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INSTITUTO TECNOLGICO DE PACHUCA

MAESTRA EN INGENIERA MECANICA

FUNDAMENTOS DE INGENIERA MECNICA


(TERMOFLUDOS)

UNIDAD II CICLOS TERMODINMICOS


ASESOR:
DR. ABDIEL GMEZ MERCADO

YUNUN LPEZ GRIJALBA

30 NOVIEMBRE 2009

917E An air-standard cycle with variable specific heats is executed in a closed system
and is composed of the following four processes:
1-2 v = constant heat addition from 14.7 psia and 80F in the amount of 300 Btu/lbm
2-3 P = constant heat addition to 3200 R
3-4 Isentropic expansion to 14.7 psia
4-1 P= constant heat rejection to initial state
(a) Show the cycle on P-v and T-s diagrams.
(b) Calculate the total heat input per unit mass.
(c) Determine the thermal efficiency.
Consideraciones:

Se aplica la condicin de are-estndar


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables, considerando un proceso
reversible.
Se considera el are como gas ideal con calor especfico variable.

Diagramas P-V y T-s

P
Qin
57.61psi

Qin
14.7psi

1
Qout

T
3400R

3
Qin
2
Qin

Qout

340R
1

Partimos del Edo. 1 al Edo. 2 para obtener los datos para ste ltimo:
T1 = 80F = 540R
u1 = 92.04 BTU/lbm
h1 = 129.06 BTU/lbm

u2 = Q12 + u1 = 300

BTU
BTU
BTU
+ 92.04
= 392.04
lbm
lbm
lbm

Edo.2 de la Tabla A-17E


T2 = 2116.04 R
u2 = 392.04 BTU/lbm
h2 = 537.103 BTU/lbm
Considerando el are como un gas ideal tenemos que:
P2 V2 P1 V1
=
T2
T1

V2 = V1

Para el Edo. 3
T3 = 3200 R
u3 = 630.12 BTU/lbm
h3 = 849.48 BTU/lbm
Pr3 = 1242

P2 P1
=
T2 T1

P2 =

P1 T2 H14.7 psiL * H2116.27 RL


=
= 57.6095 psi
T1
540 R

Pr4 Pr3
=
P4
P3

Pr3 P4 H1242L * H14.7 psiL


=
= 316.9165;
P3
57.6095 psi

Pr4 =

P1= P4 y P3= P2

Para el Edo.4
h4 = 593.176 BTU/lbm
Pr4 = 316.9165
Del balance de energa, tenemos que,
Q23 in = h3 - h2 = 849.28

BTU
BTU
BTU
- 537.103
= 312.377
lbm
lbm
lbm

Qintotal = Q12 + Q23 = 300

BTU
BTU
BTU
+ 312.377
= 612.377
lbm
lbm
lbm

Qout = h4 - h1 = 593.176

BTU
BTU
BTU
- 129.06
= 464.116
lbm
lbm
lbm

La eficiencia trmica del sistema es:


464.116
Q
hTH = 1 + out = 1 +
Qin
612.377

BTU
lbm
BTU
lbm

= 0.2421 x 100 % = 24.21 %

923 An air-standard Carnot cycle is executed in a closed system between the


temperature limits of 350 and 1200K. The pressures before and after the isothermal
compression are 150 and 300 kPa, respectively. If the net work output per cycle is 0.5
kJ, determine (a) the maximum pressure in the cycle, (b) the heat transfer to air, and
(c) the mass of air. Assume variable specific heats for air.
Consideraciones:

Se aplica la condicin de are-estndar


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables, considerando un proceso
reversible.
Se considera el are como gas ideal con calor especfico variable.

Diagramas T-s

T
Qin
2

1200R

350R

1
Qout

De las tablas A-17 obtenemos los siguientes valores para obtener la presin
mxima del sistema, tenemos que;
T1 = 1200 K;

P1 =

Pr1 = 238

T4 = 350K;

Pr4 = 2.379

Pr1 P4 H238L * H300 kPaL


=
= 30, 012.61 kPa = 30.012 MPa
Pr4
2.374

La transferencia de calor del are es:


Qin =

wnet
hTH

hTH = 1 +

TL
350 K
= 1+
= 0.7083 x 100 % = 70.83 % ;
TH
1200 K

Qin =

0.5 kJ
= 0.7059 kJ
0.7083

Para la masa del are:


m=

Wnet
;
wnet

Wnet = Hs2 - s1L HTH - TLL;

considerando que: Hs2 - s1L = Hs4 - s3L y que; s4 - s3 = Is4 - s3M - R ln


i
k

s4 - s3 = H0L - j
j0.287
i
k

kJ y
300 kPa
kJ
z
z ln
= -0.1989
kg K {
150 kPa
kg K

Wnet = Hs4 - s3L HTH - TLL = j


j-0.1989
m=

P4
P3

kJ y
kJ
z
z H1200 K - 350 KL = 169.093
kg K {
kg

Wnet
0.5 kJ
=
= 0.002956 kg
wnet 169.093 kJ
kg

964E An ideal Ericsson engine using helium as the working fluid operates between

temperature limits of 550 and 3000 R and pressure limits of 25 and 200 psia. Assuming a
mass flow rate of 14lbm/s, determine (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) the
heat transfer rate in the regenerator, and (c) the power delivered.
Consideraciones:

Se aplica la condicin de are-estndar

Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables, considerando un proceso


reversible.

Diagramas T-s
T
.
Qin
2

3000R

550R
1

.
Qout

Para el Helio tenemos que R =0.4961 BTU/lbmR; Cp = 1.25 BTU/lbmR


Para la eficiencia trmica:

hTH = 1 +

TL
550 R
= 1+
= 0.8166x 100 % = 81.66 %
TH
3000 R

Calor transferido en la regeneracin es el obtenido en el proceso del estado 4 al


1;

Qreg = Q41 in = m Hh1 - h4L = Cp HT1 - T4L = J14

lbm
BTU
BTU
N J1.25
N H3000 R - 550 RL = 42 875
s
lbm R
s

Para la potencia liberada o el trabajo neto obtenido en el proceso;

wout = hTH Qin


wout = hTH Qin

Qin = m TH Hs2 - s1L;


Hs2 - s1L = -J0.4961

Qin = J14

Qin = m TH Hs2 - s1L;

Hs2 - s1L = Cp ln

T2
P2
- R ln
T1
P1

sabiendo que ln

BTU
25 psi
BTU
N ln
= 1.0316
lbm R
200 psi
lbm R

lbm
BTU
BTU
N H3000 RL J1.0316
N = 43 327.6598
s
lbm R
s

wout = H0.8166L J43327.6598

BTU
BTU
N = 35 381.367
s
s

984 A gas-turbine power plant operates on the simple Brayton cycle between the

pressure limits of 100 and 1200 kPa. The working fluid is air, which enters the
compressor at 30C at a rate of 150 m3/min and leaves the turbine at 500C. Using
variable specific heats for air and assuming a compressor isentropic efficiency of 82
percent and a turbine isentropic efficiency of 88 percent, determine (a) the net power
output, (b) the back work ratio, and (c) the thermal efficiency.

T2
= 0;
T1

Consideraciones:

Se aplica la condicin de are-estndar


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables, considerando un proceso
reversible.
Se considera el are como gas ideal con calor especfico variable.

T
550C

3
Qin

2
30C

Pa
0k
20
1
P=

a
kP
00
1
P=
Qout

P
1200kPa

2
Qin
s=
cte

1
100kPa

s=
cte

Qout

4
V

1-2 Compresin isoentrpica (en el compresor)


2-3 Adicin de calor a presin constante
3-4 Expansin isonetrpica (turbina)
4-1 Rechazo de calor a presin constante
Para el Edo.1

T1 = 30C = 303K
h1 = 303.208 kJ/kg
Pr1 = 1.43556

Pr2 Pr1
=
P2
P1

Pr2 =

Para el Edo.2

Pr1 P2 H1200 kPaL H1.43556L


=
= 17.22672
P1
H100 kPaL

T2 = 609.2815 K
h2s = 609.2815 kJ/kg
Pr2 = 17.22672
Para el Edo.4

T4 = 500C = 773 K

T3 = 1437.345 K

h4s = 792.3825 kJ/kg

h3 = 1560.315 kJ/kg

Pr4 = 41.922

Pr3 = 503.064

Pr4 Pr3
=
P4
P3

Pr3 =

Pr4 P3 H1200 kPaL H41.922L


=
= 503.064
P4
H100 kPaL

wNET = wTUB - wCOMP = hT Hh3 - h4 sL -

Hh2 s - h1L

hC

616.7749 kJ - 303.208 kJ y
i
j
kJ
kJ y
kJ
kg
kg z
i
j
z
j
z
j
z
wNET = H0.88L j1560.315
- 792.3825
z-j
= 293.3819
z
j
z
z
kg
kg { j
0.82
kg
k
k
{

kJ
kJ
wCOMP = 382.3986
kg
kg
La razn de trabajo regenerado;
kJ
wC 382.3980 kg
rbw =
=
= 0.56586
wT 675.7806 kJ
wTUB = 675.7806

kg

wNET
hTH =
=
Qin

293.3819
h3 - h4s

kJ
kg

293.3819

kJ
kg

J1560.315 kJ - 616.7749 kJ N
kg

= 0.3109 x 100 % = 31.09 %

kg

9109 Consider an ideal gas-turbine cycle with two stages of compression and two stages

of expansion. The pressure ratio across each stage of the compressor and turbine is 3.
The air enters each stage of the compressor at 300 K and each stage of the turbine at
1200 K. Determine the back work ratio and the thermal efficiency of the cycle, assuming

an efficiency of 80 percent for each compressor stage and an efficiency of 85 percent


for each turbine stage.
Consideraciones:

Se aplica la condicin de are-estndar


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables, considerando un proceso
reversible.
Se considera el are como gas ideal con calor especfico variable.
Qin

T
1200K

5 7
Qin

6 8

10
2

300K

1
s

Para el Edo.1

T1 = 300 K
h1 = 300.19 kJ/kg = h4
Pr1 = 1.386

Pr2 Pr1
=
P2
P1

Pr2 =

Pr1 P2
= H3L H1.386L = 4.158
P1

T5 = 1200 K
h5 = 1277.79 kJ/kg = h7
Pr5 = 238
Pr6 Pr5
=
P6
P5

Pr6 =

Pr5 P6 1
=
H238L = 79.333
P5
3

h6 = 946.3468 kJ/kg = h8
Pr6 = 79.333
wNET = wTUB - wCOMP = hT 2 Hh5 - h6L -

2 Hh2 - h1L
hC

kJ
kJ
i 411.257 kg - 300.19 kg y
j
z
kJ
kJ
kJ
i
y
j
z
z - H2L j
z
wNET = H0.80L H2L j
j1277.79
- 946.3468
z
= 268.975
j
z
j
z
j
z
kg
kg {
0.85
kg
k
k
{

j
qin = Hh5 - h4L + Hh7 - h6L = i
j1277.79
k

hTH =

wNET
=
Qin

kJ
kg
1197.9762 kJ
kg

kJ
kJ y
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
z
- 411.257
z+j
j1277.79
- 946.3468
z = 1197.9762
kg
kg { k
kg
kg {
kg

268.975

= 0.2245 x 100 % = 22.45 %

9131 A gas-turbine power plant operates on the regenerative Brayton cycle between the

pressure limits of 100 and 700 kPa. Air enters the compressor at 30C at a rate of 12.6
kg/s and leaves at 260C. It is then heated in a regenerator to 400C by the hot
combustion gases leaving the turbine. A diesel fuel with a heating value of 42,000 kJ/kg
is burned in the combustion chamber with a combustion efficiency of 97 percent. The
combustion gases leave the combustion chamber at 871C and enter the turbine whose
isentropic efficiency is 85 percent. Treating combustion gases as air and using constant
specific heats at 500C, determine (a) the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, (b)
the effectiveness of the regenerator, (c) the airfuel ratio in the combustion chamber,
(d) the net power output and the back work ratio, (e) the thermal efficiency, and ( f )
the second-law efficiency of the plant. Also determine (g) the second-law (exergetic)
efficiencies of the compressor, the turbine, and the regenerator, and (h) the rate of the
exergy flow with the combustion gases at the regenerator exit.

Consideraciones:

Se aplica la condicin de are-estndar


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables, considerando un proceso
reversible.
Se considera el are como gas ideal con calor especfico variable.

T
871C

3
Qin

400C

Qin

5
4

30C

Qout

Para los Edo. tenemos;


Edo. 1
Edo. 2
T= 30C = 300K
T= 260C = 530K
h=300.19 kJ/kg

h=533.98 kJ/kg

P=100 kPa
P= 700 kPa
Pr=1.386
Pr=10.37
s1=1.70203kJ/kg s2=2.27967kJ/kg

Edo. 3
T= 871C
1140K
h=1207.57
kJ/kg
P= 700 kPa
Pr=193.1

Edo. 4
= hs=705.438
kJ/kg
h=780.758
kJ/kg
P= 700 kPa
Pr=27.7

kJ
kJ
h2 s - h1 523.90157 kg - 300.19 kg
hC =
=
= 0.956 x 100 % = 95.6 %
h2 a - h1
533.98 kJ
- 300.19 kJ
kg
kg
Pr2 Pr1
Pr1 P2 H1.386L H700 kPaL
=
Pr2 =
=
= 9.702
P2
P1
P1
100 kPa
Pr4 Pr3
P P
H193.9L H100 kPaL
=
Pr4 = r3 4 =
= 27.7
P4
P3
P3
700 kPa

Edo. 5
T=400C=670K
h=681.14 kJ/kg
P=100 kPa
Pr=24.46

kJ y
kJ
kJ z
kJ
i
i
y
z
h4 = h3- hT Hh3 - h4 sL = j
j1207.57
z - H0.85L j
j1207.57
- 705.43
z = 780.758
kg {
kg
kg {
kg
k
k
J681.14 kJ - 533.98 kJ N
h5 - h2 a
kg
kg
=
=
= 0.59
h4 a - h2 a J780.758 kJ - 533.98 kJ N
kg
kg
kJ
j1207.57 kJ - 780.788 kJ y
z-i
j533.98 kJ - 300.19 kJ y
z
wNET = Hh3 - h4L - Hh2 - h1L = i
j
z
j
z = 193.022
kg
kg { k
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
qin = Hh3 - h5L = 1207.57
- 681.14
= 526.43
kg
kg
kg
kJ
wNET 193.022 kg
hTH =
=
= 0.37 x 100 % = 37 %
qin
526.43 kJ
hT =

h3 - h4
h3 - h4 s

kg

9155 A four-cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition engine operates on the ideal Otto cycle

with a compression ratio of 11 and a total displacement volume of 1.8 liter. The air is at
90 kPa and 50C at the beginning of the compression process. The heat input is 1.5 kJ
per cycle per cylinder. Accounting for the variation of specific heats of air with
temperature, determine (a) the maximum temperature and pressure that occur during
the cycle, (b) the net work per cycle per cyclinder and the thermal efficiency of the
cycle, (c) the mean effective pressure, and (d) the power output for an engine speed of
3000 rpm.

9156 A gas-turbine plant operates on the regenerative Brayton cycle with two stages of

reheating and two-stages of intercooling between the pressure limits of 100 and 1200
kPa. The working fluid is air. The air enters the first and the second stages of the
compressor at 300 K and 350 K, respectively, and the first and the second stages of the
turbine at 1400 K and 1300 K, respectively. Assuming both the compressor and the
turbine have an isentropic efficiency of 80 percent and the regenerator has an
effectiveness of 75 percent and using variable specific heats, determine (a) the back
work ratio and the net work output, (b) the thermal efficiency, and (c) the second-law
efficiency of the cycle. Also determine (d) the exergies at the exits of the combustion
chamber (state 6) and the regenerator (state 10) (See Figure 943 in the text).

1015 A steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the

pressure limits of 3 MPa and 50 kPa. The temperature of the steam at the turbine inlet is
300C, and the mass flow rate of steam through the cycle is 35 kg/s. Show the cycle on
a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine (a) the thermal efficiency
of the cycle and (b) the net power output of the power plant.
Consideraciones:

Se condiciona el sistema operando en estado estable.


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables.

Qin

2
1
Edo. 1
h1=340.54 kJ/kg
v1=0.001030 m3/kg
P1=50kPa

4
Qout

Edo. 2
h2=343.5285kJ/kg

Edo. 3
Edo.4
h3=2994.3kJ/kg
h4=2277.3776 kJ/kg
T3=300C
P3=3 MPa
P4= 50kPa
s3=65412 kJ/kgK
s4=s3
3
m
lkJ
kJ
i
y
z
j0.001030
z H3000 kPa - 50 kPaL J
wpin = v1 HP2 - P1L = j
N = 3.0485
3
kg {
1 kPa.m
kg
k

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 3.0385
= 343.5285
kg
kg
kg
6.5912 kJ - 1.0912 kJ
s4 - sf
kg K
kg K
x4 =
=
= 0.8382
kJ
sfg
6.5019

h2 = h1 + wpin = 340.49

kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
h4 = hf + x4 hfg = 340.54
+ H0.8382L j
j2304.7
z = 2277.3776
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
qin = Hh3 - h2L = 2994.3
- 343.5285
= 2650.7715
kg
kg
kg
kJ
kJ
kJ
qout = Hh4 - h1L = 2277.3776
- 340.54
= 1936.8376
kg
kg
kg
kJ
kJ
kJ
wNET = qin - qout = 2650.7715
- 1936.8376
= 713.9339
kg
kg
kg
kg i
kJ
kJ
y
j713.9339
z = 24987.6865
w NET = m wNET = J35
Nj
z
= 24.98 MW
s k
kg {
s
kg K

1046 A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with two

open feedwater heaters. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 600C and exhausts to
the condenser at 5 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.6 and 0.2 MPa. Water
leaves both feedwater heaters as a saturated liquid. The mass flow rate of steam
through the boiler is 22 kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine (a) the
net power output of the power plant and (b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

7
10MPa

6
0.6MPa

4 5

0.2MPa

2 3
5kPa

Edo.1
h1=kJ/kg
P1=5kPA
v1=m3/kg
Edo.6
h6=kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=kJ/kg

Edo. 3
h3=kJ/kg
P3=0.2MPA
v3=m3/kg
Edo.8
P8=0.6MPa
s8=s7
x8=0.9627
h8=kJ/kg

Edo.7
P7=10MPa
h7=kJ/kg
T7=600C
s7=kJ/kgK

j0.001005
wpin = v1 HP2 - P1L = j
k

h2 = h1 + wpin = 137.75
i

m3
kg

8
1-y
9
1-y-z
10

Edo.4
h4=kJ/kg
Edo.9
P9=0.6MPa
s9=s7
h9=kJ/kg
x9=

Edo.5
h5=kJ/kg
P5=0.6MPA
v5=m3/kg
Edo.10
P10=5kPa
s10=s7
h10=kJ/kg
x10=

lkJ
kJ
y
z
z H200 kPa - 5 kPaL J
N = 0.195975
1 kPa.m3
kg
{

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 0.195975
= 137.9459
kg
kg
kg

j0, 001061
wpin = v3 HP4 - P3L = j
k

h4 = h3 + wpin = 04.71
i

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 0.4244
= 505.1344
kg
kg
kg

j0.001101
wpin = v5 HP6 - P5L = j
k

m3 y
lkJ
kJ
z
z H600 kPa - 200 kPaL J
N = 0.4244
kg {
1 kPa.m3
kg

m3 y
lkJ
kJ
z
z H10000 kPa - 600 kPaL J
N = 10.3494
kg {
1 kPa.m3
kg

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 10.3494
= 680.7294
kg
kg
kg
kJ
kJ
6.9045
- 1.9308
s -s
kg K
kg K
x9 = 9 f =
= 0.9699
sfg
4.8285 kJ
h6 = h5 + wpin = 670.38

kg K

h9 = hf + x9 hfg = 670.38

kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
+ H0.9699L j
j2085.8
z = 2693.4569
kg
kg {
kg
k

kJ
s10 - sf 6.9045 kg K - 0.4762
x10 =
=
kJ
sfg
7.9176 kg
K

kJ
kg K

= 0.8119

kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
+ H0.8119L j
j2423.0
z = 2104.9838
kg
kg {
kg
k
m8
m8 h8 + h2 m2 = m5 h5 yh8 + H1 - yL h4 = h5 y =
m5

h10 = hf + x10 hfg = 137.75

Ein = Eout

504.71 kJ - 137.9459 kJ
h3 - h2
kg
kg
y=
=
= 0.14469
Hh9 - h2L
J2693.4569 kJ - 137.9459 kJ N
kg
kg

mi hi = me he

m9 h9 + h2 m2 = m3 h3

zh9 + H1- y - zL h2 = H1 - yL h3

504.71 kJ - 137.9459 kJ
h3 - h2
kg
kg
z=
H1 - yL =
H1 - 0.14469L = 0.12375
h9 - h2
J2693.4569 kJ - 137.9459 kJ N
kg
kg
kJ
kJ
kJ
i
y
z
qin = Hh7 - h6L = j
j3625.8
- 680.2794
z = 2945.0706
kg
kg {
kg
k

j
qout = H1 - y - zL Hh10 - h1L = H1 - 0.14469 - .12375L i
j2104.9838
k

m4
m5

kJ
kJ y
z = 1439.144 kJ
- 137.75
z
kg
kg {
kg

kJ
kJ
kJ
wNET = qin - qout = 2945.0706
- 1439.144
= 1505.9265
kg
kg
kg
kg i
kJ
y
j1505.9265
z = 33130.38507 kW
W NET = m wNET = J22
Nj
z
s k
kg {
1439.144 kJ
qout
kg
hTH = 1 = 1= 0.5113 X100 % = 51.13 %
qin
2945.0706 kJ
kg

1050 A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheatregenerative Rankine cycle and

has a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 10 MPa and
550C and leaves at 0.8 MPa. Some steam is extracted at this pressure to heat the
closed feedwater heater. The rest of the steam is reheated to 500C and is expanded in
the low-pressure turbine to the condenser pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s
diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine (a) the mass flow rate of steam
through the boiler and (b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Assume that the
feedwater leaves the heater at the condensation temperature of the extracted steam
and that the extracted steam leaves the heater as a saturated liquid and is pumped to
the line carrying the feedwater.

Consideraciones:

Se condiciona el sistema operando en estado estable.


Las energas cintica y potencial son despreciables.

5
10
4

9
2 3

10MPa
0.8MPa

10kPa

7
6
1-y
8
s

Edo.1
h1=191.81 kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=201.89
kJ/kg

Edo. 3
h3=720.87 kJ/kg

P1=10kPA
v1=0.001010m3/kg

P3=0.8MPA
v3=0.001115m3/kg

Edo.6
P6=0.8MPa
h6=2811.9 kJ/kg

Edo.7
P7=0.8MPa
h7=3481.3
kJ/kg
T7=500C
s7=7.8692
kJ/kgK
i

j0.001010
wpin = v1 HP2 - P1L = j
k

h2 = h1 + wpin = 191.81
i

Edo.4
h4=731.128
kJ/kg
h4=h9=h10

Edo.5
h5=3375.1
kJ/kg
P5=10MPA
s5=6.5995
kJ/kgK=s6

Edo.8
P8=10kPa
s8=s7
x8=0.9627
h8=2494.727 kJ/kg

m3 y
lkJ
kJ
z
z H10000 kPa - 10 kPaL J
N = 10.0899
kg {
1 kPa.m3
kg

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 10.0899
= 201.8999
kg
kg
kg

m3 y
lkJ
kJ
z
z H10000 kPa - 800 kPaL J
N = 10.258
3
kg {
1 kPa.m
kg
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
h4 = h3 + wpin = 720.87
+ 10.258
= 731.128
kg
kg
kg
kJ - 0.6492 kJ
7.8692
s -s
kg K
kg K
x8 = 8 f =
= 0.9627
j0.001115
wpin = v3 HP4 - P3L = j

kJ
7.4996 kg
K
kJ
kJ y
i
z = 2494.727 kJ
h8 = hf + x8 hfg = 191.81
+ H0.9627L j
j2392.1
z
kg
kg
kg
k
{

sfg

Ein = Eout

m2 Hh9 - h2L = m3 Hh6 - h3L

h9 - h2
y=
=
Hh6 - h3L - Hh9 - h2L
J2811.9

H1 - yL Hh6 - h2L = y Hh6 - h3L

731.128

kJ
kg

- 201.8999 kJ
kg

m3
m4

= 0.20197
- 720.87
- 201.8999 kJ N
kg
kJ
kJ y
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
i
j
z
j
z
qin = Hh5 - h4L + H1 - yL Hh7 - h6L = j3375.1
- 731.128
z + H1 - 0.201L j3481.3
- 2811.9
z = 3178.173
kg
kg {
kg
kg {
kg
k
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
i
y
j2494.727
z
qout = H1 - yL Hh8 - h1L = H1 - 0.201L j
- 198.81
z = 1837.796
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ
kg

kJ N + J731.128 kJ
kg
kg

y=

kJ
kJ
kJ
- 1837.796
= 1340.377
kg
kg
kg
kg
= 59.6847
s

wNET = qin - qout = 3178.173


80000 kJ
W NET
s
m=
=
wNET 1340.377 kJ
kg
q
hTH = 1 - out = 1 qin

1837.796
3178.173

kJ
kg
kJ
kg

= 0.4234 X100 % = 42.34 %

1060 Determine the exergy destruction associated with the regenerative cycle described

in Prob.1044. Assume a source temperature of 1500 K and a sink temperature of 290 K.


1044 A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle. Steam
enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450C and is condensed in the condenser at 20 kPa.
Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater in an open
feedwater heater. Water leaves the feedwater heater as a saturated liquid. Show the
cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine (a) the net work output per kilogram of steam
flowing through the boiler and (b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

6MPa

4
2

0.4MPa

1-y
20kPa

1
Edo.1
h1=251.42 kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=251.8064
kJ/kg

P1=20kPA
v1=0.001017m3/kg

Edo. 3
h3=604.66 kJ/kg

Edo.4
h4=610.7304
kJ/kg

P3=0.4MPa
v3=0.001080m3/kg

Edo.6
P6=0.4MPa
h6=2665.67 kJ/kg

Edo.5
h5=3302.9
kJ/kg
P5=6MPa
s5=6.7219
kJ/kgK=s6=s7
T=450C

Edo.7
P7=20kPa
h7=2213.971
kJ/kg
x7=0.8324
m3 z
lkJ
kJ
i
y
j0.001017
z H400 kPa - 20 kPaL J
wpin = v1 HP2 - P1L = j
N = 0.38646
kg {
1 kPa.m3
kg
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
h2 = h1 + wpin = 251.42
+ 0.38646
= 251.80646
kg
kg
kg
3
m
lkJ
kJ
i
y
z
j0.001080
z H6000 kPa - 400 kPaL J
wpin = v3 HP4 - P3L = j
N = 6.0704
3
kg {
1 kPa.m
kg
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 6.0704
= 610.7304
kg
kg
kg
6.7219 kJ - 1.7765 kJ
s -s
kg K
kg K
x6 = 6 f =
= 0.966
kJ

h4 = h3 + wpin = 604.66

sfg

5.1191

kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
h6 = hf + x6 hfg = 604.66
+ H0.966L j
j2133.4
z = 2665.67
kg
kg {
kg
k
kg K

kJ
s7 - sf 6.7219 kg K - 0.8320
x7 =
=
sfg
7.0752 kJ

kJ
kg K

= 0.8324

kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
h7 = hf + x7 hfg = 251.42
+ H0.8324L j
j2357.5
z = 2213.971
kg
kg {
kg
k
kg K

Ein = Eout

m6 h6 + h2 m2 = m3 h3

yh6 + H1 - yL h2 = h3

m6
m3

604.66 kJ - 251.8064 kJ
h3 - h2
kg
kg
y=
=
= 0.14617
Hh6 - h2L
J2665.67 kJ - 251.8064 kJ N
kg
kg
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
j3302.9
z
qin = Hh5 - h4L = j
- 610.7304
z = 2692.1696
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
j2213.971
z
qout = H1 - yL Hh7 - h1L = H1 - 0.14617L j
- 251.42
z = 1675.669
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ
kJ
kJ
wNET = qin - qout = 2692.1696
- 1675.669
= 1016.5006
kg
kg
kg
1675.669 kJ
qout
kg
hTH = 1 = 1= 0.3775 X100 % = 37.75 %
qin
2692.1696 kJ
kg

kJ
2692.1696 kJ z
i 1675.669 kg
y
j
q
q
kJ
kg z
i
OUT
IN
y
j
z
z
iCICLO = T0 j
j
z = H290 KL j
= 1155.1828
j
z
j
z
j
z
TH {
290 K
1500 K
kg
k TL
k
{

1065C Consider a cogeneration plant for which the utilization factor is 0.5. Can the

exergy destruction associated with this plant be zero? If yes, under what conditions?
S, si el ciclo no involucra irreversibilidades tales como: desaceleracin, friccin, y
transferencia de calor a travs de una diferencia finita de temperatura.

1093 Consider a steam power plant that operates on a regenerative Rankine cycle and

has a net power output of 150 MW. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and
the condenser at 10 kPa. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 80 percent, and that
of the pumps is 95 percent. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.5 MPa to heat the
feedwater in an open feedwater heater. Water leaves the feedwater heater as a
saturated liquid. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine (a) the mass flow rate
of steam through the boiler and (b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Also, determine
the exergy destruction associated with the regeneration process. Assume a source
temperature of 1300 K and a sink temperature of 303 K.

10MPa

4
2

0.5MPa

6s

1-y
10kPa

7s

7
s

Edo.1
h1=191.81 kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=192.3304
kJ/kg
P1=10kPA
s2=1.8604kJ/kgK
v1=0.001010m3/kg P2=10kPa
Edo.6
Edo.7
P6=0.4MPa
P7s=10kPa
h6=2798.288 kJ/kg h7=2346.81
kJ/kg
x6=0.9554
x7=0.7934

Edo. 3
h3=640.09 kJ/kg
P3=0.5MPa
v3=0.001093m3/kg
s3=0.6492kJ/kgK

Edo.4
h4=651.02
kJ/kg

Edo.5
h5=3375.1
kJ/kg
P5=10MPa
s5=6.5995
kJ/kgK=s6=s7s
T=500C

h2 = h1 + wpin = 191.81
i

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 0.5209
= 192.3304
kg
kg
kg

lkJ
kJ
y
z
z H500 kPa - 10 kPaL J
N = 0.5209
3
1 kPa.m
kg
k
{
v3 HP4 - P3L j
m3 z
lkJ
kJ
i
y H10000 kPa - 500 kPaL
z
wpin =
= j0.001093
J
N = 10.93
3
hth
kg {
.95
1 kPa.m
kg
k

j0.001010
wpin = v1 HP2 - P1L = j

h4 = h3 + wpin = 640.09

m3
kg

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 10.93
= 651.02
kg
kg
kg

kJ
kJ
s6 - sf 6.5995 kg K - 1.8604 kg K
x6 =
=
= 0.9554
kJ
sfg
4.9603 kg
K
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
h6 = hf + x6 hfg = 3375.1
+ H0.9554L j
j2108.0
z = 2798.2884
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ - 0.6492 kJ
66.5995
s -s
kg K
kg K
x7 s = 7 s f =
= 0.7934
kJ
sfg
7.4996 kg K
h5 - h7
kJ
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
ht =
h7 = h5 - ht Hh5 - h7 sL = 3375.1
- H0.8L j
j3375.1
- 2089.739
5z
z = 2346.8116
h5 - h7 s
kg
kg
kg {
kg
k

Ein = Eout

m6 h6 + h2 m2 = m3 h3

640.09
h -h
y= 3 2 =
Hh6 - h2L
J2654.0856

kJ
kg
kJ
kg

yh6 + H1 - yL h2 = h3

m6
m3

- 192.3304

- 192.3304 kJ N

= 0.1818

kJ
kJ y
kJ
j
z
qin = Hh5 - h4L = i
j3375.1
- 651.02
z = 2724.08
kg
kg {
kg
k
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
qout = H1 - yL Hh7 - h1L = H1 - 0.1818L j
j2346.8116
- 191.81
z = 1763.036
kg
kg {
kg
k
wNET = qin - qout = 2724.08

kg

kJ
kJ
kJ
- 1763.036
= 961.0437
kg
kg
kg

1763.036 kJ
qout
kg
hTH = 1 = 1= 0.3528 X100 % = 35.28 %
kJ
qin
2724.08 kg

150000 kJ
W NET
kg
s
m=
=
= 156.08
wNET 961.0437 kJ
s
kg
i

j
iregen = T0 j
j
j me se - mi si +

y
qalr z
z
z = T0 Hs3 - ys6 - H1 - yL s2L
TL z
{

=
k=
kJ
kJ y
kJ y
kJ
i
i
z - H1 - 0.1818L i
j
zy
z
iregen = H303 KL j
j1.8604
- H0.1818L j
j6.9308
z
j0.6492
z
z = 120.8048
kgK
kgK {
kgK {{
kg
k
k
k

1095 Consider an ideal reheatregenerative Rankine cycle with one open feedwater

heater. The boiler pressure is 10 MPa, the condenser pressure is 15 kPa, the reheater
pressure is 1 MPa, and the feedwater pressure is 0.6 MPa. Steam enters both the highand low-pressure turbines at 500C. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to
saturation lines, and determine (a) the fraction of steam extracted for regeneration and
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
1MPa

10MPa

5 7
6 8

0.6MPa

15kPa

9
s

Edo.1
h1=225.94 kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=226.53319
kJ/kg

P1=15kPA
v1=0.001014m3/k
g
Edo.6
P6=1MPa
h6=2783.8124
kJ/kg

Edo. 3
h3=670.38 kJ/kg

Edo.4
h4=680.7294
kJ/kg

P3=0.6MPa
v3=0.001101m3/k
g
Edo.7
P7=1MPa
h7=3479.1
kJ/kg
s7=7.7642m3/k
g
i

Edo. 8
P8=0.6MPa
h7=3310.1569
kJ/kg
s8=s7=s9

Edo. 9
P7s=15kPa
h7=2518.783
8 kJ/kg
x9=0.966506

Edo.5
h5=3375.1
kJ/kg
P5=10MPa
s5=6.5995
kJ/kgK=s6=s7
s
T=500C

lkJ
kJ
y
z
z H600 kPa - 15 kPaL J
N = 0.59319
3
1 kPa.m
kg
k
{
kJ
kJ
kJ
h2 = h1 + wpin = 225.94
+ 0.59319
= 226.53319
kg
kg
kg
3
v3 HP4 - P3L i
m
lkJ
kJ
y
z
j0.001101
z H10000 kPa - 600 kPaL J
wpin =
=j
N = 10.3494
3
hth
kg {
1 kPa.m
kg
k
j0.001014
wpin = v1 HP2 - P1L = j

m3
kg

kJ
kJ
kJ
+ 10.3494
= 680.7294
kg
kg
kg
kJ - 0.7549 kJ
7.7642
s9 - sf
kg K
kg K
x9 =
=
= 0.966506
kJ
sfg
7.2522 kg
K
h4 = h3 + wpin = 670.38

h9 = hf + x9 hfg = 225.94

kJ
kJ y
i
z = 2518.7838 kJ
+ H0.9665064L j
j2372.3
z
kg
kg {
kg
k

Ein = Eout

yh8 + H1 - yL h2 = h3

m8 h8 + h2 m2 = m3 h3

m8
m3

670.38 kJ - 226.53319 kJ
h3 - h2
kg
kg
y=
=
= 0.143936
kJ
Hh8 - h2L
J3310.1569
- 226.53319 kJ N
kg
kg

j
qin = Hh5 - h4L + Hh7 - h6L = i
j3375.1

kJ
kJ y
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
z
- 680.7299
z+j
j3479.1
- 2783.8124
z = 3389.6577
kg
kg { k
kg
kg {
kg

j
qout = H1 - yL Hh9 - h1L = H1 - 0.143936L i
j2518.7838

q
hTH = 1 - out = 1 qin

1962.81428
3389.6577

kJ
kg
kJ
kg

kJ
kJ y
kJ
z
- 225.94
z = 1962.81428
kg
kg {
kg

= 0.4209 X100 % = 42.09 %

1112 A refrigerator uses refrigerant-134a as the working fluid and operates on an ideal

vapor-compression refrigeration cycle between 0.12 and 0.7 MPa. The mass flow rate of
the refrigerant is 0.05 kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation
lines. Determine (a) the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the power
input to the compressor, (b) the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and (c) the
coefficient of performance.

T
.
QH

2
3

0.7MPa
.
Win
0.12MPa

4s

.1
QL

s
Edo.1
h1=236.97 kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=273.5377 kJ/kg

Edo. 3
h3=88.82 kJ/kg

P1=0.12MPA
s1=0.94779 kJ/kgK

P2=0.7MPA
s2=s1

P3=0.7MPa

QL = m Hh1 - h4L = J0.05

kg j
kJ
kJ y
i
z
N j236.97
- 88.82
z = 7.4075 kW
s k
kg
kg {

Win = m Hh2 - h1L = J0.05

Edo.4
h4h3

kg i
kJ
kJ y
z
Nj
j273.5377
- 236.97
z = 1.828 kW
s k
kg
kg {

QH = QL + Win = 7.4075 kW + 1.828 kW = 9.2355kW


COPR =

QL
7.4075 kW
=
= 4.0522
1.828 kW
Win

1132 A heat pump using refrigerant-134a heats a house by using underground water at

8C as the heat source. The house is losing heat at a rate of 60,000 kJ/h. The
refrigerant enters the compressor at 280 kPa and 0C, and it leaves at 1 MPa and 60C.
The refrigerant exits the condenser at 30C. Determine (a) the power input to the heat
pump, (b) the rate of heat absorption from the water, and (c) the increase in electric
power input if an electric resistance heater is used instead of a heat pump.
T

casa
.
QH

60C
30C

2
3

1MPa

.
Win

0C
0.28MPa

4s

.1
QL

Edo.1
h1=250.83 kJ/kg

Edo. 2
h2=293.38 kJ/kg

Edo. 3
h3=93.58 kJ/kg

P1=280kPA
T1=0C

P2=1MPA
T2=60C

P3=1MPa
T3=30C

60000

kJ

Edo.4
h4h3

Q
kg
3600 S
mR = H =
= 0.0834
qH 293.38 kJ - 93.58 kJ
s
kg
kg
kg i
kJ
kJ y
z
Win = m Hh2 - h1L = J0.0834
Nj
j293.38
- 250.83
z = 3.54938 kW
s k
kg
kg {
kg i
kJ
kJ y
z
QL = m Hh1 - h4L = J0.0834
Nj
j250.83
- 93.58
z = 13.1172 kW
s k
kg
kg {

60000 kJ
= 16.6666 kW
3600 S
Wincrem = We - Win = 16.6666 k- 3.54938 kW = 13.11728kW
We = QH =

1196 Consider a two-stage compression refrigeration system operating between the

pressure limits of 0.8 and 0.14 MPa. The working fluid is refrigerant-134a. The
refrigerant leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid and is throttled to a flash chamber
operating at 0.4 MPa. Part of the refrigerant evaporates during this flashing process, and
this vapor is mixed with the refrigerant leaving the low-pressure compressor. The
mixture is then compressed to the condenser pressure by the high-pressure compressor.
The liquid in the flash chamber is throttled to the evaporator pressure, and it cools the
refrigerated space as it vaporizes in the evaporator. Assuming the refrigerant leaves the
evaporator as saturated vapor and both compressors are isentropic, determine (a) the
fraction of the refrigerant that evaporates as it is throttled to the flash chamber, (b) the
amount of heat removed from the refrigerated space and the compressor work per unit
mass of refrigerant flowing through the condenser, and (c) the coefficient of
performance.

4
5

0.8MPa

2
7

0.4MPa

6
0.14MPa

qL

s
h1=239.16 kJ/kg

h2=256.58 kJ/kg

h7=63.94 kJ/kgh8

h9=256.4105 kJ/kg

kJ
h6 - hf 95.47 kg - 63.94
x6 =
=
hfg
191.62 kJ
kg

me he = mi hi

Ein = Eout

kJ
kg

h5h695.47 kJ/kg

= 0.16454

i
k

h9 = x6 h3 + H1 - x6L h2 = H0.16454L j
j255.55
=

h3=255.55 kJ/kg

kJ y
kJ y
kJ
i
z
z
z + H1 - 0.16454L j
j256.58
z = 256.4105
kg {
kg {
kg
k

j
qL = H1 - x6L Hh1 - h8L = H1 - 0.1645L i
j239.16
k

kJ
kJ y
kJ
z
- 63.94
z = 146.389
kg
kg {
kg

j
win = H1 - 0.1645L i
j256.58
k

146.389

q
COPR = L =
win 37.4617

kJ
kg
kJ
kg

kJ
kJ y
kJ
kJ y
kJ
i
z
z
- 239.16
z +j
j279.3185
- 256.4105
z = 37.4617
kg
kg { k
kg
kg {
kg
= 3.9076