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Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine(Flat Head Piston)


M.Sc (Engg) Dissertation in Automotive Engineering

Submitted by
Supervisors

: Mr. Chetan .G. Dath


: Dr .S. N. Sridhara
And
Prof Ashok .C. Meti

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Coventry University (UK) Postgraduate Engineering Degree
Programme

Gnanagangothri Campus, New BEL Road, MSR Nagar,


Bangalore-560 054
Tel/Fax: 3605539/3601983; website: http://www.msrsas.org

2004-2005

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Coventry University (UK) Postgraduate Engineering Degree
Programme
Bangalore

Certificate
This is to certify that the M.Sc (Engg)
Project

Dissertation

titled

Numerical

Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single


Cylinder

Engine-

(Flat

Head

Piston)

is

bonafide record of the Project work carried out


by Mr. Chetan .G. Dath in partial fulfilment of
requirements for the award of M.Sc (Engg)
Degree in Automotive Engineering during the
academic year 2004 2005.
Dr. S. N. Sridhara and Prof Ashok .C. Meti
Academic Supervisors

Project Title: Fluid Flow Visualization during Expansion Stroke of a Four-stroke S. I. Engine using CFD

ii

Dr. S.R. Shankapal

Prof

Ashok

.C. Meti Dean, PEPS

Programme

Manager
Dr. S.R. Shankapal
Director
DECLARATION
Project

Title:

Numerical

Investigation

of

Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline


Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine(Flat Head Piston)

The Project Dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of academic requirements for


M.Sc (Engg) in Automotive Engineering. This dissertation is a result of my own
investigation. All sections of the text and results, which been obtained from other sources,
are fully referenced. I understand that cheating and plagiarism constitute a breach of
University regulations and will be dealt with accordingly.

Name of the student: CHETAN .G. DATH

Project Title: Fluid Flow Visualization during Expansion Stroke of a Four-stroke S. I. Engine using CFD

iii

Signature:

Date: 29th Sep 2005

Project Title: Fluid Flow Visualization during Expansion Stroke of a Four-stroke S. I. Engine using CFD

iv

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Acknowledgement
I am very grateful to Dr. S.N. Sridhara for having been given an opportunity to
carry out a project under his expert guidance. I would like to express my gratitude to him,
without whose support and expertise, this project wouldnt have been accomplished. In
spite of his very busy schedule, he was kind enough to guide and help me bring this
project to consummation. His classes not only helped me to build a strong foundation for
this project, but also have helped me in many other fields. I will always be grateful to him
for that.
This project would never taken form without the unwavering support of Prof
Ashok .C. Meti for his constant support. I also thank him for providing the resources
required for the project right in time, which helped me to complete this project within
time.

My special thanks to our director Dr. S.R. Shankapal, whose emphasis for excellence
kept me focused on to my project and helped me complete it on time.

I am greatly indebted to all the faculty members, who have helped me immensely,
especially Mr. Umesh, Mr. Chetan and Mr. Krishna
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Last but not the least, I would like to express my sincere thanks to each one of my
friends and my family members, who gave continuous support throughout the project.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Abstract
Necessity is the mother of invention is a great saying. The entire
automobile world is powered by this necessity for power, comfort, fuel efficiency,
pollution control etc. Right from the first automobile to the present day there have been
constant and powerful changes. The technological advancements never stop leading place
to newer changes. GDI Technology is the latest in the Automobile Development. The
project is a humble contribution towards the development of this Technology. The project
deals with the numerical analysis of an engine of known specifications by incorporating
this technology.
The first part project involves 2D cold flow analysis of an existing commercial 4stroke S.I. engines working cycle.
The second part of the project involves including injections by making use of the
discrete phase models.
The third part of the project involved combustion analysis for the same geometry.
A number of software tools were used for the purpose of Fluid Flow Analysis. They were
Rapid Form for obtaining the cloud point data, CATIA V5 R 11 and UG for Geometric
Modelling, GAMBIT 2.2 for grid generation, PrePDF 4.1 for Combustion Modelling and
FLUENT 6.2.16 for the Analysis of the GDI Engine (the continuity, momentum and
energy equations were solved by appropriately setting the boundary conditions)
The main conclusion drawn was the fluid flow visualization for evaluating flow
characteristics within ports and in cylinder. Fluid flow was visualized by setting up the
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

required animations and also by extracting graphs of various variables like pressure,
velocity etc wit respect to the crank angle. Contours of different variables were also
obtained at required crank angles to analyse the combustion process.

Contents
DECLARATION............................................................................................iv
Acknowledgement...........................................................................................v
Abstract...........................................................................................................vi
Contents.........................................................................................................vii
List of Tables...................................................................................................x
List of Figures.................................................................................................xi
List of Graphs...............................................................................................xiv
List of Symbols..............................................................................................xv
Chapter 1- Introduction...................................................................................1
1.1 A typical IC Engine....................................................................................................1
1.2 The 4-stroke SI Petrol Engine....................................................................................2
1.3 Motivation..................................................................................................................3
1.4 Present work...............................................................................................................5

Chapter- 2 Literature Review..........................................................................6


2.1 Historical Development..............................................................................................6
2.2 Technological developments in petrol engines..........................................................7
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

2.3 Developments in design of combustion chambers.....................................................8


2.4 Technological developments in the fuel supply systems..........................................11
2.5 Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)...............................................................................15
2.6 Technical features of GDI engine.............................................................................16
2.7 GDI Engine and its main characteristics..................................................................17
2.9 Review of Previous Work in GDI Technological Development..............................20
2. 10 Identification of the problem.................................................................................22
2. 11 Solution Methodology...........................................................................................22
2. 12 Validation Procedure.............................................................................................23

Chapter 3 Problem Definition.....................................................................24


3.1 Project Aim...............................................................................................................24
3.2 Project Scope............................................................................................................24
3.3 Tools Used................................................................................................................25
3.4 Objective of the Project............................................................................................25
3.5 Project Procedure.....................................................................................................25
3.6 Observations and Validation.....................................................................................26

Chapter 4 Geometric Modelling of the Engine..........................................28


4.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................28
4.2 Parameters of the Engine selected............................................................................28
4.3 Steps involved in the Geometric Modelling of the Engine......................................29
4.4 Reverse Engineering of the selected Engine............................................................29
4.5 Surface Creation using CATIA V5 R11...................................................................31

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

4.6 Modelling different parts of the engine....................................................................32


4.7 Surface extraction and assembly creation................................................................33
4.8 File Conversion........................................................................................................34

Chapter 5 - Grid Generation using GAMBIT................................................35


5.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................35
5.2 Steps Involved in Grid Generation...........................................................................35
5.3 Grid Generation........................................................................................................36
5.4 Assigning Boundary and Fluid Zones......................................................................41
5.5 File Conversion........................................................................................................43

Chapter 6 2D Analysis of the Engine.........................................................44


6.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................44
6.2 Facts about the Analysis...........................................................................................44
6.3 Models used for Analysis.........................................................................................45
6.4 Steps Involved in Analysis of the 2D model of the engine......................................51

Chapter-7 Result Validation...........................................................................69


Chapter 8 Results and Discussion..............................................................71
8.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................71
8.2 Contours...................................................................................................................72
8.3 Graphs......................................................................................................................77
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Conclusion.....................................................................................................84
Bibliography..................................................................................................86
References.....................................................................................................86

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

List of Tables

Table 6.4. 1 Inputs for the Dynamic Mesh Model.............................................................59


Table 6.4. 2 The inputs for setting up the injections..........................................................62
Table 6.4. 3 Inputs for the Discrete Phase Material Properties..........................................63

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

List of Figures
Figure 1.1. 1 A Typical IC Engine........................................................................................1
Figure 2.3. 1 Wedge chamber with quench and squish area................................................9
Figure 2.3. 2 Hemispherical Chamber.................................................................................9
Figure 2.3. 3 A crescent combustion chamber...................................................................10
Figure 2.3. 4 Bowl-in-piston combustion chamber..........................................................10
Figure 2.4. 1 Carburettor....................................................................................................12
Figure 2.4. 2 MPFI.............................................................................................................13
Figure 2.4. 3 Direct injection system.................................................................................15
Figure 2.5. 1 GDI Engine...................................................................................................16
Figure 2.6. 1 Upright Straight Intake Ports in GDI Engine...............................................16
Figure 2.6. 2 Curved-Top Piston in GDI Engine ...............................................................16
Figure 2.6. 3 Fuel Spray Locus (Bottom View) ................................................................17
Figure 2.6. 4 Types of Fuel Spray in GDI Engine .............................................................17
Figure 2.7. 1 Ultra-lean Combustion Mode [1]..................................................................18
Figure 3.5. 1 Schematic Representation of the Project Procedure.....................................27
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 4.4. 1 Physical Model of the Cylinder Head...........................................................30


Figure 4.4. 2 Scanned Wire Frame Inner Surface of the Cylinder Head and Piston ........30
Figure 4.5. 1 Developed Surfaces of the Inner Surface of the Cylinder Head Piston ......31
Figure 4.6. 1Valves Modelled on the Cylinder Head.........................................................32
Figure 4.6. 2 Inner Surface of the Cylinder........................................................................33
Figure 4.6. 3 Modelled Flat Piston.....................................................................................33
Figure 4.7. 1 Modelled Engine Assembly..........................................................................34
Figure 4.8. 1 2D Sketch of the Engine Assembly Extracted for Analysis..........................34
Figure 5.3. 1 Faces created in GAMBIT on the 2D Model................................................37
Figure 5.3. 2 Triangular Mesh created on the Required Faces of the 2D Model...............38
Figure 5.3. 3 Quad Mesh created on the Required Faces of the 2D Model.......................39
Figure 5.3. 4 Entire Grid Representation...........................................................................39
Figure 5.3. 5 Zoomed Images of the Grid at Specific Locations.......................................40
Figure 5.4. 1 Boundary Zones Assigned............................................................................41
Figure 5.4. 2 Menu used for Assigning Boundary Zones...................................................42
Figure 5.4. 3 Fluid Zones Assigned...................................................................................43
Figure 6.4. 1 Temperature/mixture-fraction relationship for the Adiabatic Case .............54
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 6.4. 2 Species Concentration For the Adiabatic Case.............................................54


Figure 6.4. 3 3D Look Up table for the Non Adiabatic case in PrePDF............................56
Figure 6.4. 4 Species Concentration For the Non Adiabatic Case.....................................57
Figure 6.4. 5 Valve Profile File..........................................................................................59
Figure 6.4. 6 Dynamic Mesh Events..................................................................................60
Figure 6.4. 7 Dynamic Mesh Grid Movement...................................................................61
Figure 6.4. 8 Boundary Conditions defined at the Inlet.....................................................64
Figure 6.4. 9 Boundary Conditions defined at the Outlet..................................................65
Figure 6.4. 10 Boundary Conditions defined at the Cylinder Walls..................................65
Figure 6.4. 11 Solution Parameters....................................................................................66
Figure 6.4. 12 Iteration Panel.............................................................................................67
Figure 6.4. 13 Patching a High Temperature for Providing the Spark...............................68
Figure 8.2. 1 Pressure Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles........72
Figure 8.2. 2 Velocity Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles........73
Figure 8.2. 3 Velocity Vectors for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles...........74
Figure 8.2. 4 Turbulence Intensity Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank
Angles........................................................................................................................75
Figure 8.2. 5 Temperature Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles. 76

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

List of Graphs
Graph 2.7. 1 Fuel consumption during Cruising at 40 km/h .............................................19
Graph 2.7. 2 Volumetric Efficiency versus Engine Speed in a GDI Engine .....................19
Graph 2.7. 3 NOx Emissions versus Air/Fuel Ratio at 40 km/h .......................................20
Graph 7. 1 Fluent Tutorial Graph.......................................................................................69
Graph 7. 2 Graph from Fluent............................................................................................69
Graph 7. 3 p- Diagram from Fluent.................................................................................70
Graph 7. 4 p- Diagram from Heywood............................................................................70
Graph 7. 5 Paper [1] Velocity Graph..................................................................................70
Graph 7. 6 Graph obtained from Fluent.............................................................................70
Graph 8.3. 1Mass Flow rate at the inlet.............................................................................77
Graph 8.3. 2 Mass Flow rate at the Outlet.........................................................................78
Graph 8.3. 3 p- diagram for Cold Flow Analysis.............................................................79
Graph 8.3. 4 p- diagram for the GDI Engine...................................................................80
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Graph 8.3. 5 T- diagram for the GDI engine....................................................................81


Graph 8.3. 6 Turbulent Intensity versus Crank Angle........................................................82
Graph 8.3. 7 Velocity of the Charge versus Crank Angle..................................................83

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

List of Symbols
Symbol

Description

Units

Heat transfer co-efficient

W/m2K

Turbulence kinetic energy

m2/s2

Dissipation rate

Specific heat ratio

Cp

Specific heat at constant pressure

kJ/kg K

Cv

Specific heat at constant volume

kJ/kg K

P(x)

Pressure

MPa

Qs

Heat supplied

rc

Compression ratio

T(x)

Temperature

Abbreviations
AMG

Algebraic Multigrid

ATDC

After Top Dead Centre

ABDC

After Bottom Dead Centre

BDC

Bottom Dead Centre

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

DNS

Direct Numerical Simulation

IC

Internal Combustion
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

SI

Spark Ignition

TDC

Top Dead Centre

PDF

Probability Density Function

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Chapter 1- Introduction
The heat engines can be broadly classified as External Combustion engines and
Internal Combustion Engines (IC Engines). In the traditional steam engine, and even in a
modern steam turbine, fuel is burned outside the engine (External Combustion Engines).
However, it is more efficient to burn fuel inside the engine and let the expanding gases
produced drive a piston or turbine. Such engines are called Internal Combustion Engines.

1.1 A typical IC Engine


All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process
of combustion the reaction of a fuel, typically with air, although other oxidisers such as
nitrous oxide may be employed. All internal combustion engines must have a means of
ignition to promote combustion. Most engines use either an electrical or a compression
heating ignition system.Once successfully ignited and burnt, the combustion products
have more available energy than the original compressed fuel/air mixture (which had
higher chemical energy). The available energy is manifested as high temperature and
pressure which can be translated into work by the engine. Once the available energy has
been removed the remaining hot gases are vented (often by exposing the exhaust outlet)
and this allows the piston to return to its previous position (Top Dead Center - TDC). The
piston can then proceed to the next phase .Any heat not translated into work is a waste
product and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid cooling system

Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 1.1. 1 A Typical IC Engine [1]

Automobiles [Auto means Self and Mobile means Moving] of the present era
are driven by such engines. Internal Combustion engines date back to 1876 when Otto
developed the Spark Ignition Engine (SI Engine) and 1982 when Diesel Developed the
Compression Ignition Engine (CI Engine).
In the conventional SI engine an Air/Fuel mixture is taken in and a spark plug is used
to ignite the mixture inside the combustion chamber.
In the CI engine only Air is drawn into the cylinder, compressed to a high temperature
and pressure and is then ignited by injecting the Fuel at a particular interval of time.
Some of the fuels used with time are Petrol (benzene, gas), Distillate (diesel),
Kerosene, LPG, Natural gas (methane), Coal Gas and Hydrogen.
Over the years, these engines have continuously developed as the knowledge about
engine processes increased, as new technologies became available, as demand for new
engines arose and as the environmental constraints on the engine used changed.

1.2 The 4-stroke SI Petrol Engine


The SI engines can be broadly classified into 2- stroke and 4-stroke engines. The
project deals with a 4-stroke SI Petrol engine. The 4-stroke engine has some inherent

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

advantages over the 2-stroke engine like lesser emissions, longer life, lesser sound, lesser
maintenance etc.
Key parts of a four-stroke engine include the crankshaft, one or more camshafts and
valves. A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is
known as a stroke and the downward stroke that occurs directly after the air-fuel mix in
the cylinder is ignited is known as a power stroke. It takes four strokes of the piston to
produce power, so this system is known as the four-stroke cycle. It is by far the most
common type of engine in use today.
The four main stages are Induction Stroke in which, downward movement of the
piston sucks in the air-fuel mixture. Compression Stroke in which upward movement of
the piston compresses the mixture to a high temperature and pressure. A Power Stroke in
which the downward movement of the piston caused by the explosion of the fuel. Exhaust
Stroke in which the upward-moving piston forces exhaust gases out of the cylinder. Such
four strokes of the piston rotate a crankshaft, at the end of which is a heavy flywheel.
From the flywheel, the power is transferred to the cars driving wheels via the
transmission system of clutch, gearbox, and final drive.
The parts of the petrol engine can be subdivided into a number of systems. The
fuel system pumps fuel from the petrol tank into the carburettor. There it mixes with air
and is sucked into the engine cylinders. (With electronic fuel injection, it goes directly
from the tank into the cylinders by way of an electronic monitor.) The ignition system
supplies the sparks to ignite the fuel mixture in the cylinders. By means of an ignition coil
and contact breaker, it boosts the 12-volt battery voltage to pulses of 18,000 volts .Most
engines have a water-cooling system, in which water circulates through channels in the
cylinder block, thus extracting the heat. It flows through pipes in a radiator, which are
cooled by fan-blown air. A few cars and most motorcycles are air-cooled, the cylinders
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

being surrounded by many fins to present a large surface area to the air. The lubrication
system also reduces some heat, but its main job is to keep the moving parts coated with
oil, which is pumped under pressure to the camshaft, crankshaft, and valve-operating
gear. Apart from this, the combustion chamber can itself be taken as a system where the
combustion takes place. Associated to the petrol the other systems are valve-actuating
mechanisms and exhaust systems.

1.3 Motivation
If the engine is to run efficiently and produce maximum power output, the fuel must
have the right amount of oxygen available for the complete combustion. This oxygen
usually comes from the air which we breath, so the fuel must be mixed with the right
amount of air to get the right amount of oxygen. For petrol, this is about 14.7 parts of air
to 1 part of petrol by weight. As air is a gas and is very light, this of course means that a
very large volume of air is needed to burn 1 kilo of petrol completely.
In petrol engines, this mixing of air and fuel was normally achieved with a
Carburettor System. The carburettor system had a number of systems corresponding to
different load conditions like idling, sudden acceleration, cols star etc. The entire system
was a mechanical one and hence the accuracy was not optimum. This resulted in wastage
of the fuel and higher emissions. This finally led to the fall of the carburettor system.
Since the advent of electronics in the automobile industry, many changes have taken
place. Throttle Body Injection replaced the carburettor system. Here the amount of fuel
injected and its timing was accurately measured using electronically controlled devices.
However, the exponential increment of vehicles on road led to large amounts of pollution
even with such systems. There were some inherent disadvantages like lack of supply of
proper air/fuel mixture to all the cylinders and wastage of fuel.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

This led to the hugely popular and the present day fuel system called Multipoint
Fuel Injection System (MPFI). In this type, there were independent injectors for each of
the cylinder. The injected air and the fuel mixed just outside the cylinder. This ensured
proper air/fuel mixture to all the cylinders. The amount of fuel injected and its timing was
again accurately measured using electronically controlled devices.
In all these conventional systems, fuel and air were mixed outside the cylinder. This
results in wastage between the mixing point and the cylinder, as well as imperfect
injection timing. There were limits to fuel supply response and the combustion control
because the fuel mixes with air before entering the cylinder. This was leading to higher
emissions, and wastage of fuel.
The vehicles of the present era are aiming towards excellent fuel efficiency and
superb performance while maintaining cleaner emissions and driving comfort. The main
reasons for the above requirements are the mandatory rules imposed by the governments
of different countries to reduce the enormous environment pollution and the strict safety
regulations that are being followed. These factors pose a major challenge to the car
manufacturers of the present era. An automobile is no more just a means of transportation.
It has become integral part of ones life. One other factor that has contributed to this
challenge is the problem of global warming. The main gas that contributes to global
warming is CO2 and one of the main emissions of all automobiles is CO 2. In order to
achieve reduction of CO2, there is an immediate need to develop and promote widely, the
use of an automotive power plant that emits significantly less CO 2 than conventional
petrol engines.
The first attempt of cleaning up the emission of a vehicle was by treating the gas
coming out of the engine. Many different attempts were made and some of them affected
the performance or economy. Hence these methods were only an interim modification and
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

were short lived, also the anti pollution laws became more strict. The second attempt was
to provide right amount of fuel at right time. With the conventional systems explained
above only the MPFI system comes closer. However even with this system, the required
limits for the emission are not attainable.
This has led to the development of more efficient engines like Gasoline Direct
Injection Engine. These types of engines combine the characteristics of both SI and CI
engines. The fuel is directly injected inside the cylinder and only air is sucked in during
the induction stroke as in a CI engine. However, a spark plug is used to ignite the mixture
as in a SI engine. In addition, it has two different modes of operations depending on the
load conditions. All these factors result in an excellent fuel efficiency and superb
performance while maintaining cleaner emissions and driving comfort

1.4 Present work


The thesis aims at Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston). The work
involved is divided into three stages of simulation. The first stage of the project involves a
Numerical investigation of cold flow analysis on the 2D model of engine. The second
stage is a step ahead, keeping the initial conditions same as previous; Injections
(considering a particular Injection Pressure) at a particular instant of time are included.
The third stage of the project analysing the Combustion Process for the engine modelled.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Chapter- 2 Literature Review


2.1 Historical Development
Since the day of invention, Internal Combustion (IC) engines have become part of the
society. The society without IC engine is unimaginable as of now. The contribution of IC
engines to the growth of personal transportation is major.
The development of Otto cycle based engine i.e. Spark Ignition engine, popularised
the IC engines. SI engines are more advantageous than the external combustion engines
like steam plants. The advantage of SI engines over steam engines are greater mechanical
simplicity, lower weight to power ratio due to the absence of auxiliary apparatus like
boiler and condenser, higher overall efficiency and lesser energy dissipation of energy
through cooling system.
Prior to GDI technology, many developments have taken place in Automobiles right
from 1900 in different areas. The engine which is the heart of an automobile has itself
seen many changes in its combustion chamber design, type of piston, valve mechanisms
etc. Other systems like the fuel supply systems, cooling systems, safety systems and
practically every nook and corner of the automobile has undergone transition.
The technological developments that took place in the petrol engines right from
1900s are given below. In addition, the technological developments in the fuel supply
system and the combustion chamber design have been discussed in detail. This is because
the entire GDI technology has seen a drastic change in fuel supply system and the
combustion chamber design.

Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

2.2 Technological developments in petrol engines


The earliest automobile engine was modified from industrial-use internal
combustion motor. Italian Barsanti and Matleucci invented the first internal
combustion engine in 1856 that was a stationary engine powered by coal gas,
served in a railway station.
In 1876, Otto made the first 4-stroke coal oil engine, which cut fuel consumption
as much as 75% compared with contemporary engine! His student, Daimler,
created his own petrol engine in 1883, within two years he raised the maximum
engine rev to 900 rpm, that is, 4 times of Otto's engine.
In 1885, Benz's engine adopted battery, coil and spark plug ignition system.
In 1888, British Butler designed carburettor, which was adopted in all cars for 100
years.
Early engines were all single-cylinder, rotating a big flywheel to avoid misfire.
Later multi-cylinder engines were mostly arranged in-line; occasionally there
were some horizontally opposed engines. The introduction of V-shape engine
reduced the size of engine bay a lot. In the 30s, Porsche pioneered mid-engined
layout in his Auto Union GP racer, thus established the standard for modern sports
car.
Since the 30s, power increased as compression ratio raised, this led to the
emergence of leaded fuel. However, because of environmental protection,
unleaded fuel dominated again since the 90s.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

In the 60s, hemispheric combustion chamber and overhead camshaft started to be


popular in sports cars, now they are standards in every car.
Turbocharger appeared for the first time in Chevrolet Corvair of the 60s, which
enabled 2.2 litres output 150 hp. However, the first one used this technology
maturely was Porsche 911 turbo 3.0 of 1975. Saab 9000 further incorporated it in
a multi-valve engine, thus successfully applied it to mass production sedans.
4 valves per cylinder technology appeared as early as 1912 in Peugeot GP racer,
but until the 70s there were just a few European sports cars using it. Toyota
learned the technology from Lotus and applied to the mass production Corolla
AE86 coupe in 1983. A few years later, 4-valve engine became standard in the
mass production Corolla and Honda Civic, then spreaded to other carmakers in the
next decade.
In 1970 German firm Bosch developed fuel injector, and then further developed it
into Motronic electronic engine management system, which integrated fuel supply
and ignition.
Besides, Wankel rotary engine was the only non-piston engine. It was invented by
German Dr. Felix Wankel and went into production in 1964 by NSU. What a pity
reliability and fuel consumption problem led to the result that only Mazda is still
producing it in small quantity.
In the 90s, due to the weight increment of cars, superchargers revived again for
the benefit of low-end torque. Low-pressure turbocharger also appeared as its
competitors. Besides, variable-valve timing and variable intake manifold becomes
increasingly popular.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

In the late 90s, most development budget was spent to emission control and fuel
efficiency enhancement - direct injection petrol and common-rail direct injection
diesel are the latest highlight.

2.3 Developments in design of combustion chambers


Several basic combustion chamber shapes are used in spark ignition
engines today. The four most commonly used shapes are the wedge, the crescent, the
hemispherical, and the bowl-in-piston chambers.

Wedge Chamber
The wedge chamber shape was an asymmetrical design. The wedge was called
an open chamber head since the cylinder head was concave. The valves were not placed
in the center of the chamber. Rather, the valves were inclined in an off-center position.

Figure 2.3. 1 Wedge chamber with quench and squish area [2]

Hemispherical Chamber
The hemispherical combustion chamber until date is a very popular design.
This chamber was a symmetrical design.

It was also an open chamber due to the


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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

concavity of the cylinder head. The valves were placed on an arc-shaped head. The hemi
(abridgement of hemispherical) chamber was very popular in high performance
automobiles. A high performance engine known as the 426 Hemi used this type of
combustion chamber.

Figure 2.3. 2 Hemispherical Chamber [2]

Crescent (Pent-Roof) Chamber


The crescent combustion chamber was very similar to the hemi chamber. The main
difference between the two chambers was that in the crescent chamber the valves are
placed on a trapezoidal-shaped head instead of an arc-shaped head. The valves of a
crescent shaped chamber were placed at an angle on flat on the head. The crescent
chamber was also called pent-roof combustion chamber.

Figure 2.3. 3 A crescent combustion chamber [2]

Cup (Bowl) Chamber

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Some chambers were called closed rather than open. In closed chambers, the
cylinder head was virtually flat. However, the piston was dished. The dish in the piston
simply created concavity in the piston. A bowl-in-piston chamber was an example of a
closed chamber. In this chamber, the valves were placed perpendicular to the head.

Figure 2.3. 4 Bowl-in-piston combustion chamber [2]

Wide Spacing Technology


The above mentioned combustion chamber shapes are being integrated with this
revolutionary technology. The GDI engine's ability to precisely control the mixing of the
air and fuel is due to this new concept called wide spacing, whereby injection of the fuel
spray occurs further away from the spark plug than in a conventional petrol engine,
creating a wide space that enables optimum mixing of gaseous fuel and air. This
technology can be used with any of the combustion shapes explained especially
hemispherical and wedge. This technology makes use of both the features of SI and CI
engines. The piston has a complex shape, as it required for mixture preparation. In
stratified combustion (Ultra-Lean Mode), fuel is injected towards the curved top of the
piston crown rather than towards the spark plug, during the latter stage of the
compression stroke. The movement of the fuel spray, the piston head's deflection of the
spray and the flow of air within the cylinder cause the spray to vaporize and disperse. The
resulting mixture of gaseous fuel and air is then carried up to the spark plug for ignition.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

The biggest advantage of this system is that it enables precise control over the air-to-fuel
ratio at the spark plug at the point of ignition.

2.4 Technological developments in the fuel supply systems


Carburetted fuel supply system
Carburettor is a device used for atomising and vaporizing the fuel and mixing it
with air in varying proportions to suit the changing conditions and to supply for
combustion in the engine cylinder. This process of breaking up and mixing fuel with air is
called carburetion. The carburettors were in practice from 1920 to 1990. The main
reasons, which led to the fall of the carburettor, are given below.
Refrigeration type icing occurs in a carburettor venturi when fuel vaporizes in
moist air
Fuel distribution characteristics were bad (one cylinder operating at a very lean
air/fuel mixture while another may be operating near the rich end of the mixture
scale)
The carburettor was a metering device, which just told the amount of fuel that had
to be supplied in different situations. (That is more or less). However, it did not
supply the exact amount of mixture that was needed.
It had a number of additional circuits for different situations like acceleration,
idling, altitude etc that made its manufacturing quiet difficult.
A float type carburettor can only operate in an upright position.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 2.4. 1 Carburettor[3]

Multipoint fuel injection system


MPFI stands for 'multi point (electronic) fuel injection'. This system injects
fuel into individual cylinders, based on commands from the on board engine
management system computer popularly known as the Engine Control Unit/ECU.Mpfi
Systems can either be: a) Sequential i.e. direct injection into individual cylinders against
their suction strokes, or b) Simultaneous i.e. together for all the four or whatever the
number of cylinders. The Fuel Injectors are precision built Solenoid Valves, something
like Washing Machine Water inlet Valves. These have either single or multiple Orifices
which spray fuel into the Fuel inlet manifold of a Cylinder upon actuation, from a
common Rail/Header pressurized to around 3 bar, fed by a high pressure electrically drive
fuel pump inside the Petrol tank of the Car. The on-board ECU primarily controls the
Ignition Timing and quantity of fuel to be injected. In general, an ECU in turn is
controlled by the data input from a set of SENSORS located all over the Engine and its

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Auxiliaries. These detect the various operating states of the Engine and the performance
desired out of it. Such Sensors constantly monitor:
1) Ambient Temperature 2) Engine Coolant Temperature 3) Exhaust/manifold
temperature 4) Exhaust O2 content, 5) Inlet manifold vacuum, 6) Throttle position, etc.
Based on a programmed interpretation of all this input data, the ECU gives
the various commands to the Engines fuel intake and spark ignition timing systems, to
deliver an overall satisfactory performance of the Engine from start to shut down,
including emission control.

Figure 2.4. 2 MPFI [3]

Advantages of M. P. F. I.
More uniform A/F mixture was supplied to each cylinder and hence, the
difference in power developed in each cylinder was minimum. Vibration from the
engine equipped with this system was less. Due to this, the life of engine
components improved.
There was no need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting as it
happens in the carburettor system.
Immediate response, in the case of sudden acceleration / deceleration.
Since the engine was controlled by ECM (Engine Control Module), more accurate
amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result, complete combustion took
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

place. This led to effective utilization of fuel supplied and hence low emission
level.
The fuel efficiency was improved.

Disadvantages
If ECM fails to send control signal to all actuators then the engine won't get
started.
If ECM fails to service from all sensors then also the engine won't get started.
Wastage of fuel in different load conditions as the fuel is mixed with air outside
the cylinder.
Emissions are higher than Direct Injection systems.
Direct injection system
This is the new revolution in fuel injection systems. Even though MPFI
proved to be better than the carburetted engines, the main problem was at part loads. In
this system, the ECU had look up tables embedded in it. These look up tables had
different Rpms and the required amount of fuel that has to be supplied written in them.
The main disadvantage of this is that the injector injects more than necessary amount of
fuel into the combustion chamber. For example, consider the situation where the engine is
running at 2300 rpm. In the look up table, the amount of fuel that has to be supplied at
2000 rpm and 2500 rpm has been embedded but not the amount that has to be supplied at

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

2300 rpm. Since 2300 rpm is closer to 2500rpm, it supplies the amount of fuel at 2500
rpm. This extra fuel is supplied which will result in incomplete combustion and more
exhaust products. This can be avoided by following the system similar to diesel injection
system where a metered amount of fuel is injected into the chamber. The desired
"stratified charge effect" is obtained in this way: The cloud of air containing sufficient
fuel to form an ignitable mixture is kept to a confined volume and surrounds the spark
plug at the moment of ignition. Since the fuel is delivered at a shallow angle by the
injector, the cloud of fuel makes scarcely any contact with the piston crown: a so-called
"air-guided" process. After combustion, a layer of insulating air remains between the
ignited mixture and the cylinder wall. This cuts the amount of heat lost to the engine
block and increases the engine's operating efficiency.

Figure 2.4. 3 Direct injection system[3]

This has the advantages of reducing the tendency to knock because of direct fuel
injection into the combustion chamber and the resulting internal cooling effect. In
addition, the engine is capable of operating at a higher compression ratio.
The technological developments explained above have finally led to the birth of the
GDI technology. For years, engineers have known that if they could build a petrol engine
that worked like a diesel engine-in other words, one in which fuel is directly injected into
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

the cylinder and then the stratified, rich mixture right near the spark plug is ignited, then
they would have an engine that achieved both the fuel efficiency of a diesel engine and
attained the high output of a conventional petrol engine

2.5 Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)


In these engines, petrol is directly injected into the cylinder, eliminating many of the
restrictions on combustion control, such as the impossibility of adding fuel after the
induction valves were closed. By achieving precise combustion control that is free of
restrictions, the GDI delivers a previously unseen combination of fuel economy and
power. Very efficient intake and relatively high compression ratio unique to the GDI
engine deliver both high performance and response.

Figure 2.5. 1 GDI Engine [4]

2.6 Technical features of GDI engine

Upright straight intake ports for optimal airflow control in the cylinder

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 2.6. 1 Upright Straight Intake Ports in GDI Engine [5]

Curved-top pistons for aiding swirl and tumble.

Figure 2.6. 2 Curved-Top Piston in GDI Engine [5]

High-pressure swirl injectors for optimum air-fuel mixture

Figure 2.6. 3 Fuel Spray Locus (Bottom View) [5]

High-pressure fuel pump to feed pressurized fuel (Compact Spray or the Cone Spray)
into the injectors
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 2.6. 4 Types of Fuel Spray in GDI Engine [5]

2.7 GDI Engine and its main characteristics


Ultra-lean Combustion Mode for Lower Fuel Consumption Mode
Under most normal driving conditions, up to speeds of 120km/h, GDI engine
operates in ultra-lean combustion mode for less fuel consumption. In this mode, fuel
injection occurs at the latter stage of the compression stroke and ignition occurs at an
ultra-lean air-fuel ratio of 30 to 40 (35 to 55, included EGR).
Realization of lower fuel consumption

The GDI engine's ability to precisely control the mixing of the air and fuel is due
to a new concept called wide spacing, whereby injection of the fuel spray occurs further
away from the spark plug than in a conventional petrol engine, creating a wide space that
enables optimum mixing of gaseous fuel and air. In stratified combustion (Ultra-Lean
Mode), fuel is injected towards the curved top of the piston crown rather than towards the
spark plug, during the latter stage of the compression stroke. The movement of the fuel
spray, the piston head's deflection of the spray and the flow of air within the cylinder
cause the spray to vaporize and disperse.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

The resulting mixture of gaseous fuel and air is then carried up to the spark plug for
ignition. The biggest advantage of this system is that it enables precise control over the
air-to-fuel ratio at the spark plug at the point of ignition. As a result, extremely stable
combustion of ultra-lean mixture with an air-fuel ratio of 40 (55, Exhaust Gas
Recirculation included {EGR}) is achieved.

Figure 2.7. 1 Ultra-lean Combustion Mode [5]

Graph below shows the Fuel consumption during Cruising

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Graph 2.7. 1 Fuel consumption during Cruising at 40 km/h [5]

Superior Output Mode


When the GDI engine is operating with higher loads or at higher speeds, fuel
injection takes place during the intake stroke. This optimises combustion by ensuring a
homogeneous, cooler air-fuel mixture that minimizes the possibility of engine knocking.
Realization of Superior Output

To achieve power superior to conventional MPI engines, the GDI engine has a high
compression ratio and a highly efficient air intake system, which result in improved
volumetric efficiency and hence higher power output. Graph 2.7.2 shown below
represents the increase in volumetric efficiency in a GDI engine.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Graph 2.7. 2 Volumetric Efficiency versus Engine Speed in a GDI Engine [5]

Emission Control
Previous efforts to burn a lean air-fuel mixture have resulted in difficulty to control
NOx emission. However, in the case of GDI engine, 97% NOx reduction is achieved by
utilizing high-rate EGR such as 30% that is allowed by the stable combustion unique to
the GDI

Graph 2.7. 3 NOx Emissions versus Air/Fuel Ratio at 40 km/h [5]

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

2.9 Review of Previous Work in GDI Technological Development


This section contains excerpts from technical papers and other literature. This was
found useful for arriving at the present work. It has also helped in solving the problems
related to the present work and bottlenecks.
The GDI development started in the early 90s.As the fuel prices started soaring and
the environmental regulations grew stricter this technology gained momentum. GDI
engines have brought about a revolution in the engine technology of the present day cars.
In the past ten years, a lot of work has been carried out regarding this technology.
Mitsubishi released the first prototype in 1996. However, the technology was refined
further by others in the subsequent years.
In 1999, Edward S. Suh and Christopher J. Rutland [6] carried out the numerical
simulations on the air/fuel mixing preparation in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine.
A two-valve, Overhead Valve Mechanism Engine with wedge combustion chamber was
investigated since automobiles equipped with this type of engine were readily available. A
pressure-swirl injector and wide spacing injection layout were adapted to enhance
mixture preparation. It was concluded that modifying and retrofitting these engines for
GDI operation could become a viable scenario for some engine manufactures. Other
conclusions drawn were that the fuel injection and ignition point were also important for
the mixture preparation.
In 2002 B. P. Vanzieleghem et al [7] carried out Gasoline Direct Injection Modelling
and its Validation with Engine Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence Experiments. The
model considered the transient behaviour of the pre-swirl spray and the steady-state
behaviour of the main spray. An extended Coherent Flame model, according to Baritaud
et al. was also developed as part of this study. Agreement between the model and the
experimental results was shown to be excellent.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

In 2003 O. Colin, A. Benkenida and C. Angelberger [8] carried out developments on


the 3D modelling of combustion in spark ignition engines. Improvements to the classical
coherent flame model (CFM) were made to yield the extended coherent flame model
(ECFM), specifically adapted for simulating the combustion process in direct injectionspark ignition (DI-SI) engines. The principal idea of extension of the model was to locally
describe the fuel/air (F/A) equivalence ratio in fresh gases composition (including
residual gases) allowing the improvement in the description of large-scale stratification.
Finally, a model to predict knock in SI engines was developed. These developments were
then validated on two engine configurations: An Optical Access Engine, for which LIF
(laser induced fluorescence) measurements were made and The Gasoline Direct
Injection Mitsubishi Engine for global validations.
In 2004 Fritz Bedford, Xiao Hu and Ulrich Schmidt [9] studied a spark-ignited engine
and a direct injection diesel engine using the Computational Fluid Dynamics code Fluent
and validated against experimental data. The SI engine was studied for improving the
accuracy of the thermal stress analysis of the engine components. The DI engine was
studied to validate an ignition delay model in Fluent 6.2. A Caterpillar 3400 series heavy
duty DI diesel engine was simulated using Fluent 6.2 and compared with published
experimental data. The objective was to validate an ignition model in conjunction with
the existing dynamic mesh and spray models against an established data set consisting of
six different load and speed conditions (modes) from a federal transient test procedure.
An additional focus of the work was the evaluation of the applicability of the current
models for predicting production of nitrogen oxides at high temperatures.
From the above review, it can be seen that there is a large scope for the
development of GDI technology in the 4-stroke single cylinder engine for two
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

wheelers especially in the Indian Market. The above papers reveal that there has been a
lot of development in the automobile sector with regard to the GDI technology. The
development has been carried out mainly on the multi cylinder automobile engines.
However, it is the two-wheeler segment where in this technology has a lot of scope for
improvement. In the current Indian Market 95% of the two wheelers is making use of
carburetted system. GDI technology can therefore be used for the two-wheeler
segment increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions.

2. 10 Identification of the problem


The current thesis is based on the Numerical Investigation of the combustion process in
a 4-stroke single cylinder two-wheeler engine. For the purpose of the project a well
known carburetted two-wheeler engine was modelled and the direct injection system was
implemented and analysed.

2. 11 Solution Methodology
The entire problem was numerically investigated. The models used for the analysis
purpose are briefly described below. The equations and the basics behind these models
are described in Chapter 6.
Finite volume method was used for conducting the different types of analysis on
the 2D model of the engine. FLUENT based on this numerical method was used
for this purpose.
The solver used was a Segregated, Unsteady, and First Order Implicit.
The flow was assumed highly turbulent and a Turbulence model was used. The
model used was k- Model.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

The problem involved a moving piston and valves. For this purpose, the grid had
to change dynamically. Dynamic Mesh Model was used for this purpose.
For conducting the Cold Flow analysis, the above models were used. Providing
appropriate boundary conditions solved the energy, continuity and momentum
equations.
For analysing the combustion process, a combustion model was included named
Non- Premixed Combustion Model. This model was used to define the required
species involved in combustion. The calculations were carried out in PrePDF.
For including the Injections, the Discrete Phase Models were used. A number of
options under this model like Droplet breakup, Droplet collision and Droplet drag
were enabled.
The required Discretization schemes for different variables like pressure,
Pressure-velocity coupling, momentum etc were selected.

2. 12 Validation Procedure
The procedure followed for the numerical analysis has been validated with the Fluent
Tutorials. An attempt has also been made to validate the results with technical papers and
other books.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Chapter 3 Problem Definition


3.1 Project Aim
Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct
Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

3.2 Project Scope


Improving engine efficiency in an endeavour to meet growing environmental
demands, such as those for energy conservation and the reduction of CO 2
emission to limit the negative impact of the greenhouse effect.
Realization of lower fuel consumption
Realization of Superior Output

Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

The entire project has a revolutionary impact on the automobile technology in the
near future. The main aim of arriving at vehicles, which provide excellent fuel efficiency
and superb performance while maintaining cleaner emissions and driving comfort is near
possibility by incorporating this technology.

3.3 Tools Used


Rapid Form for obtaining the cloud point data
CATIA V5 R 11 and UG for Geometric Modelling
GAMBIT 2.2 for grid generation
PrePDF 4.1 for Combustion Modelling
FLUENT 6.2.16 for the Analysis of the GDI Engine.

3.4 Objective of the Project


Numerical investigation of cold flow analysis on the 2D model of engine
Including Injections (considering a particular Injection Pressure) at a particular
instant of time.
Analysing the Combustion Process for the engine modelled.

3.5 Project Procedure


The procedure adopted for the project is described in brief here.
The first step as already explained was literature survey and analysing the
problem on hand.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

The next step was setting up the objectives of the project.


The third step was procuring the required software tools and parameters of the
engine that were required for the successful completion of the project.
The Engine was then modelled (depending on the parameters collected) using
Reverse Engineering Technique and also by making use of a suitable software
tool.
The Grid was generated for the 2D model of the engine using suitable Software
tool, which was compatible with CFD package being used. The grid was
generated keeping in mind the analysis that had to be carried out.
Next the Grid was imported into a suitable CFD package. The models that were
required for analysis were chosen carefully.
Once the analysis was completed the results were checked. They were validated
with known benchmarks
Finally conclusions were drawn based on the results.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

3.6 Observations and Validation


The main observations of the analysis were the graphs of different variables with
respect to the crank angle. The pressure, velocity, turbulence intensity, temperature and
mass flow rates at inlet and outlet graphs were obtained from FLUENT. These graphs
were then validated with the technical papers and renowned IC Engine books. Also
contours of the above mentioned variables were extracted at different crank angles giving
an insight into the analysis of the combustion process. The validations and observations
are explained in detail in Chapter- 7 and Chapter-8 respectively.

Figure 3.5. 1 below shows the Schematic Representation of the Procedure adopted for
achieving the project objectives.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 3.5. 1Schematic Representation of the Project Procedure

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Chapter 4 Geometric Modelling of the Engine


4.1 Introduction
A geometric model describes the shape of a physical or mathematical object by means
of geometric concepts. Geometric modelling is the construction or use of geometric
models. Geometric models are used in computer graphics, computer-aided design and
manufacturing (CAD), Finite Element Analysis (FEM), Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) and many other applied fields. A Geometric model has to be created before any
analysis. This model acts as the backbone of the entire analysis. The discretization of this
model and the element choosing techniques are very important
Geometric modelling is the Pre-processing step in any analysis as explained
earlier in the Project Methodology. In this chapter the geometric modelling of the engine
has been explained in brief.
The Software Tools used for creating the Geometric Model were CATIA V5
R11 and UG. These tools were chosen, as they were user friendly and very efficient.
CATIA was specifically chosen for its surface modelling capabilities

4.2 Parameters of the Engine selected


Number of cylinders - 1
Number of strokes per cycle - 4
Cooling type Air Cooled
Bore diameter - 50 mm
Stroke length 57 mm

Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Connecting rod length 100 mm


Piston shape- flat head
Clearance volume 16 cc
Stroke volume 112 cc

4.3 Steps involved in the Geometric Modelling of the Engine


Reverse engineering of the engine selected.
Surface creation using the generate cloud point data.
Modelling different parts of the engine like the cylinder, cylinder head, ports,
valves and the piston.
Surface extraction and assembly creation as required by the analysis.
File conversion as required by the grid generation software.

4.4 Reverse Engineering of the selected Engine


The process of generating engineering design data from existing components is called
Reverse Engineering (RE).
In reverse engineering, a point cloud typically acquired using scanning techniques is
used as a basis for constructing 3D CAD surface data from a physical model.
This enables a considerable speed-up of the design and construction process as well as
an early quality control of the physical model through comparison of physical object data
with CAD surface data.
Steps involved in the RE of the Engine
The selected engine was reverse engineered using 3D Laser Scanner to get the
required cloud point data of the inner surface of the cylinder head and the piston
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

top. The engine was positioned in the 3D laser scanner and the required geometry
was scanned.
The cloud point data was obtained from the Rapid Form Software. The cloud
point data obtained was smoothened and then modified to get the required
wireframe surface of the cylinder head and the piston top.

Note: The inner surface of cylinder head and the piston top were the two main parts of the
engine that were scanned, as it was very difficult to measure the dimensions of these parts
using the measuring instruments. All the other parts of the engine cylinder, ports, valves
and the piston were measured using tools like Vernier caliper, Height gauge, Dial gauge
and bevel protractor.

Scanned Inner surface


of the Cylinder Head

Figure 4.4. 1 Physical Model of the Cylinder Head

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 4.4. 2 Scanned Wire Frame Inner Surface of the Cylinder Head and the Piston Top.

4.5 Surface Creation using CATIA V5 R11


The wireframe surface obtained from the Rapid Form Software was converted
into iges format, as it was compatible with CATIA.
The iges file was further used to develop the surfaces using the Generative Shape
Design Module. Options like extrude, join, translate, spilt and others were used in
obtaining the surface of the cylinder heads inner surface and the piston top. The
surface so obtained was checked for connectivity and smoothened to get the
required accuracy.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 4.5. 1 Developed Surfaces of the Inner Surface of the Cylinder Head and the Piston Top

4.6 Modelling different parts of the engine


Once the cylinder heads inner surface and the piston top surface were created the
different parts of the Engine were modelled. The parts that were modelled were cylinder,
ports, valves and the piston. As explained earlier these parts were measured from the
physical model and were modelled according to the dimension. The different parts were
modelled in UG.
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M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Valves
The required dimensions of the valves like the length of the stem, width, stub radius,
seat angle etc were obtained by accurate measurements. The main parameter was the
angle at which the inlet and the exhaust valves were seated on the cylinder head in their
closed positions. It was 22 degrees for the inlet valve and 20 degrees for the exhaust
valve. Figure 4.6. 1 below shows the valves modelled on the cylinder head.

Figure 4.6. 1Valves Modelled on the Cylinder Head

Ports
The inlet and the exhaust ports were modelled by measuring the radius of the ports in
the physical model at different points. The figure below shows the ports that were
modelled. The ports were connected to the cylinder head.

Inner Surface of the Cylinder head

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

As explained earlier the surface was developed in CATIA. The developed surface was
further modified in UG. The surface was provided with valve seats and the whole surface
was smoothened. Figure 4.6. 2 below shows the final surface of the cylinder head.

Figure 4.6. 2 Inner Surface of the Cylinder

Piston
Next the flat piston was modelled by matching the scanned piston top surface in UG
the entire piston was developed according to the original dimensions as in the physical
model.

Figure 4.6. 3 Modelled Flat Piston

4.7 Surface extraction and assembly creation


Once all the required parts were modelled the assembly was created as required
by the analysis. The analysis required the valves to be in their closed positions and the
piston in TDC (Top Dead Centre) position. For the purpose of the analysis only the top
surface of the flat the piston was taken. Also since the Analysis was 2D only the surfaces

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

were required. The cylinder wall thickness was ignored and only the inner surface of the
cylinder walls was taken. Similarly only the outer surfaces of the valve, inner surface of
the ports and inner surface of the cylinder head were taken. Figure 4.7. 1 below shows
the assembly as required by the analysis.

Figure 4.7. 1 Modelled Engine Assembly

4.8 File Conversion


The 2D sketch of the assembly shown in the above figure was extracted using the
sketcher mode. Only the lines of the sketch were selected. The lines of the sketch
represented the inner surfaces of the different parts of the engine as described earlier.
Only the lines of the valve represent the outer surfaces. The 2D sketch extracted was later
converted into iges format and was then taken to the grid generation software GAMBIT.
This format was selected, as it was compatible with GAMBIT.
Figure 4.8. 1 below shows the 2D sketch that was extracted from 3D assembly
model and was converted into iges format

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 4.8. 1 2D Sketch of the Engine Assembly Extracted for Analysis

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Chapter 5 - Grid Generation using GAMBIT


5.1 Introduction
Discretization of the domain under analysis is a very important pre-processing step.
In this step the domain is discretized into a number of small elements. Analysis is further
carried out for each of these elements. The process of grid generation refers to the
discretization the domain, which is under analysis. The grid generation was carried out in
GAMBIT 2.2. This software was selected mainly because of its compatibility with the
CFD package that was used later for the purpose of analysis.

5.2 Steps Involved in Grid Generation


The 2D model of the engine in iges format was imported into GAMBIT.
The required geometry cleanup was done.
Surfaces were created wherever necessary.
Next the meshing of the model was carried out. It involved complex process as the
mesh consisted of hybrid elements (Triangular and Quadrilateral).
The meshed model was assigned proper boundary zones and fluid zones by
loading the required solver.

Interfaces were provided wherever there was no connectivity between the


triangular and quadrilateral elements

The mesh was tested for its size independence. The analysis was carried out with
0.25mm and 0.5 mm cells. The final parameters remained the same with both the
sizes.

Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Hence the size of the elements chosen for the final meshed model was 0.25 mm.
Finally an element quality check was conducted.
The grid that was generated with all the boundary and fluid zones was converted
into a format that was compatible with the CFD package being used.

5.3 Grid Generation


The grid that was generated was not stationary. It was a dynamically changing one. As
the piston moved from the TDC to BDC the grid had to grow and collapse and vice versa.
Also the inlet and the exhaust valves moved in and out during the four strokes that were
simulated. Whenever the valve lift was provided the grid had to again grow. As the valves
closed the grid had to collapse. This type of grid was needed for the purpose of analysis.
Dynamic layering
In order to meet the requirements of dynamic layering concept, the meshing zone was
divided into two different sub-zones.
All cells adjacent to the moving face zone were quadrilaterals even though the cell
zone may contain mixed cell shapes.
The cell layers were completely bounded by one-sided face zones.
Face Creation
First the required faces were created. The faces were created keeping in mind the
dynamic layering concept. Around the moving part of the valve a face was created. This
face was further meshed with quadrilaterals, as it was a moving part. The valve was
moved in and out only from the stem portion. The stub of the valve was kept stationary.
Also the faces were spilt whenever necessary.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 5.3. 1 shows the faces created on the 2D model of the engine. It can be
clearly seen that the valves are in closed position and the piston is in TDC position. The
zoomed views show how the surfaces were spilt above the moving parts as these faces
were meshed with quadrilaterals. Just above the piston and all along the valve the faces
were spilt.

Figure 5.3. 1 Faces created in GAMBIT on the 2D Model

Meshing the faces

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

As explained earlier the mesh was hybrid in nature. It was seen to it that the
connectivity between the triangular and the quadrilateral elements was not provided at
appropriate places. This was again determined on the CFD package used. Whenever there
was no connectivity between the hybrid elements the CFD package handled it with the
help of interfaces.

Triangular Meshing

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Figure 5.3. 2Triangular Mesh created on the Required Faces of the 2D Model

Figure 5.3.2 shown above represents the faces that were meshed with triangular
elements. It can be seen from the above figure that the inner surface of the cylinder is
meshed with triangular elements until the top of the piston. However the mesh is biased
towards the top of the cylinder inner surface as a spark was provided at this point in the
analysis. Also it can be seen that around the valves the faces are not meshed. This was
because these were moving faces and had to be meshed with quadrilaterals
Quad Meshing

Once the triangular meshing was finished the remaining faces were meshed with
quadrilaterals. However connectivity between the two different types of cells was not
provided everywhere. The line separating the two meshes between which there was no
connectivity was defined as interface.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Figure 5.3. 3Quad Mesh created on the Required Faces of the 2D Model

Figure 5.3. 3 shows only those faces that were meshed with quadrilaterals. It can be
seen that the faces just above the moving boundaries are all meshed with quadrilaterals as
required by dynamic layering.
Entire Grid Representation

Figure 5.3. 4Entire Grid Representation.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Figure 5.3. 4 shows the entire grid. It consists of both triangular and quadrilateral
elements. This was the final rid that was taken to the CFD package for Analysis. The
marked circles on the figure represent the zoomed images, which are shown below.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 5.3. 5 Zoomed Images of the Grid at Specific Locations

5.4 Assigning Boundary and Fluid Zones


Once the grid generation was complete the boundary zones were assigned. This
formed a very important part of pre-processing step, as there were 40 zones in total. Next
the fluid zones were assigned. There were a number of fluid zones corresponding to the
boundary zones assigned.
Steps Involved in Assigning Boundary Zones
The solver FLUENT 5/6 was first loaded. This was because the CFD package in
which the analysis was carried out was FLUENT 6.2.16.
Once the solver was defined all the terms regarding the boundary conditions were
as represented in FLUENT.
Individual edges were selected and the boundary conditions were assigned. This
was because the model was 2D. If it was 3D then faces had to be selected.
Same procedure was applied to all the edges.
Similarly all the interfaces were defined. Whenever there was an interface there
were overlapping edges. These overlapping edges were present in order to avoid
connectivity.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 5.4. 1 Boundary Zones Assigned

Figure 5.4. 1 represents a few of the boundary conditions specified. The inlet for
example was designated as pressure inlet. The term pressure inlet is related to the CFD
package used (FLUENT 6.2.16). Selecting the required edge designated inlet. However
under Boundary Type menu pressure inlet was chosen. The Same procedure has been
followed for all the boundary zones.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Figure 5.4. 2 Menu used for Assigning Boundary Zones

Figure 5.4.2 shows the menu being used for assigning the boundary zones in
GAMBIT. It can be seen that the FLUENT 5/6 solver has been loaded.
Steps involved in Assigning Fluid Zones
The fluid zones were assigned in the same way as the boundary zones.
The only difference was that the zones were assigned by selecting the surfaces.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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The fluid was air and all the boundary faces where there was airflow were
selected.

Figure 5.4. 3 Fluid Zones Assigned

Figure 5.4.3 shows a few of the fluid zones specified. In the same way, all the faces
wherever there was fluid flow were assigned by giving different names. These names
were given so that the zones could be easily distinguished in FLUENT.

5.5 File Conversion


Once the grid was generated and all the boundary and fluid zones were assigned the
meshed model was converted into a FLUENT compatible format. The format selected
was .msh. The converted file was then imported to the CFD package. All the boundary
and fluid zones were related to FLUENT as they were assigned by loading FLUENT 5/6
solver in GAMBIT.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Chapter 6 2D Analysis of the Engine


6.1 Introduction
In the present day scenario computational fluid dynamics plays a very important
role in various walks of life. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has grown from a
mathematical curiosity to become an essential tool in almost every branch of fluid
dynamics, from aerospace propulsion to weather prediction. CFD is commonly accepted
as referring to the broad topic encompassing the numerical solution, by computational
methods, of the governing equations which describe fluid flow, the set of the NavierStokes equations, continuity and any additional conservation equations, for example
energy or species concentrations.
For the purpose of project the CFD package used was FLUENT 6.2.16. This software
was chosen because of its user-friendly environment, compatibility with the pre
processing software and accuracy.

6.2 Facts about the Analysis


1. The solution was carried out in FLUENT 6.2.16
2. The solution simulated all the four strokes of the IC engine.
3. The solution period was 0.08 sec at 1500 rpm.
4. The solution took about 20 hrs on a 1GB system and a P4 processor.
5. The simulation carried out was a direct injection system with the spark provided at
10 degrees before the compression stroke.
6. The fuel used was Pentane.

Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

6.3 Models used for Analysis


k- epsilon model
(Turbulence Kinetic Energy, k, and the Turbulence Dissipation Rate, )
The simplest\complete models of turbulence are two-equation models in which the
solution of two separate transport equations allows the turbulent velocity and
length scales to be independently determined.
The standard k- epsilon model in FLUENT falls within this class of turbulence
model and has become the workhorse of practical engineering calculations in the
time since Launder and Spalding proposed it.
Robustness, economy, and reasonable accuracy for a wide range of turbulent
flows explain its popularity in industrial flow and heat transfer simulations.
In the derivation of the k- epsilon model, it was assumed that the flow is fully
turbulent, and the effects of molecular viscosity are negligible. The standard kepsilon model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent flows.

Transport Equations for the Standard k-epsilon Model

For k [10]

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

For [10]

Turbulent Viscosity [10]

The turbulence viscosity depends on both k and . Once the transportation equations
are solved the values are substituted in the above equation to obtain Turbulent Viscosity.
Dynamic Mesh Model
The dynamic mesh model in FLUENT can be used to model flows where the
shape of the domain is changing with time
The integral form of the conservation equation for a general scalar,, on an
arbitrary control volume, V, whose boundary is moving can be written as[2]

Where is the fluid density


u

ug

is the flow velocity vector


is the grid velocity of the moving mesh

is the diffusion coefficient


S is the source term of
Regions that are deforming due to motion on their adjacent regions are grouped
into separate zones in the starting mesh.
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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The non-conformal or sliding interface capability in FLUENT can be used to


connect the various zones in the final model.
Three mesh motion methods are available in FLUENT to update the mesh in the
deforming regions subject to the motion defined at the boundaries:
1. Spring-based Smoothing
2. Dynamic Layering
3. Local Remeshing
For the 2D engine model the dynamic mesh model was used for specifying the
valve and piston movements. The three methods of dynamic meshing mentioned
above were used.
Apart from this the In-Cylinder options, Dynamic Zones and In-Cylinder events
were used for specifying various parameters like movements and valve openings
Non-premixed combustion model
In non-premixed combustion, fuel and oxidizer enter the reaction zone in distinct
streams. This was the case in GDI engine where only air is taken in through the inlet and
at a specified crank angle fuel was injected
. This is in contrast to premixed systems, in which reactants are mixed at the molecular
level before burning. Examples of non-premixed combustion include methane
combustion, pulverized coal furnaces, and diesel (compression) internal-combustion
engines. Under certain assumptions, the thermo chemistry can be reduced to a single
parameter i.e. the mixture fraction. The mixture fraction, denoted by f, is the mass
fraction that originated from the fuel stream. In other words, it is the local mass fraction
of burnt and unburnt fuel stream elements (C, H, etc.) in all the species (CO2, H2O, O2,

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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etc.). The approach is elegant because atomic elements are conserved in chemical
reactions. In turn, the mixture fraction is a conserved scalar quantity, and therefore its
governing transport equation does not have a source term. Combustion is simplified to a
mixing problem, and the difficulties associated with closing non-linear mean reaction
rates are avoided. Once mixed, the chemistry can be modelled as in chemical equilibrium,
or near chemical equilibrium with the laminar flamelet model. For the project, the
equilibrium approach has been used
Mixture Fraction

The basis of the non-premixed modelling approach is that under a certain set of
simplifying assumptions, the instantaneous thermo chemical state of the fluid is related to
a conserved scalar quantity known as the mixture fraction f [10]

Where Zi is the elemental mass fraction for some element, i.


Transport Equations for the Mean Mixture Fraction [10]

Mean Mixture Fraction Variance

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Relationship of f to Species Mass Fraction, Density, and Temperature [10]

Derivation of Mean Scalar Values from the Instantaneous Mixture Fraction [10]

Logical Dependence [10]

Discrete phase models


In addition to solving transport equations for the continuous phase, FLUENT allows
the user to simulate a Discrete Second Phase in a Lagrangian frame of reference. This
second phase consists of spherical particles (which may be taken to represent droplets or

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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bubbles) dispersed in the continuous phase. FLUENT computes the trajectories of these
discrete phase entities, as well as heat and mass transfer to/from them. The coupling
between the phases and its impact on both the discrete phase trajectories and the
continuous phase flow can also be included.
FLUENT provides the user following discrete phase modelling options:
Calculation of the discrete phase trajectory using a Lagrangian formulation that
includes the discrete phase inertia, hydrodynamic drag, and the force of gravity,
for both steady and unsteady flows
Prediction of the effects of turbulence on the dispersion of particles due to
turbulent eddies present in the continuous phase
Heating/cooling of the discrete phase
Vaporization and boiling of liquid droplets
Combusting particles, including volatile evolution and char combustion to
simulate coal combustion
Optional coupling of the continuous phase flow field prediction to the discrete
phase calculations
Droplet breakup and coalescence
Solver
Segregated Solver [10]

Using this approach, the governing equations are solved sequentially (i.e.,
segregated from one another). Because the governing equations are non-linear (and
coupled), several iterations of the solution loop must be performed before a converged
solution is obtained. Each iteration consists of the following steps.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Fluid properties are updated, based on the current solution. (If the calculation has
just begun, the fluid properties will be updated based on the initialized solution.)
The u, v, and w momentum equations are each solved in turn using current values
for pressure and face mass fluxes, in order to update the velocity field.
When interphase coupling is to be included, the source terms in the appropriate
continuous phase equations may be updated with a discrete phase trajectory
calculation.
A check for convergence of the equation set is made.

Implicit Formulation

In both the segregated and coupled solution, methods the discrete, non-linear governing
equations are linearized to produce a system of equations for the dependent variables in
every computational cell. The resultant linear system is then solved to yield an updated

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Flow field solution. The manner in which the governing equations are linearized may take
an implicit or explicit form with respect to the dependent variable (or set of variables) of
interest.
Implicit: For a given variable, the unknown value in each cell is computed using a
relation that includes both existing and unknown values from neighboring cells.
Therefore, each unknown will appear in more than one equation in the system, and these
equations must be solved simultaneously to give the unknown quantities.
Unsteady State

In unsteady-state, the process variables change with time. (One class of unsteadystate processes are oscillatory, where they process variables change with time in a regular
way. All other unsteady processes may be called Transient meaning that the process
variables continuously evolve over time).
For the given problem unsteady state was selected as all the variables like pressure,
density, velocity, turbulence changed with respect to time. As the piston from TDC to
BDC to complete the four strokes the variables changed with time.

6.4 Steps Involved in Analysis of the 2D model of the engine


The entire analysis was grouped into two stages.
In the First Stage the non-premixed combustion model was used. The
calculations were carried out in PrePDF 4.1. Both Adiabatic and Non-Adiabatic
calculations were carried out. The looks up tables created were written into a pdf
file and was finally read into FLUENT.

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In The Second Stage all the models described like dynamic mesh, turbulence and
others were used for the purpose of analysis in FLUENT. The look table
obtained from PrePDF was also read into FLUENT. The final results were
obtained from FLUENT.
Non-Premixed Combustion Model Solution using prePDF 4.1
Problem Description:

The liquid fuel combustion system considered here consisted of a liquid spray of
pentane fuel entering the combustion chamber in which air was flowing at 303K. The
cylinder walls were held at a constant temperature of 303K. The model considered
included an IC engine of bore diameter 50 mm and a stroke of 57 mm. The Reynolds
number, based on inlet conditions, was roughly 1,00,000 and the flow was turbulent. As
the pentane evaporated, it entered the gas phase and reacted. The combustion was
modeled using the mixture-fraction/PDF approach, with the equilibrium mixture
consisting of 11 chemical species (C5H12, CH4, CO, CO2, H2, H2O (g), H2O (l), O2, OH,
C(s) and N2). The spray was assumed to consist of 100-micron diameter liquid droplets
injected at 300 K over a filled spray half-angle of 60 degrees on the duct centerline. The
mass flow rate of liquid fuel was 0.008 kg/s, corresponding to fuel-lean conditions in the
flow.
Outline of prePDF

The mixture-fraction/PDF model was used, by preparing a PDF file with the
preprocessor, prePDF. The PDF file contained lookup tables relating species
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concentrations and temperatures to the mixture fraction. The look-up tables were used by
FLUENT to obtain these scalars during the solution procedure. After creating the PDF
file, the PDF modeling option in FLUENT was activated and boundary conditions for the
mixture fraction and its variance were defined. The problem was then solved in the usual
manner, using the PDF file to describe the system chemistry
Steps Involved in PrePDF 4.1

Nonadiabatic calculations were more time-consuming than those for adiabatic


systems were, hence the PDF model was started by considering the results of an adiabatic
system. By computing the PDF/equilibrium chemistry results for the adiabatic system,
appropriate system parameters were determined that made the nonadiabatic calculation
more efficient. Specifically, the adiabatic calculation provided information on the peak
(adiabatic) flame temperature, on the stoichiometric mixture fraction, and on the
importance of individual components to the chemical system.
Adiabatic calculation Steps

Selecting the adiabatic mode initially set up the case.


All the inputs required for the adiabatic calculations were given.
The species involved in the calculations were set up
Finally the PDF table was computed
The results were studied to obtain information on the peak adiabatic flame
temperature and the stoichiometric mixture fraction which were further used as
inputs for the Nonadiabatic calculations

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

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Inputs for the Adiabatic Calculations

Total numbers of chemical species defined were 11.


(C5H12, CH4, CO, CO2, H2, H2O (g), H2O (l), O2, OH, C(s) and N2)

Operating Conditions: The liquid fuel inlet temperature (and the vaporization
temperature) was 650 K and the oxidizer inlet temperature was 303K. The system
pressure was 1 atmosphere.
Mole fraction for C5H12 was entered as 1. The mole fraction for oxidizer (N2 and
O2 ) was entered as 0.29 and 0.71 respectively
Results for Adiabatic Calculations

Figure 6.4. 1 Temperature/mixture-fraction relationship for the Adiabatic Case in PrePDF

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The temperature/mixture-fraction relationship displayed in Figure 6.4.1 revealed


that the peak flame temperature was about 2270 K and occurred at a mixture
fraction of approximately 0.1.

Figure 6.4. 2 Species Concentration For the Adiabatic Case

Figure 6.4. 2 shows that all species, except OH and H2O (L), appeared in significant
mole fractions in the equilibrium system. This information was used to eliminate these
species from the system chemistry. However, all the 11 species were retained here.
Nonadiabatic Calculation steps

The simple adiabatic calculation considered above provided useful input to the
nonadiabatic calculation required for the liquid fuel simulation considered. The current
prePDF inputs were altered to those, which were used for the final calculation.
The system description was redefined as nonadiabatic.
The peak temperature was defined based on the adiabatic results.
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After these alterations, the system chemistry was recomputed and saved

Inputs for Nonadiabatic Calculation

Here, vaporization begins at roughly 650 K and the oxidizer enters the combustion
chamber at 303K. Hence, the minimum temperature was set as 280 K. The
maximum temperature must have been at least 100 K higher than the peak flame
temperature found in the preliminary adiabatic calculation. Here, the maximum
temperature was taken as 2800 K, significantly above the peak adiabatic system
temperature of 2270 K.
The solution parameters were altered to cluster the discrete Mixture-fraction
points toward the stoichiometric mixture fraction of 0.1 (as determined from the
adiabatic system instantaneous temperature display).
The rich limit of the flame was defined at a mixture fraction of 0.3 (i.e., 3 times
the stoichiometric value).

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Results for Nonadiabatic Calculations

Figure 6.4. 3 3D Look Up table for the Non Adiabatic case in PrePDF

Figure 6.4. 3 represents the look-up tables containing time-averaged scalar values at
discrete matrix points. For nonadiabatic cases, these look-up tables were threedimensional and could be plotted in a slice-by-slice fashion.
By default, the display of temperature was on a slice of the 3D look-up table
corresponding to adiabatic enthalpy. This display looked very similar to the look-up table
created during the adiabatic calculation.
The peak temperature (2350 K) was higher than that predicted in the adiabatic
calculation. This was because the nonadiabatic system, with a Distribution Center Point
of 0.2, included better resolution around the stoichiometric mixture fraction
Such looks up tables at different points were saved into a PDF file and then were
read into FLUENT while doing the final Analysis.

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Figure 6.4. 4 Species Concentration For the Non Adiabatic Case

The partial equilibrium calculation, considered here, resulted in an equilibrium


system description only up to the rich limit mixture fraction of 0.3. Beyond this value of
mixture fraction, prePDF computed the composition by mixing pure fuel with the
equilibrium composition found at the rich limit. This treatment of the system is reflected
in Figure 6.4. 4

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Solution Set Up in FLUENT 6.2.16


Once the looks up tables were generated in PrePDF 4.1 the .msh (2D model of the
engine) file was imported into FLUENT. Ultra lean mode or economy mode was
analysed. The ultra lean mode has been explained in the first chapter. For the sake of
analysis various models available in Fluent were used. They are listed below
1. Viscous model (K- epsilon model).
2. Dynamic mesh model
3. Non-premixed combustion model using Pre pdf 4.1.
4. Discrete phase models.
5. Solver - Unsteady State, Segregated Solver, First Order Implicit
The file imported was saved as .cas file. Further the case file was set up for analysis.
The steps are shown below.
A grid check was conducted on the imported file. It was seen that there were no
negative volumes. The grid was further scaled to the required dimensions.
Next the solver type was selected. It was Unsteady state, segregated, implicit
solver.
The different models required for analysis were selected. First the k- Turbulence
model was selected. The default parameters associated with this model were
retained.

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Next the Species Transport Model was selected and the PDF file generated in
prePDF 4.1 was read in. Care was taken to include the compressibility effects.
The Valve Lift Profile was read into Fluent using the profile menu. The valve lift
profile consisted of data corresponding to valve movement at a particular crank
angle degree. The valve lift for both the valves was measured from the physical
model. The valve lift file was created in notepad and was saved in .c format. The
inlet -valve and exhaust- valve opening and closing periods were decided by
referring to the Valve-Timing diagram. The inlet valve was open for a period of
239 degrees and the exhaust valve was open for a period of 240 degrees. This
included the valve overlap period also. Figure 6.4.5 represents a part of the
profile file and the fields associated with it. The entire period corresponding to the
opening of inlet and exhaust valve was divided into crank angle steps of 1.6
degrees and at each step the valve lift was provided. In all there were 152 points
where the valve lift was provided.

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Figure 6.4. 5 Valve Profile File

Further the Dynamic Mesh Model was selected. All the three mesh update
methods Springing, Remeshing and Layering were selected. Even the In-Cylinder
model was selected. The Inputs given are shown below
Table 6.4. 1 Inputs for the Dynamic Mesh Model

Crank shaft Speed (rpm)


Starting crank Angle (degrees)
Crank Period (degrees)
Crank Angle Step Size (degrees)
Piston stroke (mm)
Connecting Rod Length (mm)
Piston Stroke Cut-off (mm)
Minimum Valve Lift (mm)

1500
0
720
0.25
57
100
10
0.1

The dynamic mesh model was further set up by defining the Dynamic Zones.
They were of three types Stationary, Deforming, and Rigid. All three types
were used as required to set up the piston and the valve motion. All parameters
like the Cell Growth factor; Remeshing factors etc were input in this step.

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The In-Cylinder events were defined next. The inlet valve opening and
closing angles were defined. During this period the Sliding Interfaces were
created. Similarly exhaust valve opening and closing crank angles were also
defined. Figure 6.4. 6 represents the events that were defined.

Figure 6.4. 6 Dynamic Mesh Events

Figure 6.4.7 represents the Dynamic Mesh movement throughout the Four
stokes. It can be seen how the valves are closing and opening and how the piston
is moving from TDC to BDC

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Remeshing

Layering

Sliding Interface

Smoothening

Figure 6.4. 7 Dynamic Mesh Grid Movement

The Discrete Phase Models were primarily included to define injections. The
Options under discrete Phase Models and the Injections chosen are explained
below. These models were also included to track the particles injected, to
study the Droplet Collision (unsteady case), Droplet Break Up, Heat and
Mass Transfer calculations.
1. The Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) spray break up model was used
to estimate the spray break up.
2. The Dynamic Drag Model was used to determine the droplet drag coefficient dynamically, accounting for variations in the droplet shape.

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3. The type of injection used was Group Injection. The point properties
and the type of particle being injected were mentioned. 10 streams of
fuel inlet were defined in all.
4. Varying the X and Y velocities varied the injection cone angle and
pressure, as it was a 2D setup. A cone angle of 60 degrees was
maintained by varying the X velocity while Y velocity was kept
constant.
5. The particle type selected was Droplet, which made use of particular
heat transfer laws.
6. The volatile species was selected as 100% pentane as input in the
PrePDF
7. Apart from this the Interaction with Continuous Phase option was
enabled in the discrete phase menu so as to estimate the heat transfer
from the combusting particles to the fluid domain.

Table 6.4. 1The inputs that were given for setting up the injections are shown below.

First point

Last point

X-Position (m)

1.5

1.5

Y-Position (m)

69

69

X-Velocity (m/s)

-57.7

57.7

Y-Velocity (m/s)

100

100

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Diameter (m)

0.01

0.01

Temperature (K)

303

303

Flow Rate (kg/s)

0.0008

0.0008

Start time injection (sec)

0.04

End time injection (sec)

0.0415

The Material Models were next set up. The material models for both
continuous and discrete phases were set up.
1. Continuous Phase: All thermodynamic data, including density, specific
heat, and formation enthalpies, were extracted from the prePDF chemical
database when the PDF model was used (explained in the previous
chapter). These properties were then transferred to FLUENT as the pdfmixture material, for which only transport properties, such as viscosity
and thermal conductivity, were defined.
2. Discrete Phase: As described earlier the discrete phase particle was
droplet and the properties for n- pentane liquid were input. The inputs
are shown below.
Table 6.4. 2 Inputs for the Discrete Phase Material Properties

Density
Cp
Thermal Conductivity
Latent Heat

620 kg/m3
2300 J/kg-K
0.136 W/m-K
3.63E5 J/kg
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Vaporization Temperature
Boiling Point
Volatile Component Fraction (%)
Binary Diffusivity
Saturation Vapour Pressure
Heat of Pyrolysis

650K
660K
100
6.1E-6 m2/s
8.2E4 Pa
0 J/kg

The boundary conditions were defined. The inlet was assigned as pressure
inlet. The outlet was defined as pressure outlet and the cylinder walls were
assigned a constant temperature.

1. Inputs for inlet boundary were given as shown below. The turbulence
Intensity was assumed as 10%, which is generally recommended for
highly turbulent flows. The hydraulic diameter, used to determine the
inlet turbulence length scale, was set equal to twice the inlet port
diameter. For the PDF calculation, it was needed to define the inlet
mixture fraction and its variance. Here, all fuel entered the system by
evaporation from the discrete phase. Thus, the gas phase inlet had a
mixture fraction value of zero

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Figure 6.4. 8 Boundary Conditions defined at the Inlet

2. Inputs for Outlet Boundary are shown below

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Figure 6.4. 9 Boundary Conditions defined at the Outlet

3. The cylinder walls were assigned a constant temperature of 350K.

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Figure 6.4. 10 Boundary Conditions defined at the Cylinder Walls

The required Grid interfaces were set up.


The Volume, Residual and surface monitors were set up. Even the required
animations for pressure, velocity, turbulence, species fraction, and grid
movement were defined in FLUENT.
The solution parameters were defined. The parameters selected are given
below.
1. For the Under-Relaxation Factors, the Pressure was set to 0.6 and
Momentum to 0.8.
2. The discretization scheme for Pressure was set to PRESTO and
Pressure-Velocity Coupling to PISO.
3. The discretization scheme for Density, Momentum, Turbulence
Kinetic Energy, Turbulence Dissipation Rate, and Energy was set as
Second Order Upwind.

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Figure 6.4. 11Solution Parameters

Auto saving of case and data files every 360 Time steps was enabled.
The required Solution limits were set as 10,000 Pascal for Minimum Absolute
Pressure and 100 K for Minimum Static Temperature.
Next a mesh preview was done. This step was not only useful to verify that the
mesh motion completed successfully with the specified parameters, but it was
required to move the mesh to the starting position. The initial mesh was provided
with the piston in the TDC position. However, the simulation was begun at a crank
angle of 345 degrees, just at the start of intake valve opening (IVO).

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The starting crank angle in the dynamic mesh In-Cylinder menu was changed
from 0 to 345 degrees. This step was very important. As the simulation started
from 345 degrees and then continued till 1065 degrees
The solution was finally initialised from the inlet. The default values were
accepted. The solution was iterated for a total 2880 time steps, which covered 720
degrees simulating all the four strokes.

Figure 6.4. 12 Iteration Panel

Providing the spark


1. As explained earlier there are two modes of combustion in a GDI engine.
Here in the analysis the ultra lean mode has been simulated.
2. This requires the spark to be provided almost at the end of the compression
stroke (10 degrees before TDC).

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3. In the available version of Fluent, spark was available only in premixed


model. Thus for the non-premixed combustion model spark was provided
by using a different technique.
4. Using the option ADAPT option 3 rows of cells under the required
boundary were marked.
5. These cells were then patched a very high temperature of about 6000K by
stopping the iteration at the required time at (0.0415 sec) The solution was
then continued from this time again till the end.

Figure 6.4. 13 Patching a High Temperature for Providing the Spark

Finally the results were obtained from the solution monitors. Also the contours of
required variables at different crank were obtained as the case and data files at every 360
time steps were saved.

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Chapter-7 Result Validation


The procedure followed for the cold flow analysis has been validated with the
FLUENT tutorial In Cylinder Flows.
The procedure followed for injection and combustion analysis has also been
validated with the FLUENT Tutorial Pentane Combustion in a Duct
The mass flow rates at the inlet and the outlet are matching with those given by
FLUENT Tutorial.

Graph 7. 1 Fluent Tutorial Graph


Graph 7. 2 Graph from Fluent

The pressure- crank angle diagram (the motoring curve) was matching with any of
the graphs provided in IC Engine Combustion books. For the purpose of project
the Pressure Crank Angle diagram was matched with Internal Combustion
Engine Fundamentals (by John B. Heywood)

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Graph 7. 3 p- Diagram from Fluent


Graph 7. 4 p- Diagram from Heywood

The Velocity graph obtained matched the shape of the Velocity Graph from paper
[1] Numerical Study of Fuel/Air Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine by Edward
S. Suh and Christopher J. Rutland, Engine Research Centre, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, which is shown below. The geometry of the GDI engine in
the paper was different from the geometry analysed. However the shape of the
graph was in close match with the graph obtained. The graphs were compared for
a period of 360 degrees from the suction stoke to the end of the compression
stroke.

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Graph 7. 5 Paper [1] Velocity Graph


Graph 7. 6 Graph obtained from Fluent

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Chapter 8 Results and Discussion


8.1 Introduction
The cold flow analysis as well as the combustion analysis for the GDI Engine geometry
was conducted successfully. The results were obtained from FLUENT by setting up the
volume and the surface monitors. Various parameters were studied. The results taken are
explained further. The results were grouped into types
Contours
Graphs.
Contours
The contours were taken at four different crank angles. These contours were obtained
as the case file was saved at different points during the simulation using the auto save
option. These contours gave a clear picture of how the various parameters were behaving
inside the cylinder at different time periods. Such contours for pressure, temperature,
velocity, velocity vectors and turbulence intensity were taken.
Graphs
Setting up the surface and the volume monitors plotted the graphs. These monitors
monitored the different parameters like pressure, temperature, velocity, turbulence
intensity and mass flow rates at inlet and out let at every time step. The axes were set in
FLUENT. The X-axis measured the crank angle and the Y-axis measured the parameter
under consideration. The crank angle period is from 345 degrees to 1065 degrees as the
simulation was started 15 degrees before the suction stroke. The initial mesh was with the
valves in closed position and the piston in TDC. This position was assumed to be the start
of power stroke. From this point the mesh was moved 345 degrees that was 15 degrees
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before the suction stroke. The crank period represents 720 degrees and encompasses all
the four strokes.

8.2 Contours
Pressure Contours
90 degrees after Suction Stroke (ATDC)

Case 1

90 degrees after Expansion Stroke (ATDC)

Case 3

90 degrees after Compression Stroke (ABDC)

Case 2

90 degrees after Exhaust stroke (ABDC)

Case 4

Figure 8.2. 1 Pressure Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles

Figure 8.2. 1 shows the pressure contours. In the first case the inlet valve is open and
the pressure build is not that much. In the second case the piston is moving towards TDC
and the pressure is building slowly. The entire cylinder chamber is red in colour
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representing the build up in pressure. In the third case again the contours inside the
cylinder are red in colour. But it represents the expansion stroke and the pressure is
reducing gradually. The fourth case represents the exhaust stroke where the outlet valve is
open. The pressure contours through the outlet port can be seen representing outflow.
Velocity Contours
90 degrees after Suction Stroke (ATDC)

Case 1

90 degrees after Expansion Stroke (ATDC)

Case 3

90 degrees after Compression Stroke (ABDC)

Case 2

90 degrees after Exhaust stroke (ABDC)

Case 4

Figure 8.2. 2 Velocity Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles

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Figure 8.2.2 represents the velocity contours. In the first case the velocity contours are
maximum around the inlet valve. This is because it is opening and the air has maximum
acceleration around the valve. In the second case the piston is moving towards TDC with
both the valves closed and the charge has the maximum velocity at the centre of the
cylinder. In the third case the expansion stroke is simulated. The charge has the maximum
velocity just above the piston moving towards BDC. The fourth case represents exhaust
stroke where the velocity is maximum around the ex-valve as it is open.
Velocity Vectors
90 degrees after Suction Stroke (ATDC)

Case 1

90 degrees after Expansion Stroke (ATDC)

90 degrees after Compression Stroke (ABDC)

Case 2

90 degrees after Exhaust stroke (ABDC)

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Case 3

Case 4

Figure 8.2. 3 Velocity Vectors for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles

Figure 8.2. 3 represents the velocity vectors. The vectors can be directly related to the
velocity contours. In the first case the velocity vectors are maximum around the valve as
it was the case even with the velocity vectors. In the second case the vectors are
maximum at the centre. The third case reveals that the maximum vectors are just above
the piston face. The fourth case again shows that the maximum vectors are around the
exhaust valve as the valve is open and there is an outflow.
Turbulence Intensity Contours
90 degrees after Suction Stroke (ATDC)

90 degrees after Compression Stroke (ABDC)

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Case 1

90 degrees after Expansion Stroke

Case 2

90 degrees after Exhaust stroke

Case 3

Case 4

Figure 8.2. 4Turbulence Intensity Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles

Figure 8.2. 4 represents the turbulence intensity contours. Turbulence intensity can be
defines as the ratio of the root-mean-square of the velocity fluctuations to the mean flow
velocity. The first case represents high turbulence intensity around the opened inlet valve.
In the second case, the turbulence intensity is very high in the middle. This type of high
turbulence intensity is desired in DI engines for getting a very good mixture preparation.
The third case again represents high intensity at the center in the expansion stroke. The
fourth case represents high intensity around the opened outlet valve.
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Temperature Contours
90 degrees after Suction Stroke
Case 1

90 degrees after Compression Stroke


Case 2

90 degrees after Expansion Stroke


Case 3

90 degrees after Exhaust stroke


Case 4

Figure 8.2. 5Temperature Contours for the Analysed Model at Different Crank Angles

Figure 8.2.5 represents the temperature contours inside the cylinder. The first case
represents the temperature building up along the walls during the suction stroke as the
piston moves towards BDC. The constant wall temperature has been applied to the walls
as a boundary condition. The second case represents high temperature build up during
compression. The third case represents high temperature at the top of the cylinder as the
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spark has been provided at the end of compression stroke. The fourth case represents the
outflow of charge around the exhaust valve.

8.3 Graphs
Mass Flow rate at the inlet for the GDI Engine

Graph 8.3. 1 Mass Flow rate at the inlet

Graph 8.3. 1 represents the mass flow rate of the charge (air) at the inlet. The shape
of the graph reveals that the mass flow rate increases gradually and then drops down
depending on the acceleration of the piston. The maximum mass flow rate is about 0.275
kg/s and this occurs almost half way through the Suction stroke where the pistons mean
piston velocity is maximum. Also it can be visualized from the graph that the mass flow
rate just at the end of suction stroke (at about 525 degrees) has dropped below zero. This
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is because of valve closing period and valve overlap (both the valves are open). There is
some outflow of the charge from inside of the cylinder as the inlet valve closes and
squeezes out the charge around it outside. The straight-line portion of the graph indicates
that the inlet valve was closed during that period.

Mass Flow rate at the Outlet for the GDI Engine

Graph 8.3. 2 Mass Flow rate at the Outlet

Graph 8.3. 2 represents the mass flow rate of the charge (air) at the outlet. It can
be seen from the graph that the mass flow rate takes up a negative value. Mass flow rate
can never be negative. Here the sign employed is for convention. The negative sign
represents outflow. The maximum mass flow rate is about -0.275 kg/s and this occurs
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almost half way through the Exhaust stroke when the mean piston velocity was
maximum. Also it can be visualized from the graph that the mass flow rate just at the
beginning of exhaust stroke has increased over zero. This is because of valve opening and
valve overlap period. There is some inflow of the charge into the cylinder as the inlet
valve opens during the valve overlap. Also as the exhaust valve opens the charge below it
is compressed for a few degrees. This pushes the charge directly below the valve into the
Cylinder. The straight-line portion of the graph indicates that the exhaust valve was
closed.
Pressure Crank angle diagram for cold flow Analysis

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Graph 8.3. 3 p- diagram for Cold Flow Analysis

Graph 8.3. 3 represents the p- diagram for the cold flow analysis. In the cold flow
analysis the engine works just like a pump. There were no injections and hence no
combustion. The piston moved from TDC to BC just compressing the air inside the
cylinder. All the four strokes were simulated. During the compression stroke both the
valves were closed. As the piston moved towards TDC the charge inside the cylinder was
compressed. The maximum pressure (15 bars) occurred at 720 degrees and at 1500 rpm,
as should be the case in cold flow analysis. The pressure slowly built up from zero to 15
bars and then dropped slowly again in the subsequent strokes.
Pressure Crank angle diagram for GDI Engine

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Graph 8.3. 4 p- diagram for the GDI Engine

Graph 8.3. 4 represents the p- diagram for the GDI engine. It can be seen from the
graph that the peak has been shifted by 7.5 degrees from the end of compression stroke.
This was because of combustion. The injection was started 15 degrees before the end of
compression stroke and the spark was provided 10 degrees before the end of
compression stroke. The maximum pressure (18 bars) occurred during the power stroke
(at 7.5 degrees). This should be the case that involves combustion. This is because during
the expansion stroke the piston moves down from TDC to BDC. Hence if the peak
pressure occurs during this stage the piston moves with a greater force giving a higher
power output. Also the piston surface will be avoided from damage.
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M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

If the maximum pressure occurs during the compression stroke the piston will be
moving towards TDC. The maximum pressure occurring pushes the piston back. The
piston has to work against this pressure leading to power losses. Even here the pressure
slowly built up from zero to 18 bars and then dropped slowly again in the subsequent
strokes
Temperature Crank Angle Diagram for the GDI engine

Graph 8.3. 5 T- diagram for the GDI engine

Graph 8.3. 5 represents the T- diagram for the GDI engine. It can be seen from the
graph that the maximum temperature occurs at 7.5 degrees after the expansion stroke
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

where the peak pressure is also occurring. The temperature also gradually increases,
reaches the peak valve and then slowly decreases.
The graph represents the Total Temperature within the cylinder. The maximum
temperature inside the cylinder is about 850 K.
Turbulence Intensity Crank Angle Diagram for the GDI engine

Graph 8.3. 6Turbulent Intensity versus Crank Angle

Graph 8.3.6 represents the turbulent intensity v/s crank angle. The maximum
turbulence intensity was 200% mid way through the suction stroke. A turbulence intensity
of 200 % is permitted in IC engines. The turbulence intensity decreased during the
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

compression stroke. Again there was an increase during the exhaust stroke. At the point of
injection the turbulence intensity was about 70%.

Velocity Crank Angle Diagram for the GDI engine

Graph 8.3. 7 Velocity of the Charge versus Crank Angle

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Graph 8.3. 7 represents the velocity of the charge with respect to the crank angle.
The maximum velocity obtained was 7.5 m/s and it was half way during the suction
stroke. At this juncture even the turbulence Intensity was maximum. It can be seen from
the figure that the velocity variation is represented only for 2 strokes. At the end of the
compression stroke the velocity has again started to increase because of the injections and
the spark provided.

Conclusion
As a developing science, Computational Fluid Dynamics has received extensive
attention throughout the international community since the advent of the digital computer.
The attraction of the subject is twofold. Firstly, the desire to be able to model physical
fluid phenomena that cannot be easily simulated or measured with a physical experiment,
for example weather systems or hypersonic aerospace vehicles. Secondly, the desire to be
able to investigate physical fluid systems more cost effectively and more rapidly than
with experimental procedures.

There has been considerable growth in the development and application of


Computational Fluid Dynamics to all aspects of fluid dynamics. In design and
development, CFD programs are now considered to be standard numerical tools, widely
utilized within industry.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

The Project was an eye opener in the field of CFD. It gave an insight into the
capabilities of the softwares like GAMBIT and FLUENT. The project also involved
extensive reading of the basics required for understanding the subject in depth.
The first part project involved cold flow analysis of an existing commercial 4-stroke
S.I. engines working cycle, which was simulated successfully.
The second part of the project involved including injections by making use of the
discrete phase models. Pentane was injected at a particular time interval and pressure.
The third part of the project involved combustion analysis for the same geometry,
which also has been simulated successfully. This part involved injection setting, which
has been achieved.
Application of reverse engineering techniques were made use to create the required
Geometric model. CAD software CATIA and UG were used for this purpose
The computational grid arrangement was made keeping in mind the requirements of
moving mesh algorithm. The dynamic mesh model was used for this purpose.
Selecting a suitable turbulence model, the standard k- (with segregated implicit
solver) computation was carried out. FLUENT, CFD software was used for this purpose.
The observed differences in two cases are discussed.

Suggestions for Future Work


Octane combustion analysis for the 2D
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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Model
To simulate all four strokes in 3D.
Obtain snap shots of velocity vectors for all four strokes.
Conducting combustion analysis on the 3D model.
Calculation of NOx using the NOx and Soot model
Calculation of swirl and tumble ratios for the 3D model

Bibliography

Bosch Automotive Handbook, Fifth Edition, 1999.

John B.Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, MsGraw-Hill Book


Company, 1998.

Kirpal Singh, Automobile Engineering, Standard Publishers Distributors, Vol.1, 1993.

William H. Crouse, Automotive Mechanics, 6TH EDITION.

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Dr.R.K.Bansal, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, Laxmi Publications, New


Delhi, 2000.

Irving H.Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, Mc Graw-Hill, 1992.

References
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
[2] http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/index.html
[3] http://www.familycar.com/Classroom/emission.htm
[4] http://www.alflash.narod.ru/index.htm
[5] http://www.mitsubishi-motors.co.jp/inter/technology/GDI.html
[6] Numerical Study of Fuel/Air Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine by Edward S. Suh
and Christopher J. Rutland, Engine Research Centre, University of Wisconsin-Madison
[7] Gasoline Direct Injection Modelling and Validation with Engine Planar Laser Induced
Fluorescence Experiments by B. P. Vanzieleghem, C. A. Chrysalis, R. O. Grover, D. N.
Assanis, H. G. Im, V. Sick of Department of Mechanical Engineering University of
Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 U.S.A.
[8] 3D Modeling of Mixing, Ignition and Combustion Phenomena in Highly Stratified
Gasoline Engines by O. Colin, A. Benkenida and C. Angel Berger
[9] In-cylinder combustion Modelling and Validation using Fluent by Fritz Bedford, Xiao
Hu and Ulrich Schmidt
[10] Fluent Tutorials

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Project Title: Numerical Investigation of Combustion Process in a 4-stroke Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Single Cylinder Engine- (Flat Head Piston)