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General

The JARs numbered between 20 and 39 are those used for the design, the production and certification of any flying object. As the requirements differ separate JARs were established for the different objects. JAR-21 prescribes the procedural requirements for the issue of a Type Certificate and changes to those certificates, the issue of standard Certificates of Airworthiness and the issue of export airworthiness approvals. Further more it defines the procedural requirements for the approval of certain parts and appliances as well as the approval of organisations performing this kind of activities. The other JARs contained in this number block prescribe the requirements for the different groups of flying objects. All of these objects must be designed, manufactured and certified according to the respective JARs.

JAR Certification Standards

The design, production and certification of aircraft, helicopter, sailplanes and air- ships are prescribed in the following JARs:

Table 1: List of JARs for Certification Standards

JAR-21

Certification Procedures for Aircraft and related Products and Parts

JAR-22

Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes

 

JAR-23

Normal,

Utility,

Aerobatic

and

Commuter

Category

Aeroplanes

 

JAR-25

Large Aeroplanes (over 5700 kg)

 

JAR-26

Additional Airworthiness Requirements for Operations

JAR-27

Small Rotorcraft

 

JAR-29

Large Rotorcraft

 

JAR-36

Aircraft Noise

 

JAR-21 Certification Procedures for Aircraft and related Products and Parts

The procedural requirements defined in JAR-21 must be followed when any new product -like an aircraft, helicopter, sailplane, airship, aircraft engine or propeller -is designed and later on used in non-commercial or commercial operation. Furthermore JAR-21 covers parts and appliances which are any instrument mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus or accessory including communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an air- craft in flight and is installed in or attached to the aircraft. It includes parts of an airframe, engine or propeller. JAR-21 prescribes the procedural requirements with regard to the design of minor and major modifications as well as repairs of products, parts and appliances. JAR-21 requirements in Section 1 are listed in subparts and appendices with the following alphabetic order:

Table 2: JAR-21 includes the following Subparts Subpart A General

Subpart A

General

Subpart B

Type certificates

Subpart D

Changes to type certificate

Subpart E

Supplemental type certificates

Subpart F

Production without production organisation approval

Subpart G

Production organisation approval for products, parts and appliances

Subpart H

Certificates of airworthiness

Subpart JA

Design organisation approval -products or changes to products

Subpart JB

Design organisation approval -parts and appliances

Subpart K

Parts and appliances

Subpart L

Export airworthiness approvals

Subpart M

Repairs

Subpart N

Imported products, parts and appliances, and changes designed in a non jaa country

Subpart 0

Joint technical standard order authorizations

Subpart P

Joint part approval authorizations

Subpart Q

Identification of products, parts and appliances

Appendix A

Production organisation exposition

Appendix B

Quality system

Appendix C

JTSO Specification incl. qualitative design requirements

Appendix D

List of products and applicable requirements

Type Certification

The type certification must follow the procedural requirements for the issue of type certificates for aircraft, aircraft engines and propellers. Rules governing the holders of those certificates have also been established. The authority will only accept an application for a Type Certificate submitted by a person holding an appropriate Design Organisation Approval (DOA) under JAR- 21 Subpart JA or having had his application for DOA accepted under JAR-21. An application for a Type Certificate must be made in a form and manner applicable to the authority and must be accompanied by drawings, preliminary basic data, operating characteristics and limitations. The authority issues a Type Certificate if satisfied with fulfillment of all requirements by the applicant. This includes drawings, specifications, inspections, flight and ground tests, record keeping, etc. The Type Certificate holder for an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller shall produce, maintain and update master copies of all manuals required by the applicable type certification requirements for the product and provide copies on request to the authority.

Type Certificate

The Type Certificate/TC is considered to include the type design, the operating limitations, the type certificate data sheet, the applicable requirements with which the authority records compliance and any other conditions or limitations prescribed for the product in the applicable requirement. A Type Certificate is effective until surrendered, suspended, and revoked or a termination date is established by the authority. The Type Certificate is the property of the manufacturer representing the Type Certificate holder.

Supplement Type Certification

The authority will only accept an application for a Supplement Type Certificate/STC submitted by a person holding or having applied for an appropriate Design Organisation Approval (DOA) under JAR-21 Subpart JA.

An application for a Supplemental Type Certificate must be made in a form and manner applicable to the authority and must be accompanied by the descriptions and identification including all parts of the Type Design and the approved manuals being affected by the change. The authority issues a Supplemental Type Certificate if the applicant has entered into an arrangement with the Type Certificate holder, who advises that he has no technical objection to the information submitted. In addition the Type Certificate holder has agreed to collaborate with the Supplemental Type Certificate holder to ensure discharge of all responsibilities for continued airworthiness of the changed product. A Supplement Type Certificate is effective until surrendered, suspended, and revoked or a termination date is otherwise established by the authority.

is e ffective until surrendered, suspended, and revoked or a termination date is ot herwise established
Production Organisation Approval for Products, Parts and Appliances The applicant must furnish a Production Organisation

Production Organisation Approval for Products, Parts and Appliances

The applicant must furnish a Production Organisation Exposition/POE providing the following information:

A

statement signed by the accountable manager confirming that

the production organisation exposition and any associated manuals, which define the approved organization’s compliance with the JAR-21 Subpart G, will be complied with.

Titles, names, duties and responsibilities of the managers involved

A list of certifying staff

A general description of manpower

A general description of the facilities located at the address

specified in the production organization’s certificate approval

A

general description of the production organization’s scope of

work relevant to the Terms of Approval

A

description of the quality system and the procedures as required

The authority issues a Production Organisation Approval/POA when satisfied that compliance has been shown with JAR-21 Subpart G. The POA remains valid until surrendered, suspended or terminated.

The organisation with a POA may:

In

the case of complete aircraft and upon presentation of a

Statement of Conformity I obtain an aircraft certificate of

airworthiness, Standard or Export.

In

case of other products, parts or appliances issue authorised

release certificates (JAA Form One).

Maintain a new aircraft that he has produced and issue a certificate of release to service in respect to that maintenance.

Design Organisation Approval

JAR-21 prescribes the requirements for the Design Organisation Approval/DOA as follows:

Subpart JA: Design Organisation Approval for products or changes to products

Subpart JB: Design Organisation Approval for parts and

applications

The applicant must furnish a Design Organisation Handbook/DOH to the authority, which describes the organisation, the relevant procedures and the products or changes to products to be designed. The applicant must show that the organisation has established and can maintain a Design Assurance System for the control and supervision of the design, and of design changes, covered by the application. The authority issues a Design Organisation Approval/DOA when satisfied that compliance has been shown with the appropriate JAR-21 requirement. The DOA remains valid until surrendered, suspended or terminated. The organisation with a DOA may:

obtain a Type Certificate or approval of a major change of a Type Design

obtain a Supplemental Type Certificate

obtain a Joint Technical Standard Order/JTSO

classify changes of Type Design and repairs as major or minor under a procedure acceptable to the authority

approve the design of major repairs to products for which he holds the Type Certificate or the Supplemental Type Certificate under a procedure acceptable to the authority

JAR-22 Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes

JAR-22 prescribes airworthiness standards for the issue of Type Certificates and changes to those certificates for:

Sailplanes with a maximum weight of up to 750 kg

Single engine powered sailplanes with a maximum weight of up to 850 kg

Sailplanes and powered sailplanes with up to 2 occupants

JAR-23 Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplane

JAR-23 prescribes airworthiness standards for the issue of Type Certificates and change to those certificates for

Aeroplanes in the normal, utility and aerobatic categories hat have a seating configuration, excluding the pilot seats, of nine or fewer and a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 5670 kg (12500 lb) or less

Propeller-driven twin-engine aeroplanes in the commuter category that have a seating configuration, excluding the pilot seats, of nineteen or fewer and a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 8618 kg (19000 lb) or less

JAR-25 Large Aeroplanes

JAR-25 prescribes airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates and changes to those certificates for large turbine-powered aircraft. 'Large turbine-powered aircraft' means an aeroplane of more than 5700 kg (12500 Lb) certified takeoff weight. JAR-25 contains requirements in respect to:

Flight performance

Structure

Design and construction

Power plant

Equipment

Operating limitations and information

Gas turbine auxiliary power unit installations

JAR-27 Small Rotorcraft

JAR-27 prescribes airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates and changes to those certificates for small rotorcraft with maximum weights of 3175 kg (7000 Lb) or less and 9 or less passenger seats.

JAR-29 Large Rotorcraft

JAR-29 prescribes airworthiness standards for the issue of type certificates and changes to those certificates for large rotorcraft.

Documents

To comply with national and international requirements a set of documents must be carried all times on board the respective aircraft.

Certificate of Airworthiness

The Certificate Of Airworthiness/C of A must be accessible and stored with other airworthiness certificates in the cockpit.

For each aircraft to be legally operated the register state authority must issue a certificate of airworthiness. Basic documents required for a certificate of airworthiness are:

A type certificate including type certificate data sheet

An export certificate of airworthiness from the previous register state

An approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)

Technical documents, maintenance records as applicable

Certificate of Registration

The certificate of registration must be accessible and stored with other airworthiness certificates in the cockpit. Each aircraft must have its own aircraft registration based on rules and regulation of the respective country of registration. Note: For Swiss rules and regulation see chapter 10.7.

Noise Certificate

The noise certificate must be accessible and stored with other airworthiness certificates in the cockpit An aero plane, when flight-tested in accordance with the requirements of JAR-36 and operated within the limits of the type certificate, shall not exceed the noise levels specified in JAR-36.140 at the following points on level terrain (Ref. JAR-36- 120):

Lateral reference measurement point: the point on a line parallel to and 450 m from the runway centre line, or extended centre line, where the noise level after lift-off is at a maximum during take-off; Flyover reference noise measurement point: the point on the extended centre-line of the runway at a distance of 6.5 km from the start-of-roll; Approach reference noise measurement point: the point on the ground, on the extended centre-line of the runway 2000 m from the threshold. On level ground this corresponds to a position 120 m (394 ft) vertically below the 3"- descent path originating at a point on the runway 300 m beyond the threshold.

Weight Schedule

An operator shall specify, in the operations manual, the principles and methods involved in the loading and in the mass and balance system that meet the requirements of JAR-OPS 1.605. This system must cover all types of intended operations. Each weight change has to be recorded and registered in the weight and balance sheet of the aircraft. A scheduled aircraft weighing has to be established. For every flight a weight calculation (load sheet) must be performed and signed by the pilot.

(a) An operator shall ensure that during any phase of operation, the loading, mass and centre of gravity of the aeroplane complies with the limitations specified in the approved aeroplane flight manual, or the operations manual if more restrictive.

(b) An operator must establish the mass and the centre of gravity

of any aeroplane by actual weighing prior to initial entry into service and thereafter at intervals of 4 years if individual aeroplane masses are used and 9 years if fleet masses are used. The accumulated effects of modifications and repairs on the mass and balance must be accounted for and properly documented. Furthermore. Aeroplanes must be reweight if the effect of modifications on the mass and balance is not accurately known.

(c) An operator must determine the mass of all-operating items

and crewmembers included in the aeroplane dry operating mass by

weighing or by using standard masses. The influence of their position on the aeroplane centre of gravity must be determined. (d) An operator must establish the mass of the traffic load, including any ballast, by actual weighing or determine the mass of the traffic load in accordance with standard passenger and baggage masses as specified in JAR-OPS 1.620.

(e) An operator must determine the mass of the fuel load by using

the actual density or, if not known, the density calculated in accordance with a method specified in the operations manual. (See IEM OPS 1.605(e)

Note: Examples of Weight Schedule Documents see chapter 10.7

Aircraft Station Licence

The aircraft station licence must be accessible and stored with other airworthiness certificates in the cockpit. Aircraft communication for COMM. and NAV. needs a licence issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Communication.

Liability, Insurance Certificate for Aircraft

The liability insurance certificate for aircraft must be accessible and stored with other airworthiness certificates in the cockpit. Each aircraft must be equipped with the necessary insurance certificate.