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PowerplantsonboardofbigshipsPrimarydistribution

schemes

Power plants on board of big ships Primary distribution schemes (on photo: Cruise ship engine room credit:
cruiselegend.com)

ContinuedfromthefirstpartPowerplantsonboardofbigshipsLV/MVditribution

MVprimarydistributionnetwork
TheMVprimarydistributionnetworkgenerallyconsistsinathreephasesystemwiththree
conductorswithoutneutral.Suchsystemisusuallymanagedwiththeneutralofthestarpoint
isolatedfromearthorconnectedwithearththrougharesistanceoraPetersencoil,thus
allowingareductioninthevaluesofleakageandshortcircuitcurrents.Inthisway,afirstfault
withinsulationlossdoesnotrepresentahazardandallowsthesystemtobemaintainedin
servicewithouttheinterventionoftheprotection.

Obviouslythefaultmustbesignaledandstandardservice
conditionsmustbeimmediatelyrestoredsothatitcan
beavoidedthatthefirstfaultturnsintoadoublefaultto
earth,whichisextremelydangerousinITsystems.
Once,whenonboardinstallationswerenotverywideandthepowersinvolvedquitesmall,the
secondarydistributionsystemconsistedinasinglephasenetworkwithtwoinsulatedconductors
orthreeconductorswiththemediumpointofthetransformerconnectedtoearth.

Nowadays,sincethepowersinvolvedhaveremarkablyincreased,itispreferredto
useafourwirethreephasesystem,thatiswithdistributedneutralandinthemost
casesnotconnectedwithearth,withthepossibilityofdisposingeasilyofthelinetoline
andofthephasevoltages.

Generally,thesecondarydistributionnetworkisradiallydistributedwiththepossibilityofdouble
switchboardsupplythroughtwodifferentlines,thusrealizingthereserveconnectiontotheload.
Thechoiceofusingonetypeortheotherdependsontheplantconditionsanditiscarriedout
eitherbymeansofaswitchorofinterlockedcircuitbreakers.
Radialpowerdistribution
Compoundradialdistribution
Powerdistributionwithringcircuit
HighVoltageShoreConnection(HVSC)

Radialpowerdistribution
MVmaindistributionnetworkshaveadifferentstructureaccordingtothetypeofshipandto
theinstalledpower.Theycanbeofsimpleradialtypewithsubstationsorsubswitchboards.
Thesimpleradialdiagram(seeFigure1)includesamainswitchboardwithasinglebusbar,
fromwhichtheoutputfeedersforalltheLVpowerconsumersstart.Thiscongurationresultsto
beparticularlycriticalsinceafaultonthemainswitchboardmayjeopardizethereliabilityofthe
servicesonboard.
Figure 1 Diagram of principle for radial distribution

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Compoundradialdistribution
Thecompoundradialdiagram(seeFigure2)isfitterthanthepreviousonefortherealizationof
mediumpowerplantsandcomprisesamainswitchboardwithoneormoremainbusbarsand
somesubswitchboards,whichprovidesolelyforthepowersupplydeliveryfromthemain
switchboardtothedistributionswitchboardsdifferentlyplaced.

Withthisconfigurationthereisaremarkablereductionin

thenumberofthecircuitsderivedfromthemain
switchboardandthereforeofthedevicesinstalledinthe
switchboard.
Figure 2 Diagram of principle for compound radial distribution

Instead,asregardstheservicecontinuityoftheusersderivedfromdifferentdistributionsub
switchboards,aremarkableimportanceisrepresentedbythecorrectsizingofthechainof
circuitbreakerspositionedatthedifferentlevelsofthedistributionsystemsothatitispossibleto
obtainthetrippingofthecircuitbreakeraffectedbythefaultonly,thusguaranteeingpowersupply
fortheotherloadsandsubswitchboards.
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Powerdistributionwithringcircuit
Toensurepowersupplycontinuity,theradialsystemisoftenstructuredwithareservering
(Figure3)intendedforthesupplyofthesubstationshavingthemainlineinterrupted,oreventhe
wholesubstationgroupincaseofaseriousfaultonthesemibusbarofthemainswitchboard
usuallysupplyingthem.
Inthiscase,whichistobeconsideredveryheavyandhard,onlyhalfthegeneratorsresultsto
beavailableandconsequentlyhalftheenergypowerinstalled.Theringshallbesizedtoprovide
fortheneedsoftheplantforeseenforthisoperationsituation,which,asitisevident,isof
extremeemergency.
Figure 3 Diagram of principle for distribution with ring circuit

Theplantonboardmaybedividedintothreemainparts,representedby:

1.Mainplant
Themainplant,consistingoftheessentialservicesoftheship,suchasthepropulsionorthe
circuitsintendedforpriorityfunctionsonboard,eachofthemcharacteristicoftheshiptypology
(e.g.thecircuitsintendedforgaspumpingorcompressionforagascarrier,orthecircuitsintend
forthecontrolofthedevicesforloadhandlingonshippingcontainers).

2.Auxiliarycircuits//

Theauxiliarycircuitswhichincludepowerproductionanddistributionsystemsforlighteningand
auxiliarymotiveforce

3.Specialinstallations//
Thespecialinstallationsforwhichaparticulartechnologyhasbeendeveloped:
Telephoneinstallations,
Electronicsdevicesfordifferentuses,
Telegraphs,
Torquemeters,
Integratednavigationsystems,
Firewarningdevices.

Anothermaindifferenceconcernsthedistinctionwhichcan
bemadebetweenessentialandnonessential
loads,whichinfluencethedistributionsystemwhich
suppliesthem.
Thefirstonesarethoseforwhichsupplyandproperoperationaretobeguaranteedalsounder
emergencyconditions,sincetheycarryoutfunctionsindispensabletothesafetyofthevessel.
Amongthem,firstofallthepropulsionsystem,thecontrolsystemsofmotors,helmsandstabilizer
paddles,therepreventionsystems,thealarms,thecommunicationandauxiliarysystemsfor
navigation,theemergencylightening.

Alsothoseloadswhichcontributetocreatethebestcomfortorabettersafetyfor
passengerslifeonboard,suchastheairconditioningorwateraspirationsystem,are
tobeconsideredessential.

Theelectricalsystem,incompliancewiththeNavalRegisistersrules,providealsoanemergency
electricalstationpositionedinanotherareawithrespecttothepowerstationonboard,usuallyon
oneofthehighdecksandhoweveroverthewaterline.Thepowerstationconsistsofan
autonomousLVdieselgeneratorset(440Vor690V),intheorderofsomeMW.

Thedieselengineunderconsiderationshallbeabletostart

alsowhenthemainnetworkcannotdeliverenergyandthis
isusuallyobtainedbymeansofaconnectiontotheUPS
system.Asetofcapacitorsispresenttoguaranteeenergy
availabilityalsoduringthestartingtimeoftheemergency
generator.Understandardoperatingconditions,thatisin
thepresenceofvoltageonthemains,arectifiershallhave
thetaskofdeliveringtothecapacitorbanksthe
energynecessarytokeepthemaximumcharge.
Incaseofmalfunctioningofthemainstation,anautomaticcontrolsequenceprovidesfor
switchingtotheemergencyswitchboardthepowerdeliveryofthepartoftheplanttowhichthe
priorityloads,whichmustworkalsoinemergencycase,areconnected(e.g.emergencylightning,
repumps,steeringdevicesandauxiliaryequipmentindispensableforthemachinerysystems,
communicationandsignalingnetworksandothercircuits).
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HighVoltageShoreConnection(HVSC)
Besides,duetoenvironmentalconstraints,inharborsshipsmustturntheirdieselenginesoffthus
interruptingelectricgeneration.Thentheymustconnecttotheonshoregrid,normallytoaLV
source,orinthemostmodernsolutionstoaMVtapmadeavailableintheport.

Thisprocedure,definedHighVoltageShoreConnection
(HVSC)findsfavorwiththeharbormanagementauthorities
worldwide,allowsforareductioninthepollutingemissions
ofshipsatberth,improvingairqualityintheportareasand
inthesurroundingones.
Figure 4 HighVoltage Shore Connection (HVSC) photo credit: pkelektriska.se

HVSCtechnology(Figure4)allowspowersupplydirectlyfromthewharftothevesseltoensure
operationofthemachinerysystemsandinstallationsonboard(refrigerators,illumination,heating
andairconditioning)andallowthedieselenginesnormallyusedtosupplyelectricalgeneratorson

boardtobeturnedoff.

Thisoperationinparallel,whichisnecessaryforonboard
electricalpowersupplymustnotcauseproblemsof
powerqualitytotheonshoredistributiongrid.
Togiveanideaoftheenvironmentalimpact,abiglinecruiseratberthfor10hours,ifusing
onshorepowersupply,avoidsburningofupto20metrictonsoffuel,whichisequivalentto60
metrictonsofcarbondioxidenotemittedintotheatmosphere,whichistheannualemissionof25
cars.
Shoretoship electric power solution

HighVoltage Shore Connection (photo credit: samelectronics.de)

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Reference//GeneralitiesonnavalsystemsandinstallationsonboardABB