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February 18, 2010

Technical Interview Questions (Part 2/3) ACTIVE DIRECTORY]


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~!~ Technical Interview Questions (Part 2/3) ACTIVE


DIRECTORY]
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What is Active Directory?

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An active directory is a directory structure used on Microsoft Windows based computers and servers to
store information and data about networks and domains. It is primarily used for online information and
was originally created in 1996. It was rst used with Windows 2000.
An active directory (sometimes referred to as an AD) does a variety of functions including the ability to
rovide information on objects, helps organize these objects for easy retrieval and access, allows access by
end users and administrators and allows the administrator to set security up for the directory.
Active Directory is a hierarchical collection of network resources that can contain users, computers,
printers, and other Active Directories. Active Directory Services (ADS) allow administrators to handle and
maintain all network resources from a single location . Active Directory stores information and se9ings in
a central database
What is LDAP?
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP , is an application protocol for querying and
modifying directory services running over TCP/IP. Although not yet widely implemented, LDAP should
eventually make it possible for almost any application running on virtually any computer platform to
obtain directory information, such as email addresses and public keys. Because LDAP is an open protocol,
applications need not worry about the type of server hosting the directory.
Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few options.
-Yes you can connect other vendors Directory Services with Microsofts version.
-Yes, you can use dirXML or LDAP to connect to other directories (ie. E-directory from Novell or NDS
(Novel directory System).
-Yes you can Connect Active Directory to other 3rd -party Directory Services such as dictonaries used by
SAP, Domino etc with the help of MIIS ( Microsoft Identity Integration Server )
Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD?
AD Database is saved in %systemroot%/ntds. You can see other les also in this folder. These are the
main les controlling the AD structure
ntds.dit
edb.log
res1.log
res2.log
edb.chk
When a change is made to the Win2K database, triggering a write operation, Win2K records the
transaction in the log le (edb.log). Once wri9en to the log le, the change is then wri9en to the AD
database. System performance determines how fast the system writes the data to the AD database from
the log le. Any time the system is shut down, all transactions are saved to the database.
During the installation of AD, Windows creates two les: res1.log and res2.log. The initial size of each is

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10MB. These les are used to ensure that changes can be wri9en to disk should the system run out of free
disk space. The checkpoint le (edb.chk) records transactions commi9ed to the AD database (ntds.dit).
During shutdown, a shutdown statement is wri9en to the edb.chk le. Then, during a reboot, AD
determines that all transactions in the edb.log le have been commi9ed to the AD database. If, for some
reason, the edb.chk le doesnt exist on reboot or the shutdown statement isnt present, AD will use the
edb.log le to update the AD database.
The last le in our list of les to know is the AD database itself, ntds.dit. By default, the le is located
in\NTDS, along with the other les weve discussed
What is the SYSVOL folder?
All active directory data base security related information store in SYSVOL folder and its only created
on NTFS partition.
The Sysvol folder on a Windows domain controller is used to replicate le-based data among domain
controllers. Because junctions are used within the Sysvol folder structure, Windows NT le system (NTFS)
version 5.0 is required on domain controllers throughout a Windows distributed le system (DFS) forest.
This is a quote from microsoft themselves, basically the domain controller info stored in les like your
group policy stu is replicated through this folder structure
Name the AD NCs and replication issues for each NC
*Schema NC, *Conguration NC, Domain NC
Schema NC This NC is replicated to every other domain controller in the forest. It contains information
about the Active Directory schema, which in turn denes the dierent object classes and a9ributes within
Active Directory.
Conguration NC Also replicated to every other DC in the forest, this NC contains forest-wide
conguration information pertaining to the physical layout of Active Directory, as well as information
about display speciers and forest-wide Active Directory quotas.
Domain NC This NC is replicated to every other DC within a single Active Directory domain. This is the
NC that contains the most commonly-accessed Active Directory data: the actual users, groups, computers,
and other objects that reside within a particular Active Directory domain.
What are application partitions? When do I use them
Application directory partitions: These are specic to Windows Server 2003 domains.
An application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specic domain
controllers. A domain controller that participates in the replication of a particular application directory
partition hosts a replica of that partition. Only Domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 can host
a replica of an application directory partition.
How do you create a new application partition
h9p://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_do_you_create_a_new_application_partition
How do you view replication properties for AD partitions and DCs?
By using replication monitor

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go to start > run > type replmon


What is the Global Catalog?
The global catalog contains a complete replica of all objects in Active Directory for its Host domain, and
contains a partial replica of all objects in Active Directory for every other domain in the forest.
The global catalog is a distributed data repository that contains a searchable, partial representation of
every object in every domain in a multidomain Active Directory forest. The global catalog is stored on
domain controllers that have been designated as global catalog servers and is distributed through
multimaster replication. Searches that are directed to the global catalog are faster because they do not
involve referrals to dierent domain controllers.
In addition to conguration and schema directory partition replicas, every domain controller in a
Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 forest stores a full, writable replica of a single domain
directory partition. Therefore, a domain controller can locate only the objects in its domain. Locating an
object in a dierent domain would require the user or application to provide the domain of the requested
object.
The global catalog provides the ability to locate objects from any domain without having to know the
domain name. A global catalog server is a domain controller that, in addition to its full, writable domain
directory partition replica, also stores a partial, read-only replica of all other domain directory partitions in
the forest. The additional domain directory partitions are partial because only a limited set of a9ributes is
included for each object. By including only the a9ributes that are most used for searching, every object in
every domain in even the largest forest can be represented in the database of a single global catalog server.
How do you view all the GCs in the forest?
C:\>repadmin/showreps
domain_controller
OR
You can use Replmon.exe for the same purpose.
OR
AD Sites and Services and nslookup gc._msdcs.%USERDNSDOMAIN%
Why not make all DCs in a large forest as GCs?
The reason that all DCs are not GCs to start is that in large (or even Giant) forests the DCs would all have
to hold a reference to every object in the entire forest which could be quite large and quite a replication
burden.
For a few hundred, or a few thousand users even, this not likely to ma9er unless you have really poor
WAN lines.
Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that?
adsiedit.exe
option to view the schema
register schmmgmt.dll using this command

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c:\windows\system32>regsvr32 schmmgmt.dll
Open mmc > add snapin > add Active directory schema
name it as schema.msc
Open administrative tool > schema.msc
What are the Support Tools? Why do I need them?
Support Tools are the tools that are used for performing the complicated tasks easily. These can also be
the third party tools. Some of the Support tools include DebugViewer, DependencyViewer,
RegistryMonitor, etc. -edit by Casquehead I beleive this question is reering to the Windows Server 2003
Support Tools, which are included with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2. They are also
available for download here:
h9p://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=96A35011-FD83-419D-939B-A772EA2DF90&
displaylang=en
You need them because you cannot properly manage an Active Directory network without them.
Here they are, it would do you well to familiarize yourself with all of them.
Acldiag.exe
Adsiedit.msc
Bitsadmin.exe
Dcdiag.exe
Dfsutil.exe
Dnslint.exe
Dsacls.exe
Iadstools.dll
Ktpass.exe
Ldp.exe
Netdiag.exe
Netdom.exe
Ntfrsutl.exe
Portqry.exe
Repadmin.exe
Replmon.exe
Setspn.exe
> What is REPLMON? What is ADSIEDIT? What is NETDOM? What is REPADMIN?
ADSIEdit is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a low-level editor for Active
Directory. It is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool. Network administrators can use it for common
administrative tasks such as adding, deleting, and moving objects with a directory service. The a9ributes
for each object can be edited or deleted by using this tool. ADSIEdit uses the ADSI application
programming interfaces (APIs) to access Active Directory. The following are the required les for using
this tool:
ADSIEDIT.DLL
ADSIEDIT.MSC

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Regarding system requirements, a connection to an Active Directory environment and Microsoft


Management Console (MMC) is necessary
A: Replmon is the rst tool you should use when troubleshooting Active Directory replication issues. As it
is a graphical tool, replication issues are easy to see and somewhat easier to diagnose than using its
command line counterparts. The purpose of this document is to guide you in how to use it, list some
common replication errors and show some examples of when replication issues can stop other network
installation actions.
for more go to h9p://www.techtutorials.net/articles/replmon_howto_a.html
NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust relationships.
It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains, verifying trusts, and secure
channels
A:
Enables administrators to manage Active Directory domains and trust relationships from the command
prompt.
Netdom is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) server role installed. To use netdom, you must run the
netdom command from an elevated command prompt. To open an elevated command prompt, click Start,
right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator.
REPADMIN.EXE is a command line tool used to monitor and troubleshoot replication on a computer
running Windows. This is a command line tool that allows you to view the replication topology as seen
from the perspective of each domain controller.
REPADMIN is a built-in Windows diagnostic command-line utility that works at the Active Directory
level. Although specic to Windows, it is also useful for diagnosing some Exchange replication problems,
since Exchange Server is Active Directory based.
REPADMIN doesnt actually x replication problems for you. But, you can use it to help determine the
source of a malfunction.
What are sites? What are they used for?
Active directory sites, which consist of well-connected networks dened by IP subnets that help dene
the physical structure of your AD, give you much be9er control over replication trac and authentication
trac than the control you get with Windows NT 4.0 domains.
Using Active Directory, the network and its objects are organized by constructs such as domains, trees,
forests, trust relationships, organizational units (OUs), and sites.
Whats the dierence between a site links schedule and interval?
Schedule enables you to list weekdays or hours when the site link is available for replication to happen in
the give interval. Interval is the re occurrence of the inter site replication in given minutes. It ranges from
15 10,080 mins. The default interval is 180 mins.
What is the KCC?

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The KCC is a built-in process that runs on all domain controllers and generates replication topology for
the Active Directory forest. The KCC creates separate replication topologies depending on whether
replication is occurring within a site (intrasite) or between sites (intersite). The KCC also dynamically
adjusts the topology to accommodate new domain controllers, domain controllers moved to and from
sites, changing costs and schedules, and domain controllers that are temporarily unavailable.
What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default?
Intersite Topology Generator (ISTG), which is responsible for the connections among the sites. By default
Windows 2003 Forest level functionality has this role. By Default the rst Server has this role. If that
server can no longer preform this role then the next server with the highest GUID then takes over the role
of ISTG.
What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server?
An NTFS partition with enough free space (250MB minimum)
An Administrators username and password
The correct operating system version
A NIC
Properly congured TCP/IP (IP address, subnet mask and optional default gateway)
A network connection (to a hub or to another computer via a crossover cable)
An operational DNS server (which can be installed on the DC itself)
A Domain name that you want to use
The Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 CD media (or at least the i386 folder)
From the Petri IT Knowledge base. For more info, follow this link:
h9p://www.petri.co.il/active_directory_installation_requirements.htm
What can you do to promote a server to DC if youre in a remote location with slow WAN link?
First available in Windows 2003, you will create a copy of the system state from an existing DC and copy it
to the new remote server. Run Dcpromo /adv. You will be prompted for the location of the system state
les
How can you forcibly remove AD from a server, and what do you do later? Can I get user
passwords from the AD database?
Demote the server using dcpromo /forceremoval, then remove the metadata from Active directory using
ndtsutil. There is no way to get user passwords from AD that I am aware of, but you should still be able to
change them.
Another way out too

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Restart the DC is DSRM mode


a. Locate the following registry subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\ProductOptions
b. In the right-pane, double-click ProductType.
c. Type ServerNT in the Value data box, and then click OK.
Restart the server in normal mode
its a member server now but AD entries are still there. Promote teh server to a fake domain say ABC.com
and then remove gracefully using DCpromo. Else after restart you can also use ntdsutil to do metadata as
told in teh earlier post
What tool would I use to try to grab security related packets from the wire?
you must use snier-detecting tools to help stop the snoops. A good packet snier would be
ethereal
www.ethereal.com
Name some OU design considerations ?
OU design requires balancing requirements for delegating administrative rights independent of Group
Policy needs and the need to scope the application of Group Policy. The following OU design
recommendations address delegation and scope issues:
Applying Group Policy An OU is the lowest-level Active Directory container to which you can assign
Group Policy se9ings.
Delegating administrative authority
usually dont go more than 3 OU levels
What is tombstone lifetime a:ribute?
The number of days before a deleted object is removed from the directory services. This assists in
removing objects from replicated servers and preventing restores from reintroducing a deleted object. This
value is in the Directory Service object in the conguration NIC by default 2000 (60 days) 2003 (180 days)
What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 DC in a Windows 2000 AD?
If you plan to install windows 2003 server domain controllers into an existing windows 2000 domain or
upgrade a windows 2000 domain controllers to windows server 2003, you rst need to run the Adprep.exe
utility on the windows 2000 domain controllers currently holding the schema master and infrastructure
master roles. The adprep / forestprer command must rst be issued on the windows 2000 server holding
schema master role in the forest root doman to prepare the existing schema to support windows 2003
active directory. The adprep /domainprep command must be issued on the sever holding the
infrastructure master role in the domain where 2000 server will be deployed.

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What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 R2 DC in a Windows 2003 AD?


A. If youre installing Windows 2003 R2 on an existing Windows 2003 server with SP1 installed, you
require only the second R2 CD-ROM. Insert the second CD and the r2auto.exe will display the Windows
2003 R2 Continue Setup screen.
If youre installing R2 on a domain controller (DC), you must rst upgrade the schema to the R2 version
(this is a minor change and mostly related to the new Dfs replication engine). To update the schema, run
the Adprep utility, which youll nd in the Cmpnents\r2\adprep folder on the second CD-ROM. Before
running this command, ensure all DCs are running Windows 2003 or Windows 2000 with SP2 (or later)
How would you nd all users that have not logged on since last month?
h9p://wiki.answers.com
/Q/How_would_you_nd_all_users_that_have_not_logged_on_since_last_month
What are the DScommands?
New DS (Directory Service) Family of built-in command line utilities for Windows Server 2003 Active
Directory
New DS built-in tools for Windows Server 2003
The DS (Directory Service) group of commands are split into two families. In one branch are DSadd,
DSmod, DSrm and DSMove and in the other branch are DSQuery and DSGet.
When it comes to choosing a scripting tool for Active Directory objects, you really are spoilt for choice.
The the DS family of built-in command line executables oer alternative strategies to CSVDE, LDIFDE
and VBScript.
Let me introduce you to the members of the DS family:
DSadd add Active Directory users and groups
DSmod modify Active Directory objects
DSrm to delete Active Directory objects
DSmove to relocate objects
DSQuery to nd objects that match your query a9ributes
DSget list the properties of an object
What are the FSMO roles? Who has them by default? What happens when each one fails?
FSMO stands for the Flexible single Master Operation
It has 5 Roles:
Schema Master:
The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modications to the schema. Once the
Schema update is complete, it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. To
update the schema of a forest, you must have access to the schema master. There can be only one schema
master in the whole forest.
Domain naming master:

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The domain naming master domain controller controls the addition or removal of domains in the forest.
This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. It can also add or remove
cross references to domains in external directories. There can be only one domain naming master in the
whole forest.
Infrastructure Master:
When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain, it represents the
reference by the GUID, the SID (for references to security principals), and the DN of the object being
referenced. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an objects SID and
distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. At any one time, there can be only one domain
controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain.
Note: The Infrastructure Master (IM) role should be held by a domain controller that is not a Global
Catalog server (GC). If the Infrastructure Master runs on a Global Catalog server it will stop updating
object information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This is
because a Global Catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest. As a result, crossdomain object references in that domain will not be updated and a warning to that eect will be logged on
that DCs event log. If all the domain controllers in a domain also host the global catalog, all the domain
controllers have the current data, and it is not important which domain controller holds the infrastructure
master role.
Relative ID (RID) Master:
The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular
domain. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group, it a9aches a unique
Security ID (SID) to the object. This SID consists of a domain SID (the same for all SIDs created in a
domain), and a relative ID (RID) that is unique for each security principal SID created in a domain. Each
DC in a domain is allocated a pool of RIDs that it is allowed to assign to the security principals it creates.
When a DCs allocated RID pool falls below a threshold, that DC issues a request for additional RIDs to
the domains RID master. The domain RID master responds to the request by retrieving RIDs from the
domains unallocated RID pool and assigns them to the pool of the requesting DC. At any one time, there
can be only one domain controller acting as the RID master in the domain.
PDC Emulator:
The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Windows 2000/2003 includes the
W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. All
Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time. The purpose of the time
service is to ensure that the Windows Time service uses a hierarchical relationship that controls authority
and does not permit loops to ensure appropriate common time usage.
The PDC emulator of a domain is authoritative for the domain. The PDC emulator at the root of the forest
becomes authoritative for the enterprise, and should be congured to gather the time from an external
source. All PDC FSMO role holders follow the hierarchy of domains in the selection of their in-bound
time partner.
:: In a Windows 2000/2003 domain, the PDC emulator role holder retains the following functions:
:: Password changes performed by other DCs in the domain are replicated preferentially to the PDC
emulator.
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Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are
forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user.
Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator.
Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC
Emulators SYSVOL share, unless congured not to do so by the administrator.
The PDC emulator performs all of the functionality that a Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Server-based PDC
or earlier PDC performs for Windows NT 4.0-based or earlier clients.
This part of the PDC emulator role becomes unnecessary when all workstations, member servers, and
domain controllers that are running Windows NT 4.0 or earlier are all upgraded to Windows 2000/2003.
The PDC emulator still performs the other functions as described in a Windows 2000/2003 environment.
What FSMO placement considerations do you know of?
Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO
(Flexible Single Master Operation), as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory.
In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or
actually, on the same DC) as has been congured by the Active Directory installation process. However,
there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the
default holder DC to a dierent DC.
Windows Server 2003 Active Directory is a bit dierent than the Windows 2000 version when dealing with
FSMO placement. In this article I will only deal with Windows Server 2003 Active Directory, but you
should bear in mind that most considerations are also true when planning Windows 2000 AD FSMO roles
Whats the dierence between transferring a FSMO role and seizing one? Which one should you
NOT seize? Why?
Certain domain and enterprise-wide operations that are not good for multi-master updates are performed
by a single domain controller in an Active Directory domain or forest. The domain controllers that are
assigned to perform these unique operations are called operations masters or FSMO role holders.
The following list describes the 5 unique FSMO roles in an Active Directory forest and the dependent
operations that they perform:

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Schema master The Schema master role is forest-wide and there is one for each forest. This role is
required to extend the schema of an Active Directory forest or to run the adprep /domainprep
command.
Domain naming master The Domain naming master role is forest-wide and there is one for each
forest. This role is required to add or remove domains or application partitions to or from a forest.
RID master The RID master role is domain-wide and there is one for each domain. This role is
required to allocate the RID pool so that new or existing domain controllers can create user accounts,
computer accounts or security groups.
PDC emulator The PDC emulator role is domain-wide and there is one for each domain. This role is
required for the domain controller that sends database updates to Windows NT backup domain
controllers. The domain controller that owns this role is also targeted by certain administration tools
and updates to user account and computer account passwords.
Infrastructure master The Infrastructure master role is domain-wide and there is one for each
domain. This role is required for domain controllers to run the adprep /forestprep command

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successfully and to update SID a9ributes and distinguished name a9ributes for objects that are
referenced across domains.
The Active Directory Installation Wizard (Dcpromo.exe) assigns all 5 FSMO roles to the rst domain
controller in the forest root domain. The rst domain controller in each new child or tree domain is
assigned the three domain-wide roles. Domain controllers continue to own FSMO roles until they are
reassigned by using one of the following methods:
An administrator reassigns the role by using a GUI administrative tool.
An administrator reassigns the role by using the ntdsutil /roles command.
An administrator gracefully demotes a role-holding domain controller by using the Active Directory
Installation Wizard. This wizard reassigns any locally-held roles to an existing domain controller in the
forest. Demotions that are performed by using the dcpromo /forceremoval command leave FSMO
roles in an invalid state until they are reassigned by an administrator.
We recommend that you transfer FSMO roles in the following scenarios:
The current role holder is operational and can be accessed on the network by the new FSMO owner.
You are gracefully demoting a domain controller that currently owns FSMO roles that you want to
assign to a specic domain controller in your Active Directory forest.
The domain controller that currently owns FSMO roles is being taken oine for scheduled
maintenance and you need specic FSMO roles to be assigned to a live domain controller. This may
be required to perform operations that connect to the FSMO owner. This would be especially true for
the PDC Emulator role but less true for the RID master role, the Domain naming master role and the
Schema master roles.
We recommend that you seize FSMO roles in the following scenarios:
The current role holder is experiencing an operational error that prevents an FSMO-dependent
operation from completing successfully and that role cannot be transferred.
A domain controller that owns an FSMO role is force-demoted by using the dcpromo /forceremoval
command.
The operating system on the computer that originally owned a specic role no longer exists or has
been reinstalled.
As replication occurs, non-FSMO domain controllers in the domain or forest gain full knowledge of
changes that are made by FSMO-holding domain controllers. If you must transfer a role, the best
candidate domain controller is one that is in the appropriate domain that last inbound-replicated, or
recently inbound-replicated a writable copy of the FSMO partition from the existing role holder. For
example, the Schema master role-holder has a distinguished name path of
CN=schema,CN=conguration,dc=<forest root domain>, and this mean that roles reside in and are
replicated as part of the CN=schema partition. If the domain controller that holds the Schema master role
experiences a hardware or software failure, a good candidate role-holder would be a domain controller in
the root domain and in the same Active Directory site as the current owner. Domain controllers in the
same Active Directory site perform inbound replication every 5 minutes or 15 seconds.
A domain controller whose FSMO roles have been seized should not be permi9ed to communicate with
existing domain controllers in the forest. In this scenario, you should either format the hard disk and
reinstall the operating system on such domain controllers or forcibly demote such domain controllers on a
private network and then remove their metadata on a surviving domain controller in the forest by using
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the ntdsutil /metadata cleanup command. The risk of introducing a former FSMO role holder whose role
has been seized into the forest is that the original role holder may continue to operate as before until it
inbound-replicates knowledge of the role seizure. Known risks of two domain controllers owning the same
FSMO roles include creating security principals that have overlapping RID pools, and other problems.

Transfer FSMO roles


To transfer the FSMO roles by using the Ntdsutil utility, follow these steps:
1. Log on to a Windows 2000 Server-based or Windows Server 2003-based member computer or domain
controller that is located in the forest where FSMO roles are being transferred. We recommend that
you log on to the domain controller that you are assigning FSMO roles to. The logged-on user should
be a member of the Enterprise Administrators group to transfer Schema master or Domain naming
master roles, or a member of the Domain Administrators group of the domain where the PDC
emulator, RID master and the Infrastructure master roles are being transferred.
2. Click Start, click Run, type ntdsutil in the Open box, and then click OK.
3. Type roles, and then press ENTER.Note To see a list of available commands at any one of the prompts
in the Ntdsutil utility, type ?, and then press ENTER.
4. Type connections, and then press ENTER.
5. Type connect to server servername, and then press ENTER, where servername is the name of the
domain controller you want to assign the FSMO role to.
6. At the server connections prompt, type q, and then press ENTER.
7. Type transfer role, where role is the role that you want to transfer. For a list of roles that you can
transfer, type ? at the fsmo maintenance prompt, and then press ENTER, or see the list of roles at the
start of this article. For example, to transfer the RID master role, type transfer rid master. The one
exception is for the PDC emulator role, whose syntax is transfer pdc, not transfer pdc emulator.
8. At the fsmo maintenance prompt, type q, and then press ENTER to gain access to the ntdsutil
prompt. Type q, and then press ENTER to quit the Ntdsutil utility.

Seize FSMO roles


To seize the FSMO roles by using the Ntdsutil utility, follow these steps:

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1. Log on to a Windows 2000 Server-based or Windows Server 2003-based member computer or domain
controller that is located in the forest where FSMO roles are being seized. We recommend that you log
on to the domain controller that you are assigning FSMO roles to. The logged-on user should be a
member of the Enterprise Administrators group to transfer schema or domain naming master roles, or
a member of the Domain Administrators group of the domain where the PDC emulator, RID master
and the Infrastructure master roles are being transferred.
2. Click Start, click Run, type ntdsutil in the Open box, and then click OK.
3. Type roles, and then press ENTER.
4. Type connections, and then press ENTER.

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5. Type connect to server servername, and then press ENTER, where servername is the name of the
domain controller that you want to assign the FSMO role to.
6. At the server connections prompt, type q, and then press ENTER.
7. Type seize role, where role is the role that you want to seize. For a list of roles that you can seize, type ?
at the fsmo maintenance prompt, and then press ENTER, or see the list of roles at the start of this
article. For example, to seize the RID master role, type seize rid master. The one exception is for the
PDC emulator role, whose syntax is seize pdc, not seize pdc emulator.
8. At the fsmo maintenance prompt, type q, and then press ENTER to gain access to the ntdsutil
prompt. Type q, and then press ENTER to quit the Ntdsutil utility.Notes
Under typical conditions, all ve roles must be assigned to live domain controllers in the forest. If
a domain controller that owns a FSMO role is taken out of service before its roles are transferred,
you must seize all roles to an appropriate and healthy domain controller. We recommend that you
only seize all roles when the other domain controller is not returning to the domain. If it is possible,
x the broken domain controller that is assigned the FSMO roles. You should determine which
roles are to be on which remaining domain controllers so that all ve roles are assigned to a single
domain controller. For more information about FSMO role placement, click the following article
number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 223346 (h9p://support.microsoft.com
/kb/223346/ ) FSMO placement and optimization on Windows 2000 domain controllers
If the domain controller that formerly held any FSMO role is not present in the domain and if it has
had its roles seized by using the steps in this article, remove it from the Active Directory by
following the procedure that is outlined in the following Microsoft Knowledge Base article: 216498
(h9p://support.microsoft.com/kb/216498/ ) How to remove data in active directory after an
unsuccessful domain controller demotion
Removing domain controller metadata with the Windows 2000 version or the Windows Server 2003
build 3790 version of the ntdsutil /metadata cleanup command does not relocate FSMO roles that
are assigned to live domain controllers. The Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) version of
the Ntdsutil utility automates this task and removes additional elements of domain controller
metadata.
Some customers prefer not to restore system state backups of FSMO role-holders in case the role
has been reassigned since the backup was made.
Do not put the Infrastructure master role on the same domain controller as the global catalog
server. If the Infrastructure master runs on a global catalog server it stops updating object
information because it does not contain any references to objects that it does not hold. This is
because a global catalog server holds a partial replica of every object in the forest.
To test whether a domain controller is also a global catalog server:
1. Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active Directory Sites
and Services.
2. Double-click Sites in the left pane, and then locate the appropriate site or click Default-rst-site-name
if no other sites are available.
3. Open the Servers folder, and then click the domain controller.
4. In the domain controllers folder, double-click NTDS Se:ings.
5. On the Action menu, click Properties.
6. On the General tab, view the Global Catalog check box to see if it is selected.
For more information about FSMO roles, click the following article numbers to view the articles in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base:

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How do you congure a stand-by operation master for any of the roles?
1. Open Active Directory Sites and Services.
2. Expand the site name in which the standby operations master is located to display the Servers folder.
3. Expand the Servers folder to see a list of the servers in that site.
4. Expand the name of the server that you want to be the standby operations master to display its NTDS
Se9ings.
5. Right-click NTDS Se:ings, click New, and then click Connection.
6. In the Find Domain Controllers dialog box, select the name of the current role holder, and then click
OK.
7. In the New Object-Connection dialog box, enter an appropriate name for the Connection object or
accept the default name, and click OK.
How do you backup AD?
Backing up Active Directory is essential to maintain an Active Directory database. You can back up Active
Directory by using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and command-line tools that the Windows Server
2003 family provides.
You frequently backup the system state data on domain controllers so that you can restore the most
current data. By establishing a regular backup schedule, you have a be9er chance of recovering data when
necessary.
To ensure a good backup includes at least the system state data and contents of the system disk, you must
be aware of the tombstone lifetime. By default, the tombstone is 60 days. Any backup older than 60 days is
not a good backup. Plan to backup at least two domain controllers in each domain, one of at least one
backup to enable an authoritative restore of the data when necessary.
System State Data
Several features in the windows server 2003 family make it easy to backup Active Directory. You can
backup Active Directory while the server is online and other network function can continue to function.
System state data on a domain controller includes the following components:
Active Directory system state data does not contain Active Directory unless the server, on which you are
backing up the system state data, is a domain controller. Active Directory is present only on domain
controllers.
The SYSVOL shared folder: This shared folder contains Group policy templates and logon scripts. The
SYSVOL shared folder is present only on domain controllers.
The Registry: This database repository contains information about the computers conguration.
System startup les: Windows Server 2003 requires these les during its initial startup phase. They
include the boot and system les that are under windows le protection and used by windows to load,
congure, and run the operating system.
The COM+ Class Registration database: The Class registration is a database of information about
Component Services applications.
The Certicate Services database: This database contains certicates that a server running Windows

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server 2003 uses to authenticate users. The Certicate Services database is present only if the server is
operating as a certicate server.
System state data contains most elements of a systems conguration, but it may not include all of the
information that you require recovering data from a system failure. Therefore, be sure to backup all boot
and system volumes, including the System State, when you back up your server.
Restoring Active Directory
In Windows Server 2003 family, you can restore the Active Directory database if it becomes corrupted or
is destroyed because of hardware or software failures. You must restore the Active Directory database
when objects in Active Directory are changed or deleted.
Active Directory restore can be performed in several ways. Replication synchronizes the latest changes
from every other replication partner. Once the replication is nished each partner has an updated version
of Active Directory. There is another way to get these latest updates by Backup utility to restore replicated
data from a backup copy. For this restore you dont need to congure again your domain controller or no
need to install the operating system from scratch.
Active Directory Restore Methods
You can use one of the three methods to restore Active Directory from backup media: primary restore,
normal (non authoritative) restore, and authoritative restore.
Primary restore: This method rebuilds the rst domain controller in a domain when there is no other way
to rebuild the domain. Perform a primary restore only when all the domain controllers in the domain are
lost, and you want to rebuild the domain from the backup.
Members of Administrators group can perform the primary restore on local computer, or user should have
been delegated with this responsibility to perform restore. On a domain controller only Domain Admins
can perform this restore.
Normal restore: This method reinstates the Active Directory data to the state before the backup, and then
updates the data through the normal replication process. Perform a normal restore for a single domain
controller to a previously known good state.
Authoritative restore: You perform this method in tandem with a normal restore. An authoritative restore
marks specic data as current and prevents the replication from overwriting that data. The authoritative
data is then replicated through the domain.
Perform an authoritative restore individual object in a domain that has multiple domain controllers. When
you perform an authoritative restore, you lose all changes to the restore object that occurred after the
backup. Ntdsutil is a command line utility to perform an authoritative restore along with windows server
2003 system utilities. The Ntdsutil command-line tool is an executable le that you use to mark Active
Directory objects as authoritative so that they receive a higher version recently changed data on other
domain controllers does not overwrite system state data during replication.
How do you restore AD?
Restoring Active Directory :
In Windows Server 2003 family, you can restore the Active Directory database if it becomes corrupted or
is destroyed because of hardware or software failures. You must restore the Active Directory database
when objects in Active Directory are changed or deleted.

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Active Directory restore can be performed in several ways. Replication synchronizes the latest changes
from every other replication partner. Once the replication is nished each partner has an updated version
of Active Directory. There is another way to get these latest updates by Backup utility to restore replicated
data from a backup copy. For this restore you dont need to congure again your domain controller or no
need to install the operating system from scratch.
Active Directory Restore Methods
You can use one of the three methods to restore Active Directory from backup media: primary restore,
normal (non authoritative) restore, and authoritative restore.
Primary restore: This method rebuilds the rst domain controller in a domain when there is no other way
to rebuild the domain. Perform a primary restore only when all the domain controllers in the domain are
lost, and you want to rebuild the domain from the backup.
Members of Administrators group can perform the primary restore on local computer, or user should have
been delegated with this responsibility to perform restore. On a domain controller only Domain Admins
can perform this restore.
Normal restore: This method reinstates the Active Directory data to the state before the backup, and then
updates the data through the normal replication process. Perform a normal restore for a single domain
controller to a previously known good state.
Authoritative restore: You perform this method in tandem with a normal restore. An authoritative restore
marks specic data as current and prevents the replication from overwriting that data. The authoritative
data is then replicated through the domain.
Perform an authoritative restore individual object in a domain that has multiple domain controllers. When
you perform an authoritative restore, you lose all changes to the restore object that occurred after the
backup. Ntdsutil is a command line utility to perform an authoritative restore along with windows server
2003 system utilities. The Ntdsutil command-line tool is an executable le that you use to mark Active
Directory objects as authoritative so that they receive a higher version recently changed data on other
domain controllers does not overwrite system state data during replication.

METHOD
A.
You cant restore Active Directory (AD) to a domain controller (DC) while the Directory Service (DS) is
running. To restore AD, perform the following steps.
Reboot the computer.
At the boot menu, select Windows 2000 Server. Dont press Enter. Instead, press F8 for advanced options.
Youll see the following text. OS Loader V5.0
Windows NT Advanced Options Menu
Please select an option:
Safe Mode
Safe Mode with Networking
Safe Mode with Command Prompt

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Enable Boot Logging


Enable VGA Mode
Last Known Good Conguration
Directory Services Restore Mode (Windows NT domain controllers only)
Debugging Mode
Use | and | to move the highlight to your choice.
Press Enter to choose.
Scroll down, and select Directory Services Restore Mode (Windows NT domain controllers only).
Press Enter.
When you return to the Windows 2000 Server boot menu, press Enter. At the bo9om of the screen, youll
see in red text Directory Services Restore Mode (Windows NT domain controllers only).
The computer will boot into a special safe mode and wont start the DS. Be aware that during this time the
machine wont act as a DC and wont perform functions such as authentication.
Start NT Backup.
Select the Restore tab.
Select the backup media, and select System State.
Click Start Restore.
Click OK in the conrmation dialog box.
After you restore the backup, reboot the computer and start in normal mode to use the restored
information. The computer might hang after the restore completes; Sometimes it takes a 30-minute wait
on some machines.
How do you change the DS Restore admin password?
When you promote a Windows 2000 Server-based computer to a domain controller, you are prompted to
type a Directory Service Restore Mode Administrator password. This password is also used by Recovery
Console, and is separate from the Administrator password that is stored in Active Directory after a
completed promotion.
The Administrator password that you use when you start Recovery Console or when you press F8 to start
Directory Service Restore Mode is stored in the registry-based Security Accounts Manager (SAM) on the
local computer. The SAM is located in the\System32\Cong folder. The SAM-based account and
password are computer specic and they are not replicated to other domain controllers in the domain.
For ease of administration of domain controllers or for additional security measures, you can change the
Administrator password for the local SAM. To change the local Administrator password that you use
when you start Recovery Console or when you start Directory Service Restore Mode, use the following
method.
1. Log on to the computer as the administrator or a user who is a member of the Administrators group. 2.
Shut down the domain controller on which you want to change the password. 3. Restart the computer.
When the selection menu screen is displayed during restar, press F8 to view advanced startup options. 4.
Click the Directory Service Restore Mode option. 5. After you log on, use one of the following methods to
change the local Administrator password: At a command prompt, type the following command:
net user administrator
Use the Local User and Groups snap-in (Lusrmgr.msc) to change the Administrator password. 6. Shut

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down and restart the computer. You can now use the Administrator account to log on to Recovery
Console or Directory Services Restore Mode using the new password.
Why cant you restore a DC that was backed up 4 months ago?
Because of the tombstone life which is set to only 60 days
What are GPOs?
Group Policy gives you administrative control over users and computers in your network. By using Group
Policy, you can dene the state of a users work environment once, and then rely on Windows Server 2003
to continually force the Group Policy se9ings that you apply across an entire organization or to specic
groups of users and computers.
Group Policy Advantages
You can assign group policy in domains, sites and organizational units.
All users and computers get reected by group policy se9ings in domain, site and organizational unit.
No one in network has rights to change the se9ings of Group policy; by default only administrator has full
privilege to change, so it is very secure.
Policy se9ings can be removed and can further rewrite the changes.
Where GPOs store Group Policy Information
Group Policy objects store their Group Policy information in two locations:
Group Policy Container: The GPC is an Active Directory object that contains GPO status, version
information, WMI lter information, and a list of components that have se9ings in the GPO. Computers
can access the GPC to locate Group Policy templates, and domain controller does not have the most
recent version of the GPO, replication occurs to obtain the latest version of the GPO.
Group Policy Template: The GPT is a folder hierarchy in the shared SYSVOL folder on a domain
controller. When you create GPO, Windows Server 2003 creates the corresponding GPT which contains
all Group Policy se9ings and information, including administrative templates, security, software
installation, scripts, and folder redirection se9ings. Computers connect to the SYSVOL folder to obtain
the se9ings.
The name of the GPT folder is the Globally Unique Identier (GUID) of the GPO that you created. It is
identical to the GUID that Active Directory uses to identify the GPO in the GPC. The path to the GPT on
a domain controller is systemroot\SYSVOL\sysvol.
Managing GPOs
To avoid conicts in replication, consider the selection of domain controller, especially because the GPO
data resides in SYSVOL folder and the Active Directory. Active Directory uses two independent
replication techniques to replicate GPO data among all domain controllers in the domain. If two
administrators changes can overwrite those made by other administrator, depends on the replication
latency. By default the Group Policy Management console uses the PDC Emulator so that all
administrators can work on the same domain controller.
WMI Filter
WMI lters is use to get the current scope of GPOs based on a9ributes of the user or computer. In this
way, you can increase the GPOs ltering capabilities beyond the security group ltering mechanisms that
were previously available.
Linking can be done with WMI lter to a GPO. When you apply a GPO to the destination computer,
Active Directory evaluates the lter on the destination computer. A WMI lter has few queries that active
Directory evaluates in place of WMI repository of the destination computer. If the set of queries is false,
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Active Directory does not apply the GPO. If set of queries are true, Active Directory applies the GPO. You
write the query by using the WMI Query Language (WQL); this language is similar to querying SQL for
WMI repository.
Planning a Group Policy Strategy for the Enterprise
When you plan an Active Directory structure, create a plan for GPO inheritance, administration, and
deployment that provides the most ecient Group Policy management for your organization.
Also consider how you will implement Group Policy for the organization. Be sure to consider the
delegation of authority, separation of administrative duties, central versus decentralized administration,
and design exibility so that your plan will provide for ease of use as well as administration.
Planning GPOs
Create GPOs in way that provides for the simplest and most manageable design one in which you can
use inheritance and multiple links.
Guidelines for Planning GPOs
Apply GPO se9ings at the highest level: This way, you take advantage of Group Policy inheritance.
Determine what common GPO se9ings for the largest container are starting with the domain and then
link the GPO to this container.
Reduce the number of GPOs: You reduce the number by using multiple links instead of creating multiple
identical GPOs. Try to link a GPO to the broadest container possible level to avoid creating multiple links
of the same GPO at a deeper level.
Create specialized GPOs: Use these GPOs to apply unique se9ings when necessary. GPOs at a higher
level will not apply the se9ings in these specialized GPOs.
Disable computer or use conguration se9ings: When you create a GPO to contain se9ings for only one of
the two levels-user and computer-disable the logon and prevents accidental GPO se9ings from being
applied to the other area.
What is the order in which GPOs are applied?
Local, Site, Domain, OU
Group Policy se9ings are processed in the following order:
1:- Local Group Policy object-each computer has exactly one Group Policy object that is stored locally.
This processes for both computer and user Group Policy processing.
2:- Site-Any GPOs that have been linked to the site that the computer belongs to are processed next.
Processing is in the order that is specied by the administrator, on the Linked Group Policy Objects tab
for the site in Group Policy Management Console (GPMC). The GPO with the lowest link order is
processed last, and therefore has the highest precedence.
3:- Domain-processing of multiple domain-linked GPOs is in the order specied by the administrator, on
the Linked Group Policy Objects tab for the domain in GPMC. The GPO with the lowest link order is
processed last, and therefore has the highest precedence.
4:- Organizational units-GPOs that are linked to the organizational unit that is highest in the Active
Directory hierarchy are processed rst, then GPOs that are linked to its child organizational unit, and so
on. Finally, the GPOs that are linked to the organizational unit that contains the user or computer are
processed.
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At the level of each organizational unit in the Active Directory hierarchy, one, many, or no GPOs can be
linked. If several GPOs are linked to an organizational unit, their processing is in the order that is specied
by the administrator, on the Linked Group Policy Objects tab for the organizational unit in GPMC. The
GPO with the lowest link order is processed last, and therefore has the highest precedence.
This order means that the local GPO is processed rst, and GPOs that are linked to the organizational
unit of which the computer or user is a direct member are processed last, which overwrites se9ings in the
earlier GPOs if there are conicts. (If there are no conicts, then the earlier and later se9ings are merely
aggregated.)
Name a few benets of using GPMC.
Microsoft released the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) years ago, which is an amazing
innovation in Group Policy management. The tool provides control over Group Policy in the following
manner:
Easy administration of all GPOs across the entire Active Directory Forest
View of all GPOs in one single list
Reporting of GPO se9ings, security, lters, delegation, etc.
Control of GPO inheritance with Block Inheritance, Enforce, and Security Filtering
Delegation model
Backup and restore of GPOs
Migration of GPOs across dierent domains and forests
With all of these benets, there are still negatives in using the GPMC alone. Granted, the GPMC is
needed and should be used by everyone for what it is ideal for. However, it does fall a bit short when you
want to protect the GPOs from the following:
Role based delegation of GPO management
Being edited in production, potentially causing damage to desktops and servers
Forge9ing to back up a GPO after it has been modied
Change management of each modication to every GPO
How can you determine what GPO was and was not applied for a user? Name a few ways to do
that.
Simply use the Group Policy Management Console created by MS for that very purpose, allows you to run
simulated policies on computers or users to determine what policies are enforced. Link in sources
What are administrative templates?
Administrative Templates are a feature of Group Policy, a Microsoft technology for centralised
management of machines and users in an Active Directory environment.
Administrative Templates facilitate the management of registry-based policy. An ADM le is used to
describe both the user interface presented to the Group Policy administrator and the registry keys that
should be updated on the target machines. An ADM le is a text le with a specic syntax which
describes both the interface and the registry values which will be changed if the policy is enabled or
disabled.
ADM les are consumed by the Group Policy Object Editor (GPEdit). Windows XP Service Pack 2
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shipped with ve ADM les (system.adm, inetres.adm, wmplayer.adm, conf.adm and wuau.adm). These
are merged into a unied namespace in GPEdit and presented to the administrator under the
Administrative Templates node (for both machine and user policy).
Whats the dierence between software publishing and assigning?
ANS An administrator can either assign or publish software applications.
Assign Users
The software application is advertised when the user logs on. It is installed when the user clicks on the
software application icon via the start menu, or accesses a le that has been associated with the software
application.
Assign Computers
The software application is advertised and installed when it is safe to do so, such as when the computer is
next restarted.
Publish to users
The software application does not appear on the start menu or desktop. This means the user may not
know that the software is available. The software application is made available via the Add/Remove
Programs option in control panel, or by clicking on a le that has been associated with the application.
Published applications do not reinstall themselves in the event of accidental deletion, and it is not possible
to publish to computers.
Can I deploy non-MSI software with GPO?

How to create a third-party Microsoft Installer package


h9p://support.microsoft.com/kb/257718/
You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents, Start menu,
printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that?
Login on client as Domain Admin user change whatever you need add printers etc go to system-User
proles copy this user prole to any location by select Everyone in permi9ed to use after copy change
ntuser.dat to ntuser.man and assgin this path under user prole
Regards
Syed Jahanzaib

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Comments (99)

99 Comments

23 of 34

1. hey thanks i found some interview questions here to


h9p://www.systechblog.com/server-2003-interview-question-answers.html
Comment by ravi November 1, 2010 @ 4:29 PM
Reply
2. Excellent collection dear iam really appriciate your collection..
thank you i remember your help forever.
Comment by Vijay Reddy February 9, 2011 @ 3:49 PM
Reply
3. Friend this is vijay reddy again could you please provide some more techinical trouble shooting
interview questions ?
It really helpful for lot of unemployeees like me . onece again thanks a lot for such type of question and
answers.
Comment by Vijay Reddy February 10, 2011 @ 9:22 AM
Reply
Currently I am busy with some Mikrotik ROUTEROS and Ubuntu RADIUS related project. I will
post few more articles as soon I get free.
Comment by aacable April 25, 2011 @ 5:42 AM
Reply
Thank you friend may all the best for your project works.
Requesting you to please post some techinical troubleshooting question and answers once you
are free .

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Comment by Vijay Reddy April 26, 2011 @ 12:46 PM


4. Great eort sir, heart says to salute you, thanks for ur work
Comment by qhayum April 24, 2011 @ 6:05 AM
Reply
Thanks Bro !
Comment by aacable April 25, 2011 @ 5:42 AM
Reply
5. Thank you sir its really help full.. Please upload some scenarios
Comment by Dinesh June 6, 2011 @ 4:06 PM
Reply
6. thnk u v.much.dear n its very helpful 4 me.
Comment by Sudha Gouravam June 15, 2011 @ 4:07 AM
Reply
7. Thank you
Comment by Gowrishankar June 22, 2011 @ 2:27 AM
Reply
8. Thanks Sir ,
Knowledge sharing is Divine.
Sai
Comment by Sai Venkatesh June 23, 2011 @ 11:42 AM
Reply
9. Asalam Vallikum Bhai Jaan Can u plz Upload Window server 2008 AD q-a like this for us..& how
would i know u have updated this
Comment by mayurgandhi July 2, 2011 @ 5:32 PM
Reply
Sorry Brother, I havent moved on to 2008 Servers yet, so cant help you in this regard :) ,
currently I am focusing on Mikrotik and Ubuntu related open source projects. I will try to get some
Q&A on w2008 for you.
Comment by aacable July 4, 2011 @ 5:46 AM
Reply
10. Awesome Blog Sir Thanks :)

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Comment by Satheesh July 13, 2011 @ 6:09 PM

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Reply
11. Thank you Sir.it was very helpful
Comment by Nagesh August 3, 2011 @ 10:52 PM
Reply
12. thank u sir.
Comment by arshad August 9, 2011 @ 12:21 AM
Reply
13. NICE COLLECTION
Comment by MANOJ August 11, 2011 @ 9:05 AM
Reply
14. Such a great collection of questonaries Really appreciate your eorts and thanks for sharing this..
Request you to upload the dierences and 2008 server, so that we can learn much more.
Comment by Roshan August 11, 2011 @ 12:27 PM
Reply
15. :)
Comment by Roshan August 11, 2011 @ 12:27 PM
Reply
16. Hi,
Please share some information on exchange serevr 2000/2003/2007 & 2010 for beginers
Thanks
Comment by Roshan August 19, 2011 @ 10:07 AM
Reply
17. hi
nice collections.. thank u very much..
Comment by karthik August 22, 2011 @ 5:15 PM
Reply
18. nice collection sir, really its very helpfull. Thank you.
Comment by abu September 6, 2011 @ 11:33 AM
Reply
19. very good sir
thanks for your eort
suresh

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Comment by sss September 8, 2011 @ 1:53 PM


Reply
20. Thank u sir this is not a AD related q/a its a complete reference of AD really great job.. :)
Comment by krishna prabu September 9, 2011 @ 11:02 AM
Reply
21. thank you verymuch this is very much useful for me
Comment by sooraj October 8, 2011 @ 6:35 PM
Reply
22. thank u sir but u have not tell the procedure for taking the backup of AD.
Comment by Chandan Singh October 12, 2011 @ 1:27 PM
Reply
Following Links will help you , very easy step by step guide.
h9p://www.petri.co.il/backup-windows-server-2003-active-directory.htm
h9p://www.petri.co.il/restore-windows-server-2003-active-directory.htm
Comment by Pinochio~:) October 12, 2011 @ 1:34 PM
Reply
23. Hi this is a very useful. Thanks a lot for posting. I recently came across this page n am going book mark
it.
Keep posting.
Thanks
Comment by Ruban Suresh November 19, 2011 @ 2:45 AM
Reply
24. Nice Article ..
Comment by Vasim Memon November 23, 2011 @ 2:53 PM
Reply
25. Thank you very much , I learnt lots of things may Allah reward you for this amen.
Comment by muharrem Aker December 5, 2011 @ 10:34 PM
Reply
JazakAllah
Comment by Pinochio~:) December 7, 2011 @ 10:43 AM
Reply
26. Very good knowledgeable articleThanks Owner

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Thanks,
Shajil Pathikkal
Comment by Shajil Pathikkal December 16, 2011 @ 12:25 PM
Reply
27. really very nice writeup there keep doing good work
Comment by vijay December 22, 2011 @ 3:22 PM
Reply
28. thank u sir, great article.
Comment by Jitu January 3, 2012 @ 9:22 AM
Reply
29. i am looking windows adminstrator job please condect kamalakannan151983@gmail.com
i have 5 years experience kindly send me suitable job
Comment by kamalakannan February 1, 2012 @ 3:59 PM
Reply
30. it really helpful and help us alot Allay bless you for your kind eorts
Comment by engr. yasir February 3, 2012 @ 10:47 PM
Reply
31. thanks this very useful i have cleared few interview with this reading
Comment by ravi February 9, 2012 @ 1:00 PM
Reply
I am glad it helped you :)
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) February 9, 2012 @ 2:40 PM
Reply
32. Thanks a lot.
Comment by Manoj February 10, 2012 @ 3:56 PM
Reply
33. Nice Article ..
Comment by Raghu February 13, 2012 @ 12:44 PM
Reply
Thanks
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) February 14, 2012 @ 9:06 AM
Reply
34. good.. its very good use full for windows users.
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Comment by kamalhasan March 14, 2012 @ 8:15 PM


Reply
35. thank u sir thnk u v.v.much.. it was very helpful 4me thx again
Comment by arshad March 16, 2012 @ 5:49 PM
Reply
36. do you have any thing for reading or watching that you suggest regarding multi-site active directory.
how would you create one and ofcourse the maintain. The most important thing is design
consideration.
I have problem understanding active directory site. let say , you have one active directory in New york
other one in DC how would you approach ?
(creating active directory link , with dierent subnet ), how does an active directory know the subnet
which is not in the same network iam lost there
Comment by muharrem aker March 17, 2012 @ 1:02 AM
Reply
37. Thanks a lot sir! Its a great Article.God Bless !
Comment by Saron March 22, 2012 @ 6:37 PM
Reply
38. Hi !
Really you are great. Im the person experienced in windows and gathered more useful information
from this site. Keep it up.. Take care..
Comment by Rajesh April 1, 2012 @ 2:21 PM
Reply
I am glad it helped you.
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) April 1, 2012 @ 6:53 PM
Reply
39. Thank you sir, i was just looking for this it has helpded me lot:)
Comment by Mahesh April 18, 2012 @ 12:39 PM
Reply
40. Hello Bhai please Post 2008 Active Directory Technical questions
Your blog is really helpful for those who want to make there on Server side

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Comment by Dinesh April 22, 2012 @ 11:15 PM


Reply
Hmm I am not into win2008 environment fully, I will try to get some data for it .
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) April 23, 2012 @ 8:44 AM

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https://aacable.wordpress.com/2010/02/18/106/

Reply
41. app. eorts.. god bless you dude
Comment by Durgesh Uniyal May 19, 2012 @ 12:20 PM
Reply
42. how i can go to networking jobs
Comment by jas June 1, 2012 @ 9:18 PM
Reply
Good
thanks this very useful i have cleared few interview with this reading
Comment by chandru June 4, 2012 @ 2:40 PM
Reply
43. [] Technical Interview Questions (Part 2/3) ACTIVE DIRECTORY] Filed under: Microsoft Related
Tags: active directory, active directory interview, interview questions, mcse questions Syed
Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) @ 9:38 AM []
Pingback by General Network Engineer Interview Questions General Knowledge Questions
Yogesh(Yogi) June 6, 2012 @ 1:31 AM
Reply
44. You can denitely see your enthusiasm within the article you write.
The arena hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who arent afraid to mention how they
believe. At all times follow your heart.
Comment by Buy Gold Coin Online June 8, 2012 @ 1:56 PM
Reply
45. very helpful thanks dude
Comment by adhil June 28, 2012 @ 5:42 PM
Reply
46. Its great!!!!!!
Comment by Sreeraj R July 7, 2012 @ 6:47 AM
Reply
47. thanks a lot..means really step by step.all the conguration.
Piyush Srivastava (piyush.ranu@gmail.com)
Please share some scenarios in case of AD and Exchange 2010.

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Comment by piyush July 24, 2012 @ 8:11 PM


Reply
Thanks -a-lot, sir very very helpful ques. and ans.. i really appreciate you.
Comment by Yogesh Sharma August 19, 2012 @ 6:14 PM

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Reply
you are welcome !
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) August 20, 2012 @ 3:58 PM
48. thanks and bunch, I have a technical interview call with microsoft in a few days this helps alot
Comment by Danny August 26, 2012 @ 7:37 AM
Reply
I am glad it helped. Dear Danny ,
As you mentioned in your email , 13 years of experience is good enough to make you condent.
Just relax and repeat in your mind and by tongue that YES I CAN DO IT
Be condent, Go straight, be true to yourself and others.
When the interviewer asked you any question like How to congure AD Site and if you really
dont know howto do it, dont say I DONT KNOW ABOUT IT, just tell him that You have some
knowledge about it but you never get a chance to explorer it since you couldnt get a environment
where you can test it, so If a chance is given, you will surely do it. and if you know from inside that
you wont be able to do it, just clearly accept it and tell him that you dont know about it rather
then making false claim about it. Be straight, dont try to over smart :)
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) August 26, 2012 @ 10:00 AM
Reply
49. Too gud. Dear..
its very useful
Comment by Haidar imam September 18, 2012 @ 1:02 PM
Reply
50. Good Article brother
Comment by Vasim Memon September 23, 2012 @ 12:20 AM
Reply
51. Excellent collection dear i am really appreciate your collection..
thank you i remember your help forever.
Comment by Umesh October 13, 2012 @ 3:35 PM
Reply
52. Good notes for AD
Comment by Muthuraj Nadar October 18, 2012 @ 2:09 PM
Reply
53. excellent collection

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Comment by shafeek October 31, 2012 @ 12:11 PM

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https://aacable.wordpress.com/2010/02/18/106/

Reply
54. Oh thanks..
Comment by Sathish Kumar November 6, 2012 @ 6:25 PM
Reply
55. thank so much
Comment by kamalakannan November 7, 2012 @ 10:58 AM
Reply
56. Thanks buddy it helps me good to know more about the ACTIVE DIRECTORY
Comment by Naren November 30, 2012 @ 7:21 AM
Reply
57. Thanks mate ,really awsome and can u pls send other parts also Technical Interview Questions (Part
2/3) ACTIVE DIRECTORY]
Comment by bashu December 6, 2012 @ 8:32 PM
Reply
58. Awesome
Comment by Nashim December 18, 2012 @ 12:18 AM
Reply
59. Hi there, every time i used to check website posts here early in the morning, since i like to learn more
and more.
Comment by ipad3 January 7, 2013 @ 7:39 PM
Reply
60. I blog as well and Im publishing a thing alike to this excellent blog, Technical Interview Questions
(Part 2/3) ACTIVE DIRECTORY] |
Syed Jahanzaib Personnel Blog to Share Knowledge !
. Do you care in case I actuallyincorporate a bit of of your own concepts?
Thanks for the post ,Cynthia
Comment by h9p://tinyurl.com/tenn-8153950296 January 9, 2013 @ 5:23 PM
Reply
61. Really its Good to improve our basic concepts. I got today morning this excellent collection and built
my condence again to face the interview on AD. Appreciate. Sharvari
Comment by Sharvari January 11, 2013 @ 9:39 AM
Reply
62. Very energetic blog, I loved that a lot. Will
there be a part 2?

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Comment by Ross January 30, 2013 @ 6:23 PM


Reply
63. Thank you so much for this post.it helped me a lot for solving most of my doubts..
Comment by Tips for Interview February 16, 2013 @ 1:47 PM
Reply
64. Searching in Google brought up your web blog
Im delighted it did, thank you.
Comment by Sondra March 8, 2013 @ 3:03 PM
Reply
65. nice
Comment by Kukki March 20, 2013 @ 4:22 PM
Reply
66. Share some Dirence b/w 2K3 AD Vs 2k8 AD
Comment by Kukki March 20, 2013 @ 4:23 PM
Reply
67. Its very useful thank you so much
Comment by suchi March 23, 2013 @ 4:14 AM
Reply
68. thanks Bro
Comment by yiatsi March 27, 2013 @ 4:15 AM
Reply
69. its great
Comment by chandramani sahu April 1, 2013 @ 1:41 PM
Reply
70. Its very useful .Thanks you so much
Comment by Ananth May 4, 2013 @ 12:04 AM
Reply
71. its very useful.thank u
Comment by ashwani May 26, 2013 @ 4:49 AM
Reply
72. Great article.

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Comment by Nathan June 19, 2013 @ 7:23 PM

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Reply
73. Hello Mr.sayad,
Thank you for making such kind of blog.
Comment by Rajesh Kodi July 24, 2013 @ 7:01 PM
Reply
You are welcome !
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) July 25, 2013 @ 7:52 AM
Reply
74. Thank you for all your eorts brother.. Jazak Allah khairan.
Comment by shaq October 26, 2013 @ 8:51 AM
Reply
75. good job Bhai
Comment by surii November 14, 2013 @ 7:40 PM
Reply
:)
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) November 20, 2013 @ 1:24 PM
Reply
76. Thank you for the wonderful collection of data!!!
I have an interview scheduled in next 20 mins.. :) Not sure if I will get selected, but Im glad that I
happen to visit this blog when searching for some help!!!
Great job!!!
Comment by ishu December 8, 2013 @ 11:47 AM
Reply
Thank you brother
Comment by Syed Jahanzaib / Pinochio~:) December 9, 2013 @ 11:00 AM
Reply
77. For more interview questions and answers. Please visit h9p://www.techiebird.com
Comment by TechieBird December 20, 2013 @ 11:17 AM
Reply
78. More interview Q&A on h9p://www.techiebird.com/sendmail.html
Comment by Javed February 27, 2014 @ 11:56 AM
Reply
79. I see this is Technical Interview Questions (Part 2/3) ACTIVE DIRECTORY]. It would be great if you

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can share 1/3 & 3/3.


Comment by Mohammed Hussain January 22, 2015 @ 7:54 PM
Reply
80. very nice buddy
Comment by Rajasekar March 3, 2015 @ 9:32 AM
Reply
81. I will say very much thanks for posting interview questions.
Comment by Bikash Biswal April 19, 2015 @ 4:28 AM
Reply
82. I am really glad to read this website posts which includes plenty of helpful
facts, thanks for providing these kinds of data.
Comment by jam tangan casio terbaru July 16, 2015 @ 6:45 PM
Reply
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