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One of the first numerical methods developed to find the root of a nonlinear equation

f ( x) 0 was the bisection method (also called binary-search method). The method is based

on the following theorem.

Theorem

An equation f ( x) 0 , where f (x) is a real continuous function, has at least one root

between x and xu if f ( x ) f ( xu ) 0 (See Figure 1).

Note that if f ( x ) f ( xu ) 0 , there may or may not be any root between x and xu

(Figures 2 and 3). If f ( x ) f ( xu ) 0 , then there may be more than one root between x and

xu (Figure 4). So the theorem only guarantees one root between x and xu .

The steps to apply the bisection method to find the root of the equation f ( x) 0 are

1. Choose x and xu as two guesses for the root such that f ( x ) f ( xu ) 0 , or in other

words, f (x) changes sign between x and xu .

2. Estimate the root, xm , of the equation f ( x) 0 as the mid-point between x and xu

as

x xu

xm =

2

3. Now check the following

a) If f ( x ) f ( xm ) 0 , then the root lies between x and xm ; then x x and

xu xm .

b) If f ( x ) f ( xm ) 0 , then the root lies between xm and xu ; then x xm and

xu xu .

c) If f ( x ) f ( xm ) 0 ; then the root is xm . Stop the algorithm if this is true.

4. Find the new estimate of the root

x xu

xm =

2

Find the absolute relative approximate error as

xmnew - xmold

a =

100

xmnew

where

03.03.1

03.03.2

Chapter 03.03

5. Compare the absolute relative approximate error a with the pre-specified relative

error tolerance s . If a s , then go to Step 3, else stop the algorithm. Note one

should also check whether the number of iterations is more than the maximum

number of iterations allowed. If so, one needs to terminate the algorithm and notify

the user about it.

Example 1

The floating ball has a specific gravity of 0.6 and has a radius of 5.5 cm. You are asked to

find the depth to which the ball is submerged when floating in water.

The equation that gives the depth x to which the ball is submerged under water is given by

x 3 0.165 x 2 3.993 10 4 0

Use the bisection method of finding roots of equations to find the depth x to which the ball

is submerged under water. Conduct three iterations to estimate the root of the above

equation. Find the absolute relative approximate error at the end of each iteration, and the

number of significant digits at least correct at the end of each iteration.

Solution

From the physics of the problem, the ball would be submerged between x 0 and x 2R ,

where

R radius of the ball,

that is

0 x 2R

0 x 2(0.055)

0 x 0.11

Lets us assume

x 0, xu 0.11

Check if the function changes sign between x and xu .

Bisection Method

03.03.3

f ( xu ) f (0.11) (0.11) 3 0.165(0.11) 2 3.993 10 4 2.662 10 4

Hence

So there is at least one root between x and xu , that is between 0 and 0.11.

Iteration 1

The estimate of the root is

x xu

xm

2

0 0.11

2

0.055

3

2

f xm f 0.055 0.055 0.1650.055 3.993 10 4 6.655 10 5

Hence the root is bracketed between xm and xu , that is, between 0.055 and 0.11. So, the

lower and upper limit of the new bracket is

x 0.055, xu 0.11

At this point, the absolute relative approximate error a cannot be calculated as we do not

have a previous approximation.

Iteration 2

The estimate of the root is

x xu

xm

2

0.055 0.11

2

0.0825

f ( xm ) f (0.0825) (0.0825)3 0.165(0.0825) 2 3.993 10 4 1.622 10 4

Hence, the root is bracketed between x and xm , that is, between 0.055 and 0.0825. So the

lower and upper limit of the new bracket is

x 0.055, xu 0.0825

The absolute relative approximate error a at the end of Iteration 2 is

xmnew xmold

100

xmnew

0.0825 0.055

100

0.0825

33.33%

03.03.4

Chapter 03.03

None of the significant digits are at least correct in the estimated root of xm 0.0825

because the absolute relative approximate error is greater than 5%.

Iteration 3

x xu

xm

2

0.055 0.0825

2

0.06875

f ( xm ) f (0.06875 ) (0.06875 )3 0.165(0.06875 ) 2 3.993 10 4 5.563 10 5

Hence, the root is bracketed between x and xm , that is, between 0.055 and 0.06875. So the

lower and upper limit of the new bracket is

x 0.055, xu 0.06875

The absolute relative approximate error a at the ends of Iteration 3 is

xmnew xmold

100

xmnew

0.06875 0.0825

100

0.06875

20%

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