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Cloudcomputing
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Cloudcomputingisacomputingtermormetaphorthatevolvedinthelate
2000s,basedonutilityandconsumptionofcomputerresources.Cloud
computinginvolvesdeployinggroupsofremoteserversandsoftwarenetworks
thatallowdifferentkindsofdatasourcesbeuploadedforrealtimeprocessingto
generatecomputingresultswithouttheneedtostoreprocesseddataonthe
cloud.Cloudscanbeclassifiedaspublic,privateorhybrid.[1][2]

Contents
1Overview
2Historyofcloudcomputing
2.1Originoftheterm
2.2The1950s
2.3The1990s
3Similarconcepts
4Characteristics
5Servicemodels
5.1Infrastructureasaservice(IaaS)

Cloudcomputingmetaphor:Forauser,thenetworkelements
representingtheproviderrenderedservicesareinvisible,asif
obscuredbyacloud.

5.2Platformasaservice(PaaS)
5.3Softwareasaservice(SaaS)
6Cloudclients
7Deploymentmodels
7.1Privatecloud
7.2Publiccloud
7.3Hybridcloud
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7.4Others
7.4.1Communitycloud
7.4.2Distributedcloud
7.4.3Intercloud
7.4.4Multicloud
8Architecture
8.1Cloudengineering
9Securityandprivacy
10Thefuture
11Seealso
12References
13Externallinks

Overview
Cloudcomputing[3]reliesonsharingofresourcestoachievecoherenceandeconomiesofscale,similartoautility(liketheelectricitygrid)overa
network.[2]Atthefoundationofcloudcomputingisthebroaderconceptofconvergedinfrastructureandsharedservices.
Cloudcomputing,orinsimplershorthandjust"thecloud",alsofocusesonmaximizingtheeffectivenessofthesharedresources.Cloudresourcesare
usuallynotonlysharedbymultipleusersbutarealsodynamicallyreallocatedperdemand.Thiscanworkforallocatingresourcestousers.Forexample,
acloudcomputerfacilitythatservesEuropeanusersduringEuropeanbusinesshourswithaspecificapplication(e.g.,email)mayreallocatethesame
resourcestoserveNorthAmericanusersduringNorthAmerica'sbusinesshourswithadifferentapplication(e.g.,awebserver).Thisapproachshould
maximizetheuseofcomputingpowerthusreducingenvironmentaldamageaswellsincelesspower,airconditioning,rackspace,etc.arerequiredfora
varietyoffunctions.Withcloudcomputing,multipleuserscanaccessasingleservertoretrieveandupdatetheirdatawithoutpurchasinglicensesfor
differentapplications.
Theterm"movingtocloud"alsoreferstoanorganizationmovingawayfromatraditionalCAPEXmodel(buythededicatedhardwareanddepreciateit
overaperiodoftime)totheOPEXmodel(useasharedcloudinfrastructureandpayasoneusesit).

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Proponentsclaimthatcloudcomputingallowscompaniestoavoidupfrontinfrastructurecosts,andfocusonprojectsthatdifferentiatetheirbusinesses
insteadofoninfrastructure.[4]Proponentsalsoclaimthatcloudcomputingallowsenterprisestogettheirapplicationsupandrunningfaster,with
improvedmanageabilityandlessmaintenance,andenablesITtomorerapidlyadjustresourcestomeetfluctuatingandunpredictablebusiness
demand.[4][5][6]Cloudproviderstypicallyusea"payasyougo"model.Thiscanleadtounexpectedlyhighchargesifadministratorsdonotadapttothe
cloudpricingmodel.[7]
Thepresentavailabilityofhighcapacitynetworks,lowcostcomputersandstoragedevicesaswellasthewidespreadadoptionofhardware
virtualization,serviceorientedarchitecture,andautonomicandutilitycomputinghaveledtoagrowthincloudcomputing.[8][9][10]Companiescanscale
upascomputingneedsincreaseandthenscaledownagainasdemandsdecrease
Cloudvendorsareexperiencinggrowthratesof50%perannum.[11]

Historyofcloudcomputing
Originoftheterm
Theoriginofthetermcloudcomputingisunclear.Theexpressioncloudiscommonlyusedinsciencetodescribealargeagglomerationofobjectsthat
visuallyappearfromadistanceasacloudanddescribesanysetofthingswhosedetailsarenotinspectedfurtherinagivencontext.[12]Another
explanationisthattheoldprogramstodrawnetworkschematicssurroundedtheiconsforserverswithacircle,andaclusterofserversinanetwork
diagramhadseveraloverlappingcircles,whichresembledacloud.[13]
InanalogytoaboveusagethewordcloudwasusedasametaphorfortheInternetandastandardizedcloudlikeshapewasusedtodenoteanetwork
ontelephonyschematicsandlatertodepicttheInternetincomputernetworkdiagrams.Withthissimplification,theimplicationisthatthespecificsofhow
theendpointsofanetworkareconnectedarenotrelevantforthepurposesofunderstandingthediagram.Thecloudsymbolwasusedtorepresentthe
Internetasearlyas1994,[14][15]inwhichserverswerethenshownconnectedto,butexternalto,thecloud.
Referencestocloudcomputinginitsmodernsenseappearedearlyas1996,withtheearliestknownmentioninaCompaqinternaldocument.[16]
Thepopularizationofthetermcanbetracedto2006whenAmazon.comintroducedtheElasticComputeCloud.[17]

The1950s

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Theunderlyingconceptofcloudcomputingdatestothe1950s,whenlargescalemainframecomputerswereseenasthefutureofcomputing,and
becameavailableinacademiaandcorporations,accessibleviathinclients/terminalcomputers,oftenreferredtoas"dumbterminals",becausetheywere
usedforcommunicationsbuthadnointernalprocessingcapacities.Tomakemoreefficientuseofcostlymainframes,apracticeevolvedthatallowed
multipleuserstoshareboththephysicalaccesstothecomputerfrommultipleterminalsaswellastheCPUtime.Thiseliminatedperiodsofinactivityon
themainframeandallowedforagreaterreturnontheinvestment.ThepracticeofsharingCPUtimeonamainframebecameknownintheindustryas
timesharing.[18]Duringthemid70s,timesharingwaspopularlyknownasRJE(RemoteJobEntry)thisnomenclaturewasmostlyassociatedwithlarge
vendorssuchasIBMandDEC.IBMdevelopedtheVMOperatingSystemtoprovidetimesharingservices.

The1990s
Inthe1990s,telecommunicationscompanies,whopreviouslyofferedprimarilydedicatedpointtopointdatacircuits,beganofferingvirtualprivate
network(VPN)serviceswithcomparablequalityofservice,butatalowercost.Byswitchingtrafficastheysawfittobalanceserveruse,theycoulduse
overallnetworkbandwidthmoreeffectively.Theybegantousethecloudsymboltodenotethedemarcationpointbetweenwhattheproviderwas
responsibleforandwhatuserswereresponsiblefor.Cloudcomputingextendsthisboundarytocoverallserversaswellasthenetworkinfrastructure.[19]
Ascomputersbecamemoreprevalent,scientistsandtechnologistsexploredwaystomakelargescalecomputingpoweravailabletomoreusersthrough
timesharing.Theyexperimentedwithalgorithmstooptimizetheinfrastructure,platform,andapplicationstoprioritizeCPUsandincreaseefficiencyfor
endusers.[20]
Since2000cloudcomputinghascomeintoexistence.Inearly2008,OpenNebula,enhancedintheRESERVOIREuropeanCommissionfunded
project,becamethefirstopensourcesoftwarefordeployingprivateandhybridclouds,andforthefederationofclouds.[21]Inthesameyear,efforts
werefocusedonprovidingqualityofserviceguarantees(asrequiredbyrealtimeinteractiveapplications)tocloudbasedinfrastructures,inthe
frameworkoftheIRMOSEuropeanCommissionfundedproject,resultinginarealtimecloudenvironment.[22]Bymid2008,Gartnersawan
opportunityforcloudcomputing"toshapetherelationshipamongconsumersofITservices,thosewhouseITservicesandthosewhosellthem"[23]and
observedthat"organizationsareswitchingfromcompanyownedhardwareandsoftwareassetstoperuseservicebasedmodels"sothatthe"projected
shifttocomputing...willresultindramaticgrowthinITproductsinsomeareasandsignificantreductionsinotherareas."[24]
MicrosoftAzurebecameavailableinlate2008.
InJuly2010,RackspaceHostingandNASAjointlylaunchedanopensourcecloudsoftwareinitiativeknownasOpenStack.TheOpenStackproject
intendedtohelporganizationsoffercloudcomputingservicesrunningonstandardhardware.TheearlycodecamefromNASA'sNebulaplatformas
wellasfromRackspace'sCloudFilesplatform.[25]

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OnMarch1,2011,IBMannouncedtheIBMSmartCloudframeworktosupportSmarterPlanet.[26]AmongthevariouscomponentsoftheSmarter
Computingfoundation,cloudcomputingisacriticalpiece.
OnJune7,2012,OracleannouncedtheOracleCloud.[27]WhileaspectsoftheOracleCloudarestillindevelopment,thiscloudofferingisposedtobe
thefirsttoprovideuserswithaccesstoanintegratedsetofITsolutions,includingtheApplications(SaaS),Platform(PaaS),andInfrastructure(IaaS)
layers.[28][29][30]

Similarconcepts
Cloudcomputingistheresultofevolutionandadoptionofexistingtechnologiesandparadigms.Thegoalofcloudcomputingistoallowuserstotake
benetfromallofthesetechnologies,withouttheneedfordeepknowledgeaboutorexpertisewitheachoneofthem.Thecloudaimstocutcosts,and
helpstheusersfocusontheircorebusinessinsteadofbeingimpededbyITobstacles.[31]
Themainenablingtechnologyforcloudcomputingisvirtualization.Virtualizationsoftwareseparatesaphysicalcomputingdeviceintooneormore
"virtual"devices,eachofwhichcanbeeasilyusedandmanagedtoperformcomputingtasks.Withoperatingsystemlevelvirtualizationessentially
creatingascalablesystemofmultipleindependentcomputingdevices,idlecomputingresourcescanbeallocatedandusedmoreefficiently.Virtualization
providestheagilityrequiredtospeedupIToperations,andreducescostbyincreasinginfrastructureutilization.Autonomiccomputingautomatesthe
processthroughwhichtheusercanprovisionresourcesondemand.Byminimizinguserinvolvement,automationspeedsuptheprocess,reduceslabor
costsandreducesthepossibilityofhumanerrors.[31]
Usersroutinelyfacedifficultbusinessproblems.CloudcomputingadoptsconceptsfromServiceorientedArchitecture(SOA)thatcanhelptheuser
breaktheseproblemsintoservicesthatcanbeintegratedtoprovideasolution.Cloudcomputingprovidesallofitsresourcesasservices,andmakesuse
ofthewellestablishedstandardsandbestpracticesgainedinthedomainofSOAtoallowglobalandeasyaccesstocloudservicesinastandardized
way.
Cloudcomputingalsoleveragesconceptsfromutilitycomputingtoprovidemetricsfortheservicesused.Suchmetricsareatthecoreofthepubliccloud
payperusemodels.Inaddition,measuredservicesareanessentialpartofthefeedbackloopinautonomiccomputing,allowingservicestoscaleon
demandandtoperformautomaticfailurerecovery.
CloudcomputingisakindofgridcomputingithasevolvedbyaddressingtheQoS(qualityofservice)andreliabilityproblems.Cloudcomputing
providesthetoolsandtechnologiestobuilddata/computeintensiveparallelapplicationswithmuchmoreaffordablepricescomparedtotraditional
parallelcomputingtechniques.[31]
Cloudcomputingsharescharacteristicswith:
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ClientservermodelClientservercomputingrefersbroadlytoanydistributedapplicationthatdistinguishesbetweenserviceproviders
(servers)andservicerequestors(clients).[32]
Gridcomputing"Aformofdistributedandparallelcomputing,wherebya'superandvirtualcomputer'iscomposedofaclusterofnetworked,
looselycoupledcomputersactinginconcerttoperformverylargetasks."
MainframecomputerPowerfulcomputersusedmainlybylargeorganizationsforcriticalapplications,typicallybulkdataprocessingsuchas:
censusindustryandconsumerstatisticspoliceandsecretintelligenceservicesenterpriseresourceplanningandfinancialtransactionprocessing.
UtilitycomputingThe"packagingofcomputingresources,suchascomputationandstorage,asameteredservicesimilartoatraditionalpublic
utility,suchaselectricity."[33][34]
PeertopeerAdistributedarchitecturewithouttheneedforcentralcoordination.Participantsarebothsuppliersandconsumersofresources
(incontrasttothetraditionalclientservermodel).

Characteristics
Cloudcomputingexhibitsthefollowingkeycharacteristics:
Agilityimproveswithusers'abilitytoreprovisiontechnologicalinfrastructureresources.
Costreductionsclaimedbycloudproviders.Apublicclouddeliverymodelconvertscapitalexpendituretooperationalexpenditure.[35]This
purportedlylowersbarrierstoentry,asinfrastructureistypicallyprovidedbyathirdpartyanddoesnotneedtobepurchasedforonetimeor
infrequentintensivecomputingtasks.Pricingonautilitycomputingbasisisfinegrained,withusagebasedoptionsandfewerITskillsarerequired
forimplementation(inhouse).[36]TheeFISCALproject'sstateoftheartrepository[37]containsseveralarticleslookingintocostaspectsin
moredetail,mostofthemconcludingthatcostssavingsdependonthetypeofactivitiessupportedandthetypeofinfrastructureavailableinhouse.
Deviceandlocationindependence [38]enableuserstoaccesssystemsusingawebbrowserregardlessoftheirlocationorwhatdevicetheyuse
(e.g.,PC,mobilephone).Asinfrastructureisoffsite(typicallyprovidedbyathirdparty)andaccessedviatheInternet,userscanconnectfrom
anywhere.[36]
Maintenanceofcloudcomputingapplicationsiseasier,becausetheydonotneedtobeinstalledoneachuser'scomputerandcanbeaccessed
fromdifferentplaces.
Multitenancyenablessharingofresourcesandcostsacrossalargepoolofusersthusallowingfor:
centralizationofinfrastructureinlocationswithlowercosts(suchasrealestate,electricity,etc.)
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peakloadcapacityincreases(usersneednotengineerforhighestpossibleloadlevels)
utilisationandefficiencyimprovementsforsystemsthatareoftenonly1020%utilised.[39][40]
Performanceismonitored,andconsistentandlooselycoupledarchitecturesareconstructedusingwebservicesasthesysteminterface.[36][41][42]
Productivitymaybeincreasedwhenmultipleuserscanworkonthesamedatasimultaneously,ratherthanwaitingforittobesavedandemailed.
Timemaybesavedasinformationdoesnotneedtobereenteredwhenfieldsarematched,nordousersneedtoinstallapplicationsoftware
upgradestotheircomputer.[43]
Reliabilityimproveswiththeuseofmultipleredundantsites,whichmakeswelldesignedcloudcomputingsuitableforbusinesscontinuityand
disasterrecovery.[44]
Scalabilityandelasticityviadynamic("ondemand")provisioningofresourcesonafinegrained,selfservicebasisinnearrealtime[45][46]
(Note,theVMstartuptimevariesbyVMtype,location,OSandcloudproviders[45]),withoutusershavingtoengineerforpeakloads.[47][48][49]
Securitycanimproveduetocentralizationofdata,increasedsecurityfocusedresources,etc.,butconcernscanpersistaboutlossofcontrolover
certainsensitivedata,andthelackofsecurityforstoredkernels.Securityisoftenasgoodasorbetterthanothertraditionalsystems,inpart
becauseprovidersareabletodevoteresourcestosolvingsecurityissuesthatmanycustomerscannotaffordtotackle.[50]However,the
complexityofsecurityisgreatlyincreasedwhendataisdistributedoverawiderareaoroveragreaternumberofdevices,aswellasinmultitenant
systemssharedbyunrelatedusers.Inaddition,useraccesstosecurityauditlogsmaybedifficultorimpossible.Privatecloudinstallationsarein
partmotivatedbyusers'desiretoretaincontrolovertheinfrastructureandavoidlosingcontrolofinformationsecurity.
TheNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology'sdefinitionofcloudcomputingidentifies"fiveessentialcharacteristics":
Ondemandselfservice.Aconsumercanunilaterallyprovisioncomputingcapabilities,suchasservertimeandnetworkstorage,asneeded
automaticallywithoutrequiringhumaninteractionwitheachserviceprovider.
Broadnetworkaccess.Capabilitiesareavailableoverthenetworkandaccessedthroughstandardmechanismsthatpromoteuseby
heterogeneousthinorthickclientplatforms(e.g.,mobilephones,tablets,laptops,andworkstations).
Resourcepooling.Theprovider'scomputingresourcesarepooledtoservemultipleconsumersusingamultitenantmodel,withdifferent
physicalandvirtualresourcesdynamicallyassignedandreassignedaccordingtoconsumerdemand.

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Rapidelasticity.Capabilitiescanbeelasticallyprovisionedandreleased,insomecasesautomatically,toscalerapidlyoutwardandinward
commensuratewithdemand.Totheconsumer,thecapabilitiesavailableforprovisioningoftenappearunlimitedandcanbeappropriatedin
anyquantityatanytime.
Measuredservice.Cloudsystemsautomaticallycontrolandoptimizeresourceusebyleveragingameteringcapabilityatsomelevelof
abstractionappropriatetothetypeofservice(e.g.,storage,processing,bandwidth,andactiveuseraccounts).Resourceusagecanbe
monitored,controlled,andreported,providingtransparencyforboththeproviderandconsumeroftheutilizedservice.
NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology[2]

Servicemodels
Cloudcomputingprovidersoffertheirservicesaccordingtoseveralfundamentalmodels:[2][51]

Infrastructureasaservice(IaaS)
Inthemostbasiccloudservicemodel&accordingtotheIETF(InternetEngineeringTask
Force),providersofIaaSoffercomputersphysicalor(moreoften)virtualmachines
andotherresources.(Ahypervisor,suchasXen,OracleVirtualBox,KVM,VMware
ESX/ESXi,orHyperVorcloud.carunsthevirtualmachinesasguests.Poolsof
hypervisorswithinthecloudoperationalsupportsystemcansupportlargenumbersof
virtualmachinesandtheabilitytoscaleservicesupanddownaccordingtocustomers'
varyingrequirements.)IaaScloudsoftenofferadditionalresourcessuchasavirtual
machinediskimagelibrary,rawblockstorage,andfileorobjectstorage,firewalls,load
balancers,IPaddresses,virtuallocalareanetworks(VLANs),andsoftwarebundles.[52]
IaaScloudproviderssupplytheseresourcesondemandfromtheirlargepoolsinstalledin
datacenters.Forwideareaconnectivity,customerscanuseeithertheInternetorcarrier
clouds(dedicatedvirtualprivatenetworks).
Todeploytheirapplications,cloudusersinstalloperatingsystemimagesandtheir
applicationsoftwareonthecloudinfrastructure.Inthismodel,theclouduserpatchesand
maintainstheoperatingsystemsandtheapplicationsoftware.Cloudproviderstypicallybill
IaaSservicesonautilitycomputingbasis:costreflectstheamountofresourcesallocatedandconsumed.[53][54][55][56]

Platformasaservice(PaaS)
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InthePaaSmodels,cloudprovidersdeliveracomputingplatform,typicallyincludingoperatingsystem,programminglanguageexecutionenvironment,
database,andwebserver.Applicationdeveloperscandevelopandruntheirsoftwaresolutionsonacloudplatformwithoutthecostandcomplexityof
buyingandmanagingtheunderlyinghardwareandsoftwarelayers.WithsomePaaSofferslikeMicrosoftAzureandGoogleAppEngine,theunderlying
computerandstorageresourcesscaleautomaticallytomatchapplicationdemandsothattheclouduserdoesnothavetoallocateresourcesmanually.
Thelatterhasalsobeenproposedbyanarchitectureaimingtofacilitaterealtimeincloudenvironments.[57]Evenmorespecificapplicationtypescanbe
providedviaPaaS,e.g.,suchasmediaencodingasprovidedbyservicesasbitcodintranscodingcloud[58]ormedia.io.[59]

Softwareasaservice(SaaS)
Inthebusinessmodelusingsoftwareasaservice(SaaS),usersareprovidedaccesstoapplicationsoftwareanddatabases.Cloudprovidersmanagethe
infrastructureandplatformsthatruntheapplications.SaaSissometimesreferredtoas"ondemandsoftware"andisusuallypricedonapayperuse
basisorusingasubscriptionfee.
IntheSaaSmodel,cloudprovidersinstallandoperateapplicationsoftwareinthecloudandcloudusersaccessthesoftwarefromcloudclients.Cloud
usersdonotmanagethecloudinfrastructureandplatformwheretheapplicationruns.Thiseliminatestheneedtoinstallandruntheapplicationonthe
clouduser'sowncomputers,whichsimplifiesmaintenanceandsupport.Cloudapplicationsaredifferentfromotherapplicationsintheirscalabilitywhich
canbeachievedbycloningtasksontomultiplevirtualmachinesatruntimetomeetchangingworkdemand.[60]Loadbalancersdistributetheworkover
thesetofvirtualmachines.Thisprocessistransparenttotheclouduser,whoseesonlyasingleaccesspoint.Toaccommodatealargenumberofcloud
users,cloudapplicationscanbemultitenant,thatis,anymachineservesmorethanoneclouduserorganization.
ThepricingmodelforSaaSapplicationsistypicallyamonthlyoryearlyflatfeeperuser,[61]sopriceisscalableandadjustableifusersareaddedor
removedatanypoint.[62]
ProponentsclaimSaaSallowsabusinessthepotentialtoreduceIToperationalcostsbyoutsourcinghardwareandsoftwaremaintenanceandsupportto
thecloudprovider.ThisenablesthebusinesstoreallocateIToperationscostsawayfromhardware/softwarespendingandpersonnelexpenses,towards
meetingothergoals.Inaddition,withapplicationshostedcentrally,updatescanbereleasedwithouttheneedforuserstoinstallnewsoftware.One
drawbackofSaaSisthattheusers'dataarestoredonthecloudprovider'sserver.Asaresult,therecouldbeunauthorizedaccesstothedata.Forthis
reason,usersareincreasinglyadoptingintelligentthirdpartykeymanagementsystemstohelpsecuretheirdata.

Cloudclients
Usersaccesscloudcomputingusingnetworkedclientdevices,suchasdesktopcomputers,laptops,tabletsandsmartphones.Someofthesedevices
cloudclientsrelyoncloudcomputingforalloramajorityoftheirapplicationssoastobeessentiallyuselesswithoutit.Examplesarethinclientsand
thebrowserbasedChromebook.Manycloudapplicationsdonotrequirespecificsoftwareontheclientandinsteaduseawebbrowsertointeractwith
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thecloudapplication.WithAjaxandHTML5theseWebuserinterfacescanachieveasimilar,orevenbetter,lookandfeeltonativeapplications.Some
cloudapplications,however,supportspecificclientsoftwarededicatedtotheseapplications(e.g.,virtualdesktopclientsandmostemailclients).Some
legacyapplications(lineofbusinessapplicationsthatuntilnowhavebeenprevalentinthinclientcomputing)aredeliveredviaascreensharingtechnology.

Deploymentmodels
Privatecloud
Privatecloudiscloudinfrastructureoperatedsolelyforasingleorganization,
whethermanagedinternallyorbyathirdparty,andhostedeitherinternallyor
externally.[2]Undertakingaprivatecloudprojectrequiresasignificantleveland
degreeofengagementtovirtualizethebusinessenvironment,andrequiresthe
organizationtoreevaluatedecisionsaboutexistingresources.Whendoneright,it
canimprovebusiness,buteverystepintheprojectraisessecurityissuesthatmust
beaddressedtopreventseriousvulnerabilities.[63]Selfrundatacenters[64]are
generallycapitalintensive.Theyhaveasignificantphysicalfootprint,requiring
allocationsofspace,hardware,andenvironmentalcontrols.Theseassetshaveto
berefreshedperiodically,resultinginadditionalcapitalexpenditures.Theyhave
attractedcriticismbecauseusers"stillhavetobuy,build,andmanagethem"and
thusdonotbenefitfromlesshandsonmanagement,[65]essentially"[lacking]the
economicmodelthatmakescloudcomputingsuchanintriguingconcept".[66][67]

Cloudcomputingtypes

Publiccloud
Acloudiscalleda"publiccloud"whentheservicesarerenderedoveranetworkthatisopenforpublicuse.Publiccloudservicesmaybefree.[68]
Technicallytheremaybelittleornodifferencebetweenpublicandprivatecloudarchitecture,however,securityconsiderationmaybesubstantially
differentforservices(applications,storage,andotherresources)thataremadeavailablebyaserviceproviderforapublicaudienceandwhen
communicationiseffectedoveranontrustednetwork.Saasuisalargepubliccloud.Generally,publiccloudserviceproviderslikeAmazonAWS,
MicrosoftandGoogleownandoperatetheinfrastructureattheirdatacenterandaccessisgenerallyviatheInternet.AWSandMicrosoftalsooffer
directconnectservicescalled"AWSDirectConnect"and"AzureExpressRoute"respectively,suchconnectionsrequirecustomerstopurchaseorleasea
privateconnectiontoapeeringpointofferedbythecloudprovider.[36]

Hybridcloud
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Hybridcloudisacompositionoftwoormoreclouds(private,communityorpublic)thatremaindistinctentitiesbutareboundtogether,offeringthe
benefitsofmultipledeploymentmodels.Hybridcloudcanalsomeantheabilitytoconnectcollocation,managedand/ordedicatedserviceswithcloud
resources.[2]
Gartner,Inc.definesahybridcloudserviceasacloudcomputingservicethatiscomposedofsomecombinationofprivate,publicandcommunitycloud
services,fromdifferentserviceproviders.[69]Ahybridcloudservicecrossesisolationandproviderboundariessothatitcan'tbesimplyputinone
categoryofprivate,public,orcommunitycloudservice.Itallowsonetoextendeitherthecapacityorthecapabilityofacloudservice,byaggregation,
integrationorcustomizationwithanothercloudservice.
Variedusecasesforhybridcloudcompositionexist.Forexample,anorganizationmaystoresensitiveclientdatainhouseonaprivatecloudapplication,
butinterconnectthatapplicationtoabusinessintelligenceapplicationprovidedonapubliccloudasasoftwareservice.[70]Thisexampleofhybridcloud
extendsthecapabilitiesoftheenterprisetodeliveraspecificbusinessservicethroughtheadditionofexternallyavailablepubliccloudservices.Hybrid
cloudadoptiondependsonanumberoffactorssuchasdatasecurityandcompliancerequirements,levelofcontrolneededoverdata,andthe
applicationsanorganizationuses.[71]
AnotherexampleofhybridcloudisonewhereITorganizationsusepubliccloudcomputingresourcestomeettemporarycapacityneedsthatcannotbe
metbytheprivatecloud.[72]Thiscapabilityenableshybridcloudstoemploycloudburstingforscalingacrossclouds.[2]Cloudburstingisanapplication
deploymentmodelinwhichanapplicationrunsinaprivatecloudordatacenterand"bursts"toapubliccloudwhenthedemandforcomputingcapacity
increases.Aprimaryadvantageofcloudburstingandahybridcloudmodelisthatanorganizationonlypaysforextracomputeresourceswhentheyare
needed.[73]CloudburstingenablesdatacenterstocreateaninhouseITinfrastructurethatsupportsaverageworkloads,andusecloudresourcesfrom
publicorprivateclouds,duringspikesinprocessingdemands.[74]

Others
Communitycloud
Communitycloudsharesinfrastructurebetweenseveralorganizationsfromaspecificcommunitywithcommonconcerns(security,compliance,
jurisdiction,etc.),whethermanagedinternallyorbyathirdparty,andeitherhostedinternallyorexternally.Thecostsarespreadoverfewerusersthana
publiccloud(butmorethanaprivatecloud),soonlysomeofthecostsavingspotentialofcloudcomputingarerealized.[2]
Distributedcloud

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Cloudcomputingcanalsobeprovidedbyadistributedsetofmachinesthatarerunningatdifferentlocations,whilestillconnectedtoasinglenetworkor
hubservice.ExamplesofthisincludedistributedcomputingplatformssuchasBOINCandFolding@Home.Aninterestingattemptinsuchdirectionis
Cloud@Home,aimingatimplementingcloudcomputingprovisioningmodelontopofvoluntarilysharedresources[75]
Intercloud
TheIntercloud[76]isaninterconnectedglobal"cloudofclouds"[77][78]andanextensionoftheInternet"networkofnetworks"onwhichitisbased.The
focusisondirectinteroperabilitybetweenpubliccloudserviceproviders,moresothanbetweenprovidersandconsumers(asisthecaseforhybridand
multicloud).[79][80][81]
Multicloud
Multicloudistheuseofmultiplecloudcomputingservicesinasingleheterogeneousarchitecturetoreducerelianceonsinglevendors,increaseflexibility
throughchoice,mitigateagainstdisasters,etc.Itdiffersfromhybridcloudinthatitreferstomultiplecloudservices,ratherthanmultipledeployment
modes(public,private,legacy).[82][83]

Architecture
Cloudarchitecture,[84]thesystemsarchitectureofthesoftwaresystemsinvolvedinthe
deliveryofcloudcomputing,typicallyinvolvesmultiplecloudcomponentscommunicating
witheachotheroveraloosecouplingmechanismsuchasamessagingqueue.Elastic
provisionimpliesintelligenceintheuseoftightorloosecouplingasappliedtomechanisms
suchastheseandothers.

Cloudengineering
Cloudengineeringistheapplicationofengineeringdisciplinestocloudcomputing.Itbrings
asystematicapproachtothehighlevelconcernsofcommercialization,standardization,and
governanceinconceiving,developing,operatingandmaintainingcloudcomputingsystems.It
isamultidisciplinarymethodencompassingcontributionsfromdiverseareassuchassystems,
software,web,performance,information,security,platform,risk,andqualityengineering.

Cloudcomputingsamplearchitecture

Securityandprivacy
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Cloudcomputingposesprivacyconcernsbecausetheserviceprovidercanaccessthedatathatisonthecloudatanytime.Itcouldaccidentallyor
deliberatelyalterorevendeleteinformation.[85]Manycloudproviderscanshareinformationwiththirdpartiesifnecessaryforpurposesoflawandorder
evenwithoutawarrant.Thatispermittedintheirprivacypolicieswhichusershavetoagreetobeforetheystartusingcloudservices.[86]Solutionsto
privacyincludepolicyandlegislationaswellasendusers'choicesforhowdataisstored.[85]Userscanencryptdatathatisprocessedorstoredwithin
thecloudtopreventunauthorizedaccess.[85]
AccordingtotheCloudSecurityAlliance,thetopthreethreatsinthecloudare"InsecureInterfacesandAPI's",DataLoss&Leakage",and"Hardware
Failure"whichaccountedfor29%,25%and10%ofallcloudsecurityoutagesrespectivelytogethertheseformsharedtechnologyvulnerabilities.Ina
cloudproviderplatformbeingsharedbydifferentuserstheremaybeapossibilitythatinformationbelongingtodifferentcustomersresidesonsamedata
server.ThereforeInformationleakagemayarisebymistakewheninformationforonecustomerisgiventoother.[87]Additionally,EugeneSchultz,chief
technologyofficeratEmaginedSecurity,saidthathackersarespendingsubstantialtimeandeffortlookingforwaystopenetratethecloud."Thereare
somerealAchilles'heelsinthecloudinfrastructurethataremakingbigholesforthebadguystogetinto".Becausedatafromhundredsorthousandsof
companiescanbestoredonlargecloudservers,hackerscantheoreticallygaincontrolofhugestoresofinformationthroughasingleattackaprocess
hecalled"hyperjacking".
Thereistheproblemoflegalownershipofthedata(Ifauserstoressomedatainthecloud,canthecloudproviderprofitfromit?).ManyTermsof
Serviceagreementsaresilentonthequestionofownership.[88]
Physicalcontrolofthecomputerequipment(privatecloud)ismoresecurethanhavingtheequipmentoffsiteandundersomeoneelse'scontrol(public
cloud).Thisdeliversgreatincentivetopubliccloudcomputingserviceproviderstoprioritizebuildingandmaintainingstrongmanagementofsecure
services.[89]Somesmallbusinessesthatdon'thaveexpertiseinITsecuritycouldfindthatit'smoresecureforthemtouseapubliccloud.
Thereistheriskthatendusersdon'tunderstandtheissuesinvolvedwhensigningontoacloudservice(personssometimesdon'treadthemanypagesof
thetermsofserviceagreement,andjustclick"Accept"withoutreading).Thisisimportantnowthatcloudcomputingisbecomingpopularandrequired
forsomeservicestowork,forexampleforanintelligentpersonalassistant(Apple'sSiriorGoogleNow).
Fundamentallyprivatecloudisseenasmoresecurewithhigherlevelsofcontrolfortheowner,howeverpubliccloudisseentobemoreflexibleand
requireslesstimeandmoneyinvestmentfromtheuser.[90]

Thefuture
AccordingtoGartner'sHypecycle,cloudcomputinghasreachedamaturitythatleadsitintoaproductivephase.Thismeansthatmostofthemainissues
withcloudcomputinghavebeenaddressedtoadegreethatcloudshavebecomeinterestingforfullcommercialexploitation.Thishoweverdoesnotmean
thatalltheproblemslistedabovehaveactuallybeensolved,onlythattheaccordingriskscanbetoleratedtoacertaindegree.[91]Cloudcomputingis
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thereforestillasmucharesearchtopic,asitisamarketoffering.[92]WhatisclearthroughtheevolutionofCloudComputingservicesisthattheCTOisa
majordrivingforcebehindCloudadoption.[93]ThemajorCloudtechnologydeveloperscontinuetoinvestbillionsayearinCloudR&Dforexample,in
2011Microsoftcommitted90%ofits$9.6bnR&DbudgettoCloud.[94]

Seealso
Category:Cloudcomputingproviders
Category:Cloudplatforms
Cloudcomputingcomparison
Cloudmanagement
Cloudresearch
Cloudstorage
Edgecomputing
Fogcomputing
Gridcomputing
eScience
iCloud
Mobilecloudcomputing
Personalcloud
RobotasaService
ServiceOrientedArchitecture
Synaptop
Ubiquitouscomputing
Webcomputing

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