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Universiti Utara Malaysia

Faculty of Human and Social Development

SMH 5263 OSH Management Systems (MOSHM)

Course Title:
OSH Management Systems (FASM 5073)
Topic:
OSH Management System Components

Lecturer:
Anis Fahmy bin Pauzi

OSH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Topic Contents
1. Introduction To OSH Management System

2. Management Commitment
3. Worker Participation

1. INTRODUCTION TO OSH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Since the 90s, safety and health practitioners has initiated to
promulgate and implement the OSH management system based on
system approach.
The idea of using the system approach in managing OSH was not
something new. Its initial proposal made by Heinrich, a safety and
health expert in 1930. Heinrichs Theory of Loss Causation
explained that the caused of accident was not due only to the
immediate causes such as unsafe act and unsafe condition, but also
by the underlying causes often because of loss in the management
control.

Heinrich The Domino Theory

INJURY

ACCIDENT

UNSAFE ACT
MECHANICAL OR
PHYSICAL HAZARD

FAULT OF
PERSON

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
AND ANCESTRY

Heinrich five factors in the accident sequence

INJURY

ACCIDENT

UNSAFE ACT
MECHANICAL OR
PHYSICAL HAZARD

FAULT OF
PERSON

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
AND ANCESTRY

Unsafe act and mechanical hazard constitute the central factor in the
accident sequence

PE

INJURY

T
EN
M
N Y
O
R TR
VI ES
EN NC
OF
L
A
T
A
L
CI ND
AU
N
F
O
A
S
RSO

ACCIDENT

UNSAFE ACT
MECHANICAL OR
PHYSICAL HAZARD

Removal of the central


factor makes the action
of preceding factors
ineffective

Multi-Causation
Behind every accident there lies many contributing factors, causes
and sub-causes.

ROOT CAUSE
(Lack of Control)

BASIC
CAUSE

Cause A

Cause D

Cause B

Cause E

Cause C

IMMEDIATE
CAUSE

Cause F

INCIDENT/
LOSS

Updated Domino Theory


This update introduced two new concepts;
The influence of management and managerial error.
Loss, as the result of an accident could be production losses,
property damage as well as injuries.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF OSH-MS

Liberalisation of trade and economies

Increase in occupational accident & diseases

Traditional command-control mechanisms inadequate

Systems approach pioneered by Edward Demings

Development of standards by ISO

WHY OSH-MS?

Systematic way to manage OSH activities in the organisation

OSH as integral part of the organisations value system

Reduction of hazards and risks, accidents, diseases

Low absenteeism, high productivity, job satisfaction

WHAT IS AN OSH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (OSH-MS)?


(General definition)
An OSH-MS is a planned, documented and verifiable method of
managing hazards and associated risks. An OSH-MS can be simple
or complex, it can be highly documented or sparingly described and
it can be home grown or based on an available model.

WHAT IS AN ISO?
Layman definition;
You write what ever you do and you do what ever your write

The relationship of the system (IOHA 2002*)


Input

Process

Output

Feedback Loop

*IOHA Implementation Guidance Manual for ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management
Systems ILO-OSH 2001. International Labour Office, Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the
Environment Geneva, Switzerland. 2002. IOHA : International Occupational Hygiene Association.

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM?


(ISO Standard definition)
ISO 14001:1996
The part of the overall management system that includes organisational
structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures,
processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving,
reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy
OHSAS 18001:1999
Part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of
the OH&S risks associated with the business of the organisation. This
includes organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities,
practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing,
implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the organisations
OH&S policy.

ILO-OSH:2001 and MS 1722:2003


A set of interrelated or interacting elements to establish OSH policy and
objectives, and to achieve those objectives.

EVOLUTION OF OSH-MS

After the successful of ISO 9000 series and ISO 14000 series,

1996, Discussed at an ISO International Workshop on OSH-MS


Standardization standard should under ILO,

1999, OHSAS 18001:1999 has been developed by an


association of national standards and certification bodies, from
BS 8800:1996,

2001, Guideline on OSH MS (ILO-OSH 2001) has being


published by the ILO,

2003, ILO-OSHMS was adopted by Malaysia as its own


standards named as MS 1722:2003 OSH MS-Guidelines.

MALAYSIAS LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ON OSH-MS


Under OSHA Act 1994, Part IV, Section 15; duty and responsibility
of every employer and self-employed
To ensure so far as practicable, the safety, health and welfare at
work of all employees

maintain the plant and system of work that are so far as


practicable, safe and without risk to health

so far as practicable to ensure safety and absence of risks to


health operation, handling etc

so far as practicable, the provision such as information, training


and supervision to ensure so far as practicable, safety & health

so far as practicable, to maintain safe working environment

so far as practicable, as regards any place of work should be


safe and without risks to health

Regulation 19, OSHA, 1994 - Fine not exceeding fifty thousand ringgit
(RM 50,000) or to imprisonment for the term not exceeding two years or both

MALAYSIAS LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ON OSH-MS


Duties of Employees
Section 24, OSHA 1994 General duties of Employees

Maintain a safe and healthy working environment


Keep work area clean and safe at all times
Stay informed of safety and health issues
Observe and comply with all established safety and health
requirements
Understand and follow safety and health guidelines included in
work instructions
Keep aisles, exits and emergency equipment clear of
obstructions
Regulation 24(1), OSHA, 1994 - Fine not exceeding one thousand ringgit
(RM1,000) or to imprisonment for the term not exceeding two years or both

MAIN ELEMENTS OF MALAYSIAN OSH-MS (MS 1722)

Adapted from ILO-OSH 2001,

Based on the OSH Act 1994,

Has five main elements of Deming Wheel (PDCA),

These elements are namely;


i.

Policy,

ii.

Organizing,

iii.

Planning and implementation,

iv. Evaluation, and


v.

Action for improvement

Deming Wheel

5 main elements of OSH MS


Continual
Improvement
Policy

Action
For
Improvement

Organizing

Planning &
Implementation
Evaluation

(ELEMENTS OF A OSH SYSTEM)


External Factors

Internal Factors

Initial
Initial &
& Periodic
Periodic
Status
Review
Status Review

OSH
OSH Policy
Policy

Audit
Audit

Organization
Organization

Plan
Plan &
& Implement
Implement

Measure
Measure OSH
OSH
Performance
Performance

Information Link

Control Link

Detail Breakdown of MS 1722 Elements


Elements
1. Policy

2. Organising

3. Planning
and
implementation

Section

Sub-elements

3.1.1

Occupational safety and health policy

3.1.2

Employee participation

3.2.1

Responsibility and accountability

3.2.2

Competence and training

3.2.3

Occupational safety and health management system documentation

3.2.4

Communication

3.3.1

Initial review

3.3.2

System planning, development and implementation

3.3.3

Occupational safety and health objectives

Elements

3.2.2

Competence and training

3.2.3

Occupational safety and health management system documentation

3.2.4 Communication
Section

Sub-elements

1.3.Policy
Planning
and
implementation

3.1.1
3.3.1

Occupational
Initial review safety and health policy

3.1.2
3.3.2

Employee
participation
System planning,
development and implementation

2. Organising

3.2.1
3.3.3

Responsibility
and accountability
Occupational safety
and health objectives

3.3.4
3.2.2

Hazard prevention
Competence
and training

3.4.1
3.2.3

Performance monitoring
and measurement
Occupational
safety and health
management system documentation

3.4.2
3.2.4

Investigation of work-related injuries, disabilities, ill health, diseases


Communication
and near misses, and their impact on safety and health performance

3. Planning
and
implementation

3.4.3
3.3.1

Audit review
Initial

3.4.4
3.3.2

Management
review
System
planning,
development and implementation

5. Action for
improvement

3.5.1
3.3.3

Preventive
andsafety
corrective
actionobjectives
Occupational
and health

3.5.2
3.3.4

Continual
improvement
Hazard
prevention

4. Evaluation

Elements
1.5.Policy
Action for
improvement

2. Organising

3. Planning
and
implementation

3.4.2

Investigation of work-related injuries, disabilities, ill health, diseases


and near misses, and their impact on safety and health performance

3.4.3

Audit

3.4.4 Management review


Section

Sub-elements

3.1.1
3.5.1

Occupational
and health
Preventive andsafety
corrective
actionpolicy

3.1.2
3.5.2

Employee
participation
Continual improvement

3.2.1

Responsibility and accountability

3.2.2

Competence and training

3.2.3

Occupational safety and health management system documentation

3.2.4

Communication

3.3.1

Initial review

3.3.2

System planning, development and implementation

3.3.3

Occupational safety and health objectives

3.3.4

Hazard prevention

2. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
1. ensure that OSH is a line-management responsibility, which is
known and accepted at all levels;
2. define and communicate to the members of the organisation the
responsibility, accountability and authority of persons who
identify, evaluate or control OSH hazards and risks;
3. provide effective supervision, as necessary, to ensure the
protection of employees' safety and health;
4. promote cooperation and communication among members of the
organisation, including workers and their representatives, to
implement the elements of the organisation's OSH management
system;

MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
6. fulfil the principles of OSH management systems contained in
relevant national guidelines or voluntary programmes, as
appropriate, to which the organisation subscribes;
7. establish and implement a clear OSH policy and measurable
objectives;
8. establish effective arrangements to identify and eliminate or
control work-related hazards and risks, and promote health at
work;
9. establish prevention and health promotion programmes;
10. ensure effective arrangements for the full participation of
employees and their representatives in the fulfilment of the OSH
policy;

MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
11. provide appropriate resources to ensure that persons
responsible for OSH, including the safety and health committee,
can perform their functions properly; and
12. ensure effective arrangements for the full participation of
workers and their representatives in safety and health
committees, where they exist.

3. WORKER PARTICIPATION
There are many ways that workers can and should participate in
OSH-MS activities. IOHA suggests that representatives should be
actively involved in:
i.

Emergency Preparedness,

ii.

Task Analysis,

iii.

Safety Assessments,

iv. Evaluation and revision of standard operating


procedures (SOPs) and work instructions Training
programs, and

v.

Evaluations or audits.

3. WORKER PARTICIPATION
Active member in;

i.

Safety & Health Committee

ii.

Emergency Response/Volunteer Fire Fighting Team

iii.

First Aid Team

iv. Housekeeping Inspection Team


v.

HIRARC/JSA Team

vi. Internal Audit Team

3. WORKER PARTICIPATION
Campaign and Program;

i.

Safety and Health Week or Month

ii.

Fire Drill / Chemical Spillage Drill / etc.

iii.

Awareness Campaign / Exhibition / Display

iv. No Smoking Day

v.

Zero Accident Competition (Monthly, Quarterly or Yearly)

vi. Inter Department Housekeeping Competition


vii. Gotong-royong
viii. Employee of the month (to include Safety criteria)
ix. Contests and competitions
x.

Newsletter/Bulletin

xi. Safety message through gifts, souvenirs, etc.

3. WORKER PARTICIPATION
Active as an individual in taking part of;

i.

Safety and Health Contests/Competitions

Slogan, Logo & Poster Drawing Competition

Spot the Unsafe Acts & Unsafe Conditions in Picture

ii.

Safety and Health Quiz

iii.

Safety Suggestion Competition

iv. Reporting of Hazards, Unsafe Conditions, etc.


v.

Personal Health Monitoring / Medical Check Up

vi. Blood Donation Campaign