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Prepared for

Prepared by

MINISTRY OF ELECTRICITY & WATER


South Al Sourra Street, Ministries Area
P.O. Box 12 Kuwait City Safat 13001 Al Assimah
Kuwait
Phone: (965) 2537-1000
Fax: (965) 2537-1402/1421/1422

NATIONAL PETROLEUM
SERVICES COMPANY (K.S.C.C)
P.O. Box 9801,
Ahmadi 61008, Kuwait
Phone: +965 22251000,
Fax: +965 22251010

Date: 20 February, 2013


Report Number: 1501/13/006

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY


(Off Shore)
FOR
PROPOSED GAS TURBINE POWER PROJECT AT AZZOUR SOUTH POWER & DISTILLATION PLANT
CONTRACT NO: MEW /C/4514-2012/2013
PREPARED AND FINALIZED FOR AND ON BEHALF OF NAPESCO
FINALIZED BY

PREPARED BY

Dr. KARNOOR A. DHOULATH

Eng. KAPIL DURAISAMY

Signature________________

Signature__________________

Position: Head, Environmental Consultancy

Position: Environmental Engineer

Date : 20 February 2013

Date : 20 February 2013

Approved for and on behalf of NAPESCO by


Eng. K. JEYAKUMAR

Signature:________________________________
Position: Department Manager
Date: 20 February 2013
The report has been prepared by NAPESCO with all reasonable skill, care and diligence
within the terms of contract with the customer taking into account of the resources devoted to
it by agreement with the client.
We disclaim any responsibilities to the client and others in respect of any matter outside the
scope of above contract.
The report is confidential and we accept no responsibility of whatever nature to the third
parties to whom this report or any part thereof, is made known. Any such party relies on the
report at their own risk.

DOCUMENT HISTORY

Revision

Document
Identification

No

Date

Comments / Nature of
Changes

1501/13/006

6 February 2013

Draft EIA report

1501/13/006

20 February 2013

Final EIA report (Original)

NAPESCO EIA STUDY TEAM

K. JEYAKUMAR
Department Manager

Dr. KARNOOR A. DHOULATH


Head, Environmental Consultancy
Dr. HAITHAM AL FOUZY
Project Coordinator
Dr. BINDU RAJAN
Environmental Specialist
ANUMOL V.G
Environmental Specialist
Dr. AYED KHANFAR
Environmental Specialist
TARUN MATHUR
Environmental Specialist
AHITAGNI BHATTACHARYA
Environmental Engineering Specialist
KAPIL DURAISAMY
Environmental Engineer
RENJITH T.M
AAQ and Noise Monitoring Specialist
THAPANJITH T
Specialist Testing and Monitoring

ABSTRACT
Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) is planning to enhance the existing Power Generation
capacity in the country by setting up of a new 500 MW Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) plant
(that in future will be converted to Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plant at the existing
Az Zour South Power Station area. This offshore EIA study is part of the full Environment
Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted for the proposed OCGT plant at Az Zour South Power
Station site. Without changing any coastal structure configuration, this project was anticipated
for insignificant changes of wave, circulation, sedimentation, and shoreline dynamics.
National Petroleum Services Company (NAPESCO) conducted the baseline survey in
coordination with KISRs Coastal Management Program (CMP) during January to February
2013. This offshore EIA study was aimed to obtain an updated environmental baseline data
on water quality, sediment quality, water currents, water level (tidal variations), etc to predict
any possible adverse effect discharge from the proposed OCGT and its conversion to CCGT
plant. After identifying the potential impacts, appropriate mitigation recommendations against
the negative impacts were also included in this study.
Field surveys coupled with three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality simulation were
carried out using Delft3D modeling technique. The future conversion to CCGT plant shall
utilize a part of the water from thermal power plant discharge and the final discharge water
from the new CCGT will joins with the distillation discharge box culvert before reaching the
sea.
The study showed that the operation of OCGT Plant will not have any adverse effect on the
existing discharge water quality due to the very limited water usage. The Future CCGT Plant
was evaluated to discharge insignificant amount of water to the sea (of the order of 0.886
m3/s compared to the existing discharge of 138 m3/s). Modeling results show that under all
wind condition, water temperature at outfall area will not have significant negative impact
compared to the existing condition due to the reduced volume of overall discharge. The slight
salinity level of the seawater conditions enhanced during winter period which could not be
traced by any measurement.

Any other adverse changes of physical and water quality

parameters were not expected. The wastewater contaminated by chemical is designed to be


treated in separate system before discharge into the sea. During operational period, reduction
of the discharge during summer period can be achieved by modifying the operational regime
and appropriate operational engineering controls. Establishment of periodic monitoring
program near the plants vicinity is also recommended to ensure applicable standards.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................5
LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................9
ABBREVIATION....................................................................................................................11
A.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...........................................................................................12

1.

PROJECT BACKGROUND ......................................................................................29


1.1.

IMPORTANCE OF OFFSHORE EIA..............................................................................32

1.2.

IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)..................................32

1.3.

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PROJECT ..............................................................................33

1.4.

PROPOSED AZS OCGT POWER PROJECT ...............................................................34

1.5.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY .....................................................................................34

1.5.1
1.6.
2.

Specific Objectives ...........................................................................................34


SCOPE OF THE PRESENT STUDY ..............................................................................35

FIELD SURVEY AND DATA GATHERING ..............................................................39


2.1.

DATA GATHERING FROM SITE INVESTIGATION ............................................................39

2.2.

PREVIOUS SURVEY (HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY) ........................................41

2.3.

ECOLOGICAL SURVEY ..............................................................................................45

2.4.

METEOROLOGICAL SURVEY .....................................................................................45

2.5.

SAMPLE ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................47

2.5.1

Seawater Analysis ............................................................................................47

2.5.2

Water temperature and salinity .........................................................................49

2.5.3

Phytoplankton abundant (Chlorophyll-a concentration).....................................51

2.5.4

Dissolved Oxygen.............................................................................................54

2.5.5

Suspended Solids and Turbidity .......................................................................60

2.5.6

Nutrients ...........................................................................................................62

2.5.7

Major Components ...........................................................................................67

2.5.8

Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons.....................................................69

2.6.

SEDIMENT QUALITY ANALYSIS .................................................................................73

2.6.1

Grain size and classes......................................................................................73

2.6.2

Nutrients ...........................................................................................................76

2.6.3

Total Organic Carbons......................................................................................78

2.6.4

Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Metals................................................................79

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2.7.

MARINE ECOLOGY ..................................................................................................81

2.7.1

Benthic Marine Communities ............................................................................81

2.7.2

Fish Community................................................................................................84

2.7.3

Macrofauna and Meiofauna. .............................................................................85

2.8

COASTAL MORPHOLOGY AND SHORELINE DYNAMICS ....................................................87

2.8.1

Geomorphology of the Coast ............................................................................87

2.8.2

Coastline Dynamics ..........................................................................................88

2.9

BATHYMETRIC DATA ....................................................................................................91

2.10

TIDE AND CIRCULATION ...........................................................................................92

2.10.1
3

Tide ..................................................................................................................92

HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING ................................................................................98


3.1

MODEL CALIBRATIONS AND VALIDATIONS .....................................................................98

3.2

MODEL PREDICTIONS ..................................................................................................98

ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION.........................................................................101
4.1

IMPACT EVALUATIONS ON THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE ................................................101

4.2

IMPACT EVALUATIONS DURING THE OPERATIONAL PHASE ............................................101

4.1.1

Impacts on Coastal Morphology and Shoreline Dynamics ..............................101

4.1.2

Impacts on Tide and Circulation .....................................................................101

4.3

IMPACTS ON SEAWATER QUALITY................................................................................102

4.3.1

Water temperature and salinity .......................................................................102

4.3.2

Dissolved Oxygen...........................................................................................102

4.3.3

Residual Chlorine ...........................................................................................102

4.3.4

Phytoplankton abundant .................................................................................103

4.3.5

Sediment and sedimentation processes .........................................................103

4.4

IMPACT ON BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS .......................................................................103

4.4.1

Impacts on Marine Ecology.............................................................................103

4.5

IMPACTS ON SOCIAL, CULTURAL RESOURCES AND ECONOMY ........................................103

4.6

IMPACT EVALUATION .................................................................................................103

4.6.1

Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Analysis .........................................103

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MITIGATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................116

5.1

CONSTRUCTION PHASE .............................................................................................116

5.2

OPERATION PHASE ...................................................................................................116


CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................119

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List of Figures
Figure A-1- Generalized map showing project location ..........................................................14
Figure A-2-Comparison of Outfall water rates from existing with proposed OCGT/CCGT......15
Figure A-3-Overall flow of the sea water at the AZS Power ...................................................16
Figure A-4-Profiling measurement of CASTAWAY-CTD ........................................................17
Figure A-5-Simulated depth averaged Salinity distribution .....................................................21
Figure A-6-Simulated depth averaged water Temperature Distribution..................................21
Figure 1-1: Az-Zour South Power Plant, Kuwait .....................................................................30
Figure 1-2: Site Layout Showing Existing and new proposed AZS OCGT Power Project (MEW
Site layout) ...........................................................................................................36
Figure 1-3: Detailed Layout for the Proposed AZS OCGT Power Plant .................................37
Figure 2-1-Survey Locations for the baseline studies (synoptic and long term)......................40
Figure 2-2-Profiling measurement of CASTAWAY-CTD close to the Plants Offshore ...........42
Figure 2-3: Overall sensor deployment methodology.and measurement ...............................44
Figure 2-4: Pictures during sensor retrieval activities by professional divers..........................44
Figure 2-5: Snapshots of ecological survey activities.............................................................45
Figure 2-6: Location of Kuwait National Meteorological Network station at Ras Az-Zoor (KISR
Station).................................................................................................................46
Figure 2-7: Water sampling using NISKIN Bottle sampler for near-surface and near-bottom
water samples and labelling .................................................................................48
Figure 2-8: Locations and snapshots of the daily measurement of water temperature, salinity
and depth, surface water sampling at the AZS Power Plants offshore. ...............49
Figure 2-9: Comparisons of the new measured water temperature at Intake Station, InterDepth Station, Outfall Station and Offshore Station..............................................49
Figure 2-10: Comparisons of the new measured salinity at Intake Station, Inter-Depth Station,
Outfall Station and Offshore Station. ....................................................................50
Figure 2-11: Water quality parameters recorded at EPA monitoring station at Az-Zour in 2009.
.............................................................................................................................51
Figure 2-12: Chlorophyll-a concentration from laboratory analysis of water sample taken at
Az-Zour South Plants Intake structure.................................................................52
Figure 2-13: Comparisons of the new measured Chlorophyll-a concentration at Intake Station,
Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and station 1- 4 at AZS power plant during the
month of January 2013. .......................................................................................52
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Figure 2-14: Existing measured Chlorophyll-a concentration at neap and spring tide ............53
Figure 2-15: Comparisons of close-to-the-surface simulated tidal residual chlorophyll-a
concentration .......................................................................................................53
Figure 2-16: Comparisons of the new measured Dissolved Oxygen in percent at Intake
Station, Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and station 1 to 4 at AZS power plant
during the month of January 2013........................................................................55
Figure 2-17: Comparisons of the new measured Dissolved Oxygen concentration at Intake
Station, Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and station 1- 4 at AZS power plant
during the month of January 2013........................................................................55
Figure 2-18: Existing Horizontal distribution of measured near-surface and near-bottom
dissolved oxygen concentration at neap and spring tide (Source-NAPESCO
Report 2011). .......................................................................................................56
Figure 2-19: Observed chloride and total alkalinity concentrations from laboratory analysis of
water samples taken from Az-Zour South Plant for 15 consecutive days (JanuaryFebruary 2013......................................................................................................58
Figure 2-20: Observed total suspended solids and turbidity concentration from laboratory
analysis of water samples taken from AZS power plant. (baseline scenario) .......60
Figure 2-21: horizontal distribution of observed near-surface and near-bottom total suspended
solid taken at neap and spring tide. (Baseline scenario) ......................................61
Figure 2-22: Horizontal distribution of measured near-surface and near-bottom turbidity in
FTU at neap and spring tide (Baseline scenario) .................................................62
Figure 2-23: Observed Ammonia, Nitrate and silica concentrations from laboratory analysis of
water samples taken from AZS power plant outfall...............................................64
Figure 2-24: Observed Total Nitrogen and Phosphate concentrations from laboratory analysis
of water samples taken from AZS power plant outfall...........................................65
Figure 2-25: horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of ammonia,
nitrate, phosphate and silicate taken at neap tide ................................................66
Figure 2-26: Horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of ammonia,
nitrate, phosphate and silicate taken at spring tide...............................................67
Figure 2-27 Observed Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium concentrations from laboratory
analysis of water samples taken from AZS power plant outfall.............................68
Figure 2-28: Major Constituents of sea water (Al-Yamani et al., 2004). .................................69
Figure 2-29: Observed Iron, Copper and Nickel concentrations from laboratory analysis of
water samples taken from AZS power plant. .......................................................70

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Figure 2-30: Horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of Iron (Fe),


Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) taken at neap tide (Baseline Scenario) ....................71
Figure 2-31: Horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of Iron (Fe),
Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) taken at spring tide (Baseline Scenario) ..................72
Figure 2-32: Sea bed sediment collection and sieve analysis (AZS area).............................73
Figure 2-33: Comparison of sediment grain size distribution between every station ..............74
Figure 2-34: Sediment grain size distribution and d50 of every station (Baseline Scenario) ..75
Figure 2-35: Horizontal distribution of observed total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)
from laboratory analysis of seabed sediment samples taken at neap tide
(Baseline Scenario)..............................................................................................77
Figure 2-36: Horizontal distribution of observed cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and
Iron (Fe) from laboratory analysis of seabed sediment samples taken at neap
tide. ......................................................................................................................80
Figure 2-37: Horizontal distribution of observed Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPHs)
concentration from laboratory analysis of seabed sediment samples taken at neap
tide .......................................................................................................................80
Figure 2-39: Benthic marine communities from Az-Zour collected using the dredger.............83
Figure 2-40: Examples of underwater picture taken at Outfall and Offshore natural reef station
during benthic marine communities survey. .........................................................83
Figure 2-40: Example of underwater picture of fish species taken during fish communities
survey. .................................................................................................................84
Figure 2-41: Spatial distribution of total abundance of macrofauna at the vicinity of Az-Zour
south desalination plant (top in summer 2007, bottom in spring 2008).................87
Figure 2-42: Spatial distribution of total abundance of meiofauna in the vicinity of Az-Zour
south DPP (top in summer 2007; bottom in spring 2008). ....................................87
Figure 2-43: Location of the coastal morphology studied area (Source: Al-Hulail et al.,
2004) ...................................................................................................................88
Figure 2-44: Coastal features at point A (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2004). ..........................89
Figure 2-45: Coastal features at point B (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2004). ..........................89
Figure 2-46: Shoreline positions at AZS OCGT Power Project OCGT Plant, Kuwait (Source:
Al-Yamani et al., 2004).........................................................................................90
Figure 2-47: Bathymetry in the vicinity of the AZS OCGT power plant. ................................92
Figure 2-48: Observed water depth during the survey at AZS Power Plant Intake (January
17th to February 3rd, 2013)..................................................................................93

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Figure 2-49: Observed water depth during the survey at AZS Power Plant Outfall (January
17th to February 3rd, 2013)..................................................................................94
Figure 2-50: Scatter-plot of measured surface flow velocity at Station Intake and Station InterDepth. ..................................................................................................................94
Figure 2-51: Time-series of measured flow velocity (Inter depth Station) ...............................95
Figure 2-52: Time-series of measured flow velocity at Outfall Station ....................................96

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List of Tables
Table A-1-Coordinates and depths of the sampling station. ...................................................17
Table A-2-Summary of water quality data fro this study compared to the data from previous
study. ...................................................................................................................18
Table A-3-Summary of Scenario setup for the runs conducted ..............................................20
Table A-4-options used for the RIAM Analysis.......................................................................23
Table A-5-Characteristic of Environmental Components........................................................25
Table 1-1: Existing Generation Capacity * in Kuwait (Source: MEW, 2010) ...........................30
Table 1-2: Summary of Existing Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) and Combined Cycle Gas
Turbine (CCGT) Power Generating & Desalination Plants Capacity ....................31
Table 1-3: Details of the proposed power Plants....................................................................34
Table 2-1: Coordinates and depths of the sampling station....................................................41
Table 2-2: Details of continuous measurement station...........................................................43
Table 2-3: List of automatic data logging sensor deployed offshore of AZS OCGT Power
Project..................................................................................................................43
Table 2-4: Details of water sampling during spring and neap tide survey...............................47
Table 2-5: Summary and number of water sample and considered parameters for water
quality analysis* ...................................................................................................48
Table 2-6: Water Quality Standards for Marine Water in Different Countries* (Source: Al-Hulail
et al., 2010) ..........................................................................................................57
Table 2-7: Major Ion Composition of Seawater (mg/l) (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2010) ............59
Table 2-8: Sediment analysis results at Az-Zour South Power Plant

78

Table 2-9: Comparison of Total Phosphorous Concentrations in Different Marine Sediment


Areas (Source: Al-Hulail et al, 2010) ....................................................................78
Table 2-10: Comparison of Total Nitrogen Levels in Other Regions Worldwide (Source: AlHulail et al, 2010) .................................................................................................78
Table 2-11: Benthic percentage covers for the four study sites..............................................82
Table 2-12: Species List of Macrofauna Recorded at the Vicinity of Az-Zour South DPP
(Source: Ali et al., 2009).......................................................................................86
Table 4-1-Options Used for the RIAM Analysis....................................................................104
Table 4-2-RIAM Analysis for Option 1 Pre construction (Existing Az Zour South South Plant)
...........................................................................................................................106
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Table 4-3-RIAM Analysis for Option 2 Construction of Proposed Az Zour South 500MW
OCGT ................................................................................................................108
Table 4-4-RIAM Analysis for Option 3 Operation of Proposed Az Zour South 500MW
OCGT ................................................................................................................109
Table 4-5-Option -4 Future Conversion to Az Zour South OCGT to CCGT Construction
Phase.................................................................................................................111
Table 4-6-Option 5 Future Conversion to Az Zour South OCGT to CCGT Operation Phase
...........................................................................................................................112
Table 4-7-Summary of RIAM Analysis (for all Scenarios) ....................................................113
Table 5-1: Monitoring of water and sediment quality during operation phase.......................118

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ABBREVIATION
AAQ

The Ambient Air quality

AFMAD

Aquaculture,

Fisheries

and

Marine

Environmental

Department
CCGT

Combined Open Cycle Gas Turbine

CMP

Coastal Management Program

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

GPS

Global Positioning System

HD

Hydrodynamic

HRSG

Heat Recovery Steam Generator (boiler)

KEPA

Kuwait Environmental Public Authority

KISR

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

MEW

Ministry of Electricity & Water

MOC

Ministry of communication

MIGPD

Million Imperial Gallons per Day

MSE

Mild slope Equation

MW

Megawatt

NAPESCO

National Petroleum Services Company

NEPA

National Environmental Policy Act

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NW

Northwest

OCCGT

Open Cycle Gas Turbine

OEM s

Original equipment manufacturer

RIAM

Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix

SE

Southeast

TDS

Total Dissolved Solids

TSS

Total Suspended Solids

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

WQ

Water quality

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A.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In the State of Kuwait, the rapid growth of urbanization and industrialisation has
resulted in a huge dement for electricity in the country. Therefore a continuous supply
of power with higher availability and reliability has to be assured to meet the countrys
continuous demand of power in its private and public sectors. The summer peak
demand for electrical power in the year 2011 was around 12000 MW and every year
the power demand increases between 6 8 percent. At this rate, it is estimated that
the national peak load demand will reach 25,000 MW by the year 2025.
The Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW), State of Kuwait is planning to augment
the existing Power Generation capacity in the country by setting up of new 500 MW
capacity Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) Az-Zour South Power Project (with its
future provision for conversion to Combined Cycle- CCGT) which will be located near
to the existing Az-Zour South CCGT (1+2) Plants (Figure A-1). The new Plant will
have an impact on the onshore and offshore environmental conditions which shall be
fully assessed by the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) investigation works for
the proposed project. This EIA report is prepared based on Kuwait Government
Decision 210/2001 pertain to the Executive By-Law of KEPA regarding the
environmental requirements and standards in the State of Kuwait and by Law No
21/1995 as amended by law No 16/1996. MEW assigned NAPESCO as the KEPA
approved Class- A EIA consultant to carry out the relevant study and to obtain
statutory approval.
This report focus on offshore EIA studies for the proposed project using combinations
of new data obtained from field survey and numerical simulation models. This study
covers the hydrodynamic modeling and the expected shoreline changes due to the
introduction of new OCGT power plant at Az-Zour South Power Plant location which
is completed based on a combination of marine survey during January to February
2013 comprising current and tidal level measurements Water and Sediment Quality
survey and Ecological Survey of the marine area which comes under the influence of
Az-Zour South Power Plant discharges. The synoptic survey for seawater
measurements were carried during neap and spring tide events. AAQ multiparameter water quality profiler (JFE Advantech, JAPAN) were used to measure
water

depth,

water

temperature,

salinity,

dissolved

oxygen

concentration,

Chlorophyll-a concentration, turbidity and pH.


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Objectives of the Offshore EIA study are:

To carry-out field observation coupled with numerical simulations to assess


the present condition of the hydrodynamics, water quality, sediment and
coastal ecology at the site and establish an updated baseline environmental
condition before the implementation of new project.

To evaluate the impacts and recommend possible mitigation of the offshore


environmental impacts of concentrated brine discharged from the new OCGT
Plant to the marine environment and coastal processes in terms of
recirculation, regimes of water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen
concentration.

The present EIA study mainly deals with the impact of existing power plant (Thermal,
MSF, CCGT 1&2), outfall discharges to the coastal area as well as the combined
effect of the New proposed 500MW OCGT plant with the above existing condition. In
addition, the effect of future conversion of OCGT to CCGT also was considered in
this Offshore EIA study which mainly covers the hydrodynamic modeling and the
expected water quality changes due to the proposed CCGT Power Project
considering all the existing discharges from the Existing Az-Zour South power and
Desalination plant. Refer below figure for the Location of Az Zour South power plant.

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Figure A-1- Generalized map showing project location

Outfall water balance at Az Zour South Power Station


Existing Outfall discharge: The total intake capacity at AZSPS is approximately
141m3/s and the overall discharge is found to be between 139 m3/s to 109 m3/s
during summer and winter seasons. Figure A-2 illustrate the intake and outfall
discharges in Az-Zour South, the total intake is not expected to change with the
introduction of new OCGT (and its conversion to CCGT) plant.
New OCGT/CCGT discharge: The requirement of water for the proposed new
OCGT Plant is very negligible and hence no marked discharge is considered. The
future conversion of OCGT to CCGT Plant diverts part of the rejected stream from

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the existing Thermal Power Plant to be used as make up water input. In future
scenario, approximately 9.1 m3/s of seawater is required for the future CCGT
conversion. However, this water will be recycled within the system and an amount of
less than 1.2 m3/s only will be taken as make up water from the thermal Power Plant
discharge for the new CCGT and the rejected water (0.886 m3/s) with an increase in
temperature and elevated salinity will join the discharge box culverts of
Thermal/Desalination outfall. During winter, the water requirement and discharge rate
will be less (details discussed in the modeling section of this report). Comparison of
rates of outfall water details from existing facilities at Az-Zour South Plant (Thermal,
CCGT, Desalination power Plant with proposed OCGT and future combined Cycle
Gas turbine project) is shown in below figures.

100
90
80

Existing

86.67

with proposed project

79.09

70
60
48.44

50
40
30
20
10

0.886

0.886

0
Power plant

MSF

proposed CCGT

Figure A-2-Comparison of Outfall water rates from existing with proposed OCGT/CCGT
Note : Power Plant includes planned CCGT 1&2. MSF means Distillation Plant, RO- Reverse
Osmosis (planned).

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Figure A-3-Overall flow of the sea water at the AZS Power


Note: With new proposed OCGT and future combined Cycle Gas Turbine Project

Baseline Data Gathering Study


In order to study the existing status of marine area within the vicinity of Az Zour
South power plant, intensive field measurements were carried out in January to
February 2013 in coordination with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR)
and NAPESCO specialists.
Several field surveys activities have been planned and carried out right after the
project start. The data gathering and field survey were designed to provide temporal
and spatial data of hydrographic and sea water parameters offshore of the AZS
Power Plant. This is to establish the updated environmental baseline at the area as
well as to provide necessary data for numerical simulation works. Intensive survey
was carried out to determine surface, mid depth and near bottom water quality
analysis during spring and neap tide conditions. Fluctuations were observed in water
quality parameters such as Chlorine, Soduium, Calcium, magnesium etc. during the
15 days survey period. However, heavy metal concentrations not exhibited to have
many variations. Meteorological survey derived data from KISRs Kuwait National
Meteorological Network (KNMN) at AZS Power Station. Details of survey location
and snapshots of baseline survey are presented in table below. Refer Data gathering
section for more details and attached Appendices for complete data sets. Summary

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of the results in terms of water quality from this study compared with previous study
is given in Table A-2.
Table A-1-Coordinates and depths of the sampling station.

Station Name

Latitude

Longitude

Depth

Intake

28 42.242'

48 23.381'

4.5

Outfall*

28 41.692'

48 22.996'

3.8

Inter-depth *

28 41.577'

48 24.232'

7.5

Sta. 1

28 43.848'

48 23.918'

6.5

Sta. 2

28 42.811'

48 23.224'

Sta. 3

28 40.829'

48 23.609'

Sta. 4

28 42.807'

48 24.416'

Figure A-4-Profiling measurement of CASTAWAY-CTD

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Table A.2: Summary of water quality data from this study compared to the data from
previous study.

S. No

Parameter

Unit

Previous
study*

Present
study

1.

Temperature

29.5-37.8 C

17.8 to 18.2 C

2.

Salinity

ppt

41.8-44.5

38-42

3.

pH

8.1

7.9

4.

Dissolved
Oxygen

mg/L

4.5 8.0

7.2

5.

Turbidity

NTU

1.98

6.

Oil /grease

mg/L

<1

7.

Total Alkalinity

mg/L

131-135

122

8.

TDS

mg/L

42,136

42,126

9.

Total suspended
solids

mg/L

3-10

10.

Sodium

mg/L

12400

11.

Calcium

mg/L

414

12.

Magnesium

mg/L

1315

13.

Chlorine

mg/L

19183

22700

14.

Nitrate N

g N /L

190-280

15.

Ammonium

g N /L

1.02

0.05

16.

Phosphate
PO4

mg/L

<0.05

0.03

17.

Silica as SiO2

mg/L

7.44

Nutrient

as

Heavy Metal
18.

Chromium (Cr)

mg/L

<0.05

<0.05

19.

Copper (Cu)

mg/L

<0.05

<0.05

20.

Molybdenum
(Mo)

mg/L

<0.001

21.

Aluminum (AL)

mg/L

<0.001

<0.05

22.

Arsenic (As)

mg/L

23.

Iron (Fe)

mg/L

<0.19-0.40

<0.05

24.

Nickel (Ni)

mg/L

0.16-0.31

0.22

25.

Cadmium (Cd)

mg/L

NA

<0.05

26.

Cobalt (Co)

mg/L

NA

27.

Lead (Pb)

mg/L

NA

<0.05

Mercury (Hg)

ng/mL

NA

28.

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S. No

Parameter

Unit

Present
study

Previous
study*

29.

Zinc (Zn)

mg/L NA

<0.05

30.
31.

Barium (Ba)
Beryllium (Be)

mg/L NA
mg/L NA

<0.05
<0.05

* Extracted from Hulail et al, 2008.

Hydrodynamic Modeling:
This study is to evaluate the impacts on hydrodynamics and water quality changes
that can be anticipated due to the introduction of new OCGT and its future
conversion to CCGT Plant within the marine area vicinity of AZS Power Station.
Using the internationally practiced hydrodynamic models, Delft3D model, an attempt
is made to study the wave climate and wind induced stimulation models for
temperature and salinity changes. In total, 8 scenario runs of hydrodynamic and
water quality models were carried out. The four scenarios covered the existing
condition and after the new project implementation conditions for both in summer and
winter seasons. Another four scenarios covered based on the existing condition, i.e.,
without the new OCGT/CCGT Plant.

The conditions after the new project

implementation has not differed from the existing condition significantly in the
discharge water characteristics from the AZS Power Plants outfall.
Based on the wave dynamics and nature of new project scope, new project aspects
will not affect the wave climate, geomorphology and shoreline dynamics of the
existing conditions. There is no change in terms of coastline configuration and
locations of the Plants intake and outfall.
Focusing on evaluating the impacts of the new project on hydrodynamic and water
quality changes, in total, Eight scenario runs of hydrodynamic and water quality
models were carried out. The baseline runs were conducted according to the input
conditions provided in below table (four runs). These runs represent the conditions
without the new, proposed Plant. The wind speed used was assumed to be 5.0 m/s
which are the mean wind speed. The four scenarios covered the existing and after
the new project implementation conditions in summer, under north westerly and
south easterly winds. Another 4 scenarios covered the similar conditions considering
the combined effect of baseline and the new proposed OCGT/CCGT Plant.
Simulated depth averaged water temperature and salinity distribution is shown in
Figure A-5-Simulated depth averaged Salinity distribution.

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Table A-3-Summary of Scenario setup for the runs conducted

Run ID

Season

Prevailing
Wind

Description of the runs

Baseline 1

Summer

North westerly

With existing Az Zour South thermal power plant and


MSF discharges.

Baseline 2

Summer

South easterly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges

Baseline 3

Winter

North westerly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges

Baseline 4

Winter

South easterly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges

Scenario 1

Summer

North westerly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges as well as the new CCGT plant
discharge.

Scenario 2

Summer

South easterly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges as well as the new CCGT plant
discharge

Scenario 3

Winter

North westerly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges as well as the new CCGT plant
discharge

Scenario 4

Winter

South easterly

With existing the Az Zour South thermal power plant


and MSF discharges as well as the new CCGT plant
discharge

Note: Power Plant includes planned discharge from CCGT 1&2 and Reverse Osmosis plant
(30MIGPD)

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Before - Near-surface

After - Near-surface

Before - Near-bottom

After - Near-bottom

Figure A-5-Simulated depth averaged Salinity distribution


Note: Results are before and after implementation of the Proposed OCGT/CCGT

Figure A-5-Simulated depth averaged Salinity distribution


(Summer -North westerly wind)

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Before - Near-surface

After - Near-surface

Before - Near-bottom
After - Near-bottom
Figure A-6-Simulated depth averaged water Temperature Distribution

Note: Results are before and after implementation of the Proposed CCGT

Figure A-6-Simulated depth averaged Temperature distribution


(summer -North westerly wind)

Figure A-6-Simulated depth averaged water Temperature Distribution

(Summer -North westerly wind)

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Impact Assessment and Prediction


All possible aspects with respect to Environmental Components were included in the
impact assessment using Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Analysis. Refer
RIAM analysis for details in Section 4.6. A total of five options were considered to clearly
indicate the impact to marine environment due to the proposed OCGT and its future
conversion to CCGT plant (Refer Table below for options).
Table A- 4 Options Used for the RIAM Analysis
Option

Scenario

Description

OP1

Existing condition
construction phase)

OP2

Construction phase

New OCGT plant

OP3

Operation phase

New OCGT plant

(pre

Existing Az Zour South Thermal, Distillation


(MSF), and planned CCGTs and R.O

OP4

Construction phase

Future conversion to CCGT plant

OP5

Operation phase

Future conversion to CCGT plant

Positive Impacts: Positive impacts on social and economy are clearly evaluated
from the new project during construction and operation phase. The new project is
expected to provide additional power production and job opportunities which have a
direct positive impact on the Kuwaits growing economy. The present project
anticipates producing more energy effectively by reutilizing the rejected water of the
power plant thus reducing the overall discharges to marine environment.
Negative Impacts:
Construction Phase: Based on the information provided by MEW, the new project
will be added with out major modification of the existing Az-Zour power plants power
generation and water production facilities. The new proposed Az-Zour OCGT (and its
future conversion to CCGT) power plant (hereby referred as the new proposed
OCGT project) has no or negligible offshore environmental impacts since the
projects construction works are all focussed on-land. There is only very minimum
construction activities along the coast hence the impact evaluation is not necessary
for construction phase.
Operational Phase: Direct impacts on seawater temperature and salinity of the new
project are identified by above numerical model predictions. The new proposed
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OCGT project is anticipated to have no significant changes in the salinity level of


ambient seawater hence change the density of seawater also not expected much.
The water density changes reduce the mixing of the discharged water with the
ambient coastal water and cause slightly increasing of water temperature. However,
simulation results suggested the very negligible changes of salinity, water
temperature and density of ambient seawater is concentrated to the vicinities nearby
the plants outfall. In the power plant, chlorine or other oxidants are used (typically
low content below harmful levels) to control biofouling, these are typically neutralized
before the water enters the membranes to prevent damage (Lattemann & Hopner,
2007). However, the present project is expected to post no or negligible impacts to
the seawater quality in terms of residual chlorine.
Due to the project nature and volume of discharge, it was identified in the present
study that the impacts on dissolve oxygen and phytoplankton are negligible. The
coastal marine ecology is identified as an already affected area locally at the plants
outfall. Moreover, on micro level examination of the model results it was inferred that
the total amount discharge is reduced with no significant change in salinity and
temperature. Specific findings from modelling study are highlighted below:

Average increase of water temperature in summer and winter are 0.01 Co and
0.03 Co, respectively.

Average increase of the salinity in summer and winter are 0.01 ppt and 0.02
ppt, respectively.

Average decrease of the dissolved oxygen concentration during northwesterly


wind and southeasterly wind are 0.012 mg/l and 0.010 mg/l, respectively.

Modelling result suggests negligible impact of the new project to the baseline
tidal-driven flow velocity.

Sediment and sedimentation processes and their qualities are expected to have
insignificant influences from the new project which is evidenced from many
sampling and analysis episodes conducted by KISR and NAPESCO during the year
2011 to 2013. The present condition of sediment quality shows insignificant changes
in sediment chemistry, however, it is slightly affected already by the existing Az-Zour
power plant operation.
The RIAM analysis for cumulative impact of all the options is discussed in summary Table (in
Section 4) and description of Environmental Components for all project phases is

discussed in Table A-5 below.

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Table A-5 Characteristic of Environmental Components

Environmental Components
Operating
conditions

Physical and Chemical

Biological

and

Sociological

and

Economical

and

Ecological

cultural

operational

No significant Impact

Positive

Impact

on

wealth

and

Northwesterly

No

impacts from increase of salinity

There is no change in

prevailing wind

and water temperature in the vicinity of

impact on the benthic and

national

the outfall, insignificant change for other

water column fauna and

economy.

water quality parameter

flora at the outfall vicinity

Southeasterly

No impacts from increase of salinity and There is no change in No significant Impact

Positive

Impact

on

prevailing wind

water temperature in the vicinity of the impact on the benthic and

national

wealth

and

outfall, insignificant change for other water column fauna and

economy.

Abnormal
condition

operating

water quality parameter

flora at the outfall vicinity

Moderate negative impact to water

Negative impact on the

quality by the release of concentrated

benthic and water column

on National wealth and

brine, warm and chemical used in the

fauna and flora at the

economy.

power Plant can have a negative impact

outfall vicinity

No significant Impact

Minor negative impact

to the marine life at AZS Power Plant


vicinity.

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Mitigation Measures
Mitigations and recommendations during the construction phase of the new proposed
OCGT Plant at Az-Zour Station are not necessary as no additional construction and
no discharge on the offshore area is expected.
During operation, the process condenser should be maintained to preset values.
Typical values for these delta-Ts are in the range of 10 to 15 F. However, the
maximum acceptable temperature changes across the evaporator and condenser of
a specific heat pump should be verified with the manufacturer. The use of circulators
on both the evaporator and condenser will result in less electrical consumption by the
circulators and higher overall system efficiency.
Lastly, although the significant acute adverse impacts the new project to the coastal
marine environment were not identified in the present study, it is advised to maintain
a continuous regular monitoring at the Az-Zour power plant vicinity to observe the
long-term cumulative impacts of the combined effect of existing and future project as
well as the projects from the surrounding ar. Target monitoring parameters should at
least include water level, flow velocity, water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,
chlorophyll-a concentration, residual chlorine and heavy metal, hydrocarbon as well
as. Refer monitoring plan for details in Section 5.
General Recommendations for CCGT

Engineering design controls should be considered suitably so that the


discharge water temperature shall not be greater than 10C difference from
the average temperate of intake/make up water.

Cooling tower technology to be used to lower and maintain the make up water
temperature in the CCGT plant (future conversion).

Chemical spills and storm water leakage; increased storm water runoff; and
surface water drainage, flooding and climate change are also assessed as
Low impact risks. However, chemical spill management plan to be
implemented in case of need.

Drainage water disposal system should be separately considered. All other


waste (liquid and solid) generated from the OCGT/CCGT should be managed
and disposed as per the waste Management plan contained in Onshore EIA
study.

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It is also recommended that any coastal activities related to liquid discharges


to sea need to be in compliance with ARTICLE 59 described in Chapter V of
KEPA regulations and standards.

The study makes following recommendations to the existing operation of


Power and desalination plant at Az Zour to improve the quality of marine
environment.
Power Plant
The thermal power plants should adopt suitable system to reduce water
temperature at the final discharge point to sea so that the resultant rise in the
temperature of receiving water does not exceed 10C over and above the
ambient temperature of the receiving water as per KEPA standards.
Reduce impingement and entrainment of fish and shellfish by using barrier
nets (seasonal or year-round), fish handling and return systems, fine mesh
screens, wedgewire screens, and aquatic filter barrier systems in the water
intake system.
Desalination Plant
A key concern of desalination plants are the concentrate and chemical
discharges to the marine environment, which may have adverse effects on
water and sediment quality, impair marine life and the functioning of coastal
ecosystem (Lattemann and Hopner, 2007).

The option of disposing pre-

treatment waste with the saline concentrate is unlikely to have significant


toxicological effects but further testing of the final suite of chemicals should be
undertaken. Notwithstanding this, National and International best practice
suggests that pre-treatment wastes should not be disposed of to the marine
environment and should be disposed to government approved landfills.
The discharge brine has the ability to change the salinity, alkalinity and the
temperature averages of the seawater and can cause change on marine
habitat.
Salinity, temperature and total alkalinity fluctuations, as a consequence of the
brine discharge of the desalination plant, can play a role in determining the
abundance and distribution of flora and faunas species. Long term monitoring
of the conditions proposed in relation to temperature, salinity and alkalinity at
the site vicinity of desalination discharge outlet is recommended. This would
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allow the verification of the appropriate distribution of the discharge plume into
the seawater and the impact to coastal system.
Regular water sampling program needs to be undertaken in the area of AZS
discharge location to clearly determine the factors affecting on the aquatic
system could be better understood. Therefore an intensive study of
environmental effects and seawater quality monitoring needs to be
undertaken periodically by MEW and submit to KEPA.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.

PROJECT BACKGROUND

Due to the increased demand of electric power supply, new Power Plants are being proposed
by the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW). Hence, MEW in State of Kuwait is planning to
install a new 500 MW capacity Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) power Plant which will be
located near to the existing 2400 MW (Thermal) and 2500 MW (OCGT/CCGT) Power Plant.
This new OCGT Plant proposed will be converted to a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) in
the future. However, by setting up of this new OCGT plant will have inevitable an impact on
the offshore environmental conditions which shall be fully assessed by the Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) investigation works for the proposed project. This offshore EIA
report is prepared using combinations of new data obtained from field survey and numerical
simulation models in addition to the archived data from the studies carried out by Kuwait
Institute for Scientific Research (KISR).
The discharge of increased saline water with higher water temperature compared to the
existing background value calls for detailed investigation of its potential adverse impact to the
coastal environment (in terms of hydrodynamics and water quality). The recirculation of the
temperature and salinity from the outfall to the intake is also an important design parameter.
For this purpose numerical models are usually used to study the recirculation and to choose
the most suitable intake outfall design to minimize any recirculation.
National Petroleum Services Company (NAPESCO) conducted the baseline survey in
coordination with KISRs Coastal Management Program (CMP) and started the offshore
baseline survey for the project from January to February 2013. Location of the existing AZS
Power Generation intake and out fall location is presented in Figure 1-1 and Table 1-2 provide
the capacities of the existing Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) and Combined Cycle Gas
Turbine (CCGT) Power Generating and Desalination Plants.

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Intake channel

Out fall

Figure 1-1: Az-Zour South Power Plant, Kuwait


Table 1-1: Existing Generation Capacity * in Kuwait (Source: MEW, 2010)
Steam Generator ( Boiler ) &

Desalination MSF Units

Turbine Units
Location
No. of Units

Total Capacity

No. of Units

(MWe)

Total Capacity
(MIGPD)

Az-Zour South

2400

16

115.2

Doha East

1050

43.2

Doha West

2400

16

110.4

Shuwaikh

19.5

AZS

2400

100

Shuaiba South

804

30

Total:

40

9054

56

418.3

* From Steam Generator and Steam Turbine, MWe: Megawatt, MIGPD: Million Imperial
Gallons Per Day
All steam turbines of above mentioned existing power stations are designed with extraction
steam for seawater desalination facilities. Shuaiba South Steam Power station is designed to
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operate on natural gas and/or gas oil and crude oil. Heavy fuel oil firing facilities were added
at a later date. Doha West, Az-Zour South and AZS OCGT Power Project Steam Power
Stations are designed to operate on natural gas and/or gas oil, crude oil and heavy fuel oil.
The summary of the output capacities of Gas Turbine power Plants (both existing and
proposed units) is shown below table.
Table 1-2: Summary of Existing Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) and Combined Cycle
Gas Turbine (CCGT) Power Generating & Desalination Plants Capacity

Power Station(s)

Number
of Units

Unit

Total

Capacity

power

(MWe)

(MWe)

Total
Water
Capacity
(MIGPD)

Az-Zour South - (OCGT)

27.8

111

Az-Zour South (OCGT/Siemens)

125

1000

280

560-

156-165

784 - 826

135

370

18

108

42 (ISO)

142

10

50-85 (ISO)

500

AZS OCGT (CCGT): Gas turbines

225

1350

AZS OCGT (CC): Steam Turbines

210

630

42

252

Az-Zour South (CC Conv.) : Steam Turbine


Az-Zour South (OCGT/Summer
2008)
Az-Zour South (CC Conv./
Summer 2008) Steam turbine*
Doha East - (OGCT)
Doha West (OCGT/Summer 2007)
Total 210 MW ISO)
AZS OCGT (OCGT/Summer 2007)
(Total 640 MW ISO)

(Total 2000 MW)


Shuwaikh Plant (OCGT/Summer
2007)
Shuaiba North Co-Generation Plant:

Gas Turbine (OCGT)

428

Steam Turbine (CC Conv

215

215

45(*)

6492

45(*)

Desalinated Water

Expected Total (Approx.):

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1.1.

I MPORTANCE OF O FFSHORE EIA

Despite the socio-economic benefits which desalination Plants offer and the key role it plays
in sustainable development (Dawoud, 2005), the potential negative impacts associated with
desalination Plant operation as land-based sources of pollution have gained international
attention (UNEP, 2006). The introduction of concentrated brine waste effluent

has been

historically considered to be a major environmental concern with desalination Plants,


particularly on marine ecosystem (Hashim and Hajjaj, 2005; Lattemann and Hopner, 2003;
Abdul Raheem, 2007; Roberts et al., 2010). Effects more specific to desalination Plants are
the impingement and entrainment of organisms due to the intake of large quantities of
seawater. A key concern of desalination Plants are the concentrate and chemical discharges
to the marine environment, which may have adverse effects on water and sediment quality,
impair marine life and the functioning and intactness of coastal ecosystem (Lattemann and
Hopner, 2007). All desalination processes produce large quantities of a concentrate, which
may be increased in temperature, salinity, contain residues of pre-treatment and cleaning
chemical, their reaction (by-) products and heavy metal due to corrosion.

1.2.

I MPORTANCE OF E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT A SSESSMENT (EIA)

Many

industrial

and

development

activities

produce

undesirable

environmental

consequences. In response to the problems, the US congress enacted the National


Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which marked the first comprehensive environmental
legislation and the first use of EIAs. Many countries have adopted this legislation; Kuwait has
made sincere steps toward adopting and implementing of this methodology as reflected in
legislation nos. 62 and 92 of 1980 and 1990, respectively. Based on Kuwait Government
Decision 210/2001 pertain to the Executive By-Law of KEPA regarding the environmental
requirements and standards in the State of Kuwait and by Law No 21/1995 as amended by
law No 16/1996, this EIA report is prepared as per the above guidelines contained in Chapter
1 to obtain statutory approval.
The purpose of EIA is to give the environment its due place in the decision making process
by clearly evaluating the environmental consequences of a proposed activity before any
action is taken. To be of most benefit it is essential that environmental assessment is carried
out to determine significant impacts early in the project cycle (i.e., before and during
construction works). Once implementation of the project has commenced, the EIA should lead
to a mechanism whereby adequate monitoring is undertaken to realize environmental
management.
EIA is intended to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed
development prior to decision making. The project managers can then address these
problems in order to avoid or minimize environmental impacts in conjunction with their project
planning. This results in the likelihood of the project planning stages running smoother. An

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impact indicator is an element or parameter that provides some sort of measure of the
magnitude of environmental impact (Munn, 1975). Examples of different indicators are loss of
recreational activities, changes in water quality parameters such as pH and turbidity, or loss
of bird communities and vegetation. The measurement may be qualitative or quantitative,
depending on the parameter and the means of evaluating future changes. The evaluation
process is usually subject to expert opinions (Al-Ghadban and Al-Ajmi, 1993).

1.3.

D ESCRIPTIONS

OF THE

P ROJECT

In order to meet the increasing demand of electric power and water, MEW has decided for
Installation and commissioning of a new 500 MW Capacity OCGT Project at the existing AzZour South Power and Distillation Plant site (as referred above). Also the proposed Az-Zour
South Open Cycle Gas Turbine Power Station (here after refer as AZS OCGT Power Project)
will be installed with a combined nominal generating power capacity of approximately
500MW. Each gas turbine generator unit would consist of three main items being the gas
turbine, generator, and high voltage transformer. Gas turbine systems operate on the
thermodynamic cycle known as the Brayton cycle. In each gas turbine generator, air is drawn
in through filters to remove particulate matter prior to compression. The compressed air then
flows into the combustion chambers where natural gas is injected and burnt, increasing the
temperature to approximately 1100 to 1200C.
The upgraded GT units of the proposed AZS OCGT Power Project will have a designed
minimum net operational life of around 25 years as per OEM (Original Equipment
Manufacturer) Standards.
The specific technical features of proposed AZS OCGT Power Project are given below:
Net Power Capacity (OCGT- 500 MW plus future conversion capacity to Combined
Cycle):

Major Plant and Equipment consisting Gas Turbine (GT) Units & Generators and all
associated Balance of Plant and Common Auxiliaries, all of which to be identical
units.

GT Units (Dry Low NOx Technology type) to be capable to operate for both base load
and peaking load operations.

Gas Turbine Units with its compressors capable of firing dual fuels (natural gas and
gas oil) with both fuels considered to be primary fuels and fuel change over from one
fuel to other and vice versa as per OEM standards.

Steam Turbine and HRSG units with all its auxiliaries for future combined cycle
scheme.

The power export facilities will be connected to the 400 kV transmission network.

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1.4.

P ROPOSED AZS OCGT P OWER P ROJECT

The proposed AZS OCGT Power Project will be initially operating in open cycle mode while it
will be converted into combined cycle mode in the future. The GT Units will use dual fuel firing
technology (i.e. either natural gas or gas oil). Fuel is burned in the combustion chambers of
the gas turbines from where hot gases expand through the power turbines to drive the
electrical generators m order to generate electricity. Each Gas Turbine Unit will have its own
discharge stack for release of hot exhaust gases to the atmosphere. Location of new
OCGT/CCGT Plant and Detailed layout for the Proposed OCGT is given in Figure 1.2 and
1.3. The capacity of proposed OCGT Plant details is given in Table 1-3.
Table 1-3: Details of the proposed power Plants

Power stations

AZS OCGT Power


Project

1.5.

O BJECTIVES

Number of
Units

Unit capacity

Total

(MWe) Kuwait site

power

Condition

(MWe)

250

500

Total Water
capacity (MIGPD)

OF THE STUDY

The main objective is to gather necessary field observation and data from AZS Power Project
offshore area as in MEW tender document and to conduct modelling study, (hydrodynamic
and water quality simulation) for the offshore EIA investigation.

1.5.1

Specific Objectives

Specific objectives of the present service are as follows.


o

To collect and study the offshore environmental impact from the site investigation
and modeling studies.

To carry-out field observation coupled with numerical simulations to assess the


present condition of the hydrodynamics, water quality, sediment and coastal
ecology at the site and establish an updated baseline environmental condition
before the implementation of new project.

To evaluate the impacts and recommend possible mitigation of the offshore


environmental impacts of concentrated brine discharged from the new OCGT
Plant to the marine environment and coastal processes in terms of recirculation,
regimes of water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration.

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1.6.

S COPE

OF THE

P RESENT S TUDY

Setting up of this new OCGT Plant at the proposed location will have an impact on offshore
environmental condition, which shall be fully accessed by this Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) study for the proposed project. This study covers the hydrodynamic
modeling and the expected changes due to the proposed AZS OCGT Power and the future
conversion to CCGT Plant to the existing marine environment with special reference to water
quality. In addition, all other possible impacts associated with planned development in the Az
Zour South Power station is also addressed as part of this offshore EIA study.

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Figure 1-2: Site Layout Showing Existing and new proposed AZS OCGT Power Project (MEW Site layout)

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Figure 1-3: Detailed Layout for the Proposed AZS OCGT Power Plant

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CHAPTER 2
FIELD SURVEY AND DATA GATHERING
(BASELINE STUDY)

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2.

FIELD SURVEY AND DATA GATHERING STUDY

FIELD SURVEY PLAN


To ensure that the present study will be able to utilize well validated data from our site
monitoring and investigation as well as to include EIA study aspects which are considered in
the present study, the project team brought together field and simulated data as well as EIA
analyses of wave dynamics from KISRs archive reports and presentations. The archived
field data will be used to calibrate and validate numerical simulation models in addition with
new data set from the present project field work (filed survey and modelling was conducted in
coordination with KISR team). Below is a list of some KISR projects at Az-Zour Plant.

Environmental Impact Assessments for the Az Zour thermal power project [EM009C2004],

Impacts of desalination Plants effluents discharged on the marine environment in


Kuwait [EM043C-2008],

Offshore environmental Impact Assessment of Az Zour north co-generation (power


and desalination) Plant [EC074C-2011].

Offshore environmental Impact Assessment for the Installation of 30MIGPD Reverse


Osmosis plant at Az Zour South (Jointly done by KISR and NAPESCO- 2011)

2.1.

D ATA GATHERING

FROM

S ITE I NVESTIGATION

Several field surveys activities have been planned and carried out right after the project start.
The data gathering and field survey were designed to provide temporal and spatial data of
hydrographic and sea water parameters offshore of the AZS Power Plant. This is to establish
the updated environmental baseline at the area as well as to provide necessary data for
numerical simulation works. Refer Figure 2-1 for the baseline study survey locations.

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Figure 2-1 Survey Locations for the baseline studies (synoptic and long term)
Spatial data of hydrographic and water quality parameters are important to understand overall
oceanographic features of the study area, and to make necessary calibration and validation of
numerical simulation models to present impacts of proposed new OCGT and its future
conversion to CCGT plant to AZS Power Plant coastal environment. The synoptic survey for
seawater measurements were carried at neap and spring tide. AAQ multi-parameter water
quality profiler (JFE Advantech, JAPAN) were used to measure water depth, water
temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, Chlorophyll-a concentration, turbidity
and pH. Table 2-1 provides the details of sampling stations (January to February 2013).
Details of measuring instrument, and sample analysis results are provided as Appendix A and
B.

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Table 2-1 Coordinates and depths of the sampling station.


Station Name

Latitude

Longitude

Depth

Intake

28 42.242'

48 23.381'

4.5

Outfall*

28 41.692'

48 22.996'

3.8

Inter-depth *

28 41.577'

48 24.232'

7.5

Sta. 1

28 43.848'

48 23.918'

6.5

Sta. 2

28 42.811'

48 23.224'

Sta. 3

28 40.829'

48 23.609'

Sta. 4

28 42.807'

48 24.416'

Note: * New sampling location

2.2.

P REVIOUS

SURVEY ( HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY )

We plan to bring together field and simulated data as well as EIA analyses of wave dynamic,
coastal sedimentation processes and shoreline dynamic from KISRs archive of reports and
presentations. The archived field data was used to calibrate and validate numerical simulation
models in addition with new data set from the present project field work.
Several field survey started from on-shore and offshore site visit followed by the long-term
deployment of various oceanographic sensors for continuous unattended measurement of the
hydrographic and sea water properties temporal variation. During this sensor deployment
period, the synoptic survey and water sampling at spring and neap tide, the daily
measurement and water sampling at the Plant intake structure and ecological survey were
carried out. Moreover the sediment collection for grain size analysis and chemical component
analysis were exercised. The meteorological conditions (i.e. wind speed, wind direction, solar
radiation, relative humidity, air temperature, and atmospheric pressure) were collected at onehour resolution from Kuwait National Meteorological Network at Al AZS Power Project MetOne station. The following section provides summaries of all mentioned activities.
The previous site survey of the AZS Power Plant was carried out in July 2011. In addition,
Offshore reconnaissance survey using the COASTAL LAB1, CEP-KISR speed boat was
carried out in January to February 2013. Based on this survey, the exact GPS locations,
water depth and sensor deployment methods were determined. The GPS location and water
depth measurement were carried out using KISR Coastal lab. equipped with accurate

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navigation system with GPS and echo sounder (FURUNO, JAPAN). The sensor deployment
method was determined from the practicable and vertical structure of sea water parameters.
Below Figure shows the profiling measurement of water temperature, conductivity (to
calculate salinity) and depth or CTD using CASTAWAY (YSI, USA) during the
reconnaissance survey.
Various hydrographic and water quality automatic data logging sensors were deployed for
over than three weeks at several representative pre-determined offshore locations close to
the Plant. This is to monitor the temporal changes of hydrographic (water level, current
velocity,

salinity,

temperature,

seawater

density)

and

water

quality

(Chlorophyll-a

concentration, Dissolved oxygen concentration, pH) parameters. The sensors were either
attached to moored chain at different depths at moored submerged buoys (one sensor was
tied to a navigation tower close to the Plants intake structure) or fixed to the sea bottom by
stainless steel frame. The deployment period is 15 days during January to February 2013
covering spring and neap tides. Sample collection and the sensor deployment methodology
and the coordinates and depths are provided in Table 2-2. Details of sensors, corresponded
measuring parameters, sampling interval and deployment methods are provided in Table 23,. and Figure 2- 2 to 2-4.

Figure 2-2-Profiling measurement of CASTAWAY-CTD close to the Plants Offshore

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Table 2-2: Details of continuous measurement station


Station Name

Latitude

Longitude

Descriptions

Intake

28 42.242'

48 23.381'

Outfall*

28 41.692'

48 22.996'

Inter-depth *

28 41.577'

48 24.232'

AAQ measurement. Surface water


sampling

Sta. 1

28 43.848'

48 23.918'

AAQ measurement. Surface water


sampling

Sta. 2

28 42.811'

48 23.224'

AAQ measurement. Surface water


sampling

Sta. 3

28 40.829'

48 23.609'

AAQ measurement. Surface water


sampling

Sta. 4

28 42.807'

48 24.416'

AAQ measurement. Surface water


sampling

Deployment of ADCP, WLL, ACTW,


AAQ measurement. Surface water
sampling
Deployment of ADCP, WLL, ACTW,
AAQ measurement. Surface water
sampling

Table 2-3: List of automatic data logging sensor deployed offshore of AZS Power
Plant area
Name of
Instrument
(Manufacturer)

Measuring parameters

Sampling
Interval

Deployment method

Acoustic Doppler
Current Profiler
(Teledyne RD
Instruments, USA)

Vertical distribution of flow


velocity, water depth, close to
the sensor water temperature

10 minutes

Sea bottom mouth


with stainless steel
frame

YSI 6600 V2 Sonde


( YSI, USA)

Water depth, water temperature,


salinity, dissolved oxygen conc.,
Chlorophyll-a conc., pH

10 minutes

Attached to the
mooring chain close
to water surface

ACTW-USB (JFE
Advantech, JAPAN)

Water temperature and salinity

10 minutes

Attached to the
mooring chain

HOBO-WLL
(Onset, USA)

Water level, water temperature

5 minutes

Attached to the
mooring chain

MicroCAT CTD
(Seabird
Electronics, USA)

Salinity, water temperature,


depth

5 minutes

Attached to the
mooring chain and
navigation tower.

Note: Current data and tidal level time series details, water and sediment sample results are
presented in Section 2.5 to 2.7.

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Figure 2-3: Overall sensor deployment methodology.and measurement

Figure 2-4: Pictures during sensor retrieval activities by professional divers

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2.3.

E COLOGICAL

SURVEY

The marine ecological survey would require field visits and diving to classify the study area
zone. Minimum five stations close to the proximity of the effluent outlet of Thermal Power
Plant and desalination Plant were planned for survey. The survey method adopted was
underwater video survey for benthic cover and line survey for pelagic organisms. It was found
that the immediate visual count (slate method) was superior to video recording in inventorying
fish assemblages. Marine food chain dynamics and energy flows in marine ecosystems (in
the water column/pelagic and the bottom layer/benthos), benthic-pelagic coupling; coral reefs,
is the mission of the department of Aquaculture, Fisheries and Marine Environment (AFMAD).
The ecological surveys were carried out in the same area of water and sediment samples and
relevant pictures were taken. Figure 2-5 shows the Snapshots during the ecological survey.

Figure 2-5: Snapshots of ecological survey activities

2.4.

M ETEOROLOGICAL

SURVEY

Meteorological survey derived data from KISRs Kuwait National Meteorological Network
(KNMN) at AZS Power Station. The station is based on a 10m tower and has the following
components:- wind speed cup-type sensors at 10m heights (Uncertainty: 1.5%), one wind
direction vane-type sensor at 10m height (Uncertainty: 5o), one pyranometer for solar
radiation (Uncertainty: 5%), combined relative humidity and temperature sensors
(capacitive/resistive type sensor) with solar shield (Uncertainty: 2%RH, 0.1oC),
atmospheric pressure sensor (Uncertainty: 1.35mBar / 1.25% FS), rainfall tipping-bucket
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type sensor (Uncertainty: 1%), evaporation gauge with auto-refill feature (Uncertainty:
0.25%). It has an underground water tank with an internal pump to keep the water level in the
evaporation pan constant at 200mm. The refilling process is controlled by software and it
takes place daily at midnight. A 35W solar panel is used to charge a 12V standard lead-acid
battery buried underground. The battery supplies the water pump as well as the sensors and
the data logger with electricity. Figure 2-6 shows the location of AZS Power Station (Ras AzZoor) and picture of the measurement tower.

Figure 2-6: Location of Kuwait National Meteorological Network station at Ras Az-Zoor
(KISR Station)

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2.5.

S AMPLE A NALYSIS

2.5.1

Seawater Analysis

Present study carried out the water and sediment samplings to study the spatial and temporal
data. There are two sampling schemes applied i.e. the synoptic samplings and daily
samplings. The synoptic sampling collect near-surface and near-bottom water sample and
bottom sediment at spring and neap tide. During the daily sampling collected the surface
water sample at the AZS Power Plants intake structure once a day for 15 consecutive days.
From 17th January 2013 to 3rd February 2013, continuous once-a-day measurement of water
depth, water temperature and salinity and surface water sampling was carried out for 15 days.
Water samples were immediately transferred to five 1-litter plastic bottles for separate
analysis of Na, Ca, Total alkalinity, Mg, Cl, Dissolved and total Macro-nutrient, Chlorophyll-a
concentration and total suspended sediment. All bottles were immediately stored in the dark
ice chest and delivered to NAPESCO laboratory on the same day. The survey was done at
the middle of the inside bridge at the AZS Power Plants intake structure at latitude 29
34.904'N longitude 48 12.095'E.
Along with the vertical profiling measurements during synoptic survey, the water sampling
close to the surface and bottom of the water column using Niskin-Bottle Sampler were carried
out. Locations of the pre-determined synoptic station names, coordinates and depth of the
stations are given in Table 2-4. Figure 2-7 shows some snapshots during the water sampling.
Table 2-5 provides natures of the samples and target parameters analyzed by NAPESCO
Sediment grain size analysis of sediment samples was analyzed by Gulf Inspection
Company, Kuwait.
Table 2-4: Details of water sampling during spring and neap tide survey
Station name

Latitude (N)

Longitude (E)

Depth

Sensor deployment

Intake

28 42.242'

48 23.381'

4.5

Yes

Outfall*

28 41.692'

48 22.996'

3.8

Yes

Inter-depth *

28 41.577'

48 24.232'

7.5

Yes

Sta. 1

28 43.848'

48 23.918'

6.5

Yes

Sta. 2

28 42.811'

48 23.224'

Yes

Sta. 3

28 40.829'

48 23.609'

Yes

Sta. 4

28 42.807'

48 24.416'

Yes

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Table 2-5: Synoptic survey summary and parameters for water quality analysis
Synoptic

Synoptic near-surface
15 samples
Nitrate

(NO3-N),

Ammonia

near-

Daily sampling at the

bottom

intake structure

15 samples

15 samples

(NH4-N),

NO3-N,

NH4-N,

Sodium (Na), Calcium

Orthophosphate (PO4-P), Silicate (SiO2-

PO4-P,

SiO2-Si,

(Ca), Magnesium (Mg),

Si), Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus

TN, TP, DO, TSS,

Total alkalinity, Chloride

(TP), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TpH),

Turbidity

(Cl),

NO3-N,

NH4-N,

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)., Total Suspended

PO4-P, SiO2-Si, TN, TP,

Solid (TSS), Iron (Fe),

DO, TSS and Turbidity

Aluminium (Al),

Chromium (Cr), Nikle (Ni), Molybdenum


(Mo), Copper (Cu)

Note: Refer section 3 for results and Appendix B for complete data

Figure 2-7: Water sampling using NISKIN Bottle sampler for near-surface and nearbottom water samples and labelling

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Figure 2-8: Locations and snapshots of the daily measurement of water temperature,
salinity and depth, surface water sampling at the AZS Power Plants offshore.

2.5.2

Water temperature and salinity

New Baseline observation data suggested that the water temperature and variations of
seawater salinity are in the range of 17.5 to 19.5C, and 41.9 to 42.9 ppt at surface without
much variation with depth for most of the stations. However, the variations are sharp after
surface level at the intake and outfall and station no. 3 (near Al Khiran). Figure below shows
the measurements of water temperature measurements of salinity in time-series at stations in
the vicinity of the plant as well as at offshore station. Fluctuations were observed in water
quality parameters such as Chlorine, Sodium, Calcium, magnesium etc. during the 15 days
survey period. However, heavy metal concentrations not exhibited to have many variations.

Figure 2-9: Comparisons of the new measured water temperature at Intake Station,
Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and Offshore Station.

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Figure 2-10: Comparisons of the new measured salinity at Intake Station, InterDepth Station, Outfall Station and Offshore Station.

2.5.2.1 Results of water quality


Maximum and minimum water temperature measured at the outfall is 19.5degree Celsius and
17.5 degree Celsius, respectively. Maximum and minimum water temperature measured at
the offshore are 18.6 degree Celsius and 18.01.5 degree Celsius, respectively. Maximum and
minimum salinity measured at the offshore are 41.9 ppt and 42.9 ppt, respectively which is
approximately 0.8ppt compared to earlier summer period maximum salinty.
The seasonal variation of water temperature and salinity can be derived from the routine
measurement of Kuwait-EPA. Figure 2.11 shows the EPA recorded water quality parameters
in 2009. According to EPA data recoded in 2009 at Az-Zour, water temperature, salinity, and
pH ranged between 19.5- 32.1C, 36.1-42.7 ppt and 8.1-8.5, respectively (EPA, 2009),
showing levels within the acceptable limits of seawater quality criteria of Kuwait. In general,
Kuwaiti water temperature exhibits a distinct yearly pattern, with highest temperature
occurring in July-August and lowest in December-January (Al-Yamani et al., 2004). In terms
of salinity, two factors determine the annual variation of salinity in Kuwait waters. The first
factor is the freshwater input in the northern territorial waters (Shaat Al-Arab and the third
rivers) and to a lesser extends the local rainfall during the winter months. The second factor is
the intensive evaporation of seawater during the hot summer. Accordingly, there is a general
salinity decrease from December to June and increase in the following months.

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40

Other Parameters

12

35
10

30

25

20
15

10
2

Temperature and Salinity

45

14

0
Jan

Apr

May

Jun

Temperature C
pH
Chlorophyll-a (mg/m3)
PHC's (g/l)

Aug

Oct

Dec

Salinity %
DO (mg/l)
TOC (mg/l)
TSS (mg/l)

Figure 2-11: Water quality parameters recorded at EPA monitoring station


at Az-Zour in 2009.

2.5.3

Phytoplankton abundant (Chlorophyll-a concentration)

Chlorophyll-a concentration is an indicator of phytoplankton abundant since phytoplankton


contain chlorophyll-a in their bodies for the photosynthesis activities. The more chlorophyll-a
concentration means the more phytoplankton as the main primary producer in the marine
environment. Results from the field measurement and analysis of water samples indicate that
the phytoplankton abundant at Az-Zour area during the survey time is relatively low. The
results correlate well with Kuwait-EPA results indicating that the Chlorophyll-a concentration
range approximately between undetectable limit to 1.7 g/L. This range is relatively low
compared to mean Chlorophyll-a concentration ranges 10-16 g/L in the proximity of Kuwait
Bay (Al-Yamani et al, 2004). From the observation during this baseline survey, the
concentration is lowest (0.405 mg/l) at the Az-Zour South Plants outfall suggesting that the
discharged water contain less chlorophyll-a concentration compared to the ambient seawater.
This might causes by the unfavorable conditions (warmer and saltier) of discharged water.
Figure 2-12 and Figure 2-13 shows the chlorophyll-a concentrations from laboratory analysis

of water samples. Figure

2-14 shows observed horizontal distribution of chlorophyll-a

concentration derived from the in-situ measurements using multi-parameter water quality
profiler and figure 2-15 presents the comparison of residual chlorophyll a concentration from
simulated results.

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Chlorophyll concentration at AZS Power Plant Intake from 15 days daily sampling
0.78

0.78

0.776

Chlorophyll- a

ppb

0.617
0.579

0.572

0.542

0.542

11

12

0.557

0.516
0.492
0.475
0.453
0.418

0.406

0.4
1

10

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Figure 2-12: Chlorophyll-a concentration from laboratory analysis of water


sample taken at Az-Zour South Plants Intake location
Chlorophyll-a concentration (mg/m3)
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

0
1
2

Depth (m)

Sta.1
Sta.2
Sta.4
Sta.3
Sta.InterDepth
Sta.Outfall
Sta.Intake

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Figure 2-13: Comparisons of the new measured Chlorophyll-a concentration at


Intake Station, Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and station 1- 4 at AZS power
plant during the month of January 2013.

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Neap tide

Spring tide

Chl-a conc. at Surface (g/L)

Chl-a conc. at Surface (g/L)

Figure 2-14: Existing measured Chlorophyll-a concentration at neap and spring tide

Neap tide

Spring tide
5

x 10

Chlorophyllaconc.

3.182

Chlorophyllaconc.

3.182

4.5

4.5

3.181
3.181

3.18

3.5

3.5

3.179

3.178

2.5

3.177

3.176

1.5

3.175

y coordinate

y coordinate

3.18

3.179

3.178

2.5

3.177

1.5

3.176

1
3.175

0.5

0.5

3.174

3.174

2.44

2.45

2.46
2.47
x coordinate

2.48

2.49

2.5

2.44

x 10

2.45

2.46

2.47
x coordinate

2.48

2.49

2.5
5

x 10

Figure 2-15: Comparisons of close-to-the-surface simulated tidal residual chlorophyll-a


concentration
(Distributions between spring and neap tide, Source: NAPESCO REPORT -2011).

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2.5.4

Dissolved Oxygen

Kuwait waters are generally oxygenrich. However, several factors may affect DO
levels in water including temperature, depth, and time of day, wind, currents,
biological productivity, and anthropogenic waste effluent. It is expected that high DO
levels be associated with peak primary production rates in autumn and low levels
associated with organic matter degradation or low mixing of the water column
especially during the hot and calm summer months (Al-Yamani et al., 2004).
In-situ measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) were carried out in the present study
during January to February 2013. It was found that the dissolved oxygen was rich at
Az-Zour area. The measured values ranges from 7.39 mg/L to 7.61 mg/L in
concentration and ranges from 101% to 105% in percentage of saturation at surface.
The time-series of dissolved oxygen concentration and calculated percentage of
saturation is given in Figure 2.16 The horizontal distribution of measured dissolved
oxygen concentration at spring and neap tide at near-surface and near-bottom value
are shown in Figure 17 and Figure 18.
Kuwait like a number of other countries and territories (Egypt, Hong Kong, US) has
set a minimum standard of 4 mg/l or 90% saturation, whichever is higher, for marine
water quality. The levels of DO at the vicinity of Az-Zour South Plant shown by the
aforementioned study were above this limit.

Data from KISRs previous studies

indicate that the high level of DO was supported by low BOD-5 concentration
measured in water at the vicinity of the AZS DPP (average 2 mg/l). Relatively
healthy streams will have a 5-d reading of less than 2 mg/l, whereas, polluted
streams may approach 10 mg/l.
Water quality standards for Marine Water in Different Countries are presented in
Table 2.6

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Sta.1
Sta.2
Sta.4
Sta.3
Sta.InterDepth
Sta.Outfall
Sta.Intake

Figure 2-16: Comparisons of the new measured Dissolved Oxygen in percent at Intake
Station, Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and station 1 to 4 at AZS power plant
during the month of January 2013.

Sta.1
Sta.2
Sta.4
Sta.3
Sta.InterDepth
Sta.Outfall
Sta.Intake

Figure 2-17: Comparisons of the new measured Dissolved Oxygen concentration at


Intake Station, Inter-Depth Station, Outfall Station and station 1- 4 at AZS power plant
during the month of January 2013.

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Near-surface DO conc.(mg/L)

Near-surface DO conc. (mg/L)

Near-bottom DO conc. (mg/L)

Near-bottom DO conc. (mg/L)

Figure 2-18: Existing Horizontal distribution of measured near-surface and near-bottom


dissolved oxygen concentration at neap and spring tide (Source-NAPESCO Report
2011).

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Table 2-6: Water Quality Standards for Marine Water in Different Countries
* (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2010)

Substance/
Parameter

Country
Egypt
Hong Kong

Temperature

South Africa

Standard
5 C above
mean annual
2 C above
mean annual
10C above
mean annual

Canada
Kuwait
Salinity

Hong Kong

Kuwait

< 10%
fluctuation
33-42 ppt

Egypt

4mg/l

Hong Kong

4 mg/l

US (Los
Angeles)

90% of
natural value

Canada

> 8 mg/l

Kuwait

> 4 mg/l

US (EPA)

13 g/l
(limit value)
7.5 g/l
(target value)

Kuwait

0.5 mg/l

Hong Kong

< 30%

Kuwait

32.8 mg/l

Canada

Dissolved Oxygen

Chlorine

Suspended Solids

Copper

Chloroform

10%

US EPA

Remarks

Change due to waste discharge


not to exceed 20C
Not to exceed 1 C
10 C in industrial discharge
water
Change due to waste discharge
not to exceed 10% of natural
ambient level

At all times

Limit value: maximum


concentration for peak exposure
(short-term)
Target value: maximum
concentration for continuous
exposure
Permissible concentration in
discharge : 0.5 mg/l
Waste discharge not to raise the
natural ambient level by 30% nor
cause the accumulation of
suspended solids which may
adversely affect aquatic
communities

4.8 g/l

For brief exposure

3.1 g/l

For long-term exposure

Mediterranea
n Sea

8 g/l

Kuwait

15.5 g/l

UK

12 g/l

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Annual average conc. of


chloroform in water affected by
discharge must not exceed 12 ug/l

Page 57 of 125
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3.4 Total Chloride, Hardness and Alkalinity


The present study observed the concentrations of total chloride and alkalinity at the surface
water at Az-Zour Plants intake by laboratory analysis of surface water samples. The samples
taken for 15 consecutive days during January 2013 the survey result were presented in figure
2-19. Results show that the chloride concentrations range between 22100 mg/L and 24300
mg/L. The total alkalinity concentrations range between 114 mg/L and 131 mg/L. Averaged
observed chloride concentration was 22840 mg/L and averaged observed total alkalinity was
122 mg/L.
The observed values are within the mean alkalinity of Kuwait water reported by Al-Yamani et
al. (2004). It is to be noted that the brine coming directly out of the plant has usually higher
concentration of total chloride, total hardness, and total alkalinity. However, these
concentrations are lowered when the effluent is mixed and diluted with seawater at the outfall
point (Ali et al., 2009). Typical Kuwait seawater contains 23,000 mg/l chloride, 142 mg/l
bicarbonate and 45,000 mg/l total dissolved solids.
Chloride Concentration at AZS power plant Intake
24500

24300

24000

mg/L

23500

23400

23200

23000

22900
22500

22500

22700

23000 22900

22700
22300

22200

22000

23400
22500

22500
22100

21500
21000
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

130

129

No of days in January 2013

Total Alkalinity Concentration at AZS Power plant Intake

140
131

mg/L

130

130
127

120

123

120

122

121
116

115

114

126

115

114

110
100
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Figure 2-19: Observed chloride and total alkalinity concentrations from laboratory
analysis of water samples taken from Az-Zour South Plant for 15 consecutive days
(January-February 2013.

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The observed values are within the mean alkalinity of Kuwait water reported by Al-Yamani et
al. (2004). It is to be noted that the brine coming directly out of the plant has usually higher
concentration of total chloride, total hardness, and total alkalinity. However, these
concentrations are lowered when the effluent is mixed and diluted with seawater at the outfall
point (Ali et al., 2009). Typical Kuwait seawater contains 23,000 mg/l chloride, 142 mg/l
bicarbonate and 45,000 mg/l total dissolved solids. Table 2-7 provides comparison of the
major ions of seawater in Arabian Gulf in Kuwait and in other regions.
Table 2-7: Major Ion Composition of Seawater (mg/l) (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2010)

Typical Seawater

Eastern
Mediterranean

Arabian Gulf at
Kuwait

Red Sea at

Chloride (Cl-)

18.980

21.200

23.000

22.219

Sodium (Na+)

10.556

11.800

15.850

14.255

Sulfate (SO42-)

2.649

2.950

3.200

3.078

Magnesium (Mg2+)

1.262

1.403

1.765

742

Calcium (Ca2+)

400

423

500

225

Potassium (K+)

380

463

460

210

Bicarbonate(HCO3-)

140

142

146

Strontium (Sr2+)

13

Bromide (Br-)

65

155

80

72

Borate (BO33-)

26

72

Fluoride (F-)

Silicate (SiO32-)

1,5

Iodide (I-)

<1

34.483

38.600

45.000

41.000

Ion

Others
Total dissolved solids
(TDS)

Jeddah

Note: The dot (.) separates thousands


The comma (,) separates decimals

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2.5.5

Suspended Solids and Turbidity

The present study measured the variability of total suspended solid and turbidity (indicator for
water transparency) at AZS power Plants intake, by laboratory analysis of surface water
samples. Results show that the total suspended solids between 3mg/L and 9 mg/L (Figure 220). Turbidity ranges between 1.964 NTU to 2.415 NTU (Figure 2-120). Figure 2- and 2-22
show the horizontal distribution of observed near-surface and near-bottom total suspended
solid taken at neap and spring tide present data. Observed average concentration of total
suspended solids was 7 mg/L and average turbidity was 2 NTU.
The mean turbidity value for Kuwaits water is 32.6 NTU, with a minimum of 0.1 NTU and
maximum of 458.1NTU. Turbidity is extremely low in AZS plant area (mean 150 NTU, range
of 30.3- 458.1 NTU), it drops dramatically toward the north to south (mean 5.7 NTU, range of
4.4 10.7 NTU).

10

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) at AZS Power Plant Intake

8
8

7
6

mg/L

6
4

4
3

2
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Turbitity at AZS Power plant's Intake


2.75

2.5

2.415

2.397

2.397

NTU

2.303

2.275

2.247

2.25

2.228
2.153

2.141
2

2.022

2.2

2.172

14

15

2.046
1.964

1.75
3

10

11

12

13

No of days in January 201

Figure 2-20: Observed total suspended solids and turbidity concentration from
laboratory analysis of water samples taken from AZS plant area (baseline scenario)

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Near-surface TSS (mg/L)


Neap tide

Near-surface TSS (mg/L)


Spring tide

Near-bottom TSS (mg/L)


Neap tide

Near-bottom TSS (mg/L)


Spring tide

Figure 2-21: horizontal distribution of observed near-surface and near-bottom total


suspended solid taken at neap and spring tide. (Baseline scenario)

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Near-surface turbidity

Neap tide

Near-surface turbidity

Spring tide

Near-bottom turbidity

Neap tide

Near-bottom turbidity

Spring tide

Figure 2-22: Horizontal distribution of measured near-surface and near-bottom


turbidity in FTU at neap and spring tide (Baseline scenario)

2.5.6

Nutrients

Low nutrient concentration was observed at AZS coastal and offshore area. Observed nitrate
concentration for laboratory analysis of water samples were between 0.18 - 0.24 mg/L;
ammonium concentration from 0.03 0.06 mg/l and undetectable concentration orthophosphate concentration (< 0.01 mg P/L). Silicate concentration ranged from 0.17-0.27 mg

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Si/L. The total nitrogen and total phosphate concentration ranges from 0.29-0.44 mg N/L and
0.01-0.03 mg P/L, respectively. Figure 2-23 and 2-24 provide the results of total nitrogen and
total phosphate concentration measured from the water samples collected near the plants
intake during a 15 consecutive days sampling.
Ammonia is produced by the decomposition of organic nitrogen-containing compounds. The
mean concentration of ammonium in Kuwaits water is 1.38 g-at/l, with a typical range of 0.0
(undetectable concentration) g-at/l to 30.31 g-at/l. ammonium concentrations are extremely
episodic, but most of the pulses are in the spring. Nitrate is a plant nutrient and inorganic
fertilizer found in abundance in agricultural fertilizer, manure, industrial waste waters, animal
feed lots and in garbage dumps. Mean nitrate concentration in kuwaits waters is 2.21 g-at/l
with a range of 0.0 g-at/l (undetectable concentration) to 27.1 g-at/l. In general, nitrate
concentration in the spring is usually higher than the other periods due to the impact of
nutrient-rich fresh water discharge into kuwaits northern waters. Mean silicate concentration
is 12.81 g-at/l. with a range of 0.0 (undetectable concentration, especially in the offshore
southern deep waters) to 51.50 (undetectable concentration)g-at/l (in northern and inshore
waters).In general, silicate concentration exhibits a decreasing trend in a southerly direction.
Mean phosphate concentration is 0.35 g-at/l, with a range of 0.0 g-at/l (undetectable
concentration) to 5.73 g-at.l. High phosphate concentrations are usually recorded during the
spring period (March-May) in the northern waters. Generally, sporadic pulses occur
throughout the year in the Khor Al-SAbbiya area, north of Failaka Island and Kuwait bay.
Horizontal distribution of Ammonia, Nitrate, Silicate concentration at the near surface waters
during neap tide and spring tide events observed around the AzZour South power station
location are illustrated in Figure 2.25 and 2.26.

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Ammonia Nitrogen as N

0.1

0.075

mg/L

0.06

0.06
0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.06 0.06

0.06
0.05
0.04

0.04

0.04
0.03

0.03

0.03

0.025

0
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Nitrate as N

0.25

0.24

0.24
0.23
0.22

0.225

0.21

mg/L

0.2

0.21

0.21
0.2

0.2

0.2

0.19

0.19

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.175
0.15
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013


Silica as SiO2
0.3
0.27

mg/L

0.26

0.25
0.24

0.23

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.22

0.21

0.2

0.19

0.23

0.21

0.2

0.17

0.18

0.14
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in Jan 2013

Figure 2-23: Observed Ammonia, Nitrate and silica concentrations from laboratory
analysis of water samples taken from AZS plant outfall.

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Total Nitrogen
0.5
0.44
0.38

mg/L

0.4

0.39

0.39
0.33

0.29

0.3

0.38

0.35

0.43

0.43

0.42
0.41

0.38

0.34

0.3

0.2
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Phosphate
0.04
0.03

0.03

mg/L

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

14

15

0.01

0
1

10

11

12

13

No of days in January 2013

Figure 2-24: Observed Total Nitrogen and Phosphate concentrations from laboratory
analysis of water samples taken from AZS power plant outfall.

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Near-surface ammonia (mg/L)

Near-surface nitrate (mg/L)

Near-surface phosphate (mg/L)

Near-surface silicate (mg/L)

All < 0.01

Figure 2-25: horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of


ammonia, nitrate, phosphate and silicate taken at neap tide

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Near-surface ammonia (mg/L)

Near-surface nitrate (mg/L)

Near-surface phosphate (mg/L)

Near-surface silicate in (mg/L)

All > 0.01

Figure 2-26: Horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of


ammonia, nitrate, phosphate and silicate taken at spring tide.

2.5.7

Major Components

Six elements (chloride, sodium, magnesium, sulphate, calcium and potassium) constitute over
90% of the total salts dissolved in the oceans. Observed magnesium concentration from
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laboratory analysis of water samples conducted for 15 synoptic survey were between 1205 to
1545mg/L, sodium concentration between 12400 to 13200 mg/l, and Calcium were between
374 to 508 mg/L (Figure 2-27). The concentration of Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium
reported by earlier studies are shown in Figure 2-28.

Sodium
13500
13200
13000

13000

13000

12800

12700 12800

mg/L

12800

12700

12700

12700
12600
12400

12500

12500

12400

12400

12000
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Calcium

520

508

503

480

mg/L

470

460

420

420
401

389

381

375

370

390

388

384

376

374

374

320
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Magnesium
1600

1545

mg/L

1500

1535

1435

1400
1325

1345

1315 1345

1305 1318

1300

1295

1315

1305

1305
1235

1205
1200
1100
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in to January 2013

Figure 2-27 Observed Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium concentrations from


laboratory analysis of water samples taken from AZS power plant outfall.

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Figure 2-28: Major Constituents of sea water (Al-Yamani et al., 2004).

2.5.8

Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

In general, heavy metal concentrations at AZS marine area are reported below the EPA
seawater quality criteria. The iron (Fe) concentrations ranged 0.22-0.32 mg/L. The copper
(Cu) concentrations ranged 0.049 0.055 mg/L. The nickel (Ni) concentrations ranged 0.160.23 mg/L. Figure 2-29 show the Iron, Copper and Nickel concentrations from laboratory
analysis of water samples taken from AZS power station coastal area, where as their
horizontal distribution during spring and neap tide is presented in Figure 2.30 and 2.31. No
marked changes in concentration are observed for these parameters between spring and
neap tide events.

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Iron

0.35

0.31
0.29

0.3

mg/L

0.26
0.23

0.25

0.31

0.29

0.28
0.22

0.25

0.32
0.29

0.27
0.25

0.23

0.21

0.2
0.15
0.1
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Copper

0.07

mg/L

0.06

0.054

0.05

0.054
0.05

0.049

0.052

0.055
0.051

0.055 0.054
0.05

0.053
0.049 0.05

0.05

0.049

14

15

0.04
0.03
1

10

11

12

13

No of days in January 2013

Nickel

0.3

0.25
mg/L

0.21

0.23

0.22

0.23

0.2

0.19

0.2

0.23

0.22

0.21

0.2

0.18

0.18

0.22

0.18

0.16
0.15
0.1
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

No of days in January 2013

Figure 2-29: Observed Iron, Copper and Nickel concentrations from laboratory analysis
of water samples taken from AZS plant.

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Near-surface copper (Cu)


concentration (mg/L)

Near-surface iron (Fe)


concentration (mg/L)
Neap tide

Neap tide

Near-surface nickel (Ni)


concentration (mg/L)
Neap tide

Figure2-30: Horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of Iron (Fe),


Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) taken at neap tide (Baseline Scenario)

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Near-surface copper (Cu)


concentration (mg/L)

Near-surface iron (Fe)


concentration (mg/L)
Spring tide

Spring tide

Near-surface nickel (Ni)


concentration (mg/L)
Spring tide

Figure 2-31: Horizontal distribution of observed near-surface concentration of Iron (Fe),


Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) taken at spring tide (Baseline Scenario)

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2.6.

S EDIMENT Q UALITY A NALYSIS

The bottom sediments were collected from the same locations of water sample collection
using Van veen grab. Sediments from some of the stations are in the form of remains of
clamps and forams and hence no chemical analysis could be done.

2.6.1

Grain size and classes

Figure shows some pictures during the sediment sampling and sieve analysis. The samples

were split into two parts for the sediment grain size analysis and for the chemical analysis.
The sediment parts for chemical analysis were immediately stored in dark ice chest. The
sediment parts for the sediment grain size analysis were oven dried at 120 degree Celsius for
period longer than 12 hours and undertaken sieving experiment for grin size distribution follow
ASTM standard.
Grain size of the bottom sediments is a good indicator of the mechanism of deposition. Fine
particles are generally deposited as a result of suspension mechanism of deposition. The
deposition of coarse particles, on the other hand, is due to the effect of tidal and/or waveinduced currents. The type of sorting is related to the degree of effect of one or more types of
forces that have effects on the area. The type of bottom sediments and sorting has an
implication on the degree of adsorption of pollutants on such materials. It has been
established that finer sediments have more potential to adsorbed pollutants (due to their
surface tension) compared to coarser materials (Massoud et al., 1996; Al-Ghadban et al.,
1994). Intensive grain size analyses were carried out in the KISRs previous studies. Field
data in May 2010 from Al-Hulail et al. (2010) are taken from 18 offshore stations for sediment
grain size analysis.

Figure 2-32: Sea bed sediment collection and sieve analysis (AZS area).

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Figure

2-33 and 2-34 shows the analysis results for seabed sediment samples and

comparison of sediment grain size between stations. Results of the collected bottom
sediments in the study area revealed the following:

The area is generally dominant with medium- and fine-sized sediments, followed by
very fine sediments.

Four zones of sediment size can be identified i.e. finest sediment (Sta.4), fine to
coarse well-sorted sediment (Station Outfall, Intake and Station 3), coarser sediment
(Station Inter-depth, Station3) and Poorly sorted coarsest sediment (Station 1 and
Station Offshore).

Finest sediment has mean grain size (d50) of around 0.22 mm. The fine to coarse
sediment has d50 of around 0.4 mm. The coarser sediment has d50 of around 0.9
mm and the coarsest sediment has d50 of around 1.5 mm.

The current distribution of the bottom sediments and the nature of sorting imply that the area
is generally influenced by tidal and wave-induced currents. The lack of finer material supports
the forcing of such mechanism of deposition. It also indicates that the area is very dynamic
and does not allow the deposition of very fine sediments. Such system would enhance the
ability of pollutants dilution from the water and also the bottom sediments of the studied area.
Chemical analysis of seabed sediments is presented in table below. The results show that the
concentrations of analyzed parameters are similar to levels reported in previous studies in the
AzZour area (NAPESCO Report no. 1402/11/007).
Comparison of Sediment Grain Size Distribution from All Station
100

90

80

Passing percent (%)

70

60

50

40
Intake
Fig. 88 Comparison of sediment grain size distribution between every station
Outfall

30

InterDepth
Offshore
20

Sta.1
Sta.2
Sta.3

10

Sta.4
0
0.01

0.1

10

Grain size (mm)

Figure 2-33 Comparison of sediment grain size distribution between every station

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Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Outfall

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Intake

100

100

90

90

80

80

60
50

70
Passing percent (%)

Passing percent (%)

70

d50 = 0.4
mm

40
30

50
40
30

20

20

10

10

0
0.01

0.1

d50 = 0.5
mm

60

0
0.01

10

0.1

Grain size (mm)

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at InterDepth


100

90

90

80

80
70
Passing percent (%)

Passing percent (%)

70

50

d50 = 0.9
mm

40
30

60
50

30
20

10

10

0.1

0
0.01

10

d50 = 1.5
mm

40

20

0
0.01

0.1

Grain size (mm)

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Sta. 1

90

90

80

80
70
Passing percent (%)

Passing percent (%)

70

d50 = 1.02
mm

40

60
50

30

20

20

10

10

0.1

0
0.01

10

d50 = 0.8
mm

40

30

0
0.01

0.1

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Sta. 3


100

90

90

80

80
70
Passing percent (%)

Passing percent (%)

70

d50 = 0.5
mm

40
30

60
50

30
20

10

10

0.1

10

d50 = 0.22
mm

40

20

0
0.01

10

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Sta. 4

100

50

1
Grain size (mm)

Grain size (mm)

60

10

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Sta. 2


100

50

1
Grain size (mm)

100

60

10

Sediment Grain Size Analysis at Offshore

100

60

1
Grain size (mm)

0
0.01

Grain size (mm)

0.1

10

Grain size (mm)

Figure 2-34 Sediment grain size distribution and d50 of every station (Baseline
Scenario)

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Table 2-8: Sediment analysis results at Az-Zour South Power Plant

Parameter

Intake

Outfal

Inter

Station

Station

Station

Station

depth

Total Nitrogen

22.3

12.1

12.7

12.1

11.2

9.82

14.1

Total
Phosphorus

39.3

43.2

41.5

69.6

48.6

49.3

78.2

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

Arsenic

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

Aluminum as Al

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

Beryllium as Be

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

Cadmium as Cd

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

Chromium as Cr

10.8

12.8

11.3

11.6

11.3

10.8

8.49

Lead

12.2

12.7

13.7

12.3

13.4

13.2

9.06

<0.00

<0.00

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

Total Petroleum
Hydrocarbon
(TPH)

Mercury as Hg

<0.001

Selenium

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Silver as Ag

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

Iron as Fe

1350

1830

1640

2110

1690

1470

2280

Results are in mg/kg, Test method EPA SW 846 were used for laboratory analysis

2.6.2

Nutrients

Nutrient levels in sediment at the vicinity of Az-Zour are generally low. In the present study,
total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations showing in terms of horizontal distribution
are shown in Figure 2-35. The total nitrogen concentrations range 9-13 mg/L. The total
phosphorus concentrations range 40-90 mg/L. Ali et al. (2009) found that levels of phosphate
(PO4) measured in summer fluctuated between 3.53 and 27.47 g/g and in between 1.80 and
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12.60 g/g. in spring. In general, the distribution of PO4 showed an increase in front of the
outfall and near south of the plant. Relatively low concentration of total phosphorous (TP)
was also reported by Al-Ghadban et al. (2004) in the previous EIA study of Az-Zour. The
range was between 227- and 590- g/g dry weight where the highest concentrations were
found offshore. Al-Hulail et al. (2011) carried out field data in May 2010 and took marine
sediment samples from 18 offshore stations for nutrient analysis for Total Phosphorus (TP)
and Total Nitrogen (TN). Summary of the results are shown in

Table 2-9. The results

suggested that the TP in the sediment samples collected from the 18 stations at the vicinity of
Az-Zour showed relatively low concentrations. The low effect level indicated that the sediment
is clean to marginally polluted. When compared to other data reported in the literature, this
study results were found to be in the same or lower range than other areas around the world
(Table 2-10).

The values obtained for sediments at Az-Zour within the values reported in

these regions.

Total Nitrogen in Sediment (mg/L)

Total Phosphorus in Sediment (mg/L)

Figure 2-35: Horizontal distribution of observed total nitrogen (TN) and total
phosphorus (TP) from laboratory analysis of seabed sediment samples taken at neap
tide (Baseline Scenario)

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Table 2-9: Comparison of Total Phosphorous Concentrations in Different Marine


Sediment Areas (Source: Al-Hulail et al, 2010)
Study Area
Zhuyuan
Bailonggang
waters- China

and

Bay of Seine

Sediment
Nature

TP
(g/g)

2 cm thick bed
surface layer

652.17
(average)

TP
(mol/g)

Reference
Liu et. al., 2003

Sand

5-21

Andrieux and Aminot,


1997

Bohai Sea

Silt-clay

10-20

Liu et al., 2004

Yellow Sea

Silt-clay

7.5-18

Liu et al., 2004

Kuwait Bay, Kuwait

Silt

381-746

12.2-23.9

Gevao et al., 2008

Az-Zour, Kuwait

Sand-Fine sand

112.8-238.8

3.6-7.6

This study

Table 2-10: Comparison of Total Nitrogen Levels in Other Regions Worldwide (Source:
Al-Hulail et al, 2010)
Study Area

Sediment Nature

TN (%)

Reference

Salt marsh in the Yangtze

Surface sediment

0.014-0.09

Zhou et al., 2007

Shoreface sediment

0.1-1.3

Marchand et al., 2003

South Ras Az-Zour, Kuwait

Surface sediment

0.05- 0.07

El-Sammak et al., 2007

Vicinity

Surface Sediment

0.04- 0.13

This Study

Estuary- China
Mangrove

coast,

French

Guiana

of

Az-Zour

DPP,

Kuwait

2.6.3

Total Organic Carbons

TOC in the sediments at the vicinity of AZS DPP were reported low in measurements carried
out by Ali et al. (2009). The highest concentration levels recorded in summer and spring were
0.196% and 0.989%, respectively. However, these ranges agree within the values previously
reported in the EIA study for Az-Zour area by Al-Ghadban et al. (2004), and are generally
within the normal values for shallow marine environment.

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Al-Hulail et al. (2011) carried out field data in May 2010 and took marine sediment samples
from 18 offshore stations for nutrient analysis for Total Organic Carbon (TOC). TOC content
in sediment at the surveyed Az-Zour area was found low in the majority of the stations
ranging between 0.41 and 1.45 %, indicating relatively low contamination of sediment in the
area. These ranges agree with the values previously reported for AZS area by Ali et al. (2009)
and Al-Ghadban et al. (2004) and are within the normal values for shallow marine
environment. Concentration of 1% TOC was described as the limit for lowest effect level
(LEL) (i.e., sediment contamination that can be tolerated by the majority of benthic organism)
and 10% as the severe effect level (i.e., sediment contamination that would be detrimental to
the majority of benthic species) in the sediment quality guideline for the protection and
management of aquatic sediment quality in Ontario (Cette Publication technique, 1993).

2.6.4

Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Metals

Results of the sediment sample analysis in terms of heavy metal and total hydrocarbon
concentration carried out by present study are given in Fig. 2.36 and Fig. 2.37 respectively.
The arsenic (Ar), berlium, selenium (Se), silver (Ag) were found in the undetectable
concentrations (<0.01 mg/kg) and mercury (Hg) (<0.001 mg/kg). The cadmium (Cd)
concentrations range 1.5 mg/kg near intake and 1.7 mg/kg near outfall. The chromium (Cr)
concentrations range 8.2-11.8 mg/kg and is less in discharge location compared to intake.
The lead (Pb) concentrations range 9-15 mg/kg and Iron (Fe) concentrations range 10002400 mg/kg with low concentration near AZS marine area compared to farther distance.
Measured Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations range 10-65 mg/kg with low
concentration near AZS marine area compared to farther distance. The trend in variation of
Total phosphorus is similar to the TPH variation.
Sediments collected offshore near the Az-Zour have shown elevated concentrations of
petroleum-related and petroleum product-related contaminants including polyaromatic
hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and heavy metals such as vanadium (V),
chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) (Beg et al., 2001; Beg et al., 2003). These
may be deposited from industrial effluent discharges along the Shuaiba waterfront. However,
the previous EIA study carried out for Az-Zour (Al-Ghadban et al., 2004), TPH concentrations
in the Az-Zour sediments did not show elevated levels (ranging between 1.58 and 26.1 g/g
dry weight). These values are also in agreement with the recent study carried out by Ali et al.
(2009) at the vicinity of AZS plant reporting a TPH range between 0.86 and 33.7 g/g dry
weight. However, even with the highest concentration reported in this area, it could not be
considered as an elevated value when compared with the values published for different
regions along the Kuwaiti coast (Al-Majed et al., 2000; Anderlini et al., 1986).
The distribution pattern of the metals was similar where low levels were found around the
intake and outfall area of the existing DPP plant at Az-Zour and higher levels offshore, mainly
toward the northern region. This is in agreement with the previous EIA study carried out by Al-

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Ghadban et al. (2004) for the same marine area. In general, trace metal concentration are
within the limits described by Anderlini et al. (1986) and Al-Sarawi et al. (1999) for unpolluted
sediments.
Cadmium in Sediment (mg/kg)

Lead in Sediment (mg/kg)

Chromium in Sediment (mg/kg)

Iron in Sediment (mg/kg)

Figure 2-36: Horizontal distribution of observed cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead
(Pb) and Iron (Fe) from laboratory analysis of seabed sediment samples taken at neap
tide.
Total Phosphorus in Sediment (mg/L)

TPH in Sediment (mg/kg)

Figure 2-37: Horizontal distribution of observed Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPHs)


concentration

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2.7.

M ARINE E COLOGY

2.7.1

Benthic Marine Communities

Qualitative and quantitative surveys of epibenthic plants and animals were conducted in the
present study at the four selected stations by dive surveys. Epibenthic biota form the basis of
the study area productivity. The Al-Zour and the control area at north pole Umm Al-Marradim
reef was surveyed for recruitment of epibenthic organisms greater than 4 mm in diameter.
These were identified to the lowest possible taxon and sampled quantitatively. The four
selected stations was video surveyed and quadrants were taken for epibenthic biota.
Frame grabs from the video tape will be selected every 3 seconds. At each frame, 6 randomly
selected points were converted to benthic percentage cover (Table 2-11). Refer figure 2-38
and 2-39 for benthic communities and under water survey results at AzZour area.
Results suggested that the benthic marine communities are affected by the plume of
discharged water from the Az-Zour Plant. Results from the Outfall site indicate sandy
coverage with less marine life. The marine benthic communities are algae dominated at Interdepth and Intake site.
Ali et al. (2009) inspected sediment samples for marine benthic community at vicinity of the
Az-Zour Plant using the dredger and towing method. The coastal bottom communities in front
of the outfall showed low species composition and abundance. The main phyla identified were
solitary corals, sponges, mollusca, crustacean decapods, ascidians and sedentary
polychaetes that were identified on a rocky part of the bottom. The counts were being
estimated as percentage of the total count of all groups identifies. The solitary coral was
represented with one species (c.f. Scolymia sp.); while the molluscan community was
represented with the bivalve Brachidonotes sp.

On the other hand, the sedentary

polychaetes were represented by the sabella and diopatra sp. the polychaetes were also
represented by the calcareous tube feet spirorbis sp. The crustacean decapods were
represented by the specis c.f. eriphia sp. It can be stated that the benthic community at the
near shore area of Az-Zour area is of category II (i.e., its abundance is most probably about
30%).

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Table 2-11: Benthic percentage covers for the four study sites.
Umm Al-Maradem

Inter-depth

(Natural reef site)

site

Outfall site

Intake site

Benthic

Algae

3.70

14.18

43.04

Dead Coral

1.85

3.07

0.43

Favia

3.70

1.92

0.22

Porites

5.56

0.77

Rubble

79.63

16.09

3.04

Sea Anemone

1.85

Fan Coral

1.15

0.43

Sand

61.69

Sponge

0.38

Sea
Cucumber

1.85

Turbinaria

1.85
100.00

40.22
0.65

Bi-valve

1.09

Pearl Oyster

1.52

Sand Dollar

0.22

Sea grass

9.13

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Figure 2-38: Benthic marine communities from Az-Zour collected using the dredger.

Figure 2-39: Examples of underwater picture taken at Outfall and Offshore natural reef
station during benthic marine communities survey.

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2.7.2

Fish Community

Kuwaits marine area is rich in fish in terms of diversity and abundance. The distribution of the
juveniles of the most common fish within Kuwaits territorial waters is given by Al-Yamani et
al. (2004). The northern territorial waters including Kuwait Bay is known for some of the most
important species such as the zobidy where the warm and freshwater input draining from the
North Rivers provides a favorable environment for its breeding (Chen and Almatar, 2009).
Likewise, the distribution of other species of commercial value such as newaiby, hammor,
shaem, sheiry shows more abundance in the southern territorial waters including the offshore
waters of Az-Zour. Shrimp nursery grounds are also distributed in Kuwait Bay and the shallow
areas near the coast from Ras Al-Rdh to the southern border with Saudi Arabia. However, the
location of these species is far from the immediate outfall area, and therefore, is not expected
to be impacted by the effluent.
Species and number of fish-recruit surveys conducted at the four stations in the present
study; one as controle at north pole of Umm Al-Marradim reef and three at Az-Zour area.
Video and slate transect survey techniques were used moving slowly covering a total width of
5 m (mask view range), distinguishing adults from juveniles and to identify the species and
estimate their numbers at each station study sites, and observing physical structure of the
substrata. For data assurance, the species identification and number was visually recorded
(slate) by another diver, who was swimming in parallel fashion with the first diver. The results
showed that the presence of the Az-Zour area aggregated fish from the surrounding areas
such as Az-Zour patch reef (figure 2-40).

Figure 2-40: Example of underwater picture of fish species taken during fish
community survey.
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2.7.3

Macrofauna and Meiofauna.

Macrofauna and meiofauna are essential components of estuarine and coastal food web
which comprise an early step in the food web. A unique monitoring assessment for aquatic
macrofauna and meiofauna benthic habitats is based on the analyses of their communities of
diverse and abundant organisms that live in the interstices spaces between sediment
particles. They include species that are the last to disappear, as conditions deteriorate, and
the first to reappear as conditions improve again.

Their community structures allow

examination and description of changes from physical disturbance, nutrient status, altered
freshwater flows, and prevailing environmental conditions in sites contaminated with various
pollutants such as oils and petrochemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and other types of
pollution (i.e., thermal).
Ali et al. (2009) provided description of the macro fauna and meiofauna community at the
vicinity of AZS DPP surveyed in two seasons, i.e., spring (March 2007) and summer (August
2008). The macro fauna of the study area could be categorized into three main groups. The
first group is the active borrowers including most of the gastropods and free living worms, and
feeding on bottom detritus material where they digest the organic portion and discharge the
rest unchanged. The second group comprises the filter feeders which include bivalves and
sedentary polychaetes digesting small organic particles (detritus and plankton) through
filtration. The third group comprises the scrapers; small crustaceans feeding on organic
particles by scraping the surface of sand grains.
Table below lists the macro fauna species recorded in the vicinity of the plant. The average
number of species diversity varied between a minimum of 2 and 3 species recorded at
stations more than 1 km to the north and south of the existing DPP outfall and a maximum of
13 and 14 species recorded at stations located less than 500 m from the outfall which might
indicate different stressed areas due to probably some environmental impacts. For example,
statistical correlation coefficient determined between total abundance of macro and sediment
quality parameters at the study areas, indicated fairly good positive correlation between
phosphorous and total abundance of macrofuna (R2 =0.5740, Ali et al., 2009). Fig. 2.41 and
2.42 shows the spatial distribution of total meifouna at the surveyed area in the two seasons.
Examining the two figures below, it would reveal that total abundance was notably much
higher in spring than in summer. However, when compared to offshore area (i.e., control
station Az-Zour- 21 in upstream direction) the latter showed much higher species abundance
as compared to the inshore (i.e. at the vicinity of the outfall) in both seasons. These infer
some impacts on these communities living close to the outfall area. The meiofauna species
including nematodes, harpacticoidae, polychaetes and ostracods were highly represented in
all stations of AZS DPP marine area, while some crustacean groups (amphipods and
isopods) and oligochaetes were less documented. This pattern of distribution might be related
to food availability, type of the substrate, and the other environmental factors such as light,

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turbidity, and currents. Below table lists the recorded macrofauna near the AzZour South
power plant area. Spatial distribution of total abundance of macrofauna and meiofauna are
presented in figure 2-41 and 2-42.
Table 2-12: Species List of Macrofauna Recorded at the Vicinity of Az-Zour South DPP
(Source: Ali et al., 2009)
Polychaetes

Mollusca

Crustacea

Echinoderms

Nereis spp.

Bivalves

Amphipoda

Ophiactis sp.1

Ophelina sp.

Dosina sp.

Corophium sp.

Brissus sp.

Chaetopetrus sp.

Marcia sp.

Amphithoe sp.

Calypyaster sp.

Eunice sp.

Meretrix sp.

Glycera sp.

Brachidontes sp

Cumacea sp.

Chaetopetra sp

Mactra sp.

Iphinoe

Bryozoa

Spirorbis sp.

Pecten sp.

Cladocera sp.

Encrusting colonies

Syllis spp.

Gari roseus

Ceratoneries sp

Barbatia sp.

Phyllodocea sp.

Gastropods

Brown algae

Cirratulus sp.

Trochus sp.

Dictyota sp.

Ophelina sp.

Terebra sp.

Laurencia sp.

Spinculoid worm

Dentalium sp.

c.f. Hypnea

Perpulidae

Cerithium sp

c.f. Oscillatoria sp.

Chaetozone sp.

Bullaria sp.

c.f. Gelidinum sp.

Typosyllis sp.

Umbonium sp.

Oligochaeta spp

Cerithedia sp.
Thias savignyi

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Figure 2-41: Spatial distribution of total abundance of macrofauna at the vicinity of AzZour south desalination plant (top in summer 2007, bottom in spring 2008).

Figure 2-42: Spatial distribution of total abundance of meiofauna in the vicinity of AzZour south DPP (top in summer 2007; bottom in spring 2008).

2.8 C OASTAL M ORPHOLOGY AND S HORELINE D YNAMICS


2.8.1

Geomorphology of the Coast

AZS Power Plant in Kuwait draws seawater through an open channel intake structure for the
power Plant process and cooling purpose. The intake channel of 1400 m long, built during
1988-89, is jetting into a tidal inlet of about 4000 m wide and having Total Suspend Solids
(TSS) in the range of 300 to 750 mg. This location is also in the immediate vicinity of
Euphrates and Tigris river delta. During 1990-2003, the water and sediments from the
Mesopotamian marshlands in Iraq was systematically drained into the North-Western part of
the Arabian Gulf, where this power Plant is located. The drained marshland has brought a
large quantity of sediments into this area. The coastline around the power Plant has evolved
significantly during the last 18 years. Remote sensing technique is used to estimate the
magnitude of shore line changes around this site during 1989 to 2007. It is found that the
immediate vicinity around the AZS Power Plant intake area has sediment accretion to the
extent of 1000 to 1400 m. Kuwait is planning a mega coastal township around this area.
Coastal morphology and coastal features is shown in Figure 2-43 to 2-46.
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Figure 2-43: Location of the coastal morphology studied area


(Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2004)

2.8.2

Coastline Dynamics

In general, coastline dynamics are results of wave dynamics at each location. The coastline
dynamics as well as wave dynamics are not to be affected by the development of new
proposed 500MW OCGT Power Project at AZS power plant area. This is because the new
project will utilize the existing coastal structure of the AZS Power Plant hence does not
changes the wave transformation pattern at the AZS Power Project. Therefore, description of
the coastline dynamics was done using data from KISRs modeling studies in these areas.
Figure 2-44 and 2.45 shows the shoreline positions at AZS Power Plant, Kuwait.

The intake structure of the power plant was constructed around 1983. If the breakwaters of
the intake structures had a significant impact on the shoreline, it should have been clearly
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visible in the shoreline migration around the intake from 1986-2001. The fact that in this
period no significant shoreline trend could be observed north or south of the intake is an
indication that the interrupted sediment transport was small. In the case of significant
sediment transport in this period of 15 yr a clear trend of beach build up would have been
visible at one side of the intake and of erosion at the other. it is therefore concluded that the
net long shore sediment transport along the central part of the considered coastal cell is
small. The promontory of Ras Az-Zour is a relatively dynamic part of the coast. The
promontory shape could have been caused by the presence of a submerged shelf consisting
of bedrock and coral which has locally affected the incoming waves. This submerged shelf
extended some 1.5 km seaward. Due to wave refraction on its slopes, the near shore wave
directions and heights north and south of the reef differed considerably. Due to this difference
in near shore wave climate, the sharp discontinuity in the coastline orientation at Ras Az-Zour
had developed. Since 2000, the most seaward tip of Ras Az-Zour has been protected by
means of a revetment. The revetment was built to protect two luxury villas, which were
jeopardized in a period that the shoreline at Ras Az-Zour retreated. These villas had been
built only some years before erosion started. According to local knowledge, some years ago,
the protrusion of Ras Az-Zour was more pronounced (extending seaward of the present
revetment) and sand bars emerged on the reef, even at high water.

Figure 2-44 Coastal features at point A (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2004).

Figure 2-45: Coastal features at point B (Source: Al-Hulail et al., 2004).

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Figure 2-46: Shoreline positions at AZS Power Plant, Kuwait (Source: Al-Yamani et
al., 2004).
In the present situation, no sand bars are visible, even during low water. It could be concluded
that in 1981, a sudden erosive trend of the recreational beach just south of Ras Az-Zour
occurred. It was

reported that "the recreational beach south of the tip has experienced

substantial erosion, particularly near the pavilion where the wave-cut beach scarp has
receded approximately 9 m during the last ten years, most of it during 1981" (KISR, 1982).
Construction of several groynes up drift along the coast west of Ras Az-Zour during 1980 and
1981 was considered to be the cause of this erosion. This explanation was based on a net
eastward sediment transport, west of Ras Az-Zour and a net southward transport south of
Ras Az-Zour. It should be noted that, also without effects of up drift interruption of the long
shore transport, fluctuations of the shoreline south of Ras Az-Zour should be expected. The
long shore sand transports along the coast west of Ras Az-Zour is governed by different

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waves (mainly with directions between 270o N and 90o N) than the coast south of Ras AzZour (mainly governed by waves between 0 N and 180 N).
According to local knowledge, at present, no deposits in these inlets and no significant
sediment supply should be expected from these tidal inlets to the coast. On the basis of the
aforementioned observations, it could be concluded that south of point (A) the net transport is
southward directed (best estimate 2,000 - 3,000 m3/yr) and near point D northward directed
(best estimate 5,000 - 10,000 m3/yr). This pattern can be explained by the presence of
sediment supply at the northern and southern end of this coastal stretch, as here discussed.

2.9 B ATHYMETRIC DATA


The bathymetric data used as input to the numerical model were obtained from different
projects carried out by KISR. The data used included the following,

Data obtained from the study of Rakha and Al-Banaa (2009) used for the Khiran area.

Measured bathymetric data used for AZS power plant area as described in Al-Hulail
et al. (2004). The surveyed area covering an area along the coast of 16 km and 4 km
offshore.

Data digitized from the charts produced by Kuwaits Ministry of Communications


(MOC).

National

Oceanic

and

Atmospheric

Administration

(NOAA)

office

(http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ngdc.html ) with grid spacing of 2 minutes.


All the data were then converted to the universal transverse mercator (UTM) system for Zone
39. The maximum water depth can be seen to be about 40.0 m and the depth close the AZS
south plant area is around 4-5 m. The coastline configurations with bathymetry maps are
given in below Figure .

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3190000

3185000
Level (m)

3180000

Northing (m)

-1
-3

3175000

-5
-7
-10

3170000

-15
-20
-30

3165000

-45

3160000
240000

245000

250000

255000

260000

Easting (m)

Figure 2-47: Bathymetry in the vicinity of the AZS power plant.

2.10 T IDE AND C IRCULATION


The tide (water level) and seawater circulation (flow velocity fields) in this section are
presented in a time-series, snapshot data and 25 hours averaged data during neap and
spring tide. The data are field and numerical simulation data.

2.10.1 Tide
Suggested by time-series of observed data, the tides in Az-Zour area is a mixed tide when
there are two high tides each day with different heights (and two low tides also of different
heights). The tidal range varies from around 4 m during spring tide to around 1.2 m during
neap tide. Spatial variation of tide is insignificant (less than 5 cm) however it is shown that the
tidal ranges (height) amplifies when tidal wave move toward the shore. This amplification of
tidal ranges is significant when compare the tidal records between Az-Zour area to the tidal
record from Salmiya area. Observed water levels during the survey is presented in Figure
2.48 to 2.49. Scatter-plot of measured surface flow velocity at Station Intake and Station InterDepth is illustrated in figure 2.50. Figure 2.51 and 2.52 shows the time-series of flow velocity
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at intake and outfall stations close to the Az-Zour South Plant for surface, and near bottom
levels .
The difference of tide between northern part of the Az-Zour area and at the Az-Zour area
creates the overall north-south water level gradient offshore of Az-Zour area. Simulated
results also suggested that the tidal variations at Az-Zour area generally have horizontal
gradient along the coastal line showing the periodic increasing and decrease trend in the
north-south direction. These tidal variations also force the seawater mass to fluctuate almost
semi-diurnally in the north-south direction.
Depth(m)
7
6
5
Depth(m)

4
3
2
1
0
1/16/2013 0:00
-1

1/21/2013 0:00

1/26/2013 0:00

1/31/2013 0:00

2/5/2013 0:00

2/10/2013 0:00

Measured Depth at AZS Power Plant intake, Year 2013

Figure 2-48: Observed water depth during the survey at AZS Power Plant Intake
(January 17th to February 3rd, 2013)

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Depth(m)
7
6
5

4
3
Depth(m)

2
1
0
1/16/2013 0:00
-1

1/21/2013 0:00

1/26/2013 0:00

1/31/2013 0:00

2/5/2013 0:00

2/10/2013 0:00

Measured Depth at AZS Power Plant Outfall, Year 2013

Figure 2-49: Observed water depth during the survey at AZS Power Plant Outfall
(January 17th to February 3rd, 2013)

Near-Surface Velocity
800
600

NS Comp (mm/s)

400
200
0
-800

-300

200

700

-200
-400

Near-Surface Velocity

-600

800

-800
EW Comp (mm/s)

600

NS comp (mm/s)

400
200
0
-800

-300

200

700

-200
-400
-600
-800
EW comp (mm/s)

Figure 2-50: Scatter-plot of measured surface flow velocity at Station Intake and
Station Inter-Depth.

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Near-bottom Easting velocity - InterDepth


50

Cm/s

30
10
10

3Feb

2Feb

1Feb

31Jan

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

50

17Jan

30

Year2013

Near-surface Easting velocity - InterDepth


50

Cm/s

30
10
10

3Feb

2Feb

1Feb

31Jan

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

50

17Jan

30

Year2013

Near-bottom Northing velocity - InterDepth


50

Cm/s

30
10
10

31Jan

1Feb

2Feb

3Feb

31Jan

1Feb

2Feb

3Feb

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

50

17Jan

30

Year2013

Near-surface Northing velocity - InterDepth


50

Cm/s

30
10
10
30
30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

17Jan

50

Year2013

Figure 2-51: Time-series of measured flow velocity (Inter depth Station)


Note: At near-surface, and near-bottom. The data shows in north-south (N-S) and east-west (E-W)
component.

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3Feb

2Feb

31Jan

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

Cm/s

17Jan

1Feb

Near-bottom Easting velocity - Outfall


50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50

Year2013

NearsurfaceEastingvelocityOutfall

3Feb

2Feb

1Feb

31Jan

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

17Jan

Cm/s

50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50

Year2013

3Feb

2Feb

1Feb

31Jan

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
17Jan

Cm/s

Near-bottom Northing velocity - Outfall

Year2013

3Feb

2Feb

1Feb

31Jan

30Jan

29Jan

28Jan

27Jan

26Jan

25Jan

24Jan

23Jan

22Jan

21Jan

20Jan

19Jan

18Jan

50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
17Jan

Cm/s

Near-surface Northing velocity - Outfall

Year2013

Figure 2-52: Time-series of measured flow velocity at Outfall Station


Note:

Near-surface and near-bottom. The data shows in north-south (N-S) and east-west (E-W)

component.

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CHAPTER 3
HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING STUDY

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HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING

Apart of providing additional data for the existing environmental baseline establishment to the
field data, the goal of modeling study in the present study is to provide predictions of the
possible impacts of the new AZS OCGT and its future conversion to CCGT palnt.
Desalination plant in terms of hydrodynamic and water quality regime as well as the
recirculation of pollutant from discharged water from the AZS

South Power and Distillation

Plant (AZS plant). The objectives of modeling studies are to provide data, predict the changes
after the implementation of new AZS OCGT plant and advice for others to mitigate the
possible adverse impact on marine and coastal processes. This chapter describes about
details of the numerical models, their calibrations and validations and their applications for
providing additional data of the existing environmental condition to the field data and their
impact predictions by scenario runs.
Hydrodynamic model in the present study applied, Delft3D-FLOW (WL|Delft Hydraulics,
2011a). The Delft3D-FLOW model is a multidimensional hydrodynamic (and transport)
simulation program which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena that result
from tidal, wind, discharges and withdrawal of the water from the surrounding coast and
meteorological forcing.
Total of eight scenarios were run which composed of the 4 baseline runs and 4 scenario runs.
The baseline runs discharges were defined according to the design condition at the existing
AZS

Plant operation. The four different considered run in of the existing condition and

scenario runs are (1) Summer with northwest prevailing wind run, (2) Summer with southeast
prevailing wind run, (3) Winter with northwest prevailing wind run and (4) Winter with
southeast prevailing wind.

3.1

M ODEL C ALIBRATIONS

AND

V ALIDATIONS

The hydrodynamic and water quality model were calibrated and validate against the actual
field data observed at the vicinity of AZS plant between January to February 2013. Results
suggested that the models are able to reproduce the actual hydrodynamic and water quality
characteristics of the AZS power plant Area and are reliable to be used for the prediction of
the conditions after the implementation of new AZS OCGT/CCGT Plant.

3.2

M ODEL P REDICTIONS

Results of the existing condition run suggested that the water level fluctuation at AZS area is
mixed tide having tidal range of around 1 m in neap tide and around 2.2 m at spring tide.
Water circulation is dominant by fluctuating current with dominant north-south direction. The
maximum current offshore near the plants intake is around 30 cm/s. New Baseline data and
the hydrodynamic modelling results suggested that the water temperature and variations of
seawater salinity are similar to the previous study at Az-Zour area and northern part of Khiran
area are influenced by the discharged water from the Az-Zour South Plant during seasonal
wind and tidal forcing. The inclusion of proposed new CCGT (future conversion of 500MW
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OCGT) shall not change the existing temperature and salinity levels at the Az Zour South
power station offshore area. This is because of the limited usage and discharge of water
which results an overall reduction of total volume. Comparison of results between summer
and winter scenario runs suggested that salinity changes are not significant. The salinity will
only increase slightly as for the summer conditions and thus could not be traced by any
measurements. Water temperature changes are higher in winter compared to summer
scenario for the existing scenario. On micro level examination of the model results it was
inferred that no significant change in salinity and temperature. Specific findings from
modelling study are highlighted below:

Average increase of water temperature in summer and winter are 0.01 Co and 0.03
Co, respectively.

Average increase of the salinity in summer and winter are 0.01 ppt and 0.02 ppt,
respectively.

Average decrease of the dissolved oxygen concentration during northwesterly wind


and southeasterly wind are 0.012 mg/l and 0.010 mg/l, respectively.

Modelling result suggests negligible impact of the new project to the baseline

tidal-driven flow velocity.


It can be seen clearly that the new Plant (OCGT/ and its future conversion to CCGT)
will not have any significant negative impact on the temperature rise as compared to
the existing baseline conditions (winter and summer).
Refer hydrodynamic modelling report attached separately for detailed modelling studies and
results.

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CHAPTER 4
IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

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4 ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION
Power Plant and desalination Plants are essential projects to modern societies which secure
the demand for electricity. Besides the significant economic and social benefits associated
with the construction and operation of power Plant, and as with any major projects, largescale desalination projects can have significant effects on the environment. In particular,
projects accommodated on the coastline can have significant negative environmental impact
with respect to the ecosystem quality. This is particularly important to Kuwait and other Gulf
countries as well, since the power generation and desalination Plants have been identified as
one of the main land sources of pollution in Kuwait, along with the oil and petrochemical
industries (UNEP, 2006). It is therefore essential to identify the potential impacts associated
with such projects for planning and implementing the appropriate mitigation/ control measures
to minimize these impacts on the marine ecosystem. In general, the environmental impact
assessment study covers physical, chemical, biological, ecological and socioeconomic
aspects of the project during the construction and operation phase.

4.1

I MPACT E VALUATIONS

ON THE

C ONSTRUCTION P HASE

The new proposed 500MW AZS OCGT Power Project (in future convert to CCGT) at the
exiting AZS power station has no or negligible offshore environmental impacts since the
projects construction works are all on-land activities. Without changing any coastal structure
configuration, this project was anticipated for insignificant changes of wave, circulation,
sedimentation, and shoreline dynamics. The new project will be added with out major
modification of the existing AZS Power Plants power generation and water production
facilities. No construction activity is expected along the coast or at sea as the new project
uses the existing outfall hence, the impact evaluation is not necessary.

4.2

I MPACT E VALUATIONS

4.1.1

Impacts on Coastal Morphology and Shoreline Dynamics

DURING THE

O PERATIONAL P HASE

The effects of the new proposed OCGT project on coastal morphology and shoreline
dynamics are anticipated to be none or negligible. There will be no much change in physical
setup of coastal structures and bathymetry of the Plant since the project is to modify,
construct and add Power Plant to the existing AZS Power Plants power generation. The new
project will not interfere the existing Plants operating processes. Wave dynamics and climate
of the existing conditions will remain the same after the implementation of the new project.

4.1.2

Impacts on Tide and Circulation

Suggested by well calibrated and validated high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic


simulation model, the tide and the water circulation at AZS Power area will have no or

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negligible effects from the new project. The water level change due to withdrawal of seawater
to the Plant and discharge of the seawater from the proposed OCGT and future conversion of
CCGT Plant can only change at a few centimeters locally. The change compared to the water
level fluctuation of a few hundred centimeters from tide is negligible. Moreover, these figures
will not change also since the new project does not change in amount of intake water. The
input (make up) water needed to the new proposed AZS CCGT Power Plant will be diverted
from the thermal power Plant discharge stream. Therefore there will be no change in the
amount of existing water intake rate. The water circulation slightly alters from the increasing of
seawater density especial at the vicinity nearby the Plants outfall. However, comparisons
between simulated flow velocities before and after implementation of the new proposed
project indicate negligible changes.

4.3

I MPACTS

4.3.1

Water temperature and salinity

ON SEAWATER QUALITY

Direct impacts on seawater temperature and salinity of the new project are identified by
numerical model predictions. The new proposed OCGT project is anticipated to significantly
change the salinity level of ambient seawater hence change the density of seawater. The
water density changes reduce the mixing of the discharged water with the ambient coastal
water and cause slightly increasing of water temperature. However, simulation results
suggested the very negligible changes of salinity, water temperature and density of ambient
seawater is concentrated to the vicinities nearby the Plants outfall.
The new proposed OCGT plant and its future conversion to CCGT will not change the salinity
and water temperature at vicinities nearby the Plants outfall significantly.

4.3.2

Dissolved Oxygen

There is a potential drop in dissolved oxygen level in the discharged effluent from the Plant.
Simulation results suggested that the dissolved oxygen level slightly decrease after the
implementation of the new project. However, the affected area is concentrated to the Plants
outfall vicinities. From the baseline results and nature of project scope, it can be concluded
that the new project posts no significant environmental problem in terms of dissolved oxygen.

4.3.3

Residual Chlorine

In the power Plant, chlorine or other oxidants are used (typically low content below harmful
levels) to control biofouling, these are typically neutralized before the water enters the
membranes to prevent damage (Lattemann & Hopner, 2007). Therefore, the present project
is expected to post negligible impacts to the seawater quality in terms of residual chlorine.

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4.3.4

Phytoplankton abundant

Phytoplankton abundant can be indentified by chlorophyll-a concentration. Higher chlorophylla concentration implies to higher phytoplankton biomass and activities. It is indicated from the
numerical simulation that there is a potential reduction of local chlorophyll-a concentration
nearby the Plants vicinity.

4.3.5

Sediment and sedimentation processes

Sediment and sedimentation processes and their qualities are expected to have no significant
influences from the new project.

4.4

I MPACT

4.4.1

Impacts on Marine Ecology

ON

B IOLOGICAL

COMPONENTS

The ultimate goal of the EIA study of the new proposed OCGT Plant at the existing AZS
Power Station was to minimize the associated potential ecological risk in the surrounding
marine area. The ecological system exists as complex habitat and species with various
degrees of sensitivity and tolerance level to various environmental stressors. A
comprehensive evaluation of impacts on such ecosystem is complex. Preliminary assessment
from the present study shows that the anticipated impacts on marine ecology from the new
project is nil considering the minimum changes of physical and chemical environment
discussed in the previous sections.

4.5

I MPACTS

ON SOCIAL , CULTURAL RESOURCES AND ECONOMY

Positive impacts on social and economy are clearly evaluated from the new project. The new
project is expected to provide additional power production and job opportunities which have a
direct positive impact on the Kuwaits growing economy. The present project anticipates
producing more energy effectively by reutilizing the rejected water of the power Plant. The
new project posts no culture impacts to the society.

4.6

I MPACT E VALUATION

Impact evaluation for the identified environmental components was conducted to estimate the
significance of identified impacts using Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Analysis.

4.6.1

Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Analysis

The evaluation of impact significance is still widely considered as one of the most difficult and
least understood elements of the process mainly due to its subjective and descriptive nature
that depend as they are on the expertise and experience of the assessor and the criteria used
to build such judgment. As already described in the onshore EIA study, Rapid Impact
Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Analysis developed by Pastakia and Jensen in the late 1990s
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(Pastakia and Jensen, 1998) is adopted to obtain a more transparent and consistent method
which can assist EIA experts in conducting and documenting significant judgments.
RIAM analysis approach was applied in the evaluation of the significance of the identified
impacts of the planned Az Zour South OCGT plant (500MW) and its future conversion to
CCGT plant. Detailed methodology for RIAM analysis is already dealt in Onshore EIA study of
this project. This analysis incorporated the various considerations identified in the previous
sections of this report, including the results of the baseline surveys, hydrodynamic models,
and consideration of other factors. It is important to point out that the environmental impacts
of the Az-Zour South OCGT plant (500MW) are evaluated relative to the present
environmental conditions in these areas, which have already experienced negative
environmental impacts from existing power and desalination plants.
Taking into account the results obtained from the hydrodynamic and water quality model,
RIAM analysis was carried out for construction and operation phase of the new Az Zour South
OCGT plant (500MW) and its future conversion to CCGT plant.

It is also important to

highlight here is that there is no additional construction works are envisaged in the marine
area because of reusing a part of the cooling water discharge from Az Zour thermal plant for
the future CCGT plant. Hence RIAM analysis for construction phase will be similar to the
baseline condition with very minor change in impact scale.
Based on the relatively limited volume of water discharged to the sea from proposed CCGT
plant (which effectively lowers the total discharge volume from the existing), the modelling
results indicated that the impact due to the Future CCGT shall not pose negative impact to
outfall characteristics. A total of five options were considered to clearly indicate the impact to
marine environment due to the proposed OCGT and its future conversion to CCGT plant
(Refer Table below for options). The following sections discuss the results obtained for each
option. The cumulative RIAM analysis of all the options is also made and discussed in
summary Table at the end of the section.
Table 4-1 Options Used for the RIAM Analysis
Option

Scenario

Description

OP1

Existing condition
construction phase)

OP2

Construction phase

New OCGT plant

OP3

Operation phase

New OCGT plant

(pre

Existing Az Zour South Thermal, Distillation


(MSF), and planned CCGTs and R.O

OP4

Construction phase

Future conversion to CCGT plant

OP5

Operation phase

Future conversion to CCGT plant

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4.6.1.1 Option 1- Existing condition (Pre construction phase)


Of the 25 criteria used in this analysis, 6 criteria had (RB) scores of N (no change); 6 criteria
had RB scores of B (negative change/impact); 10 criteria had RB scores of A (slight
negative change/impact). Most of the negative impact was found in the physical/chemical
conditions (10 criteria) and then in the biological/ ecological conditions (4 criteria).
Positive impacts were demonstrated in social/cultural conditions, namely improvement in
quality of life from the increased supplies of power and desalinated water and in the
economical/operational conditions, namely change in gross income from the operation of the
plant would provide job opportunity, which will reflect positively on the gross income of the
country. It is important to mention here that the impact described in this option reflects the
existing condition of the area and is not expected to have a negative impact due to the
proposed OCGT/future conversion of CCGT plant of capacity 500MW at Az Zour South power
station. Refer below table for impact scores for this option. Detailed RIAM scoring
methodology is already presented in the Onshore study.

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Table 4-2-RIAM Analysis for Option 1 Pre construction (Existing Az Zour South South Plant)

Physical and chemical components (PC)


ES
PC1
Water quality including residual chlorine
-12
PC2
Heavy metals pollution
-5
PC3
Change in sediment quality
-12
PC4
Hydrocarbons pollution
-4
PC5
Effect on temperature
-14
PC6
Effect on salinity
-14
PC7
Effect on dissolved oxygen concentration
-8
PC8
Effect on the hydrodynamic regime of the -5
area
PC9
Change in land use
-7
PC10
Change in shoreline and coastal dynamics -7
Biological and ecological components (BE)
ES
BE1
Change in intertidal fauna and flora
-10
BE2
Disturbance of sensitive ecosystem
-5
BE3
Impact on other habitats such as sandy and -10
muddy bottoms

RB
-B
-A
-B
A
-B
-B
-A
-A

A1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1

A2
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

B1
2
1
2
1
3
3
3
3

B2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1

B3
2
2
2
1
2
2
3
1

-A
-A
RB
-B
-A
-B

1
1
A1
2
1
2

-1
-1
A2
-1
-1
-1

3
3
B1
2
1
1

2
2
B2
2
2
2

2
2
B3
1
2
2

BE4
Impact on primary production
Sociological and cultural components (SC)
SC1
Marine archeology
SC2
Effect on human health and safety
SC3
Change in aesthetic landscape
SC4
Change in marine navigation
SC5
Impact on the nearby trade activities

0
ES
0
-9
-8
0
0

N
RB
N
-A
-A
N
N

3
A1
3
1
1
1
1

0
A2
0
-1
-1
0
0

0
B1
0
3
3
0
0

0
B2
0
3
3
0
0

0
B3
0
3
2
0
0

SC6
Water supply
45
SC7
Change in quality of life
10
Economical and operational components (EO)
ES
EO1
Change in the gross income
45
EO2
Impact on recreation and associated 0
generated income

D
B
RB
D
N

3
2
A1
2
1

2
1
A2
3
0

3
3
B1
3
3

3
1
B2
3
2

3
1
B3
3
2

EO3
Cost of restoration of access routes
EO4
Cost of maintenance
Summary of scores (Option 1)
Class
-E -D
-C
-B
-A

N
-B

0
2

0
-1

0
3

0
2

0
2

PC
BE
SC
EO
Total

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

4
2
0
0
6

6
1
2
1
10

0
-14
N
0
1
3
2
6

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A
0
0
0
0
0

B
0
0
1
0
1

C
0
0
0
0
0

D
0
0
1
1
2

E
0
0
0
0
0

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4.6.1.2 Option 2: Construction phase of New OCGT plant


This option is considered to evaluate the impact due to construction of proposed 500MW
OCGT plant at Az Zour South. Most of impact attributes are already covered in the On Shore
EIA study. The objective of this impact evaluation is mainly to address the impact on marine
environment in terms of physiochemical, Biological and ecological, Sociological and economic
aspects. Out of the 26 criteria used in this analysis, 21 criteria had (RB) scores of N (no
change); 1 criteria had RB scores of B (negative change/impact); 1 criteria had RB scores of
A (slight negative change/impact). The single negative impact in the slight impact scale was
found in the physical/chemical conditions, namely, change in land use. This is related to the
fact that no major alterations would be made to the already existing intake. Minor changes
would be associated with excavation and dumping of material which is already dealt in
Onshore EIA study. However, this is not envisaged here.
Positive impacts: Positive impacts were demonstrated in social/cultural conditions, namely
improvement in quality of life from the increased supplies of power and in the
economical/operational conditions, namely change in gross income to contractors during the
construction of the plant would provide job opportunity, which will reflect positively on the
gross income of the country.

4.6.1.3 Option 3: Operation phase (New OCGT plant)


Out of the 25 criteria used in this analysis, 21 criteria had (RB) scores of N (no change); 1
criteria had RB scores of A (slight negative change/impact to human health and safety).
Positive impacts: Three (3) major positive impacts were identified for this option. Positive
impacts were demonstrated in social/cultural conditions, namely improvement in quality of life
from the increased supplies of power in the economical/operational conditions, namely
change in gross income to employees during the operation of the plant would provide job
opportunity, which will reflect positively on the gross income of the country.

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Table 4-3-RIAM Analysis for Option 2 Construction of Proposed Az Zour South 500MW OCGT

Physical and chemical components (PC)

ES

PC1

Change in water quality including residual 0


chlorine
PC2
Heavy metals pollution
0
PC3
Change in sediment quality
0
PC4
Hydrocarbons pollution
0
PC5
Effect on temperature
0
PC6
Effect on salinity
0
PC7
Effect on dissolved oxygen concentration
0
PC8
Effect on the hydrodynamic regime of the 0
area
PC9
Change in land use
-7
PC10
Change in shoreline and coastal dynamics 0
Biological and ecological components (BE)
ES
BE1
Change in intertidal fauna and flora
0
BE2
Disturbance of sensitive ecosystem
0
BE3
Impact on other habitats such as sandy and 0
muddy bottoms
BE4
Impact on primary production
0
Sociological and cultural components (SC)
ES
SC1
Marine archeology
0
SC2
Effect on human health and safety
-9
SC3
Change in marine navigation
0
SC4
Impact on the nearby trade activities
0
SC5
SC6
SC7

Cost of restoration of access routes


0
Change in water supply
0
Cost of rehabilitation or restoration of 0
sensitive habitats
SC8
Change in quality of life
10
Economical and operational components (EO)
ES
EO1
Change in the gross income to Contractors 28
EO2
Cost of Maintenance
-14
EO3
Impact on recreation and associated 0
generated income
EO4
Cost of restoration of access routes
0

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
1

-A
N
RB
N
N
N

1
1
A1
1
1
1

-1
0
A2
0
0
0

3
0
B1
0
0
0

2
0
B2
0
0
0

2
0
B3
0
0
0

N
RB
N
-A
N
N

1
A1
3
1
1
1

0
A2
0
-1
0
0

0
B1
2
3
0
0

0
B2
3
3
0
0

0
B3
2
3
0
0

N
N
N

1
1
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

B
RB
C
-B
N

2
A1
2
2
3

1
A2
2
-1
0

3
B1
3
3
3

1
B2
2
2
2

1
B3
2
3
2

Summary of scores (Option 2)


Class
PC
BE
SC
EO
Total

-E
0
0
0
0
0

-D
0
0
0
0
0

-C
0
0
0
0
0

-B
0
0
0
1
1

-A
1
0
1
0
2

9
4
6
2
21

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N A
0
0
0
0
0

B
0
0
1
0
1

C
0
0
0
1
1

D
0
0
0
0
0

E
0
0
0
0
0

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Table 4.4 -RIAM Analysis for Option 3 Operation of Proposed Az Zour South 500MW OCGT

Physical and chemical components (PC)

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

PC1

Change in water quality including residual chlorine

PC2
PC3
PC4
PC5

Heavy metals pollution


Change in sediment quality
Hydrocarbons pollution
Effect on temperature

0
0
0
0

N
N
N
N

1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

PC6
PC7
PC8

Effect on salinity
Effect on dissolved oxygen concentration
Effect on the hydrodynamic regime of the area

0
0
0

N
N
N

1
1
1

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
2

0
0
1

PC9

Change in shoreline and coastal dynamics

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

Biological and ecological components (BE)

B2

B3

BE1
BE2
BE3

Change in intertidal fauna and flora


0
Disturbance of sensitive ecosystem
0
Impact on other habitats such as sandy and muddy 0
bottoms

N
N
N

1
1
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

BE4

Impact on primary production

Sociological and cultural components (SC)

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

SC1

Marine archeology

SC2
SC3
SC4
SC5

Effect on human health and safety


Change in marine navigation
Impact on the nearby trade activities
Change in water supply

-9
0
0
0

-A
N
N
N

1
1
1
1

-1
0
0
0

3
0
0
0

3
0
0
0

3
0
0
0

SC6
SC7

Cost of restoration of access routs


0
Cost of rehabilitation and or restoration of sensitive 0
habitats

N
N

1
1

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

SC8

Change in quality of life

10

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

C
N

2
0

2
0

3
0

2
0

2
0

EO3

Change in the gross income to employees


28
Impact on recreation and associated generated 0
income
Cost of restoration of access routes
0

EO4

Increase in revenue due to power generation

Economical and operational components (EO)


EO1
EO2

28

Summary of scores (Option 3)


Class

-E

-D

-C

-B

-A

PC
BE

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

9
4

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

SC
EO
Total

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
0
1

7
2
21

0
0
0

1
0
1

0
2
2

0
0

0
0

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4.6.1.4 Option 4: Construction phase (future conversion to CCGT plant)


Out of the 26 criteria used in this analysis, 22 criteria had (RB) scores of N (no change); 1
criteria had RB scores of A (slight negative change/impact).
Positive impacts: in this option Positive impacts were demonstrated in social/cultural
conditions, namely improvement in quality of life from the increased supplies of power and in
the economical/operational conditions, namely change in gross income to contractors during
the construction of the plant and would also provide job opportunity, which will reflect
positively on the gross income of the country. The positive impacts have increased in the
Range Bands.

4.6.1.5 Option 5: Operation phase (Future conversion to CCGT plant)


Out of the 27 criteria used in this analysis, 19 criteria had (RB) scores of N (no change); 1
criteria had RB scores of B (negative change/impact); 3 criteria had RB scores of A (slight
negative change/impact).
Positive impacts: Positive impacts were demonstrated in social/cultural conditions, namely
improvement

in

quality

of

life

from

the

increased

power

supply

and

in

the

economical/operational conditions, namely change in gross income during the operation of


the plant would provide job opportunity, which will reflect positively on the gross income of the
country. In addition, this option show a positive impact to the existing discharge water as it
lowers the total discharge and hence the temperature and salinity changes can have a
positive effect. This is based on the volume of intake water from power plant discharge and
less discharge volume of blow down water considered from the operation (anticipated from
the future conversion of CCGT), due to evaporation loss and closed cycle CCGT operation.

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Table 4-5 -Option -4 Future Conversion to Az Zour South OCGT to CCGT Construction Phase

Physical and chemical components (PC)

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

PC1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-7
0

-A
N

1
1

-1
0

3
0

2
0

2
0

Total
BE1
Change in intertidal fauna and flora
BE2
Disturbance of sensitive ecosystem
BE3
Impact on primary production
Sociological and cultural components (SC)
SC1
Marine archeology
SC2
Effect on human health and safety
SC3
Change in marine navigation
SC4
Impact on the nearby trade activities

Total
0
0
0
ES
0
-9
0
0

Total
N
N
N
RB
N
-A
N
N

Total
1
1
1
A1
3
1
1
1

Total
0
0
0
A2
0
-1
0
0

Total
0
0
0
B1
2
3
0
0

Total
0
0
0
B2
3
3
0
0

Total
0
0
0
B3
2
3
0
0

SC5
SC6
SC7

0
0
0

N
N
N

1
1
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

16
ES
32

B
RB
D

2
A1
2

1
A2
2

3
B1
3

2
B2
2

3
B3
3

-16
0

-B
N

2
3

-1
0

3
3

2
2

3
2

Change in water quality including residual


chlorine
Heavy metals pollution
Change in sediment quality
Hydrocarbons pollution
Effect on temperature
Effect on salinity
Effect on dissolved oxygen concentration
Effect on the hydrodynamic regime of the
area
Change in land use
Change in shoreline
and coastal
dynamics

PC2
PC3
PC4
PC5
PC6
PC7
PC8
PC9
PC10

Change in water supply


Cost of restoration of access routes
Cost of rehabilitation or restoration of
sensitive habitats
SC8
Change in quality of life
Economical and operational components (EO)
EO1
Change in the gross income to
Contractors
EO2
Cost of Construction
EO3
Impact on recreation and associated
generated income
EO4
Cost of restoration of access routes
Summary of scores (Option 4)
Class
PC
BE
SC
EO
Total

-E
0
0
0
0
0

-D
0
0
0
0
0

-C
0
0
0
0
0

-B
0
0
0
1
1

-A
1
0
1
0
2

N
9
4
6
2
21

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A
0
0
0
0
0

B
0
0
1
0
1

C
0
0
0
0
0

D
0
0
0
1
1

E
0
0
0
0
0

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Table 4-6-Option 5 Future Conversion to Az Zour South OCGT to CCGT Operation Phase

No.

Description of activities

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

Physical and chemical components (PC)


PC1

-A

-1

PC2

Change in water quality including -5


residual chlorine
Heavy metals pollution
0

PC3

Change in sediment quality

PC4

Hydrocarbons pollution

PC5

Effect on temperature

PC6

Effect on salinity

PC7

Effect

oxygen 0

Effect on the hydrodynamic regime of 0

and coastal 0

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

on

dissolved

concentration
PC8

the area
PC9

Change in land use

PC10

Change in shoreline
dynamics

Biological and ecological components (BE)


BE1

Change in intertidal fauna and flora

BE2

Disturbance of sensitive ecosystem

BE3

Impact on other habitats such as 0

Sociological and cultural components (SC)

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

SC1

Marine archeology

SC2

Effect on human health and safety

-4

-A

-1

SC3

Change in marine navigation

SC4

Impact on the nearby trade activities

SC5

Change in water supply

SC6

Cost of restoration of access routs

SC7

Cost of rehabilitation and


restoration of sensitive habitats
Change in quality of life

or 0

14

ES

RB

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

Change in the gross income to 28


Contractors
Cost of maintenance
-7

-A

-1

Impact on recreation and associated 0


generated income
Cost of restoration of access routes
0

sandy and muddy bottoms


BE4

SC8

Impact on primary production

Economical and operational components (EO)


EO1
EO2
EO3
EO4

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EO5

Increase in revenue due to power 32

generation
Summary of scores (Option 5)
Class

-E

-D

-C

-B

-A

C
PC

BE

SC

EO

Total

19

Summary of Impact Analysis:


Based on the summary scores for each option an overall impact summary has been
developed to best demonstrate the quantity of negative and positive impacts. It is clear that
the negative impacts due to the construction and operation of proposed new OCGT and its
future conversion to CCGT is insignificant compared to the existing condition. An overall
assessment shows a positive impact to economy and low volume of discharge water.
Table 4-7-Summary of RIAM Analysis (for all Scenarios)
Positive (P)

Negative (N)

Total

Impact
Option/
Scenario

Positive/

No
Change

Total
Negative

+A

+B

+C

+D

+E

-A

-B

-C

-E

+A

OP1

10

3/ 16

OP2

21

2/ 3

OP3

21

3/ 1

OP4

21

2/ 3

OP5

19

5/ 3

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Conclusion of RIAM Analysis


As can be appreciated from the RIAM analysis, the negative impacts anticipated from the new
proposed OCGT and the future conversion to CCGT is not significant compared to the
existing conditions. It is to be noted here that these scenarios or runs (options) were bound to
happen (unavoidable) depending on the percentage of occurrences during the year.
Therefore, for recommending a sort of mitigations, these assumptions are given as below:

Option 1 will be the most dominant scenario which is the existing condition.

All the aforementioned scenarios are bound to happen during the year.

If there is no chlorine pollution (0 %) at the outfall, then there would be no serious


effect on the biota.

The only change due to the inclusion of new OCGT and its future conversion to
CCGT is for the economic and social aspects. Compared to the existing volume of
discharged water and the associated temperature and salinity, the volume of
discharge anticipated from the future CCGT plant will be very Negligible (0.886m3/s).

It can be seen clearly from the modelling results and RIAM Analysis that the new plant will not
have any negative impact on the temperature rise as compared to the existing winter and
summer baseline conditions.

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CHAPTER 5
MITIGATION AND RECOMMENDATION

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5 MITIGATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


One of the key objectives of this report was to provide useful information regarding the
proposed construction and operational regime impacts for the development on a number of
parameters. Some of the identified impacts should be mitigated against in order to avoid/
reduce or remove their severity. It is important to mention that in any case, the EPA-Kuwait
available standards should be followed, otherwise, EPA-USA and/or Canada should be
followed.

5.1

C ONSTRUCTION P HASE

Mitigations and recommendations during the construction phase of the new proposed OCGT
Plant at AZS Power plant area are not necessary as no additional construction on offshore
area is expected and hence no impacts to the offshore environment were identified during this
phase.

5.2

O PERATION P HASE

The operation of the proposed power station will result very negligible impact in terms of
salinity and water temperature at the Plants outfall vicinity. This impact can be considered as
nil compared to the reduction in total quantity of discharge rate (approximately 0.4m3/s).
The impact magnify during the south prevailing wind period when the south wind prevent the
discharged water plume to be carried by mean water circulation towards south. Therefore
possible reduction of the discharge during south prevailing wind period can reduce the
severity of salinity and water temperature. Moreover, additional mixing and dilution of
discharged water with the ambient seawater is recommended. More water can be draw from
the Plants intake to be used to mix with the rejected brine from the Plant before further mixed
with the rejected water stream from the power and desalination Plant. This is to enhance
more mixing of the discharged water with the ambient seawater to further reduce the salinity
and water temperature at the Plants outfall vicinity.
Suggested by modeling results, it was identified in the present study that the impacts on
dissolve oxygen and phytoplankton are negligible. The coastal marine ecology is identified as
an affected area locally at the Plants outfall. Moreover, on micro level examination of the
model results it was inferred that the total amount discharge is reduced with no significant
change in salinity and temperature. Hence mitigations for these parameters are not required.
Lastly, although the acute adverse impacts the new project to the coastal marine environment
were not identified in the present day, it is advised to maintain a continuous regular

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monitoring at the AZS Power Plant vicinity to observe the long-term cumulative impacts of
the combined effect of existing and future project . Target monitoring parameters should at
least include water level, flow velocity, water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen,
chlorophyll-a concentration, residual chlorine and heavy metal, hydrocarbon as well .
In addition, following recommendations to be considered to ensure proper environmental
compliance:

General Recommendations for CCGT

Engineering design controls should be considered suitably so that the discharge


water temperature shall not be greater than 10C difference from the average
temperate of intake/make up water.

Cooling tower technology to be used to lower and maintain the make up water
temperature in the CCGT plant (future conversion).

Chemical spills and storm water leakage; increased storm water runoff; and surface
water drainage, flooding and climate change are also assessed as Low impact risks.
However, chemical spill management plan to be implemented in case of need.

Drainage water disposal system should be separately considered. All other waste
(liquid and solid) generated from the OCGT/CCGT should be managed and disposed
as per the waste Management plan contained in Onshore EIA study.

It is also recommended that any coastal activities related to the project need to be in
compliance with ARTICLE 59 for liquid discharges to sea as described in Chapter V
of KEPA regulations and standards.

The study makes following recommendations to the existing operation of


Power and desalination plant at Az Zour to improve the quality of marine
environment.
Power Plant

The thermal power plants should adopt suitable system to reduce water temperature
at the final discharge point to sea so that the resultant rise in the temperature of
receiving water does not exceed 10C over and above the ambient temperature of
the receiving water as per KEPA standards.

Reduce impingement and entrainment of fish and shellfish by using barrier nets
(seasonal or year-round), fish handling and return systems, fine mesh screens,
wedgewire screens, and aquatic filter barrier systems in the water intake system.

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Desalination Plant

A key concern of desalination plants are the concentrate and chemical discharges to
the marine environment, which may have adverse effects on water and sediment
quality, impair marine life and the functioning of coastal ecosystem (Lattemann and
Hopner, 2007).

The option of disposing pre-treatment waste with the saline

concentrate is unlikely to have significant toxicological effects but further testing of the
final suite of chemicals should be undertaken. Notwithstanding this, National and
International best practice suggests that pre-treatment wastes should not be disposed
of to the marine environment and should be disposed to government approved
landfills.

The discharge brine has the ability to change the salinity, alkalinity and the
temperature averages of the seawater and can cause change on marine habitat.
Hence, long term monitoring of the conditions proposed in relation to temperature,
salinity and alkalinity at the site vicinity of desalination discharge outlet is
recommended. This would allow the verification of the appropriate distribution of the
discharge plume into the seawater and the impact to coastal system.

A manual water sampling program needs to be undertaken in the area of desalination


and CCGT discharge location to clearly determine the factors affecting on the aquatic
system could be better understood. Therefore an intensive study of environmental
effects and seawater quality monitoring needs to be undertaken periodically by MEW
and submit to KEPA.

Refer below the recommended monitoring actions to be carried out at AZS Power Plant
station in order to comply with KEPA standards for discharge water.
Table 5-1: Monitoring of water and sediment quality during operation phase
No

Methodology

Parameters

Location

Monitoring
Type

Seawater
samples to be
collected
at
Surface
and
bottom.

pH, Salinity, Dissolved


Oxygen,
Total
Suspended
Solids,
Phosphate,
Ammonia,
Hydrocarbons, Cadmium,
Nickel, Nitrate, Mercury,
Iron,
Copper,
Lead,
Vanadium, Silicate and
Nitrate

At outfall
and
intake
location

Seawater
quality
monitoring

Quarterly

Sediment
samples to be
collected

Particle Size Analysis,


Carbonate Content, Total
Organic Matter, Metals
(Al, S, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr,
Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb,
V, Zn) and TPH.

Near to
outfall
and
intake
location

Sediment
quality

Semi-annually

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6 CONCLUSIONS
In this study a three dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to study the recirculation at
the intake and the impact of outfalls on the marine environment due to the proposed OCGT
and CCGT Plant (future conversion) at the AZS Power Plant area.
Baseline conditions at the project site were studied using extensive survey on water velocity,
tidal variations, water and sediment quality analysis during January to February 2013. To
conduct hydrodynamic model, Delft 3D model was used after being calibrated and validated
using field measurements for the tidal currents and water levels from different campaigns.
The hydrodynamic model results showed that the wave heights are low near the intake and
outfalls. Thus, the main driving force for any sediment will be the tidal currents only. No
additional constructions are envisaged in the nearby marine area and for the present project
hence, no physical change in shoreline is expected.
The model results showed that the new plant will not increase salinity and temperature
significantly considering the existing discharge rate and the marine conditions of the Az Zour
area (i.e., Az-Zour South Power and Desalination Plant). This is mainly due to the fact that
the total discharge will not change much after including the new discharge of future CCGT
conversion of proposed OCGT plant (500MW). On the other hand, as already highlighted in
the previous sections, the total discharge will be reduced from the existing rate. Thus, the
proposed plant will not have any additional negative impact on the coastal area near to the
outfall as compared to the baseline conditions.
Based on the model prediction, there is no significant change in temperature rise (it is
approximately 0.02 to 0.06C) and salinity increase of 0.05ppt which is very negligible.
However, the present study recommends maintaining a regular monitoring at the AZS Power
Plant marine area to observe the long-term cumulative impacts of the existing and future
project.

Other recommendations highlighted in the mitigation section also need to be

implemented to ensure an environment friendly operation of the AZS power plant.

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REFERENCES

Abdul Raheem, M. 2007. Reducing the ecological footprint of power/desalination Plants. In


Sympoium Proceedings Towards Innovative Destalination and Power Generation in
Kuwait, Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences, 9-11 December 2007.
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