /. eternity 3/209 13/6.
ed-gift n. repayment 12/31.
ed-hwirft tn. reverse 20/31.
ed-lean n. reward 14/12S 32/4.
;

turn,

reproach, contumely 3/

244; 23/215.
efen, emn even 5 b/27.
efen-eald of equal age

fge m.

53.

pain, ache.

3/214

n.

eft-sip m. return 20/82.

Ebr(,e)isc Hebrew 2/54; 23/241.


ec see eac.

edleanian

13/78,

23/146; 27d/3.

panion, intimate friend 20/76.

eternal

re-establish

efen-lange (emn-) pip. w.

shoulder-span
eaxl-o-fspann
n.
(place where the two beams of

tn.

efen-niht, emniht/. equinox 18/


;

eax/. axle,
eaxl /. shoulder 20/287,97; 25/

fee
ece

m/

ed-niwe renewed 22/69 24/77.


edor m. enclosure, dwelling 26/77.

ed-wit

126.

23/75, io2

requiter 31

So.

17/37, 9-

eape

tn.

2 5-

egesfull fe;irful, terrible 23/21,


257; 28/30.
geslic fearful, terrible 9/25 ; 16/
108; 20/399.
gesliC3 av. fearfully, terribly 14/
150.

fglan molest,
g e)sa tn.

afflict

fear,

23/185.
terror

23/252

25/86; 30 c/i 3.
cehtan w. g. pursue, persecute 3/
234; 20/262; 23/237; 31 e/
14.

cehtere

[oht,
111.

'

persecution.']

persecutor

13/24;

I4b/n8.
centals/, persecution 14/3, 120.
cele m. oil 13/25; 14/167; 3ig/
24.

[L. oleum.]

GLOSSARF.

248

cele-tre(ow) n. olive 3T f/36.


gllen n. f courage 20/243, 79;
21/21 1 ; 25/34; 28/16: zeal
25/60.
ellen-deed /. deed of courage 23/
273-

ellen-mserpu

/. fame of courage
20/221.
ellen-rof courageous 23/109, 46.
fllen-priste courageous 23/133.

fllen-weorc

n.

of courage

deed

20/214.

fllen-wodnis/.

zeal

ln/.

20/

alien sprite

4/42,

ell

m.

(se)

English

lan-

Englisc-gereord

n.

English

lan-

guage 10/7.
ent m. giant 5/65
87; 28/2.

5 b/23; 26/

10/57

=ed-recian).
eofor m. wild-boar 28/19 image
of a boar on a helmet 20/78.
eofor-spreot m. boar-spear 20/
(

+eoh m.

[spreot, 'sprout,' 'stake.']

horse 21/1S9.
n. troop of cavalry

eored, (-ud)

= eoh-rad.]

eorl m. earl 6/2, 13, 5: f man


20/78 ;_2i/6; 23/257.
eorl-g-eweede n. armour 20/192.

eornost

3, 4.

eode prt. of gan.


eodorcan vjv. ruminate

31 e/33, f/18.

43ellor av. elsewhither 23/112.


99. 367. 7 1

n.

187.

10/95.

files av. otherwise, else 3/5 1 ; 13/


hwset anything else 32 b/
333

fllor-gast

Ipnglisc English
guage 13/223.

/.

earnest

on ~

av.

in

peod/. strange nation 23/237.


flpeodig foreigu(er) 23/215; 29/
el

fiercely

8/

21/281
23/108, 231.
eornostllce av. in truth, indeed
14/142.
eorre see ierre.
earth-dweller
eorp-buend
m.
2 7e/8.
eorpe /. earth 13/161
15/171;
20/2S2.

order, in-

eorjjlic earthly 14/95.


eorp-riee n. earthly kingdom 22/

33.

lwiht

(se)/. strange monster

20/

250.

embe

emn

see

see

ymbe.

efen.

fnd = and.
nde m. end 13/230; 20/4;
der

77

earnest 16/135.
eornoste av. earnestly,

25/29
5

bor-

quarter, direction

16/41.

nde-byrdan range

in

clude.

gnde-byrdnis

/.

order, succession

gndemes

av. together 13/523.


end, finish (tr.), 5 b/25

earth-cave 26/84.

end(ing) 15/131;
/.
3'f/38nge narrow 20/160: severe 24/
52.
;

25/9.
of

angels

22/1.

engellic aj. angelic 14/118.


Ipngle mpl. the English 16/125,

5 b/32.
earthly prosperity

29/67.

eoten m.

g-eendung

32, 203.

n.

eorp-welan mpl.

10/97; 24/83: die 16/42.


nd-lufon, -leofan eleven.

engel m. angel 14/193


engel-cynn n. race

174.
eorJ>-scrsef

eorp-tierwe/. bitumen

10/23; 31 f/22.

ndian

giant.

eotenisc of giants 20/308.


eowan show, display 23/240.
frian plough 4/54, 64.
cese pi. Gods 19 b/23, 25.
e sne m. man 9/46.
cist /. favour, grace 16/57 > 2 4/
46; 27 d/24.
cest-eadig prosperous, luxurious

29/56.

etan 5 eat 31 e/11,


ettan graze 4/64.

f/29, g/80.
[etan.]

GLOSSARF.

249
enemy 21/

m. country, native land 3/


140; 21/52; 26/20; 29/60:

feer-sceajja m. sudden

territory 2/9.

faer-spell n. sudden tidings 23/244.


fser-stice m. sudden stitch (pain)
i
9 b/i.

cej>el

cepel-weard

m. guardian of
country 23/321.

his

epre see cepre.


cexen pi. of oxa.

m. enemy 1 1/79.
facenfull treacherous 14/92.
fac(e)n n. treachery, crime 5/S5
13/98; 28/56.

^efa

fadian
n.

20/

40; 22/163.
firmly

16/130; 34/

94.
f8esten(n') n. fortress

3/148; 8/12,

fasste av.

fsec

b/44

fsest fast, firm, secure 5

arrange, order 16/S0, 225.


period of time, interval

fast,

97; 21/194: fast 13/217, 8, 87.


fsesten-bryce m. breach of fasting
16/156.
fsssten-dseg m. fastday 32/22.
fsesten-geat n. fortress-gate 23/
162.

10/6; 13/192, 4.
feeder m. father, God 13/319, 37:
eald ~ grandfather 21/218.
faederen-mseg m, paternal kins-

fsestlice av. firmly, bravely 12/13;

man 20/13.
faederlic paternal 31 k/i.
faege doomed to death 20/318;

faestuis/. firmness, massiveness 5

21/119 23/209.
faegen w.g. glad 15/m; 20/383;

faet n. vessel, jar

13/11.

faetels m. vess