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List of Non-communicable Diseases

An NCD or non-communicable disease is a disease that is not infectious and cannot be


transferred to others. Some of these are diseases that progress slowly or cause chronic
symptoms while others progress very rapidly. The World Health Organization estimates
that NCDs are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 60 percent of deaths
in all humans. In most cases NCDs attack the body individually rather than being related
to each other. In this article, we will give some examples of non-coommunicable disease
and a non communicable diseases list.
A Short Non Communicable Diseases List with Analysis
Risk Factors of NCD: Some risk factors of non-communicable diseases include the
environment, lifestyle or background such as the genetics, age, exposure to air pollution
or gender of a person. Some behaviors such as a lack of physical activity, poor diet or
smoking which could lead to obesity or hypertension can also increase the risk of
developing some non-communicable diseases. Many of these are considered preventable
because the condition can be improved by removing the at-risk behavior.
1. Diabetes
Diabetes limits the bodys ability to process glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes which is
present from birth causes the pancreas to be destroyed by the immune system, causing
glucose to build up in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is developed over time causing
the cells to resist the effects of insulin, causing unhealthy levels of glucose in the
bloodstream. Risk factor of Type 2 diabetes is being overweight or obese.
2. Hypertension
This is caused when an individual consistently has a blood pressure reading over 140/90.
This can be caused by diabetes, smoking, excessive salt intake, obesity or kidney disease.
3. Osteoporosis
This condition causes a decrease in bone mass which can make the bones brittle and at
higher risk for damage. Around 80 percent of people who have osteoporosis are women.
Additional factors which increase the risk of this disease are the presence of diseases such
as rheumatoid arthritis, inactivity, low sex hormone levels or smoking.
4. Alzheimers
This condition causes dementia in those in advanced age, or over 60 years old. Symptoms
of this condition can vary but often include getting lost, memory loss, difficulty managing
daily tasks or managing money, personality changes, loss of bodily control or delusions.
5. Heart Disease
This is a very broad category of diseases which impact the circulatory system or heart.
This can include congenital heart disease, rhythm irregularities, heart failure, heart attack,
unstable angina, mitral valve prolapse, aortic regurgitation, cardiogenic shock or
endocarditis.
6. Fibromyalgia
This disease causes damage to soft tissue in the body. It can lead to sleep disturbance
patterns, widespread pain, exhaustion or irregular heartbeat. With time the symptoms can
progress causing cognitive or memory difficulties, jaw pain, nasal congestion, headaches
or irritable bowel syndrome.
in sugar content is used almost exclusively

7. Lung Cancer
Lung cancer causes malignant cell growth in the lung tissue, often as a result of exposure
to pollutants or the use of tobacco products. As many as 90 percent of lung cancer cases
are caused by smoking with non-smokers having a very small risk of this disease.
8. Leukemia
Leukemia causes the body to produce abnormal blood cells that then release malignant
cells into the bloodstream. Since the bloodstream carries these malignant cells throughout
the body they can affect other tissues such as the nervous system, skin or liver. While this
disease is often associated with children, most patients are actually men over 60.
9. Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is caused when ultraviolet rays damage the skin cells. This can appear
anywhere on the body but is most common on the skin. Those that have low pigmentation
in the skin such as redheads, blondes or those with blue eyes tend to be at higher risk for
this disease. Limiting direct skin exposure can significantly reduce the risk of developing
skin cancer and with early detection this disease is 95 percent curable.
10. Seizures or Epilepsy
Seizures are caused by a neurologic malfunction that causes abnormal electrical activity
within the brain. These can be localized or cause symptoms such as numbness that stems
from an explosive firing of nerves in the brain. Tumors or brain damage can cause
someone to develop this disease.There is no cure for epilepsy but medications can help to
reduce the frequency of seizures.
Promoting health and preventing disease 2.3.1. Primary prevention:
policies, strategies and action plans for major NCDs and risk factors
Integrated NCD strategies and/or action plans exist in 74% of the
countries in the European Region. As the total number of countries
establishing an integrated national NCD policy has progressed signifi
cantly in recent years, so has the number of risk factors addressed by
such plans. Fig. 12 shows the risk factors addressed by integrated
national NCD policies, strategies and action plans. NIS show the
greatest proportion of countries establishing integrated action plans
addressing all four major risk factors. Along with the increase in
integrated national NCD policies and action plans, the number of
countries that combine early detection, treatment and care for cancer,
cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases and
overweight and obesity has also increased by about 10% between 2010 and
2013. NIS have reported the most progress and the highest coverage with
such integrated NCD control policies. Beyond the integrated NCD
strategies and plans, many countries have disease- and risk factor
specifi c policies, strategies and action plans in the Region. These
specifi c policies have increased in number during the past decade in
all country groups, but with a steeper increase between 2010 and 2013
(Fig. 13). The most frequent vertical policies and action plans target
the prevention and control of cancer (about 90% of the countries),
followed bycardiovascular diseases and diabetes (Fig. 14). The most
frequently addressed risk factors for NCDs are tobacco use, unhealthy
diet and alcohol (Fig. 14). Specifi c national policies related to
chronic respiratory diseases exist in about one quarter of the countries
in sugar content is used almost exclusively

in the Region. Most NCD-related national policies, plans or strategies


in countries are operational and provide a good foundation for
integrated policies and action plans to prevent and control NCDs. 2.3.2.
Fiscal policies The European NCD Action Plan (3) proposes that countries
use fi scal policies to eff ectively infl uence health-related behaviour
(30). In 2010, 80% of the countries reported implementing fi scal
interventions to infl uence behaviour change (such as taxation on
alcohol, tobacco products and beverages with high sugar content). In
2013, almost all countries in the European Region tax alcohol and
tobacco, ranging from 93% to 100% of countries in the subregional
groups. However, most other fi scal interventions that promote health
have rarely been used in the Region. Taxation on food and non-alcoholic
beverages high

in sugar content is used almost exclusively