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43 Aufrufe19 SeitenConcrete cracking

Feb 18, 2016

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Concrete cracking

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43 Aufrufe

Concrete cracking

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Bolted Connection Design
- 1-the fracture process.pdf
- Choi CK, Cheung SH (1996) Tension stiffening model for planar reinforced concrete members. Comput Struct 59(1):179–190
- 01495730290074298
- Principal Stresses
- The Cross Pin Connects 2 Flanges (Torque Load)
- TEST No
- SCA_A065_V-H-NGUYEN
- Science Cyclic Creep1
- 802694_ch9
- SEC VIII D3 ART KD-2
- FEA of Nonlinear Problems 2011 Ivanco
- Bolted Connection
- The interection between yielding supports and squeezing ground.pdf
- Analytical Methods Application to the Study
- class10_2005SFailureTheory
- I07SBD-43Ji
- 1 Borehole Instabilities as Bifurcation
- Shear Transfer
- Analytical Study of Fictitious Crack Propogation in Concrete Beams Using a Bilinear Relation

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ECCOMAS 2004

P. Neittaanm

aki, T. Rossi, S. Korotov, E. O

nate, J. P

eriaux, and D. Kn

orzer (eds.)

Jyv

askyl

a, 2428 July 2004

CONCRETE CRACKING

Christian Feist, Walter Kerber, Hermann Lehar and G

unter Hofstetter

Institute for Structural Analysis and Strength of Materials

Technikerstrasse 13, University of Innsbruck, Austria

e-mail: Guenter.Hofstetter@uibk.ac.at, web page: http://ibft.uibk.ac.at

Key words: finite element method, concrete, crack, plasticity theory, smeared crack

model, strong discontinuity approach

Abstract. The reliable numerical simulation of the development of cracks in plain concrete plays an important role for the integrity assessment of concrete structures. To this

end a large number of material models for the representation of cracks, based on different

theories and different finite element methods, have been developed in recent years. It is

the objective of a task group of the thematic network Integrity Assessment of Large Concrete Dams to conduct a systematic comparison of different nonlinear material models

for cracking of plain concrete. To this end, a data base is set up, which contains selected

laboratory tests for plain concrete, subjected to 2D and 3D stress states. The present

contribution focuses on the numerical simulation of tests, contained in the data base, by

means of three different material models for concrete, consisting of (i) a concrete model

based on the smeared crack approach and formulated within the framework of the theory of

plasticity, (ii) a plastic-damage model, which is available in the commercial finite element

program ABAQUS and (iii) a crack model, based on the strong discontinuity approach. In

particular, the crack models are applied to the numerical simulation of (i) L-shaped panel

tests, (ii) wedge splitting tests, (iii) tests on single edge notched beams and (iv) mixed

mode fracture tests on double edge notched panels. On the basis of the numerical results

the advantages and shortcomings of the investigated models for cracking of concrete are

outlined.

unter Hofstetter

INTRODUCTION

The reliable numerical simulation of the development of cracks in plain concrete plays

an important role for the integrity assessment of concrete structures. To this end a large

number of material models for the representation of cracks, based on different theories

and different finite element methods, have been developed in recent years.

It is the objective of a task group of the thematic network Integrity Assessment of

Large Concrete Dams (project acronym IALAD), funded by the European Community,

to conduct a systematic comparison of different nonlinear material models for cracking of

plain concrete. To this end, a data base is set up, which contains selected laboratory tests

for plain concrete, subjected to 2D and 3D stress states. The data base can be accessed

by the internet (http://nw-ialad.uibk.ac.at/Wp2/Tg2/). For each test the test setup, the

geometry, the material parameters and the loading can be retrieved from the data base.

In addition, experimental results, such as stress-strain diagrams, load-displacement curves

and crack patterns are provided and the numerical results, expected to be delivered by

interested participants, are stated.

Everybody is invited to make use of the data base for the validation of concrete models and to contribute numerical results with a short description of the employed model.

Suggestions, which further tests should be included in the data base, are welcome.

The present contribution focuses on the numerical simulation of tests, contained in the

data base, by means of three different material models for concrete, consisting of

a concrete model for 2D stress states, based on the smeared crack approach and

formulated within the framework of the theory of plasticity (model A),

a plastic-damage model, which is available in the commercial finite element program

ABAQUS (model B) and

a crack model, based on the strong discontinuity approach and formulated within

the framework of plasticity theory (model C).

In particular, the models are applied to the numerical simulation of

the L-shaped panel tests, conducted by Winkler [2],

the wedge splitting tests, conducted by Trunk [10],

tests on single edge notched beams, conducted by Feist [8] and

mixed mode fracture tests on double edge notched panels, conducted by NooruMohamed [11].

unter Hofstetter

2

2.1

Smeared crack model based on plasticity theory (model A)

The material model, formulated for 2D stress states within the framework of the theory

of plasticity is based on the concrete model proposed in [1]. It is characterized by a

composite yield surface, consisting of the Rankine criterion to limit the tensile stress and

a Drucker-Prager yield function to describe the compressive regime. The plastic strains

are computed by means of an associated flow rule. Suitable softening laws are employed to

describe tensile and compressive failure. Cracking is represented in a smeared manner by

distributing the crack opening over the width of the respective finite element. Objectivity

of the numerical results with respect to the employed mesh size is obtained by employing

the specific fracture energy for tensile failure of concrete and an equivalent length. The

latter is simply taken as the root of the area of the respective finite element. Crushing

failure is treated in a similar manner. Damage due to tensile stresses is coupled with

damage due to compressive stresses for mixed tension-compression loading in order to

describe the decreasing compressive strength with increasing tensile stresses in lateral

direction. Unloading and reloading is modelled by the introduction of an isotropic scalar

damage model. A detailed description of the model, which also includes the representation

of tension-stiffening of reinforced concrete, can be found in [2, 3]. However, for the

numerical analyses described in the present paper primarily those parts of the model

referring to concrete cracking are essential.

2.2

The plastic damage model for concrete, which is available in the commercial FEprogram ABAQUS [4], is based on the concrete model proposed in [5]. It allows the

consideration of cyclic and dynamic loading by modelling the stiffness degradation due to

unloading and reloading. To this end, the yield function is formulated in terms of effective

stresses rather than total stresses. The plastic strains are computed by means of a nonassociative flow rule in order to control dilatancy. Hardening and softening behaviour is

represented in terms of two hardening variables, which represent equivalent plastic strains

in tension and compression, respectively. They control the evolution of the yield surface

and can be related to the specific fracture energies in uniaxial tension and compression in

order to ensure objective results with respect to the employed mesh size. The evolution of

stiffness degradation due to cyclic loading is decoupled from the outlined material model

for the elastic-plastic response. The degradation of the elastic stiffness during unloading

and reloading is modelled by means of two independent damage variables, one for tensile

unloading and reloading and one for compressive unloading and reloading, which also depend on the mentioned two hardening variables. Moreover, recovery of the elastic stiffness

due to crack closure can be modelled. For the numerical analyses described in the present

paper primarily those parts of the model referring to concrete cracking due to monotonic

loading are essential.

3

unter Hofstetter

2.3

The crack model is based on the concept of finite elements with embedded discontinuities. The strong discontinuity approach, characterized by the representation of cracks by

discontinuities in the displacement field, is formulated within the framework of plasticity

theory [6, 7]. The yield condition provides a relation between the normal component of the

traction vector and the crack opening and the flow rule yields the enhanced strains, which

approximate the effect of the discontinuity. Being distributed over the width of those finite elements, which are crossed by the discontinuity, the enhanced strains complement

the regular strains of the continuous displacement field. Discontinuities are allowed to

cross elements in arbitrary ways and continuity of the crack path is enforced by means of

a partial domain crack tracking strategy [8]. The model is based on the fixed crack concept assuming the geometrical representation of the discontinuity surface to be fixed with

respect to time. The crack direction upon incipient cracking is predicted on the basis of

the direction of the maximum principal nonlocal strain, which is obtained from a nonlocal

averaging procedure of the strains by means of a bell-shaped distribution function within

a particular interaction radius. A detailed description is given in [9].

3

3.1

L-shaped panel test

The L-shaped panel has become a popular benchmark test for the validation of computational models for the numerical simulation of cracking of plain concrete. In order

to provide experimental data, tests on L-shaped structural members were performed at

the University of Innsbruck [2]. The test setup with the geometric properties and the

boundary conditions is shown in Fig. 1(a).

The long and the short edges of the L-shaped panel are given as 500 and 250 mm,

respectively; its thickness is 100 mm. The lower horizontal edge of the vertical leg is

fixed. A vertical load Fv , acting uniformly across the thickness opposite to the direction

of gravity, is applied at the lower horizontal surface of the horizontal leg at a distance

of 30 mm from the vertical end face. Shortly before reaching the maximum load the

experiment is switched from load-control to displacement control.

Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, the cylindrical compressive strength, the uniaxial

tensile strength and the specific fracture energy are given as E = 25850 N/mm2 , = 0.18,

fc = 31.0 N/mm2 , ft = 2.70 N/mm2 and Gf = 0.09 Nmm/mm2 .

Fig. 2 depicts the relationship between the applied load Fv and the vertical displacement

v at the point of load application. The grey shaded area shows the scatter of the experimental results from three tests on identical specimens, whereas the load-displacement

curves refer to the numerically predicted behaviour employing the three crack models and

the four FE-meshes, shown in Fig. 3. The mesh data of the employed FE-meshes are given

in Table 1. The meshes LSP-600, LSP-1151 and LPS-2910 consist of linear triangular elements (CST-elements), whereas the FE-mesh LSP-2246 contains bilinear quadrilateral

4

unter Hofstetter

500

250

250

250

t = 100 mm

500

F v, v

30

250

(a)

(b)

Figure 1: L-shaped panel test: (a) Test setup, (b) scatter of observed crack paths

10.0

10.0

exp. spectrum

model A

model B

model C

load [kN]

8.0

7.0

6.0

4.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

1.0

0.1

0.2

(a) LSP-600

11.0

10.0

vertical displacement [mm]

0.9

0.0

0.0

1.0

8.0

7.0

load [kN]

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

(c) LSP-2910

vertical displacement [mm]

0.9

1.0

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.1

(d) LSP-2246

0.2

vertical displacement [mm]

0.9

Figure 2: L-shaped panel test: Comparison of measured and computed load-displacement curves

1.0

4.0

3.0

1.0

0.2

vertical displacement [mm]

exp. spectrum

model A

model B

7.0

6.0

5.0

2.0

0.1

0.2

9.0

8.0

6.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

(b) LSP-1151

exp. spectrum

model A

model B

model C

9.0

load [kN]

8.0

7.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

exp. spectrum

model A

model B

model C

9.0

load [kN]

9.0

1.0

unter Hofstetter

model B

model C

FE-mesh LSP-2246

FE-mesh LSP-2910

FE-mesh LSP-1151

FE-mesh LSP-600

model A

unter Hofstetter

element type

mesh identifier

number of elements

number of nodes

number of dofs

LSP-600

600

341

682

CST

LSP-1151

1151

630

1260

LSP-2910

2910

1539

3078

CPS4

LSP-2246

2246

2316

4632

approach, is only implemented for CST-elements, for the latter model numerical results

are presented only for the meshes with CST-elements.

Apart from the FE-meshes, Fig. 3 also shows the computed crack paths by marking

those elements, which are crossed by the crack, by grey shading. The computed crack

paths can be compared with the respective crack paths observed in the tests, which are

shown in Fig. 1(b).

3.2

A series of wedge splitting tests on dam concrete was performed at the Institute for

Building Materials of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Z

urich, in order to

investigate the size dependence of fracture mechanics parameters. The extensive experimental program is documented in [10]. In the present context only the material data for

the tests on dam concrete, denoted as CP250, are described. A schematic diagram of the

wedge splitting specimens is shown in Figure 4.

The dimensions H and B of tested specimens ranged from 400 mm to 3200 mm. In the

present context only the specimen, characterized by H = B = 1600 mm and a thickness

of t = 400 mm is considered. The remaining dimensions are given as k = 100 mm,

s = 100 mm and a0 = 775 mm. In the vertical plane of symmetry the specimen has a

notch of depth (a0 s/2). The specimen rests on two supports, which are located below

the centre of gravity of each half of the specimen. Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio,

the uniaxial compressive strength, the uniaxial tensile strength and the specific fracture

energy are given as E = 28300 N/mm2 , = 0.18, fc = 44.7 N/mm2 , ft = 2.11 N/mm2

and Gf = 0.482 Nmm/mm2 .

In the tests, the relationship between the horizontal splitting force F , acting uniformly

along the inner vertical faces of the specimen, and the change of the distance s of the

points of load application, denoted as crack mouth opening displacement, was measured.

Fig. 5 depicts the measured and the computed relationships between F and s, the latter

on the basis of the three different crack models employing the four FE-meshes, shown in

Fig. 6.

The FE-meshes, denoted as WST-1512 and WST-2472 are irregular meshes consisting

of CST-elements without taking any advantage of symmetry, whereas the FE-meshes

unter Hofstetter

detail

k

s, F

a0

s/2

s/2

detail

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(a) FE-mesh WST-1512

110.0

100.0

90.0

80.0

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

load [kN]

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

load [kN]

110.0

100.0

90.0

80.0

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0

0.0

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(b) FE-mesh WST-2472

2.0

load [kN]

load [kN]

110.0

exp. curve

100.0

model A

exp. curve

90.0

model B

model A

80.0

model B

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0

0.0

0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.0

2.0

0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(c) FE-mesh WST-2042

(d) FE-mesh WST-1224

100.0

90.0

80.0

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0

0.0

Figure 5: Wedge splitting test: Comparison of measured and computed load-displacement diagrams

unter Hofstetter

model B

model C

FE-mesh WST-1224

FE-mesh WST-2042

FE-mesh WST-2472

FE-mesh WST-1512

model A

unter Hofstetter

element type

mesh identifier

number of elements

number of nodes

number of dofs

CST

WST-1512 WST-2472

1512

2472

816

1301

1632

2602

CPS4

WST-2042 WST-1224

2042

1224

2158

1287

4316

2574

WST-2042 and WST-1224 are symmetric with respect to the theoretical crack path. The

latter is a straight line, extending in the vertical plane of symmetry from the notch to the

bottom of the specimen. The mesh properties are summarized in Table 2. The predicted

crack paths, computed on the basis of the three crack models and the different FE-meshes

are depicted in Fig. 6.

3.3

Beam-shaped specimens were tested by Feist [8] in order to investigate the crack development in plain concrete subjected to 2D and 3D stress states. Two series of experiments

were carried out with five identical specimens for each series. In the first series a 2D

stress state was generated to obtain reference data on curved crack paths for 2D stress

states, whereas in the second series a 3D stress state was generated to obtain data on

curved crack surfaces for the validation of material models for 3D stress states. The

present contribution only focuses on the 2D tests. The dimensions of the specimens for

the 2D tests are 600 180 100 mm with a span of 500 mm (Fig. 7). Youngs modulus,

Poissons ratio, the uniaxial compressive strength, determined on cubic specimens, the

uniaxial tensile strength and the specific fracture energy are given as E = 34760 N/mm2 ,

= 0.21, fc = 50.4 N/mm2 , ft = 3.4 N/mm2 and Gf = 0.071 Nmm/mm2 .

At a horizontal distance of 175 mm from the left support a uniform line load is applied

along the entire width of the beam. A notch of 30 mm depth and 5 mm width is located

in the plane of symmetry perpendicular to the beam axis at the tensile face of the beam.

The notch serves as the location of crack initiation. Both, the notch width and the notch

depth are constant over the width of the beam.

Fig. 8 contains the measured and the computed relations between the applied load

F and the crack mouth opening displacement s (see Fig. 7(a)). The latter have been

obtained on the basis of the three different crack models employing the four FE-meshes,

which are partly shown in Fig. 9. The FE-meshes PCT2D-700, PCT2D-2190 and PCT2D3590 consist of CST-elements, whereas the mesh PCT2D-2418 contains bilinear quadrilateral elements. The first mesh is an irregular mesh, whereas the second one is regular. The

third mesh is characterized by a regular fine discretization in the vicinity of the expected

crack, whereas the fourth mesh is characterized by an irregular fine discretization in this

region. The properties of the employed FE-meshes are summarized in Table 3.

10

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s

30.0

50.0

support sleeve

130.0

SG

50.0

support sleeve

50.0

notch

F

225.0

375.0

300.0

300.0

all lengths in [mm]

(a)

(b)

Figure 7: Notched beam test: (a) Test setup, (b) observed crack path

18.0

load [kN]

16.0

14.0

12.0

20.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

18.0

16.0

load [kN]

20.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(b) FE-mesh PCT2D-2190

0.5

20.0

20.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

12.0

10.0

8.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

load [kN]

load [kN]

8.0

2.0

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(a) FE-mesh PCT2D-700

14.0

10.0

6.0

4.0

4.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0

2.0

2.0

0.5

exp. curve

model A

model B

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(c) FE-mesh PCT2D-3590

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

crack mouth opening displacement [mm]

(d) FE-mesh PCT2D-2418

Figure 8: Notched beam test: Comparison of measured and computed load-displacement diagrams

11

0.5

12.0

6.0

4.0

0.0

0.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

0.5

unter Hofstetter

Detail domain for the crack path plots

model B

model C

FE-mesh PCT2D-2418

FE-mesh PCT2D-3590

FE-mesh PCT2D-2190

FE-mesh PCT2D-700

model A

12

unter Hofstetter

element type

mesh identifier

number of elements

number of nodes

number of dofs

PCT2D-700

700

393

786

CST

PCT2D-2190

2190

1178

2356

PCT2D-3590

3590

1878

3756

CPS4

PCT2D-2418

2418

2519

5038

The crack paths, computed on the basis of the three crack models are also shown Fig. 9.

They can be compared with the observed crack path of Fig. 7(b).

In addition to the crack mouth opening also the strains in the direction of the beam axis

were measured at selected points. Fig. 10 shows a comparison of the strains, measured

with the strain gauge SG, located at the lateral surface above the applied load at the

height of the notch tip (see Fig. 7), with the respective computed values.

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

50

60

40

30

20

10

0

0.0

2.0

60

4.0

30

20

load [kN]

(b) FE-mesh PCT2D-2190

6.0

50

40

0.0

2.0

60

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

40

10

load [kN]

(a) FE-mesh PCT2D-700

30

20

4.0

6.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

50

40

30

20

10

10

0

0.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

50

strain (SG) [. 10-6]

65

60

load [kN]

(c) FE-mesh PCT2D-3590

2.0

4.0

6.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

load [kN]

Figure 10: Notched beam test: Comparison of measured and computed strains above the applied load at

the height of the notch tip

13

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3.4

A series of mixed mode fracture tests was undertaken by Nooru-Mohamed and van

Mier at Delft University of Technology. Results from seven series of tests with different

load paths were reported in Nooru-Mohameds Ph.D. thesis [11] and by van Mier [12].

The square shaped, double edge notched specimens are characterized by dimensions of

200 200 50 mm, a notch depth of 25 mm and a notch width of 5 mm. A schematic

diagram of the specimens and of the testing arrangement, relevant to the results reported

here, is shown in Figure 11(a).

un , Pn

vs , Ps

t = 50 mm

200

25

25

200

all lengths in [mm]

(a)

front face

rear face

front face

rear face

(c)

(b)

Figure 11: Mixed mode fracture test: (a) Test setup, (b) observed crack paths for load-path 4a, (c)

observed crack paths for load-path 4b

Here, only results from test series 4a and 4b are considered. In series 4a (4b) first a

shear load was applied to the specimen in displacement control up to Ps = 5 kN (10 kN),

with the axial load maintained at zero. Then an axial tensile load Pn was applied under

displacement control, whilst the shear force was maintained at a constant level. In [11]

the test designation for the test of series 4a is 48-03 and the two identical tests of series

4b are denoted as 46-05 and 47-01.

The compressive strength, obtained from cubes with dimensions of 150 mm, and the

splitting tensile strength for the specimen 46-05 are given as fc = 49.66 N/mm2 , fs =

3.76 N/mm2 , for the specimen 47-01 as fc = 46.19 N/mm2 , fs = 3.78 N/mm2 and for

the specimen 48-03 as fc = 46.24 N/mm2 , fs = 3.67 N/mm2 . From the splitting tensile

strength the uniaxial tensile strength was estimated for both tests as ft = 3.0 N/mm2 .

Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio are not provided in the test data, however, in a

numerical simulation, described in [11], they were chosen as E = 30000 N/mm2 and

= 0.2. The specific fracture energy is chosen as Gf = 0.110 Nmm/mm2 .

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25.0

15.0

20.0

load [kN]

load [kN]

20.0

25.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

10.0

5.0

0.1

0.15

0.05

vertical displacement [mm]

(a) load path 4a (FE-mesh NM-3474)

0.2

15.0

10.0

0.1

0.15

0.05

vertical displacement [mm]

(c) load path 4a (FE-mesh NM-10928)

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.15

0.05

vertical displacement [mm]

(b) load path 4b (FE-mesh NM-3474)

20.0

0.2

exp. curve

model A

model B

15.0

10.0

5.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

10.0

25.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

load [kN]

load [kN]

20.0

15.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

25.0

exp. curve

model A

model B

model C

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.15

0.05

vertical displacement [mm]

(d) load path 4b (FE-mesh NM-10928)

0.2

Figure 12: Mixed mode fracture test: Comparison of measured and computed load displacement diagrams

Fig. 12 shows the measured and computed relationships between the applied axial

tensile load Pn and the vertical displacement un . The load-displacement curves were

computed employing the three different crack models and the two irregular FE-meshes,

shown in Figs. 13 and 14. The first mesh, denoted as NM-3474, consists of CST-elements,

whereas the second one, denoted as NM-10928, contains bilinear quadrilateral elements.

The mesh data are summarized in Table 4. Fig. 13 also contains the computed crack

paths obtained by means of the three crack models employing the FE-mesh NM-3474.

Fig. 14 shows the FE-mesh NM-10928 and the crack paths computed by means of model

A and model B (model C is not available for quadrilateral finite elements). Because of

the very fine discretization the FE-mesh and the finite elements crossed by the cracks

are shown separately in Fig. 14. The computed crack paths can be compared with the

observed crack paths, shown in Fig. 11(b) and (c).

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model B

model C

FE-mesh NM-3474

load-path 4b

FE-mesh NM-3474

load-path 4a

model A

Figure 13: Mixed mode fracture test: Computed crack paths employing the FE-mesh NM-3474

model A

model B

load-path 4b

load-path 4a

FE-mesh NM-10928

Figure 14: Mixed mode fracture test: Computed crack paths employing the FE-mesh NM-10928

16

unter Hofstetter

element type

mesh identifier

number of elements

number of nodes

number of dofs

CST

NM-3474

3474

1802

3564

CPS4

NM-10928

10928

11078

22074

CONCLUSIONS

The comparison of the numerical results, obtained for the four selected tests on plain

concrete specimens by means of the three numerical models for concrete cracking, leads

to the following conclusions:

If regular meshes are employed, then the computed crack paths may be attracted

by mesh lines. This shortcoming holds for the plastic damage model (model B) and

to a somewhat lesser extent for the smeared crack model (model A). It results in

discrepancies between the experimental and the computed crack paths. This can

be seen for the L-shaped panel in Fig. 3 and for the single edge notched beam in

Fig. 9. The deviation of the computed crack path from the experimental one is

also reflected by the respective load-displacement diagrams (see Fig. 2(a) for the

L-shaped panel and Fig. 8(b) and (c) for the single edge notched beam) by the

overestimation of the ultimate load.

The shortcoming of computed crack paths following mesh lines by models A and

B also holds for unstructured meshes. Crack paths then typically follow a zig-zag

course, which can be seen for the L-shaped panel in Fig. 3 and for the wedgesplitting test in Fig. 6. Again, the deviation of the computed crack path from the

experimental one is reflected by the overestimation of the ultimate load (see Fig. 2(b)

and (c) for the L-shaped panel and Fig. 5(b) for the wedge splitting test).

Except for the mixed mode fracture test, for which all three models for concrete

cracking overestimate the ultimate load (Fig. 12), only the crack model based on the

strong discontinuity approach (model C) yields reliable predictions of the ultimate

load irrespective of the employed mesh.

The smeared crack model (model A) and the plastic damage model (model B) only

allow the prediction of elements crossed by cracks. In Figs. 3, 6, 9, 13 and 14 the

respective elements were marked by grey shading. In contrast to models A and B, the

crack model based on the strong discontinuity approach (model C) allows to predict

the discrete crack path by a discontinuity line, which is continuous across adjacent

elements. Hence, the illustrations of the cracked elements by grey shading in

Figs. 3, 6, 9, 13 and 14, obtained on the basis of model C, are complemented in

17

unter Hofstetter

Fig. 15 by plots of the predicted discrete cracks paths. The latter can be compared

with the experimentally obtained crack paths shown in Figs. 1(b), 7(b) and 11(b)

and (c). This comparison shows that model C provides an objective resolution of

the macroscopic cracks irrespective of the employed mesh.

FE-mesh LSP-2910

FE-mesh WST-2472

FE-mesh PCT2D-2190

load-path 4b

FE-mesh NM-3474

load-path 4a

FE-mesh NM-3474

Figure 15: Crack paths predicted by model C, based on the strong discontinuity approach

18

unter Hofstetter

REFERENCES

[1] P.H. Feenstra and R. de Borst. A composite plasticity model for concrete. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 33, 707730, 1996.

[2] B. Winkler. Traglastuntersuchungen von unbewehrten und bewehrten Betonstrukturen

auf der Grundlage eines objektiven Werkstoffgesetzes f

ur Beton. Dissertation, University of Innsbruck, Austria, 2001.

[3] B. Winkler, G. Hofstetter and H. Lehar. Application of a constitutive model for

concrete to the analysis of a precast segmental tunnel lining. Numerical and Analytical

Methods in Geomechanics, in print.

[4] ABAQUS Standard Users Manual, Version 6.3, Rhode Island, USA, 2003.

[5] J. Lee and G. L. Fenves. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 124, 892 900, 1998.

[6] J. Oliver, M.Cervera, and O.Manzoli. Strong discontinuities and continuum plasticity

models: The strong discontinuity approach. International Journal of Plasticity, 15,

319351, 1999.

[7] J. Mosler and G. Meschke. 3D modeling of strong discontinuities in elastoplastic

solids: Fixed and rotating localization formulations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 57, 15531576, 2003.

[8] C. Feist and G. Hofstetter. Mesh-insensitive strong discontinuity approach for fracture simulations of concrete. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Continuum Mechanics (NMCM 2003), CD-ROM, Zilina, Slovakia, 2003, 22p.

[9] C. Feist. Numerical modelling of cracking of plain concrete based on the strong

discontinuity approach and experimental investigations. Dissertation. University of

Innsbruck, 2004.

[10] B. Trunk. Einfluss der Bauteilgrosse auf die Bruchenergie von Beton. AEDIFICATIO

Publishers, Immentalstrasse 34, D-79104, Freiburg, 2000.

[11] M.B. Nooru-Mohamed. Mixed-mode fracture of concrete: An experimental approach.

Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 1992.

[12] J.G.M. van Mier. Fracture Processes of Concrete. Series: New Directions in Civil

Engineering, Vol. 12, CRC Press, 1997.

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