Sie sind auf Seite 1von 56

UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

Date: 12-May-2010
I, Chiu-Ching Su

hereby submit this original work as part of the requirements for the degree of:

Doctor of Musical Arts


in

Viola

It is entitled:

A Performance Guide to Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major


with an Analytical Study of Published Cadenzas

Student Signature:

Chiu-Ching Su

This work and its defense approved by:


Committee Chair:

6/18/2010

Catharine Carroll, DMA


Catharine Carroll, DMA

657

A Performance Guide to Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major


with an Analytical Study of Published Cadenzas

A document submitted to

The Graduate School


of the University of Cincinnati

in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS

in the Performance Studies Division


of the College-Conservatory of Music

2010

by

Chiu-Ching Su

B.M. Fu Jen Catholic University, 2001


M.M. University of Cincinnati, 2003

ABSTRACT

Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major (written prior to 1799) has
become among the standard repertoire of viola concertos, due to the rise of viola virtuosos since
the beginning of the twentieth century and the rarity of virtuosic viola concertos with stylistic
forms from the Classical period. This piece has been included in several major orchestra
auditions and competitions. While violists often lack hands-on experiences of the Classical
repertoire, this document is to provide violists ways to perform this piece and pieces from the
same period.
Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major has been published by G. Henle Verlag,
Kunzelmann, Peters, Kalmus, International Music Company (New York), H. L. Grahl, and Max
Eschig. Kunzelmann is in full score and piano reduction, and the other six are in piano reduction.
Seven cadenzas have been published, five of them were written by Franz Beyer, Herbert
Blendinger, Maurice Vieux, Robert D. Levin, and Paul Doktor. Each of them presents different
technical difficulties. These editions will be discussed and compared. The form of each
movement will also be analyzed. Issues of performance practice will be provided along with the
information above.
I will examine Leopold Mozarts A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin
Playing, published at Ausburg in 1756, because this treatise not only deals with the techniques of
violin playing, but also provides guidance on playing of ornamentations, which is informative for
Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major.

2010 Chiu-Ching Su. All rights reserved.


ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my parents, my dad Chen-Ching Su and my mom A-Mai SuCheng,
for their continuous support of my study. Thanks to my beloved mentors, Mr. Kawasaki and Dr.
Carroll, for their encouragement and teaching in music and in life. Also, I am very honored to
have Mr. Lee Fiser and Dr. Jeongwon Joe as my readers, from whom I learned a lot.
I would also like to thank Shiau-uen Ding, for being a good friend and editing this
document. I am grateful to have so many friends in Cincinnati and Taiwan, whose love gives me
joy and strength.

iii

PREFACE

Since the rise of viola virtuosos at the beginning of the twentieth century and composers
rising interest in exploring new arenas in sounds and techniques, the viola, a versatile instrument
which had not been much appreciated, becomes a means of innovative creation. Composers
included Sofia Gubaidulina (Viola Concerto, 1996), Paul Hindemith (Der Schwanendreher,
among others), Krzysztof Penderecki (Viola Concerto, 1983), Alfred Schnittke (Viola Concerto,
1985), and William Walton (Viola Concerto in A Minor, 1928-9, rev. 1961).
Having concertos by great composers, violists seek out repertoire from other periods.
While there are quite a few concertos written before the twentieth century, particularly between
1740 and 1840, only a few are worthy performing, being virtuosic and in the standard forms
representative of their period musical styles. Representatives of the Baroque period are J.C.
Bachs Viola Concerto in C Minor, George Frideric Handels Viola Concerto in B Minor and
Georg Philipp Telemanns Concerto in G Major (TWV 51:G9), and Franz Anton Hoffmeisters
Concerto in D Major and Carl Stamitzs Concerto in D Major, Opus 1 equally represent the
viola concertos from the Classical period.
These two concertos by Hoffmeister and Stamitz have become standard repertoire for
competitions and auditions, including Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Los Angeles
Philharmonic Orchestra, and the ARD music competition. Unlike pianists and violinists, violists
lack hands-on experiences of playing concertos from this period because of rarity of such
repertoire. In this document, I will provide the performance practice of Hoffmeisters Concerto
in D Major, with supports of careful reading of manuscript and eight publications, formal

iv

analysis, and comparison of cadenzas available in print, in hope to aid students who wish to take
on this piece or those in similar styles.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION


History of Viola Concerto ......... 1
Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Music and Contributions ... 5
CHAPTER TWO AN ANALYSIS OF HOFFMEISTERS VIOLA CONCERTO IN D MAJOR
First Movement ..

Second Movement ..............

15

Third Movement ..

17

CHAPTER THREE PERFORMANCE PRACTICE OF HOFFMEISTERS VIOLA


CONCERTO IN D MAJOR
Introduction ..

20

Ornamentation ..

21

Dynamic ................................................................................................................

27

Solo part within tutti .....................................................................

32

The International Music Company edition ...

33

CHAPTER FOUR Analytical Study of Published Cadenzas


The Types of the Cadenza

36

Analysis of Published Cadenzas and Pedagogical Suggestions .

37

CONCLUSION 45
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 46

vi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

History of Viola Concerto


Not until the Classical period did the viola start to enjoy its virtuosos and solo literature
from major composers. Most of the viola repertoire which predates 1740 is in the form of
arrangement or transcription from other instruments, such as J.S. Bachs Unaccompanied Suites
for Cello.
There are two main reasons that the viola suffered such neglect. One is that there were no
great violists. As a versatile orchestral and chamber music instrument, the viola part in such
music was commonly within the limits of the lower three positions at that time; therefore, violists
did not need to develop the technical proficiency necessary to be a great soloist. In addition, the
viola sits right in the middle of acoustical range of the string sectiontoo low to be a bright,
soaring violin, too high to be a dark, sonorous cellothat it lacked the characteristics that
composers at that time looked for on a solo instrument. Even though there were few pieces for
viola, it was usually played by a violinist who could play viola as well.
These reasons result in the viola being considered as a viola da braccio (viola of the arm),
a member of the violin family.1 The viola was not considered as a solo instrument, but rather a
violin of an inferior rank. Consequently, composers writing solo instrumental repertoire ignored
the viola, almost stunting the development of its literature.
In the middle of the eighteenth century, however, composers began to reconsider the role
of the viola, and treat the viola as a solo instrument. According to a research by German

Robin Stowell, The Early Violin and Viola: A Practical Guide (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001), 34.
1

musicologist Ulrich Drner, Georg Philipp Telemann gave the viola its first concerto in 1731.
From there, between 1740 and 1840, composers wrote over one hundred and forty concertos for
the instrument.2
The main reason for this development was violists higher technical proficiency. The
level of the orchestra playing was higher than before, inspiring composers to write music to take
advantage of it. The Mannheim orchestra, led by Johann Stamitz (1717-1757), is a famous
example, which turned into the best one in Europe. Karl Stamitz (1745-1801), Johanns first son,
was from Mannheim orchestra and later he was best known as a touring virtuoso on violin, viola
and viola damore. He was the first composer to specify a left hand pizzicato in a composition,
which occurs in his Viola Concerto in D major, Opus 1. In the primary theme of the first
movement, there is one passage with groups of sixteen notes in octaves. It is fast and in high
position, which needs accurate shifting for violists. Moreover, this passage made this piece
become one of the orchestral audition repertoires just like Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D
major. Stamitzs Concerto Opus 1 has remained a standard work for violists till this day.
Until the Romantic period, violists had developed the same level of technical proficiency
as violinists. Hector Berliozs Harold in Italy (1834) is such an example, which was premiered
by Chrtien Urhan, This piece was commissioned by Niccol Paganini (1782-1840), one of the
most celebrated violin virtuoso and also well-known as a great violist of his time.
In Harold in Italy, the viola is the solo instrument and presents the main character,
Harold. The soloist has to compete against an orchestra of a rather large scale at the time. The
soloist needs to give a volume and sound projection of a protagonist. In addition, a few virtuosic
passages in the piece display challenges typical of instrumental concertos.
2

Ulrich Drner, Das Viola-Konzert vor 1840, Fontes Artis Musicae 28, no 3 (JulySeptember 1981): 176.
2

Apart from Harold in Italy, composers in the Romantic period who wrote for viola
favored keeping its role in intimate chamber music. The technical and musical requirements the
viola was asked for is no less than in a viola concerto. However, since composers focused on
writing viola for chamber music, the viola solo repertoire was ignored.
After 1870, viola concerto leaped to another stage. The viola making came to a mature
level, and viola virtuosos arose. Major composers started exploring the violas unique
characteristics in sounds and techniques, i.e. Paul Hindemith in Der Schwanerederher (1935);
Bla Bartk in his Viola Concerto (unfinished), commissioned by Scottish violist William
Primrose (1904-82); and Walton in his Viola Concerto in A Minor (1928-9, rev. 1961),
premiered by Hindemith, the bittersweet melancholy of which became quite popular. In Der
Schwanerderher, the viola solo is against an orchestra heavy in low registers and brass, which is
close to the violas register and challenges the soloists projection. Hindemith is not only a great
composer but also a great violist. Equipped with the twentieth-century advanced compositional
techniques, he wrote the viola music with ultimate possibilities for virtuosic display and tone
colors.
The viola concerto repertoire has been developing all along with the making of viola and
the growth of the violists capability, and that is one of the reasons that a colossal work such as
Der Schwanerderher had not been written until the twentieth century. Looking back at viola
concertos written in the Classical period, particularly the work to be discussed in this document,
Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major, the challenges of performing them are no
less than that of the twentieth-century concertos. A Viola in the eighteenth century could not
produce a big volume as they do now. Presenting such an instrument with an orchestra in the

background was even more demanding. Moreover, the key D major presents a problem in terms
of register that a viola soloist could be easily overpowered by an orchestra.
While virtuosic viola soloists and advanced viola students are looking for Classical
concertos to play, Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D major is always one of the choices. Its
exquisite reflections of the Classical period have made it a popular staple of todays repertoire,
not only for its virtuosity, but its application of standard features and then-popular styles of the
Classical Viennese concerto genre. In fact, this concerto, along with Stamitzs Concerto in D
Major, has become one of the representative Classical concertos for the viola repertoire.
Today, Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major is not only standard performance
repertoire, but also standard for solo competitions and orchestral auditions. For years, the
auditions for violists of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Los Angeles Philharmonic
Orchestra request this concerto as one of the required solo pieces.
It is a popular solo work at competitions and auditions for many reasons. It is a
representative of the Classical style, it brings out the warm tones in the middle range of the viola
register, and the virtuosic passages demonstrate a players technical proficiency. Given the small
amount of solo viola repertoire written during the Classical period, Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto
in D Major is a major work worthy of discussion.
The purpose of this document is to provide a performance guide of Hoffmeisters Viola
Concerto in D Major. Since performance practice of the instrumental concerto has changed over
the past two hundred years, there are several issues that one must consider before undertaking a
thorough study of the work. Through this guide, I hope to provide a general idea for those who
would like to learn about viola concertos in the Classical period, and also comprehensive
information and the proper manners for those who would like to perform this piece.

Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Music and Contributions


Franz Anton Hoffmeister was born in Rottenburg of Neckar in 1754 and died in Vienna
in 1812. He studied law before tuning to music. He then stayed in Vienna, serving as a church
music master, and became a composer and a conductor. However, his reputation today is mainly
on music publishing.
In 1784, he opened a book shop which also provided art and music score, and then
established his music publishing firm F. A. Hoffmeister & Co. in the same year in Vienna.
F. A. Hoffmeister & Co. has an extensive catalogue of composers at that time, including
Clementi, Beethoven, Haydn, and Pleyel. He was one of the Mozarts friends. Mozarts
compositions between K478 and K577 were all published by this firm.3 His String Quartet in D
Major, K499, was published by Hoffmeister, and acquired a nickname, Hoffmeister.
In October 1799, when attending two concerts for his own compositions in Gewandhaus
in Leipzig, Hoffmeister met organist Ambrosius Khnel. They founded another music publishing
firm in Leipzig in 1800, which was called Hoffmeiser & Khnel, Leipzig, Bureau de Musique.
Later, this firm became the basis of one of the most famous publishing firms of the music world:
C. F. Peters. During 1800-1805, Hoffmeister and Khnel cooperated in this firm. Their
contributions during this time were enormous. For examples, they published the complete
editions of String Quartets by Haydn, the most popular composer at the time. In addition, they
started reviving the interests of J.S. Bachs music. The first edition of Bachs keyboard music

Alexander Weinmann, Hoffmeister, Franz Anton., in Oxford Music Online


[http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/] (accessed April 15, 2010).
5

was published by this firm between 1801 and 1803.4 It was the first attempt to collect J.S. Bachs
complete keyboard works.
However, in 1805, Hoffmeister decided to go back to Vienna to continue composing and
working on his original publishing company. He sold his part of Hoffmeiser & Khnel, Leipzig,
Bureau de Musique to Khnel. Later, this firm was renamed as Neuer Verlag des Bureau de
Musique von A Khnel in Leipzig in 1806. On the other hand, F. A. Hoffmeister & Co. lasted
until 1807.
In addition to his extraordinary contribution to the music publishing during the Classical
period, Hoffmeister was a popular and prolific composer at that time. In his thirty years of
composing, his oeuvre includes eight operas, several symphonies, many church works (part of
the duty as a church music master in Vienna), thirty-four string quartets, thirty concertos, and
many chamber works. In addition to Vienna, his music was very popular in foreign cities. Der
Konigssohn aus Ithaka, his most successful opera, was performed in Budapest, Prague and
Warsaw. Most of his works, such as symphonies and chamber music, were published in
Amsterdam, Paris and London.5 One of the reasons that his music was popular outside Vienna is
that it included several music styles popular at that time in Europe, such as the flowing melody
and the balanced formal structure. However, today his music has been criticized for the lack of
originality and depth.
Hoffmeisters compositions perfectly reflect the Viennese style of the Classical period
and make good companions to the works he published. This is why he enjoyed a great reputation

Irene Lawford-Hinrichsen, Music Publishing and Patronage: C. F. Peters, 1800 to the


Holocaus (Kenton: Edition Press, 2000).
5

Weinmann, Hoffmeister, Franz Anton.


6

and audience outside Vienna, even though he suffered from Haydns and Mozarts shadows in
Vienna during his lifetime.
A work worth mentioning is his 12 Viola-Etuden. As a music-publisher and a composer,
he found that there were too few pedagogic materials for violists. He decided to compose some
himself. 12 Viola-Etuden is not only a pedagogic work which specifically focuses on fingering
and bowing exercises, but is in the formal structure of the Classical style. For example, the fifth
etude in G major, a theme-and-variations, starts with an Andante with a musical theme in doublestops. Then the Variations 1 and 2 contain the material from the theme in Allegro. The Variation
3 is based on the contrapuntal writing from the theme. The Variation 4 is in the parallel minor
key of the G major. At the end, the Variation 5 is back to the original key with a Da Capo
recapitulation of the theme. This etude has been considered more than an etude and been
performed as a concert piece. Moreover, it is exactly in the formal structure of the theme-andvariations in the Classical period.
Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major boasts the standard features and styles for the
concerto genre of Classical Vienna. In the next chapters, the analysis will present this standard
music styles and features.

CHAPTER TWO AN ANALYSIS OF HOFFMEISTERS VIOLA CONCERTO IN


D MAJOR

One of the most important features for the Classical period is the formal structure, which
is built on the melodic and harmonic structures. This chapter intends to provide a formal analysis
of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major, which gives information about harmonic
progressions and melodic line.

First MovementAllegro
In the Classical period, the first movement is almost always in sonata form. However,
sonata form is slightly different in the concerto genre. Due to the orchestra stating many of the
themes at the beginning without the soloist, the true exposition occurs with entry of the soloist in
the first movement of the concerto. This was originally from the ritornello from the Baroque
period but was blended with sonata form. Using the current sonata theory terminology proposed
by James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy,6 I will analyze the first movement.
The first movement of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major has a typical formal
structure of the time. At the beginning without the soloist, Ritornello 1 (R1) presents the primary
theme, which is a periodical phrase in tonic key of D major. The primary theme is made up of a
4+4 phrasing structure, which was common in the Classical period.

James Hepokoski, and Warren Darcy, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and
Deformations in the Late Eighteenth-Century Sonata (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006),
430.
8

Example 1: The Primary Theme in Ritornello 1 in D Major

After the statement of the primary theme, the R1:\TR1.1 follows and concludes with
medial cadence with a caesura fill in measure 15. R1:\TR1.1 contains another periodic phrase in
piano and is followed by a Mannheim crescendo to forte until it culminates with a PAC (Perfect
Authentic Cadence) in measure 30.
The R1:\TR1.2 starts with piano, and it follows an EEC (Essential Expositional Closure)
at the end. After a cadential extension of the closing section in tonic, the soloist completely
represents the primary theme with an arpeggio extension in the Solo 1.
9

Example 2: The Primary Theme in Solo 1 in D Major

The S1:\TR is led by the solo and starts to modulate from tonic to the dominant, A major.
It has three groups of phrases periodically and firmly settles the dominant. Later, the first
appearance of the secondary theme (S1:\S) is presented by the soloist in dominant key with dolce
character. It is a 4+4 periodic phrase as well.

Example 3: The Secondary Theme in Solo 1 in A Major

After the secondary theme, the solo enters the Display Episode (S1:\DE) which contains
two groups of phrases for the echo effect. Please refer to the Chapter Three. An echo effect often
occurs in repeated phrases in the Classical period. At the end of the second groups phrase, the
solo has crescendo with an extended arpeggio in V of A major. Later, this PAC in A major links
to the development.

10

Led by the orchestra, the Ritornello 2 (R2) contains the same primary theme in A Major,
as an orchestral interlude. The primary theme contains the same structure as presented in R1 as
well.

Example 4: The Primary Theme in R2 in A Major

In Ritornello 2, R1:\ TR1 has the same material with the previous one in the Ritornello 1,
except it is in dominant key. And it is also followed by a medial close effect followed by a

11

caesura fill in measure 103. R2:\TR1.2 has the same situation as above. It starts the same periodic
phrase in piano. However, it is followed by a cadential extension instead of a Mannheim
crescendo.
Later, the closing section stays in dominant key and prepares the solo entrance. At the
beginning of the development, the primary theme is in dominant key in Solo 2. After the
statement, the soloist starts the central action. This section is based on one group of the echo
effect phrases and sequences in B minor to enrich this development.
After a cadence in B minor from the soloist, the orchestra starts the first four measures of
the primary theme in B minor, which begins the Ritornello 3 (R3.) However, this primary theme
serves as an exit phase of the development. In brief, the orchestra starts to modulate back to tonic
key, D major, for the recapitulation.

Example 5: The Primary Theme in Ritornello 3 in B minor

In the recapitulation, the primary theme returns to the home key: D major. This theme and
the secondary theme are both presented by the soloist in tonic key. The phrase structure remains
12

the same. Later, this section ends with a PAC, as an ESC (Essential Structure Closure) in D major.

Example 6: The Secondary Theme in S3 in D Major

In Solo 3, S3:\DE contains two groups of the phrases for the echo effect. Following
several scale-sequences, the solo finally has an arpeggio on V and a long trill within the tonic
chord. Later, Ritornello 4, led by the orchestra, is straddled by a cadenza that divides this zone.
Ritornello 4 starts with two scale-sequences and uses syncopation to create the tension. These
syncopations land on the obligatory cadential six-four chord to prepare the cadenza. After the
cadenza, a codetta ends the movement.
A summary of the analysis is presented in Table 1. This table provides information of the
large-scale formal structure, which includes the measure numbers, section names, and key areas.

13

14

Second MovementAdagio
An adagio second movement is a typical choice for a concerto during the Classical period
and is structured as the rounded binary form. The piece starts with an orchestral introduction in
periodic phrases in the key of D minor. Then the solo presents the main theme a1, which is a
2+2+2 periodic phrase. The beginning of the phrase contains a descending triadic motive, which
first appears during the orchestral introduction. There is also a syncopation motive that comes
from the introduction as well.

Example 7: The main theme: a1, in D minor

Then the theme b starts to modulate from D minor to its relative major, F, and finally
stays in this key and leads to the theme c. These two themes have the transitory function.
Moreover, the orchestra presents the introduction theme again in F major. The function of this
interlude is an opening for the section B.
In the section B, although the theme a2 has the same two-measure beginning of the theme
a1, the rest of the four measures creates a new color because of the change to F major.
Furthermore, it has more embellishments than before, just like a singer that improvises.

15

Example 8: The theme a2 in F minor

However, the theme d brings us back from F major to D minor. This time, without the
theme from the orchestral introduction, the solo returns with a1. In the section A1, there is only an
extension on the theme a1 and does not include the theme b or the theme c material. The solo
ends with a descending chromatic cadenza-like scale and lands on D minor to complete this
rounded binary form. At last, the coda, performed alone by the orchestra, serves as a closure to
movement.
A Summary of the analysis is presented in Table 2, and provides information regarding
the large-scale formal structure, which includes the measure numbers, section names, and key
areas.

Table 2 the Formal Structure of the Second Movement/ Rounded Binary Form
Introduction
Orchestra
Theme
Key
Area

Measure
number

Introduction
Theme
d minor

mm.1-6

Section A
Solo
a1

Interlude
Orchestra
C

d
minor

d
F
minor major
to F
major
mm.7- mm. mm.
12
13-24 24-31

16

Introduction
theme
F major

mm. 31-37

Section B
Solo
a2

F
F
major major
to d
minor
mm. mm.
38-43 43-52

Section
Coda
A1
Orchestra
Solo
a1 and
coda
extension
d minor
d minor

mm. 5389

mm. 8994

Third MovementRondo
During the Classical period, the rondo form was a common choice for the third
movement of a concerto. As a finale of the entire work, composers usually preferred to use a
periodic melody and repeated it several times rather than developing it. This gives the audience a
strong impression of the melody. Usually, the beginning of the movement will directly present
the refrain by the soloist (with or without an orchestra accompany) and then the orchestra enters.7
The third movement of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major, is no exception, as the refrain
is led by the soloist from the start. The refrain is a standard 4+4 periodic phrase with a light
character. Later, the orchestra repeats it again to emphasize the impression.

Example 9: The refrain in D Major

After the nice statement of the refrain, the solo begins to lead the whole movement with
repeated phrases and virtuosic sequences. In the section B, there are two pairs of sequences by
the soloist that have an echo effect. Furthermore, these sequences modulate from D major to A
major in this section. However, as the dominant of D, the solo naturally returns to the refrain.

Charles Rosen, The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (New York: W. W.
Norton, 1997), 213.
17

In the section C, the solo suddenly jumps to the relative minor, B minor. It starts with a
4+4 periodic phrase and has one measure extension of the cadence.

Example 10: The main theme of the section C in B minor

In this section, the solo presents several sequences and repeated phrases in different
registers and is following by a rapid modulation. The key starts with B minor, followed by D
major, A major, and D major, respectively, and then back to the minor-mode theme. These
groups of phrases not only show the virtuosity of the soloist, but also enrich the color of the
section. Later, the solo returns to the refrain in D major, which is proceeded with a few fermata
notes. As a link to the section, these fermatas create a suspended feeling for the audience.
After the second time of the section A, the solo presents another theme in the parallel key,
D minor. This theme is 2+2+4 phrase. And again, the solo starts to modulate in this section as
well. The key starts with D minor, follows by F major, D minor, and D major. It culminates with
a half cadence in D minor. Later, the solo returns to the section A with the orchestra. The modal
mixture is another way to enrich this section, which also consists of repeated phrases and
sequences in the solo part.

18

Example 11: The main theme of the section D in D minor

A summary of the analysis is presented in Table 3. This table provides information


regarding of the large-scale formal structure, which includes the measure numbers, section
names, and key areas.

Table 3 the Formal Structure of the Third Movement/ Rondo Form


Section
Key area

A
D major

Measure
number

mm.1-16

B
A major
(dominant
key)
mm.1636

A
D major

mm.3652

C
B minor
(relative
key)
mm.5396

A
D major

mm.
97-112

D
D minor
(parallel
mode)
mm.
113-148

A
D major

mm.
149-164

Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D major is a truly typical concerto of its time and
presents a popular musical style of the period. Through the analysis, we can understand the
music better. Moreover, it can help serve as a performance guide.

19

CHAPTER THREE
PERFORMANCE PRACTICE OF HOFFMEISTERS VIOLA CONCERTO IN D MAJOR

The previous chapters display several statements. First, Hoffmeister was a composer
representing the musical style of Viennese school in the Classical period. Second, the formal
structure of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major is a typical classical concerto at that time.
Therefore, it is important to discuss the performance practice with this piece for this type of
music of the Classical period.
Current music publishers show the same concerns for this piece. Presently, there are eight
publications of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major. It is rare for a viola concerto that this
number of publications shows the importance and worth of the piece. In addition, several editors
put several important performance practice issues into the music score for the performers.
The manuscript is incomplete and is in the care of the Dresden Royal Public Library (the
previous Saxon State Library.) The number is Mark Mus. 3944-0-5 No. 582, and it is titled
Concerto ex D# [sic] a Viola Principale. Due Violini Due Oboi Due Corni in D. Viola et Basso.
del Signore Hoffmeister. Several editors indicated circumstances about the manuscript. For
instance, the manuscript consists of 12 separate instrumental parts. The solo viola, basses, and
winds (ob 1, ob2, hn1 and hn2) were written out by Copyist I. The remaining strings (vn1, vn2
and va) were by Copyist II. And additional ripieno parts for the tutti sections (vn1, vn2 and bs)
were by Copyist III.8 Unfortunately, these were not Hoffmeisters autograph and we are not sure
whether these copyists followed Hoffmeisters original ideas exactly. In addition, since these
parts were for performance purposes, there are different markings in dynamics and articulation
8

Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Violakonzert D-dur: Klavierauszug, ed. Norbert Gertsch and
Julia Ronge, with cadenza by Robert D. Levin (Mnchen: G. Henle Verlag, 2003).
20

between the solo part and the orchestral part. These markings are likely to be made by several
performers who played it at that time.
This chapter will not discuss the differences between the manuscript and the published
scores, sufficient information of which has been provided on eight publications. Instead, this
chapter will provide issues of performance practice in the 18th century based on the historical
point of view. Information for interpretation will also be provided.
In the following, such detailed aspects of performance practice as ornamentation and
dynamics are discussed, and music examples will refer to the only publication in full score and
its viola solo part, since the original manuscript was also a full score. This score was edited by
Ulrich Drner and published by Lottstetten: Kunzelmann in 1982.

Ornamentation
Ornamentation is one of the greatest challenges for both current performers and scholars
when facing the music in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The music score during this
period do not indicate the way to play ornamentations specifically. Rather, it was a common
manner for a trained musician with knowledge of the traditions and conventions at that time.
Indication of the ornamentations by composers was unnecessary. In the following content, we
will base the performance practice of ornamentations on Violineschule-- A Treatise on the
Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing by Leopold Mozart (1719-87),9 father of W.A. Mozart.
Violineschule was written in 1756 in Salzburg. In the preface, Mozart pointed out that he wrote
down the following rules for those who needed instructions in violin playing.

Leopold Mozart, A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing, trans.


Editha Knocker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948).
21

Three kinds of ornamentations will be extracted from the viola solo part, and the ways to
play will be provided as followings. The orchestra should also employ the same manner as the
soloist in ornamentation. Therefore, this section will also provide a table including both the solo
and orchestral parts by measure numbers for the rest of the piece. These measures in the table
should follow the same manner as the music examples.

A.

Appoggiatura (Appoggiature)
An appoggiatura is a little note before a full-size note with or without a slur. There are

two kinds of appoggiaturas in this piece.


One is the long appoggiatura. Mozart indicated that if an appoggiatura is written before a
fourth, eighth, or sixteenth note in a descending motion, it is to be played as a long appoggiatura,
a half time value of the principle note. The way to play this is to sustain the appoggiatura and
continue to be equal value with the follower smoothly. So the appoggiatura and its main note
share the time value evenly.10

Example 1: The long appoggiatura

Thus is it written

10

so is it played

Ibid., 167.
22

Table: The long appoggiatura


Movement

Measure number in the solo part

Measure number in the orchestra part

mm8, mm10, mm61, mm65, mm67, mm98,

mm8, mm10, mm98, mm100,

mm100, mm137, mm139, mm141, mm173,


mm177, mm180, mm184,
II

mm5, mm9, mm12, mm18, mm35, mm48,

mm5, mm35,

mm55, mm59, mm62,


III

mm82,

The other is the short appoggiatura. Mozart indicated that if an appoggiatura is written
before a half note in an ascending motion, it is to be played rapidly and softly, the following
principle note should be emphasized.11

Example 2: The short appoggiatura

Table: The short appoggiatura


Movement

Measure number in the solo part

mm117,

II

mm 6, mm37, mm80

III

mm121,

11

Measure number in the orchestra part

mm6, mm37, mm80

Ibid., 167.
23

In addition, if an appoggiatura appears with a group of notes in a descending consecutive


or thirds within an allegro or other playful tempo, it should be treated as the short appoggiatura.12

Example 3: The short appoggiatura

Table: The short appoggiatura


Movement

Measure number in the solo part

Measure number in the orchestra part

mm94,

II

mm10,

III

mm1, mm5, mm20, mm31, mm37, mm41, mm55,

Mm9, mm13, mm45, mm49, mm105,

(Allegretto)

mm97, mm101, mm123,mm141, mm142,

mm109,mm157, mm161,

mm149, mm153,

B.

Trill
A trill is an alternation of two neighboring notes which are a whole step or a half step

apart. The performer is to decide whether to play a whole-step or a half-step trill according to the
key of the piece, unless the composer indicated the alternated note. The most common trill
begins at once from the upper note downwards.

Example 4: The trill

12

Ibid., 167.
24

Table: The trill


Movement

Measure number in the solo part

mm 39, mm85, mm120, mm145,

Measure number in the orchestra part

mm165,
II

mm66

mm33,

If a trill appears in the middle of a descending cadence passage, it is preferred to add few
little notes with a slur as a turn after the trill. And these little notes should be played a little
slower toward the closing note.13

Example 5: The trill with a turn at the end

Thus is it written

so is it played

Table: The trill with a turn at the end


Movement

Measure number in the solo part

Measure number in the orchestra part

mm7, mm29, mm44, mm58, mm67,

mm7, mm29, mm97, mm115,

mm90, mm115, mm123, mm136,


mm150, mm168, mm196, mm206,
mm212
II

mm5, mm23, mm30, mm36, mm42,

mm5, mm36,

mm59, mm68, mm74


III

mm60, mm70, mm83, mm119, mm134,

13

Ibid., 191.
25

The last trill before a cadenza, called Ribattuta, is to be treated differently.14 The
beginning of the upper note has flexible time up to the performer, unlike a common trill, which
needs to start quickly. There are two Ribattutas in this piece, in measure 206 of the 1st movement
and in measure 68 of the 2nd movement, respectively.

Example 6: The Ribattuta

Mozart indicated that a trill may be divided into four levels according to its speed: slow
medium, rapid, and accelerating.15 The slow is for a sad and slow piece, and thus the trills in the
2nd movement should be played slowly. On the other hand, the rapid trill is for a lively movement,
such as the 1st and 3rd movements. The accelerating trill is for Ribattuta, which can start slow and
then accelerate with a crescendo before a cadenza. They are customary manners in concertos at
that time.

C.

Written-out embellishment and turn


In Violineschule, there is no modern notation sign (

) for a turn. However, he still

discussed about it as a written-out embellishment of four rapid little notes which occurs between

14

Ibid., 188.

15

Ibid., 189.
26

the two ascending notes, called the Doppelschlag.16 The first principle note is to be played with
an emphasis, followed by a little turn with a diminuendo continuing to the second principle note.

Example 7: The Doppelschlag

Thus is it written

so is it played

Table: The Doppelschlag


Movement

Measure number in the solo part

Measure number in the orchestra part

mm 2, mm37, mm42, mm60, mm64,

mm2, mm92,

mm118, mm125, mm131, mm133,


mm163, mm179, mm183,
II

mm25,

III

mm2, mm6, mm38, mm42, mm98,


mm102, mm150, mm154

Dynamics
The dynamics first appeared in a deliberately, expressive style of vocal music in the
Florentine Camarata in 1600.17 The instrumental music followed this style at that time. However,

16

Ibid., 184.

17

David D. Boyden, Dynamics in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Music, in Essays


on Music in Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison by His Associates (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1957), 185.
27

notations for dynamics were not quiet developed until 1712, when the signs of crescendo (<),
diminuendo (>), and messa di voce (< >) first appeared in Paris. These graphic signs were not
popular. In Violineschule, without using these signs, Mozart defined these terms nonetheless and
indicated how to play.18
In Hoffemsiters Viola concerto in D major, the dynamic indication is similar to Mozarts
treatise. There are only forte, piano, and crescendo in the score, and performers at that time knew
how to play this piece in customary manners. Here are three manners possible.

Forte and Piano

A.

All publications for this piece have forte and piano, as provided on the manuscript and
based on editorial suggestions. The dynamics are marked in two ways; while some are as the
original on the manuscript, others are presented in [ ] or () as editorial suggestions. Some
publications point out that the original dynamic markings may not be from Hoffmeister, the
composer himself, but provided by the concertmaster of the orchestra at that time, since the
manuscript was for performance purposes. The original dynamic markings in the orchestral part
are unclear, and are occasionally inconsistent with those in the solo part. Dynamics marked as
original in each edition may be contradictory to each other.
The echo effect was one of the common manners at that time. The effect started during
the Baroque period and continued to be favored by the composers during the Classical period,
while they may or may not mark forte and piano under a pair of a repeating passage. Repeating
passages, along with periodic phrasings and sequences, are a popular technique for composers to
create flavors in their music. Hoffmeisters Concerto is such a case. Example is shown below,

18

Ibid., 187.
28

followed by a table providing the dynamics for the solo and orchestra parts, phrase by phrase,
throughout the piece.

Example 8: The echo effect

Table: The echo effect


Movement and

The solo part and the dynamic

The orchestral part and the dynamic

measure number

Forte

Piano

forte

Piano

mm73-74

mm 75-76

mm73-74

mm 75-76

mm82-85

mm86-91 ( with cresc.

mm82-85

mm86-91 ( with cresc. to

to the cadence)

III

the cadence)

mm139-140

mm141-142

mm139-140

mm141-142

mm189-190

mm191-192

mm189-190

mm191-192

mm-198-199

mm200-201

mm-198-199

mm200-201

mm27

mm28

mm27

mm28

mm34

mm35

mm34

mm35

mm63-64

mm65-66

mm63-64

mm65-66

mm72-73

mm74-75

mm72-73

mm74-75

mm76

mm77

mm76

mm77

mm128-129

mm130-131

mm128-129

mm130-131

29

The phrase following the echo effect should be back to forte or crescendo to forte. In
addition, when the soloist plays the pairs of the echo effect, the orchestra should follow the same
dynamic effect in smaller volume than the soloist.

B.

Mannheim crescendo and Mannheim sigh


From 1740s on, the high performance level of the Mannheim orchestra not only inspired

several composers which later became the Mannheim school, but also created several music
styles at that time. One of the most famous is the Mannheim crescendo. It is a passage with a
rising melodic line over an ostinato bass. A Mannheim crescendo starts with a piano or less, and
adds the volume gradually until the end of the phrase. It occurs in measures 23-26 and measures
154-156 in the orchestral part of the 1st movement.
On the other hand, Mannheim sigh is a type of decrescendo. In a descending pair of
slurred notes at the end of the phrase, a performer should put more weight on the first note to
create a sighing quality. It occurs in measures 6, 37 and 80 in the orchestral part, and in measures
8, 51 and 54 in the solo part with the orchestra, in the 2nd movement.
Moreover, the orchestration of this piece is also one of the customary of its time which
starts from Jonhann Stamitz in Mannheim orchestra. It was a full string orchestra with 2 oboes
and 2 horns, which is the exactly same in Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major.

30

Example 9: The Mannheim crescendo

Example 10: The Mannheim sigh

31

Solo part within tutti


According to the title on the manuscript, Concerto ex D# [sic] a Viola Principale. Due
Violini Due Oboi Due Corni in D. Viola et Basso. del Signore Hoffmeister, the solo part was
written to be performed by the principle of the viola section. Since the solo part is quite virtuosic
and violists rarely had sufficient famility for it, it is likely that it was performed by a violinist
who was also capable of playing the viola well, as in other virtuosic viola concertos in the
Classical period.
In the manuscript, the solo part has the music for the soloist but also within the
incomplete tutti part throughout. In the eighteenth century, it was customary that the soloist,
except pianists, in instrumental concertos played the tutti part throughout. This practice is shown
on the manuscript of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major, which was for performance
purposes. Four of the eight publications support this practice, including Verlag,19 Kunzelmann,20
Kalmus,21 and H.L. Grahl.22 Their scores for the soloist include both the solo and the tutti parts.
The tutti extracts lines from the first violin and the viola sections.
While four publications offer choices for violists nowadays who prefer to play
Hoffmeisters Concerto in the eighteenth-century manner, the other three offer scores in the
current practice, which allows a soloist to pace him/herself without the tutti duty.
19

Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Violakonzert D-dur: Klavierauszug, ed. Norbert Gertsch and
Julia Ronge, with cadenza by Robert D. Levin (Mnchen: G. Henle Verlag, 2003).
20

Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Konzert D-dur fr Viola und Orchestra [piano reduction], ed.
Ulrich Drner (Lottstetten: Kunzelmann, 1983).
21

Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Concerto for Viola and Orchestra (Miami, Florida: Kalmus,

22

Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Concerto pour Viola et Orchestre (Frankfurt: H. L. Grahl,

n.d).

n.d).
32

The International Music Company edition


Among the eight publications of Hoffmeisters Concerto, only one is published in full
score, and others are in piano reduction, which is practical for students. Each arrangement is
different from other due to editors interpretations and purposes.
In the International Music Company edition, there are several missing spots that all the
other editions contain. One is in measure 174. The editor directly cut two measures which
function as a bridge between the transition theme and the secondary theme in Recapitulation.
(Example 11) However, these two measures do exist in the exposition. (Example 12) Moreover,
these two measures are not absent in the other seven publications. (Example 13 from
Kunzelmann23)

Example 11: Cut in the Recapitulation

Example 12: No cut in the Exposition

23

Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Konzert D-dur fr Viola und Orchestra, ed. Ulrich Drner
(Lottstetten: Kunzelmann, 1983), 9.
33

Example 13: Measure 177-179 in Kunzelmann

Another problem is in the third movement. This movement is in typical rondo form. (See
Chapter 2) However, the editor connected the C section in B minor to the D section in D minor
directly by using the soloists cadenza. In a standard rondo form, there should be a refrain in
tonic key between these two sections. Especially, these two sections are in different key areas.
And again, this refrain was included in the other seven publications.
The cuts made in the International Music Company are only to decrease the tutti. In the
first movement, the editor indicated how to cut from the end of the exposition to the
development without a long orchestral tutti in between. While it is practical in rehearsals, for
auditions and competitions, it destroys the balances in form, is unfaithful to the music, and is
inappropriate for formal performances.
Leopold Mozart wrote, Before beginning to play, the piece must be well looked at and
considered. The character, tempo and kind of movement demanded by the piece must be sought
out, and carefully observed whether a passage occurs not therein which often at first sight seems
of little importance, but on account of its special style of execution and expression is not quite

34

easy to play at sight.24 By analyzing the piece and comparing editions on significant issues, I
hope this chapter provides violists performing approaches toward concertos of the Classical
period.

24

Leopold Mozart, A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing, trans.


Editha Knocker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948), 218.
35

CHAPTER FOUR ANALYTICAL SYUDY OF PUBLISHED CADANZAS

Given the nature of the cadenza in the Classical period compared to today, the violist
must ponder his or her cadenza very carefully. In the Classical period, the soloist would invent or
improvise the cadenza in an instrumental concertoa practice handed down from Baroque vocal
music. As a result, during the eighteenth century, there were very few written-out cadenzas from
the composers in a solo concerto. It is no different in the Hoffmeisteran examination of the
original manuscript of the Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major reveals several hand-written
passages in the cadenza section, most likely left by the soloist at that time, and probably
amended according to the editors judgment.
Beginning in the twentieth century, music publishers began to consult major players of
the time and write out the cadenza in a Classical instrumental concerto. In 1941, the first edition
of the Hoffmeisters Concerto with a written-out cadenza appeared, and several other editions
all with different cadenzashave followed in the years since. Because the proficiency of the
violist today, these cadenzas even have more virtuoso passages than the piece. This chapter
intends to analyze these published cadenzas and evaluate them according to pedagogical aspects.

The Types of the Cadenza


According to a treatise, Violinschule, by Pierre Baillot in 1830, there are three types of
cadenzas. First, continuing after the six-fourth chord from the orchestra, the soloist creates a free
short passage based on the chord. This was from the previous style in the Baroque period, in
which the singer usually embellished a cadence near the end of the piece. In the second type, the
cadenza can contain thematic material from the movement. The third type uses an accompanied
cadenza within the movement.
36

We can also observe the writing of cadenza from the beginning to the end. With what
kind of opening does the cadenza start? How does it develop in the middle? And, finally, how
does it conclude to the cadence? In the following analysis, we will describe each of them
according to these rules.
In this performers guide, the author has collected most common seven publishers of
Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major, which were provided in the bibliography. About the
cadenza of this piece, there are five of them with the cadenza, except the Peters edition and the
Kunzelmann edition. Moreover, Franz Beyer and Herbert Blendinger both wrote a cadenza for
this piece and published it separately.

Beyers Cadenzas
Beyers cadenza was published by Kunzelmann; this publisher is the only one that
published both the full score and the piano reduction of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto. There is
no solo part in the full score edition. And the solo part attached to the piano reduction has no
cadenza in it. However, both publications indicate a fermata, which clearly marks for the
soloists cadenza. In my opinion, the editor made the choice open for the performers today. This
not only covers the current performance practice but also reflects back to the eighteenth century
customary, that the performer can improvise their cadenza as well.
Beyers cadenza is the most popular one because it is well-written. The cadenza for the
first movement starts on the pick-up beat, just like the beginning of the movement, and then it
lands on a tonic chord. The soloist starts with two repeating arpeggios of sixteenth notes, an echo
effect included. This allows the soloist to start with his own tempo and a warm-up for the
cadenza passage. After that, Beyer used a thematic material derived from the movement for the

37

harmonic progression. Finally, it lands on the dominant in the high register after a scale that
descends back to the low register in G string. Finally, a ritardando arrives on the V of the
dominant. This first half of this cadenza creates the excitement for the listeners.
After the tempo slows down, it starts with the secondary theme on tempo. After
presenting the entire secondary theme, the solo starts to play several sequences from meno mosso
to poco a poco accelerando. Finally, it lands on a six-fourth chord with forte and states the
primary theme. The solo starts the D major scale from the low register, and then ascends to the
high register to end this cadenza in a trill, the cue for the orchestra.
This cadenza not only quotes both of the primary theme and the secondary theme, but
also presents several important techniques for the violist, such as staccato and speedy rhythmic
patterns. Furthermore, the whole cadenza is like a separate piece on its own. When performers
choose to play it, they not only need to take care of the basic technique, but also the grouping of
the phrases into the larger phase.

Example 1: The quotation from the secondary theme

Beyers cadenza for the second movement starts with thematic development reminiscent
of the theme a1. Then the second group of phrases, starting with piano, also takes another
thematic motive to expand. Along with the sequences, the harmonic progression becomes intense
38

by unresolving chords. At the end, Beyer varies the primary theme in an expressive way and
expands it in eight measures with a trill to cue the end.
The cadenza of the third movement was the first type. It is short with a scale and
rhythmic patterns to connect to the refrain section for the rondo. In general, Beyers cadenza
writing is full of the requirements for a cadenza. It is virtuosic, is reminiscent of the themes, and
has a structure on its own. Moreover, this publication , Kadenzen zu Viola-Konzerten von Stamitz,
Zelter und Hoffmeister by Beyer, also has the cadenza for Carl Stamitzs Viola Concerto Opus 1
and for Carl Friedrich Zelters Viola Concerto in E-flat major, which are among the standard
classical viola concertos. There is no doubt that Beyers writing is a very high quality.

Bledingers Cadenza
In Kadenzen zu Klassischen Bratschen-Konzerten, Bledinger wrote several cadenzas for
the classical viola concertos of Stamitz, Zelter, G. P. Telemann and Hoffmeister. Instead of
starting with a pick-up like Beyers cadanza, Bledingers directly presents the first three notes of
the primary theme in full chords as the beginning of the first movement. However, it uses short
thematic motive to modulate to a series of V of Vs. First, it lands on the parallel key as is
followed by sequences that keep giving an unsettling harmonic language through chromatic
scales and register-jumping patterns. Finally, after a ritardando, the solo is back to a tempo with
the first two notes from the primary theme. Bledinger used chords to settle the tonic key and
ended with a trill on D.
The cadenza for the second movement starts with the syncopation motive from the
second measure of the orchestras beginning. Then, the beginning of the theme a1 appears in the
upper part of double-stops as a reminder of the movement. Like the previous one, the harmony is

39

unsettled. However, after the high-G with the dotted-rhythm motive, the solo lands on a six-four
chord with rapid thirty-second notes that accelerate to the end.
In the third movement, there are two cadenzas for two different places. The first one is
for measure 96. It is short with a writing in circle of fifth into double-stops by the soloist. The
second one is for measure 148. It is made mostly by the scale pattern phrasing with more
varieties on harmonic language. Both of them do not give more clue than the previous one before
as a cadenza. However, Blendinger did have his own creativity for these cadenzas which shows a
different flavor.

Max Eschig Edition, cadenza by Maurice Vieux


In this edition, the cadenza starts with the last measure of the orchestra. It continues the
six-four chord with a trill as a link between these two sections. The cadenza begins the solo
arpeggio of the dominant chord from the low to high register in sixteenth notes. Later, it lands on
the first chord of the primary theme and shows this theme partially. It continues another motive
from the orchestra and ends this cadenza with arpeggio in the tonic chord without a trill cue.
There is no cadenza for the second movement in this edition. However, there is one short
cadenza for the third movement. Because the orchestra ends in the parallel key, D minor, the solo
starts the cadenza with a group of sequences in sixteenth notes for modulation to the tonic key.
This cadenza belongs to the first type of cadenza without the thematic development.

40

International Music Company Edition (New York), cadenza by Paul Doktor


The cadenza for the first movement starts with the same motive from the beginning of the
primary theme. And it continues with the same phrasing in sequence. Later, the secondary theme
comes in partially and continues with a series of double-stops and scale patterns from the sixfour chord of tonic to the dominant. At the end, the solo uses the ascending passage of doublestops to the high D and ends with double-stops trill.
Similar with the first one, the cadenza for the second movement, also starts with the
theme a1, but are transformed into double-stops. Doktor took the rhythmic motive from the
second measure of the primary theme and developed this motive as sequence. After landing on
the tonic, it starts another rhythmic pattern for the harmonic progression to the dominant in forte.
At the end, it lands on the trill with double-stops as similar writing as previously style.

Example 2: The double-stops writing in cadenza for the second movement

Doktor specialized in double-stops writing. For the last cadenza, he simply starts with a
string-crossing sixteenth-notes pattern. Then the solo presents the refrain theme completely in
double-stops and chords for two times. This writing is like use the soloist instead of the orchestra
tutti for the refrain. All these three cadenzas show double-stops, the best technical point for the
performer.

41

G. Henle Verlag Edition, cadenza by Robert D. Levin


In this edition, there are two choices for the first movement. The first one starts with the
similar texture from thematic material of the exposition. After the first statement, the solo goes to
the dominant through a few arpeggio sequences, and then it recalls two other thematic materials
in the movement. Finally, it continues with a scale pattern in IV and reaches V with a fermata. At
the end, a trill cue brings back to the tonic. It is very interesting that this cadenza follows the rule
of artful cadenza by Guiseppe Tartini.25 The harmonic progression is I-V7- V7- I- IV- V- I,
which is Tartinis suggestion.
The second cadenza has a different opening. It starts with a chord after a pick-up, similar
to the first entrance of the soloist. However, the passages of sixteenth notes follow shortly and
then another thematic material comes in sequence. After landing on a fermata, the secondary
theme recalls and transforms into another thematic development. Finally, the solo reaches the
dominant by the ascending arpeggio passage and the trill cue ends in the tonic.
Levin provided two cadenzas for the second movement. General characteristics of both
cadenzas are similar. He chose the motive from the theme a1 and develops it to another harmonic
direction. This can remind the audience of the main theme, but, somehow, the solo leads to
another interesting place. The first one even has one passage which is like the long
embellishment of the cadence in the Baroque vocal works. Among these cadenzas, this
embellishment makes this cadenza the only and unique one.

25

Eduard Melkus, On the Problem of Cadenzas in Mozarts Violin Concertos,


Perspectives on Mozart Performance, ed. R. Larry Todd and Peter Williams (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991), 76.
42

Levin indicated cadenzas in three spots, in measures 36, 96, and 148. There are two
cadenzas for measure 36, which functions as a link between section B and section A. (Please
refer to my analysis in Chapter Two.)
There are also two cadenzas in measure 96. The situation is similar as above. These two
cadenzas lack development, but have stronger connecting function between section C and section
A. Measures 36 and 96 are both in the middle section of the movement, so the cadenza has to be
short as not to lead the audience into misunderstanding that the end of the piece is approaching.
There are two choices for measure 148. The first one is of a short linkage function, and
the second one is much longer. Levin used rhythmic motives from the movement, but treated
these sequences to unsettle the harmony. Finally, he transformed another phrase to continue the
refrain.

H. L. Grahl Edition
This edition is the earliest edition of Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major. There is
only one cadenza for the first movement in it. Unfortunately, it does not provide who the
composer is. The cadenza starts with an expressive beginning like a recitative and introduces the
primary theme of the first movement completely. However, this primary theme is more
complicated than the original one. This theme is full of double-stops, which makes it sound like
two voices. Later, the theme becomes to be virtuosic, with lots of embellishments within the twovoice structure. It ends in the trill cue with strong chord.

Kalmus Edition
This edition has the same cadenza as H.L.Grahl, an analysis of which is provided above.

43

Pedagogical Suggestions
All these cadenzas have different levels of difficulty. There are several suggestions for
the performer. First, pick one suitable for yourself. Some of them are full of double-stops, the
intonation of which needs to be taken care of by left hand. Some of them focus on the rhythmic
pattern which requires strong right-hand techniques. For the performer, it is one of the most
important moments to show your virtuosity. So select one that you can do best.
Second, most of them all present the main theme from the movement. No matter what
kinds of variation they are, it is important to emphasize the main theme regarding the basic
writing of the cadenza. Same as the secondary theme or the motives, they should be expressed
more for recall.
Finally, these cadenzas can be considered as individual short pieces. The composer even
put more effort on the larger phase to create expectation and excitement between the audience
and the soloist. So the performer should observe the cadenza, organize the phrases, and build up
the tension from the structure of the music.

44

CONCLUSION

Basically, Franz Anton Hoffmeisters Viola Concerto in D Major can be performed in


two ways. Performing in a current concerto practice would include the solo part against the
orchestra only. On the other hand, while performing in the eighteenth-century manner, the
performance would require the soloist to play both the solo and the tutti parts. Although the
cadenzas were generally improvised in the eighteenth century, there are seven cadenzas currently
available in print. Various ways of playing ornaments are also characteristic in music from this
period. They can be particularly challenging since the details of playing them are usually not
marked on score, but rather depending on a performers understanding and knowledge of period
practice.
Through the analytical studies of the manuscript, eight publications and seven cadenzas,
and with the aid of Leopold Mozarts A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin
Playing, this document provides a performance guide that I hope would enhance violists
understanding of performing eighteenth-century viola concertos.

45

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boyden, David D. Dynamics in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Music. In Essays on


Music in Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison by His Associates, 185-93. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1957.
Brown, Clive. Classical and Romantic Performing Practice 1750-1900. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1999.
Castledine, Mellisa. Etudes and Viola Pedagogy. DMA thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1998.
Drner, Ulrich. Das Viola-Konzert vor 1840. Fontes Artis Musicae 28, no 3 (July-Sept 1981):
153-176.
Hepokoski, James, and Warren Darcy. Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and
Deformations in the Late Eighteenth-Century Sonata. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2006.
Hickman, Roger. The Flowering of the Viennese String Quartet in the Late Eighteenth
Century. The Music Review 50 (1989): 157-161.
Hoffmeister, Franz Anton. 12 Viola-Etudes. Leipzig: Bureau de Musique, [c.1800].
Komlos, Katalin. The Viennese Keyboard Trio in the 1780s: Sociological Background and
Contemporary Reception. Music & Letters 68, no 3 (July 1987): 222-234.
Lawford-Hinrichsen, Irene. Music Publishing and Patronage: C. F. Peters, 1800 to the
Holocaust. Kenton: Edition Press, 2000.
Melkus, Eduard. On the Problem of Cadenzas in Mozarts Violin Concertos. In Perspectives
on Mozart Performance, ed. R. Larry Todd and Peter Williams, 74-91. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Mozart, Leopold. A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing. Translated by
Editha Knocker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948.
Neumann, Frederick. New Essays on Performance Practice. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press,
c1989.
________________. Performance Practices of the Sseventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. New
York: Schirmer Books, c1993.

46

Radant, Else. Ignaz Pleyels Correspondence with Hoffmeister & Co. In The Haydn Yearbook
XII, ed. H.C. Robbins Landon, I.M. Bruce and David Wyn Jones. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1981.
Riley, Maurice W. 18th Century Concertos for the Viola. Journal of the Violin Society of
America 3, no 2 (1977): 88-90.
____________. The History of the Viola. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Braun-Brumfield, 1993.
Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton,
1997.
Sills, David L. Review of Konzert fr Viola und Orchester [2 ob., 2 hn., strings] D dur, Partitur
Erstdruck; Konzert D-dur fr Viola, by Franz Anton Hoffmeister. Notes 42, no 3 (March
1986): 650-51.
Stauffer, George B. Forkels Letters to Hoffmeister & Khnel: A Bach Biographical Source
Recovered. The Journal of Musicology 5, no 4 (Autumn 1987): 549-561.
Stowell, Robin. The Early Violin and Viola: A Practical Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2001.
____________. Performance Practice in the Eighteenth Century Concerto. In The Cambridge
Companion to the Concerto, ed. Simon P. Keefe, 192-226. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2005.
Veinus, Abraham. The Concerto. London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1948.
Watson, J. Arthur. Mozart and the Viola. Music and Letters 22, no 1 (January 1941): 41-53.
White, Chappell. From Vivaldi to Viotti: A Historical of the Early Classical Violin Concerto.
Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach, 1992.
Zeyringer, Franz. Literatur fr Viola; Verzeichnis der Werke fr Viola-Solo, Duos mit Viola,
Trios mit Viola, Viola-Solo mit Begleitung, Blockflte mit Viola, Gesang mit Viola und der
Schul- und Studienwerke fr Viola. Hartberg: J. Schnwetter, 1963.

Internet Resources
Badura-Skoda, Eva, and William Drabkin. Cadenza. III: The Classical Period. In Oxford
Music Online. [http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/] (accessed April 15, 2010).
Boyden, David D., and Ann M. Woodward. Viola. V: Repertory, (i): To 1800. In Oxford
Music Online. [http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/] (accessed April 15, 2010).
47

Eisen, Cliff. Concerto. III: The Classical Period, (i): Composition, Performance,
Dissemination. In Oxford Music Online. [http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/] (accessed
April 15, 2010).
Weinmann, Alexander. Hoffmeister, Franz Anton. In Oxford Music Online.
[http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/] (accessed April 15, 2010).

Music Score
Beyer, Franz. Kadenzen zu Viola-Konzerten von Stamitz, Zelter und Hoffmeister. Switzerland:
Kunzelmann, 1971.
Blendinger, Herbert. Kadenzen zu Klassischen Bratschen-Konzerten. Mnchen: Doblinger,
1996.
Hoffmeister, F. A. Concerto en R pour Alto. Edited and with cadenza by Maurice Vieux. Paris:
Max Eschig, 1951.
______________. Violakonzert D-dur: Klavierauszug. Edited by Norbert Gertsch and Julia
Ronge. With cadenza by Robert D. Levin. Mnchen: G. Henle Verlag, 2003.
______________. Konzert fr Viola und Orchestra D dur [full score]. Edited by Ulrich Drner.
Lottstetten: Kunzelmann, 1982.
______________. Konzert D-dur fr Viola und Orchestra [piano reduction]. Edited by Ulrich
Drner. Lottstetten: Kunzelmann, 1983.
______________. Konzert D-dur fr Viola und Orchestra. Edited by Clemens Richter. Leipzig:
Peters, 1985.
______________. Concerto for Viola and Orchestra. Miami, Florida: Kalmus, n.d.
______________. Concerto in D Major for Viola and Orchestra. Edited and with cadenza by
Paul Doktor. New York: International Music Company, 1961.
______________. Concerto pour Viola et Orchestre. Frankfurt: H. L. Grahl, n.d.

48