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ENGLISH GRAMMAR

EXERCISES
ADRIAN CONSTANTINESCU

1. Supply correct prepositions in front of


the gerunds and gerundial constructions:
1. We are interested ... improving our
English. 2. We have already had the pleasure ...
meeting each other. 3. Everything depends ... his
coming in time. 4. Jane has always been fond ...
buying

very

expensive

luxuries.

5.

We

are

surprised ... your refusing to see us off to the


station.
Key: 1. in; 2. of; 3. on; 4. of; 5. at.
2. Fill in the blanks with IF or WHETHER

The

1.

teacher

asked

us

...

we

had

understood the lesson. 2. It depends on ... we


have enough time (or not). 3. Please tell me ... or
not you agree. 4. ... we can really help you, I dont
know yet. 5. Roger wanted to know ... I had seen
that film.
Key: 1. if/whether; 2. whether; 3. whether;
4. whether; 5. if/whether.
3. Choose the correct version:
1. a. I wont be able to attend at the
meeting. b. I wont be able to attend the meeting.
2. a. He managed to open the lid with a
screwdriver. b. He managed to open the lid by a
screwdriver. 3. a. The bomb caused extensive
damage to the surrounding buildings. b. The
bomb

caused

extensive

damage

of

the

surrounding buildings. 4. a. Everybody does not


like studying when they are that age. b. Nobody
likes studying when they are that age. 5. a. The
child was caught stealing food. b. The child was
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caught stealing foods. 6. a. The inhabitants


certainly know how to make money from tourists.
b. The local inhabitants certainly know how to
make money from tourists. 7. a. People in
developed countries have a higher standard of
living. b. People in developed countries have a
higher level of living. 8. a. I sometimes meet
friends in a near restaurant. b. I sometimes meet
friends in a nearby restaurant. 9. a. A friend of
you phoned and wants you to call her. b. A friend
of yours phoned and wants you to call her. 10. a.
The proposal to build a new motorway received
little support. b. The proposal of building a new
motorway received little support.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8.
b; 9. b; 10. a.
4. Fill in the blanks with the necessary
adverbial particles or prepositions:
1. He helplessly mum-mummed, as he
squeezed Janets hand and grinned ... her like a
3

schoolboy. (J.M.) 2. Then drawing his arm through


that

of

the

obsequious

Mr

Crushton,

Lord

Mutanhed walked ... (C.D.) 3. Just at the very


moment of their entrance, the Dowager Lady
Snuphanuph and two other ladies of an ancient
and whist-like appearance, were hovering ... an
unoccupied cardtable; and they no sooner set
eyes ... Mr Pickwick under the convoy of Angelo
Bantam, that they exchanged glances with each
other, seeing that he was precisely the very
person they wanted, to make ... the rubber. (C.D.)
4. I watched her swish ... and come to a stop in a
flurry of sand. (J.W.) 5. She simply radiated an
emotion which blotted ... everything else with a
great amorphous splodge. (J.W.) 6. Meanwhile the
third man, who has been baling ... the boat, and
who has spilled the water ... his sleeve, and has
been cursing ... to himself steadily for the last ten
minutes, wants to know what the thundering
blazes youre playing at, and why the blarmed
tent isnt up yet. (J.K.J.) 7. Miss Waterford was a
good hostess, and seeing my embarrassment
came ... to me. (W.S.M.) 8. He had observed him
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start ... on the afternoons round and has seen


him lose a couple of balls in the lake at the
second hole after taking seven strokes at the first.
(P.G.W.) 9. Mac was an easy-going bloke, but he
could be a bloody terror when he was angry, and
the quickest way to find that ... was to ignore an
order. (A.F.) 10. If the subject crops ... in the
course of the chit-chat, I shall be delighted to
spread myself with no little vim on the theme of
your fine qualities. (P.G.W.) 11. He was weary of
repeating things that he knew already and of
hammering ... for the sake of a thick-witted
fellow, at something that he understood from the
beginning. (W.S.M.) 12. Lilian Portway sat ... on a
high-backed chair and leaned her elbows on the
table, she cupped her chin in her hands and
raised her long swan neck towards her friend.
(A.W.)
Key: 1. at; 2. away; 3. over, upon, up; 4.
down; 5. out; 6. out, down, away; 7. up; 8. out; 9.
out; 10. up; 11. away; 12. down.

5. Supply of, under, about, on or in:


1. She doesnt accuse him ... anything, but
she suspects him ... having taken her ring. 2. It
isnt nice to boast ... your success. 3. You can
never rely ... her to be punctual. 4. Why do you
persist ... asking such useless questions? 5. Im
rather anxious ... my sons health. 6. I went to an
interesting lecture yesterday. It was ... Exploring
oil ... the sea.
Key: 1. of, of; 2. on; 3. on; 4. in; 5. about; 6.
on, under.
6. Insert to where necessary before the
infinitive in brackets:
1. Id like him (go) to a concert but I cant
(make) him (go). 2. You ought (go) now. It may
(rain) at any minute. 3. He is said (be) the best
astronomer in the country. 4. She is expected
(arrive) in a few days.

Key: 1. to go, make, go; 2. to go, rain; 3. to


be; 4. to arrive.
7. Choose the correct word to complete
each sentence:
1.

(Exhausting,

exhaustive)

tests

have

proved that fluoride protects teeth. 2. We tried to


(borrow, lend) money from friends, but this
proved impracticable. 3. We have heard a lot
about the threat of famine over the (past, passed)
few months. 4. As a student he is still (dependent,
dependant) on his parents. 5. One (distinct,
distinctive) feature, however, is the option of a
tutorial

service

by

post.

6.

The

teacher

(confidently, confidentially) expects his students


to pass the examination. 7. An (appreciative,
appreciable) number of drivers now take the law
seriously.

8.

The

United

Kingdom

(consists,

comprises) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


9. In some streets parking is permitted on
(alternate, alternative) weekdays. 10. I took a

map with me, as I didnt want to (loose, lose) my


way on the journey.
Key: 1. exhaustive; 2. borrow; 3. past; 4.
dependent;

5.

distinctive;

6.

confidently;

7.

appreciable; 8. consists; 9. alternate; 10. lose.


8. Join the sentences by changing the
second sentence of each pair into a defining
relative clause:
1. Is the offer still open? You made the offer
last week. 2. There is evidence that many men
were in fact willing to accept the Companys
revised pay offer. These men went on strike. 3.
The exhibition was not very interesting. My friend
took me to see it. 4. Members of the local subaqua club came across a wreck. It had lain on the
sea-bed for over 200 years. 5. The pools winner
used a system. This system, he said, had won him
several small amounts over the years.

Key: 1. Is the offer you made last week still


open? 2. There is evidence that many men
who/that went on strike were in fact willing to
accept the Companys revised pay offer. 3. The
exhibition my friend took me to see was not very
interesting. 4. Members of the local sub-aqua club
came across a wreck which/that had lain on the
sea-bed for over 200 years. 5. The pools winner
used a system which, he said, had won him
several small amounts over the years.
9. Negate the finite verb in each of the
following sentences and make other changes that
then become necessary:
1. He has been away from home a very
long time. 2. This applies to some of the people
here already. 3. I can understand both of these
two

sentences.

4.

There

is

someone

doing

research in this field.


Key: 1. He has not been away very long. 2.
This does not apply to any of the people here yet.
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3. I cannot understand either of these two


sentences. 4. There isnt anyone doing research
in this field.
10. Fill in the blanks by using one or several
prepositional phrases:
1. In our country social reforms act ... the
people. 2. A show was given ... orphan children all
over the world. 3. It was not difficult to fix the
meeting as we had been ... one another all the
time. 4. We are called to solve this matter ... the
needs of our theatre. 5. Our plans were ... being
given up.
Key: 1. for the benefit of/for the good of; 2.
in aid of; 3. in touch with/in contact with; 4. in
compliance with/in accordance with; 5. in peril
of/in danger of.
11.

Join

the

sentences,

using

relative

clauses and inserting the proper punctuation. Use


contact clauses where possible:
10

1. The woman left the city after a few


weeks. He had been in love with her. 2. His house
was a bungalow of unpainted wood. It stood
almost eight kilometres from the main road. 3.
Regents Park incorporates one of the finest zoos
in the world. It was laid down by Nash. 4. Such
people become far more aware of the real world.
They work for a year between leaving school and
going to the university. 5. She has lent me a
fashion journal. I find it charming.
Key: 1. The woman he had been in love
with left the city after a few weeks. 2. His house,
which stood almost eight kilometres from the
main road, was a bungalow of unpainted wood. 3.
Regents Park, which was laid down by Nash,
incorporates one of the finest zoos in the world. 4.
Such people who work for a year between leaving
school and going to the university become much
more aware of the real world. 5. She has lent me
a fashion journal which I find charming.

11

12. Replace the sentences or co-ordinate


clauses in italics by subordinate adverbial clauses
of reason or concession, as appropriate, using the
conjunctions because, as, since, although, even
though, or while, and making any necessary
omissions:
1. I agreed to follow his advice, but I did so
with some misgivings. 2. I didnt have any
stamps. Therefore I couldnt post the letter. 3. He
didnt understand, so he asked the teacher to
explain. 4. He wont listen to me, so youd better
try talking to him yourself.
Key: 1. Although I agreed to follow his
advice, I did so with some misgivings. 2. As I
didnt have any stamps, I couldnt post the letter.
3. As he didnt understand, he asked the teacher
to explain. 4. Since he wont listen to me, youd
better try talking to him yourself.
13. Choose the correct version:

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1. a. The government has reached agreement


with the Peoples Republic of China. b. The
government has made an agreement with the
Peoples Republic of China. 2. a. Unfortunately,
the beach is not white and sandy. On the other
hand, it is seldom crowded and we can enjoy the
sea. b. Unfortunately, the beach is not white and
sandy. Anyway, it is seldom crowded and we can
enjoy the sea. 3. a. It is not true that only
businessmen are benefited by tourism. b. It is not
true that only businessmen benefit from tourism.
4. a. The local residents would like to clean the
neighbourhood. b. The local residents would like
to clean up the neighbourhood. 5. a. The floods
made a lot of damage. b. The floods did/caused a
lot of damage. 6. a. In Argentina, Christmas
celebrations are completely different from/to the
ones in England. b. In Argentina, Christmas
celebrations are completely different as the ones
in England. 7. a. I hope that you will both write to
each others. b. I hope that you will both write to
each other. 8. a. This true story provides evidence
of the power of advertising. b. This true story
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provides an evidence of the power of advertising.


9. a. She says that she feels trapped in the job. b.
She says that she feels herself trapped in the job.
10. a. As for his new novel, I think its worth
reading indeed. b. As for his new novel, I think its
certainly worth reading.
Key: 1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
a; 9. a; 10. b.
14. Determine the kind of each of the
adverbial clauses in the following sentences:
1. I still love her although she has done so
much wrong to me. 2. In spring one can see
dandelions wherever one goes in the countryside.
3. She cannot play tennis as well as she skates. 4.
The better we work, the better we are paid. 5. Im
not going to see this picture as I have already
seen it. 6. Nothing is so bad as you think it is.

14

Key:
comparison;

1.

concession;

2.

place;

3.

4.

comparison;

5.

reason;

6.

comparison.
15. Combine each of the following pairs of
sentences into one sentence using so as/in order
where necessary:
1. He coughed. He wanted to warn them
that he was coming. 2. I sent him out of the room.
I

wanted

to

discuss

his

progress

with

his

headmaster. 3. I am learning Greek. I wish to read


Homer. 4. Before the carpenter came she covered
the floor with polythene sheeting. She wanted to
protect the carpet. 5. He turned out the light. He
didnt want to waste electricity. 6. The workmen
left red lights near the hole. They wanted to warn
motorists.
Key: 1. to warn; 2. in order to discuss; 3.
(in order) to read; 4. to protect; 5. so as not to
waste; 6. to warn.

15

16.

Rephrase

the

following

incorrect

sentences into correct ones:


1. Some people constantly discuss politics.
Without really knowing what they are talking
about. (prepositional gerund phrase) 2. That night
the river overflowed its banks. And flooded the
lowlands. (verb phrase) 3. Winter having come
early that year. The mountain passes were soon
blocked by the snow. (absolute phrase) 4. Having
worked in a garage for four years. John thinks he
is an experienced mechanic. (participial phrase).
Key: 1. Some people constantly discuss
politics without really knowing what they are
talking about. 2. That night the river overflowed
its banks and flooded the lowlands. 3. Winter
having come early that year, the mountain
passes were soon blocked by the snow./ Winter
came early that year, and the mountain passes
were soon blocked by the snow. 4. Having worked
in a garage for four years, John thinks he is an
experienced mechanic.
16

17. Write the following sentences in an


alternative form:
1. Having had his car serviced some days
before, he was angry when it broke down. As... 2.
I dont know how many times Ive told you to be
careful. Ive kept... 3. As soon as the sun had set,
Tom and Huck set off for the graveyard. Hardly...
4. I dont know how often he came to see you. He
came... 5. The cars cant move, and neither can
the buses. The cars cant move, and the buses...
Key: 1. As he had had his car serviced
some days before, he was angry when it broke
down. 2. Ive kept telling you to be careful I dont
know how many times. 3. Hardly had the sun set
when Tom and Huck set off for the graveyard. 4.
He came to see you I dont know how often. 5.
The cars cant move, and the buses cant either.
18. Fill in the blanks with the necessary
adverbial particles or prepositions:
17

1. If Setter had been on an ordinary patrol


MacGregor would have felt like nipping ... a bit
closer (to the enemy) in the hope of finding a
target for torpedoes. There might be a great, fat
transport, lolloping ... the coast, just asking to be
sunk. (A.F.) 2. Each was connected with a
business in the metropolis; and often, before he
left ... the links, Peters would go to the trouble
and expense of ringing ... the office to say that he
would not be coming that day. (P.G.W.) 3. He
arrived,

looked

me

...

with

smiling

and

impudent curiosity. (M.T.) 4. It is an old saying


that a little pot is soon hot which was the case
with William the Testy. Being a little man he was
soon in a passion and once in a passion he soon
boiled .... (W.I.) 5. Justice is a machine that, when
some one has once given it the starting push,
rolls ... of itself. (J.G.) 6. He turned ... to be an
artful rogue, the shame of his people. 7. So one
day you refuse to have an innocent animal
butchered for your pleasure and the next you turn
... in horror from killing a fellow-man. (G.G.) 8.
18

She inquired ... their plans for the holidays just to


keep the ball rolling. 9. The only thing he
looked ... was the portico of a second-rate Roman
temple. (A.H.) 10. She brought ... the topic of
spending

the

week-end

together.

11.

Next

morning, Charley turned ... at breakfast in his


overalls as usual. (D.P.) 12. She thought they were
all rather ghastly, most of them seemed pub or
club pickups of Polls or people these pickups had
brought ... with them. (A.W.) 13. He did not mind
that a larger number of his lodgers were pretty
crooks, drunkards, tricksters, and middle-class
down-and-outs, indeed it was what he chiefly
esteemed ... them, but he hardly knew how to
support their untidiness, their dirtiness, and their
extravagance with light and gas. (A.W.) 14. Hes
been out of his head or unconscious ever since
we

picked

him

...,

the

boatswains

mate

commanding the coast-guard cutter said. (E.H.)


Key: 1. in, up; 2. for, up; 3. over; 4. over; 5.
on; 6. out; 7. away; 8. after; 9. at; 10. up; 11. up;
12. along; 13. in; 14. up.
19

19. Supply correct prepositions in front of


the gerunds and gerundial constructions:
1. ... leaving for her office in the morning
she always has a cup of coffee. 2. ... working in
her office for eight hours a day, Linda also has a
part-time job as a shorthand typist. 3. ... getting
up in the morning I always take a shower. 4. He
went away ... leaving any message. 5. ... making
so much effort day by day she felt tired.
Key: 1. before; 2. besides; 3. after; 4.
without; 5. through/by.
20. Choose the correct version:
1. a. With reference to your letter of 6th
September, I am pleased to confirm that the
books have now arrived. b. In reference to your
letter of 6th September, I am pleased to confirm
that the books have now arrived. 2. a. Parents
should spend more time to look after their
children. b. Parents should spend more time
20

looking after their children. 3. a. The language


school is in Malibu Street. b. The language school
is in the Malibu Street. 4. a. I thought it was just
an ordinary parcel but then it began to move
across the table. b. I thought it was just a usual
parcel but then it began to move across the table.
5. a. He left the house at five in the morning,
when the family was yet asleep. b. He left the
house at five in the morning, when the family was
still asleep. 6. a. I apologize for our mistake and
will send you a full refund. b. I apologize for our
fault and will send you a full refund. 7. a. I must
tell you how I was pleased to receive a letter from
you. b. I must tell you how pleased I was to
receive a letter from you. 8. a. The rapid growth
of the worlds population has produced serious
social and economic problems. b. The rapid
growth of the worlds inhabitants has produced
serious social and economic problems. 9. a.
Teachers today are less stricter than they used to
be. b. Teachers today are less strict than they
used to be. 10. a. If you cant find her, she must

21

hide somewhere. b. If you cant find her, she


must be hiding somewhere.
Key: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
a; 9. b; 10. b.
21. Replace each group of words in italics
by one adjective:
1. When questioned by the master about a
theft from a cloakroom, the boy, with an open
and innocent expression on his face, pretended to
know nothing about it. 2. What a pity it is that
some cheeses have such a thoroughly unpleasant
smell that people are deterred from eating them!
3. Most teachers prefer a class that is fairly
consistent in having pupils of the same level.
Key: 1. ingenuous; 2. an obnoxious; 3.
homogeneous.

22

22. Join the sentences by changing the


second sentence of each pair into a defining
relative clause:
1. The gales caused widespread damage.
They swept across southern England last night. 2.
The problem today is to build houses at a price.
Young couples can afford to pay this price. 3.
Paintings by Renoir realized record prices in the
sale. The sale took place at Sothebys in London
yesterday. 4. The pipeline has been severed. It
carries the towns water supplies. 5. In some
areas of Britain, unemployment is a fact of life.
People have grown accustomed to facing this
fact.
Key: 1. The gales which/that swept across
southern England last night caused widespread
damage. 2. The problem today is to build houses
at a price young couples can afford to pay. 3.
Paintings by Renoir realized record prices in the
sale which/that took place at Sothebys in London
yesterday. 4. The pipeline that/which carries the
23

towns water supplies has been severed. 5. In


some areas of Britain, unemployment is a fact of
life people have grown accustomed to facing.
23. Supply correct prepositions in front of
the gerunds and gerundial constructions:
1. I am looking forward ... seeing you again.
2. There is no harm ... paying them another visit
this week. 3. Please, excuse me ... being so late
this morning. 4. Being a bachelor, he is used ...
cooking his own meals. 5. He is very proud ...
being invited to parties. 6. She is very fond ...
reading historical novels.
Key: 1. to; 2. in; 3. for; 4. to; 5. of; 6. of.
24. Change the form of the phrases below
so that the postmodifiers become premodifiers:
1. Cruelty such as we have never heard of
before. 2. A boat with a flat bottom. 3. A house

24

that has been built well. 4. A secret that has been


kept closely.
Key:

1.

unheard

of

(cruelty);

2.

flat-

bottomed (boat); 3. (a) well-built (house); 4.


closely-kept (secret).
25. Combine each of the pairs of sentences
below so as to form one sentence containing a
nominal that-clause. Say in each case whether
the subordinator that is optional or obligatory;
and say what function the that-clause is fulfilling
in the superordinate clause:
1. I am convinced we cannot stay here. The
results will be disastrous if we do. 2. In view of the
drought, there is only enough water for two days.
That is our conclusion. 3. We have only enough
water for two more days. I told you so. 4. We
conclude that there is only enough for two days.
Our conclusion has been reached after very
careful checking.

25

Key: 1. I am convinced that we cannot stay


here and that the results will be disastrous if we
do; that oblig. both times, that-clauses C of
convinced; 2. Our conclusion is that, in view of
the drought, there is only enough water for two
days; that obligatory; 3. I told you we have only
enough water for two more days; that optional,
that-clause O of told; 4. Our conclusion, reached
after careful checking, is that there is only
enough for two days; that oblig.; that-clause C of
S./Our conclusion that there is only enough for
two days, has been reached after very careful
checking;

that

oblig.;

that-clause

in

non-

restrictive opposition to S.
26. Make the sentences passive:
1. He hasnt done it for years. 2. Theyre
building a house for their children. 3. Will they
take the workers home by bus? 4. Mark Twain sold
a strangers dog to a general. 5. They dont speak
to strangers in his town.

26

Key: 1. It hasnt been done for years. 2. A


house is being built for their children. 3. Will the
workers be taken home by bus? 4. A strangers
dog was sold by Mark Twain to a general. 5.
Strangers are not spoken to in his town.
27. Choose the correct version:
1. a. Take care not to catch a cold. b. Take
care of not catching a cold. 2. a. The country
shares boundaries with Ruanda and Burundi. b.
The country shares borders with Ruanda and
Burundi. 3. a. Soon youll be my age. b. Soon
youll be of my age. 4. a. Trying to avoid the
sheep, he drove his car into a tree. b. Trying to
avoid the sheep, he drove his car against a tree.
5. a. This problem affects each and everyone of
us. b. This problem affects each and every one of
us. 6. a. The life in the countryside is quiet and
relaxed. b. Life in the countryside is quiet and
relaxed. 7. a. Her only distinguishing feature is
her long blond hair. b. Her only distinguishing
mark is her long blond hair. 8. a. Late one
27

evening, as I was getting into the bath, I suddenly


heard a strange noise. b. Late one evening, as I
was getting into the bath, suddenly I heard a
strange noise. 9. a. Next July Im going to the USA
to continue my studies. b. Next July Im going to
the USA to continue my study. 10. a. The large
size is very value. b. The large size is very good
value. 11. a. I finally opened the can with using a
screwdriver. b. I finally opened the can by using a
screwdriver. 12. a. The college is a twenty-minute
bus ride from my flat. b. The college is a twenty
minutes bus ride from my flat. 13. a. We had to
describe the pictures to each other. b. We had to
describe the pictures each other. 14. a. He was
born in a Catholic family. b. He was born into a
Catholic family. 15. a. I love the sound of a
classical guitar. b. I love the sound of a classic
guitar. 16. a. I darent to ask her for any more
money. b. I darent ask her for any more money.
17. a. Excuse me. I didnt mean to hurt you. b. Im
sorry. I didnt mean to hurt you. 18. a. The
sunlight poured in through (the panes of) the
bedroom window. b. The sunlight poured in
28

through the glasses of the bedroom window. 19.


a. After buying the food, he had not any money
left. b. After buying the food, he didnt have any
money left. 20. a. The key to our success is that
we all worked very hard. b. The key of our
success is that we all worked very hard.
Key: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. a; 8.
a; 9. a; 10. b; 11. b; 12. a; 13. a; 14. b; 15. a; 16. b;
17. b; 18. a; 19. b; 20. a.
28. Translate into English:
1. Prietena mea merge la mare n fiecare
an. 2. Nu neleg textul de pe tabl. 3. este lapte
n paharul de pe mas, dar nu mai sunt prjituri.
Key: 1. My friend goes to the seaside every
year. 2. I dont understand the text on the
blackboard. 3. There is some milk in the glass on
the table, but there are no more cakes.

29

29. Determine the kind of each of the


adverbial clauses in the following sentences:
1. I speak French much better than I write
it. 2. She didnt join her friends on the trip to the
Danube Delta because she cannot swim and is
afraid of water. 3. All the field was covered with
fresh green grass except the spots which had
been burnt by fire. 4. Even if this is/be true, Ive
got to go and see them. 5. She met him when she
was in the hospital. 6. He was so surprised that he
could not utter a word.
Key: 1. comparison; 2. reason/cause; 3.
exception-restriction; 4. concession; 5. time; 6.
result.
30. Answer the following questions in
indirect form. Begin each answer with the words
given in parentheses:
1. Is their telephone out of order? (Can you
tell me) 2. How many rooms are there in their
apartment? (Ask her) 3. When will your brother
30

return? (He wanted to know) 4. What is the date


today? (I asked her)
Key: 1. Can you tell me if/whether their
telephone is out of order? 2. Ask her how many
rooms there are in their apartment. 3. He wanted
to know when your brother would return. 4. I
asked her what the date was that day.
31. Decide which verb is right. Explain why:
1. The kind of western movies that I see
these days bores/bore me. 2. One of the most
pleasant facts about the discussion is/are that
everyone of them takes it seriously. 3. One of the
main reasons for the rapid decline of Spain as a
sea power was/were the series of naval defeats
she suffered at the hands of the English. 4. This is
one of the best jokes that has/have ever been
told.
Key: 1. Bores. That special kind bores me.
2. Is. One very pleasant fact among many others.
31

3. Was. One reason is the subject. 4. Have. There


have been many jokes. This is one of the best.
32. Change the following from Direct to
Indirect Speech:
1. I repeated, I live in Bucharest. 2. They
said insistently, We need to learn two foreign
languages in school. 3. I was answered, The
new theatre will have been completely finished
by next autumn. 4. The teacher asked me,
Which

textbook

do you find

easier?

5. I

promised the librarian, I will return you the


review next week. 6. The pupils always say, We
are never late. 7. Father said, And you may
always count on my help. 8. We asked the boy,
Who teaches you English? 9. We promised, We
shall work harder and get better marks. 10. She
always says, Im very busy.
Key:

1.

repeated

(that)

lived

in

Bucharest. 2. They declared (that) they needed to


learn two foreign languages in school. 3. I was
32

answered (that) the new theatre would have been


completely finished by the following autumn. 4.
The teacher asked me which textbook I found
easier. 5. I promised the librarian (that) I should
return him the review the following week. 6. The
pupils always say (that) they are never late. 7.
Father assured me (that) I might always count on
his help. 8. We asked the boy who taught him
English? 9. We promised (that) we should work
harder and get better marks. 10. She always says
(that) she is very busy.
33.

Indicate,

by

Cs,

Od

or

Oi,

the

comparative element in the following sentences:


1. Yet are we really happier than our
ancestors were? 2. Technology has given more
people

than

ever

the

means

of

leading

comfortable and easy life. 3. Man has greater


power over his environment than he has ever had
before.
Key: 1. Cs; 2. Oi; 3. Od.
33

34. Fill in the blanks by using one or several


prepositional phrases:
1. The old museum is ... being demolished.
2. The Johnsons gave up the idea of building a
new house ... money. 3. The trial found the
officer ... a foreign power. 4. The two friends have
always been ... all disputes. 5. The speaker found
himself ... his audience.
Key: 1. in peril of/in danger of; 2. for want
of/for lack of; 3. in the pay of/in the employ of; 4.
in the thick of; 5. in opposition to.
35. Replace the object in each of the
sentences by the corresponding pronoun; then
give the whole new sentence:
1. You can take over my job. 2. Run in the
race. 3. Turn down his proposal. 4. Get over the
wall. 5. Back up the hill.

34

Key: You can take it over. 2. Run in it. 3.


Turn it down. 4. Get over it. 5. Back up it.
36. Supply a suitable subordinator:
1.

They

preferred

to

build

houses

of

stone, ... using wood from such trees as there


were. 2. ... they drew nearer to the coast, they
found the land less barren, the air more humid. 3.
... you sow, ... you will reap.
Key: 1. rather than/instead of; 2. as; 3. as,
so.
37. Put the transitive verbs into the passive
voice. Do not mention the agent unless it seems
necessary:
1. We kill and injure people on the roads
every day. Cant we do something about this? 2.
He recommends fitting new tyres. 3. Im afraid we
have sold all our copies but we have ordered
more. 4. In future, perhaps, they wont bring
35

letters to the houses, and we shall have to collect


them from the Post Office. 5. The police shouldnt
allow people to park there. 6. A machine could do
this much more easily. 7. They returned my keys
to me; someone had picked them up in the street.
8. Nobody has used this room for ages.
Key: Many people are killed and injured on
the roads every day. Cant something be done
about this? 2. He recommends that new tyres
should be fitted. 3. Im afraid all our copies have
been sold but more have been ordered. 4. In
future, perhaps, letters wont be brought to the
houses, theyll have to be collected them from
the Post Office. 5. People shouldnt be allowed to
park there. 6. This could be done much more
easily by (a) machine. 7. My keys were returned
to me; they had been picked up in the street. 8.
This room hasnt been used for ages.
38. Put the following into indirect speech:

36

1. She said, When you are a big boy youll


have to tie your own shoes. 2. I had to drive
your pigs out of my garden, she said. 3. He said,
You must walk faster; you are far too slow. 4.
Park notice: Dogs must be kept on a lead. 5. He
said, If what you say is true I must go to the
police. 6. Railway regulations: Passengers must
be in possession of a valid ticket before travelling.
Key: 1. She told him that when he was a
big boy he would have to tie his own shoes. 2.
She said that she had had to drive his pigs out of
her garden. 3. He said that I must walk faster, I
was far too slow. 4. The park notice said that dogs
must be kept on a lead. 5. He said that if what
she said was true he would have to go/must go to
the

police.

6.

The

railway

regulations

said

passengers must be in possession of a valid ticket


before travelling.
39. Replace the words or phrases in bold
type by phrasal verbs. Some of the sentences
may sound awkward as they stand:
37

1. Whenever you are in Paris, do go and


visit my sister. 2. You are not allowed to offer
yourself for election to Parliament if you are
under eighteen, a lunatic, or a bankrupt. 3. The
chairman brought his speech to an end by
thanking the staff for their hard work. 4. Be
careful! The trees going to fall! 5. The village is
so small that we are always meeting our friends
accidentally.
Key: 1. look up my sister/look my sister up;
2. to stand for; 3. wound up; 4. look out; 5.
running into.
40.

Turn

the

sentences

below

into

hypothetical statements:
1. They didnt offer him a reasonable salary
and so he didnt take the job. 2. You encouraged
Tom to come and here he is. 3. We bought a flat
last week, thats why we are so short of money
now. 4. We made inquiries, thats why we are so
38

well-informed on the matter. 5. This is thought to


be

an

important

issue,

so

they

had

we

cant

avoid

discussing it.
Key:

1.

If

offered

him

reasonable salary, he would have taken the job.


2. If you hadnt encouraged Tom to come, he
wouldnt be here. 3. If we hadnt bought a flat last
week, we shouldnt be so short of money now. 4.
If we hadnt made inquiries, we shouldnt be so
well-informed on the matter. 5. If this werent
thought to be an important issue, we could avoid
discussing it.
41. Make an inversion in the conditional
clauses in the following sentences:
1.

If

they

were

to

reconsider

our

suggestion, I am sure we could do a good job


together. 2. If Paul had taken my advice, he
wouldnt be in a narrow corner now. 3. If he
should happen to ask where I am, tell him to
contact me at this number.
39

Key:

1. Were they to reconsider our

suggestion, I am sure we could do a good job


together. 2. Had Paul taken my advice, he
wouldnt be in a narrow corner now. 3. Should he
happen to ask where I am, tell him to contact me
at this number.
42. Choose the correct version:
1. a. Those students who pass are given an
intermediate

certificate.

However,

the

examination is far from easy. b. Those students


who pass are given an intermediate certificate.
Anyhow, the examination is far from easy. 2. a. He
put his hand over my mouth to avoid me to
scream. b. He put his hand over my mouth to
prevent

me

from

screaming.

3.

a.

At

the

beginning of the century people travelled from


Britain to Egypt by sea. b. In the beginning of the
century people travelled from Britain to Egypt by
sea. 4. a. Some women stay at home to take care
after the children. b. Some women stay at home
40

to take care of the children. 5. a. The house was


consisting of three bedrooms, a kitchen, and a
bathroom. b. The house consisted of three
bedrooms, a kitchen, and a bathroom. 6. a. The
original

inhabitants

of

the

region/area

were

probably Chinese. b. The original inhabitants of


the district were probably Chinese. 7. a. I think I
have caught a flu. b. I think I have caught (the)
flu. 8. a. I was on holiday with my parents on the
island Capri. b. I was on holiday with my parents
on the island of Capri. 9. a. He didnt enjoy life in
the army at all. b. He didnt enjoy the life in the
army at all. 10. a. We dont need to hire that
much employees. b. We dont need to hire that
many employees.
Key: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
b; 9. a; 10. b.
43. Replace the that-clause in each of the
following sentences by a prepositional phrase
without changing the original meaning:

41

1. No one is sorry that Lawler has resigned.


2. No one told me that there were these
problems. 3. The brothers were determined they
would have their revenge. 4. I am not aware that I
gave you permission to leave. 5. The young man
convinced everyone that he was innocent.
Key: 1. No one is sorry about Lawlers
resignation. 2. No one told me of these problems.
3. The brothers were determined on having their
revenge. 4. I am not aware of giving you
permission to leave. 5. The young man convinced
everyone of his innocence.
44. Place the adverbs in the following
sentences correctly:
1. Do you go to the skating-rink (every
Sunday)? 2. My brother plays tennis (four times a
week). 3. She left for Craiova (a few months ago).
4. My cousin plays in Pygmalion (twice a
month).

42

Key: 1. Do you go to the skating-rink every


Sunday? 2. My brother plays tennis four times a
week. 3. She left for Craiova a few months ago. 4.
My cousin plays in Pygmalion twice a month.
45. Add adverbial clauses to the following
main clauses, as indicated in parentheses:
1. So happy we were about the good news
(result) 2. He behaved (comparison) 3. Such was
his parents anxiety (result) 4. She didnt take her
umbrella (concession) 5. ..., she is a very modest
girl (concession).
Key: 1. that; 2. as (if); 3. that; 4. although;
5. (Al)though.
46. Place the adverbs in the following
sentences correctly:
1. They go to concerts (seldom). 2. The
driver stopped to look at the map (ever so often).
3. Did you see my cousin in Pygmalion (last
43

month)? 4. We arrived at the chalet exhausted


(late in the evening).
Key: 1. They seldom go to concerts. 2. The
driver ever so often stopped to look at the map.
3. Did you see my cousin in Pygmalion last
month? 4. We arrived at the chalet exhausted late
in the evening.
47. Put the verbs in brackets into the
Present Perfect or the Past Tense, depending on
the given alternatives:
1. We (live) here (for three years, three
years ago). 2. He (complete) his work (yesterday,
this morning, for a long time now). 3. They (try) to
speak only English (lately, last night). 4. The
weather (change) (since this morning, as I left the
house).
Key: 1. have lived, lived; 2. completed, has
completed/completed, has completed; 3. have
tried, tried; 4. has changed, changed.
44

48. Choose the correct word:


1. It rains (heavy, heavily). 2. When did you
(last, lastly) see him? 3. Mr. Jones held it (tight,
tightly). 4. I hate taking medicine. It tastes (bitter,
bitterly). 5. (last, lastly) I must account for my
sisters behaviour.
Key: 1. heavily; 2. last; 3. tight/tightly; 4.
bitter; 5. lastly.
49. Leave out that wherever possible:
1. You may not go to the movies because of
the medicine that you have to take for your cold.
2. It is something that makes ones hair stand on
end. 3. Is that the book that she spoke to me
about? 4. These are the glasses that I was looking
for.
Key: 1. ; 2. that; 3. ; 4. .

45

50. Choose the correct version:


1. a. I enjoy to speak foreign languages. b. I
enjoy speaking foreign languages. 2. a. I was just
about

to

enter

the

station

when

someone

grabbed me by the shoulders and threw me to


the ground. b. I was just about to enter the
station when someone grabbed me by the
shoulders and threw me to the floor. 3. a. Could
you describe what the driver looks like? b. Could
you describe how the driver looks like? 4. a. You
are very kindly to spare me so much of your time.
b. You are very kind to spare me so much of your
time. 5. a. Then I looked the person sitting next to
her. b. Then I looked at the person sitting next to
her. 6. a. The green jacket doesnt match the
trousers. b. The green jacket doesnt match to the
trousers. 7. a. People are not as careful as they
should be and drop their litter in the streets. b.
People are not as careful as they must be and
drop their litter in the streets. 8. a. Her parents
have offered me to go on holiday with them. b.
Her parents have invited me to go on holiday with
46

them. 9. a. It may be a good chance for you to


have a rest. b. Perhaps it will be a good chance
for you to have a rest. 10. a. The government
does not provide enough food for the population.
b. The government does not provide enough food
to the population.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. a; 8.
b; 9. a; 10. a.
51. Fill in the blanks with the necessary
adverbial particle or prepositions:
1. They were prepared to slog it ... to the
end of time. 2. And after that, Ill have to think
it ... 3. Unless you can sneak ... without paying,
which is dashed difficult to do with these cashiers
watching the door like weasels, tea even at an
ABC shop punches the pocket-book pretty hard,
and at the moment Im down to the scrapings.
(P.G.W.) 4. Both Marie Hlne and Kay were intent
on steering the conversation ... from laffaire
Pelican; but to John and Robin, it seemed one of
47

the most potentially succulent of all the many


bones over which they had snarled and snapped
since boyhood. (A.W.). 5. The third time he did
this a collective quiver of mirth ran ... the front
row of girls, then spread to the back rows. (M.S.)
6. The port seemed tiny compared ... the vast
wrinkled wasteland behind, the dry uninhabited
mountains, like the broken backbone of an
ancient

beast

excavated

from

the

clay

stretching ... the haze towards Cap Haitien. (G.G.)


7. The man decided to let the matter go and
avoid stirring ... trouble. 8. I rushed ... the
passage in search of my mother. I burst ... the
lighted sitting-room. There she was, I cried ... with
perfect relief. (C.P.S.) 9. The plan was carried ...
10. It was a spontaneous exhibition that had
served its purpose on many different occasions.
Sir Edgar, however, disliked it even more than his
earlier performance. He fell ... on the old English
courtesy that he has consciously perfected to
combat the increasing irritability that came with
old age and arthritis. (A.W.) 11. At other times the
reality

became

an

infamy
48

again

and

the

unchangeable, an imposture, and he gave himself


... to his angry restlessness. (H.J.) 12. Matt came
home, wolfed ... his supper, and went ... to the
local. (J.L.) 13. At a businesslike pace, still
beaming, he headed ... the up escalator. (A.H.)
14. A kind of pseudo-legal jargon mixed ... with
glibly used technical terms. (J.L.) 15. She went ...
the list of fancy-named cocktails. (A.W.) 16.
Deliberately, he could see, she reverted to old
patterns, to those times when, in moods of
sudden closeness, they had set ... to liven ...
some living-dead party of their mothers. (A.W.)
17. The programme is got ... in an attractive style.
18. Shes fine, he said, fine. Shes down there in
the cabin getting ... her French grammar. (G.G.)
Key: 1. out; 2. over; 3. out; 4. away; 5.
along; 6. with, into; 7. up. 8. through, into, out; 9.
out; 10. back; 11. up; 12. down, off; 13. for; 14. up;
15. through; 16. out, up; 17. up; 18. up.
52. Isolate and label the dependent clause
or clauses in each of the sentences below, using
49

the symbols S (= subject), O (= object), C (=


complement), A (= adjunct):
1. Standing here all day is extremely tiring.
2. You can do it if you try. 3. Leaving the room, he
tripped over the mat. 4. Since I have been
especially invited to speak, for you now to tell me
I cannot do so is quite unpardonable. 5. My
greatest pleasure is to listen to chamber music. 6.
That you could do it I always knew.
Key: 1. Standing here all day, non-finite,
-ing participle clause acting as S; 2. if you try,
finite clause acting as A; 3. Leaving the room,
non-finite, -ing participle clause, acting as A in
the superordinate clause; 4. Since I have been
especially invited, finite clause, A; for you now to
tell me, non-finite, infinitive clause, S; I cannot do
so, finite clause, O; 5. to listen to chamber music,
non-finite infinitive clause, acting as C; 6. That
you could do it, finite clause acting as O.
53. Choose the correct version:
50

1. a. Having received news of his death, the


police stopped looking after him. b. Having
received news of his death, the police stopped
looking for him. 2. a. I doubt whether it will have
an impact on the readers. b. I doubt whether it
will cause an impact on the readers. 3. a. I dont
have any serious problems. b. I dont have any
grave problems. 4. a. I asked my friend to borrow
me some money. b. I asked my friend to lend me
some money. 5. a. All of us didnt want to go to
bed. b. None of us wanted to go to bed. 6. a.
Since I was small, Ive always wanted to go
abroad. b. Since I was small, Ive always wanted
to go to abroad. 7. a. I recently stayed an
overnight at your hotel. b. I recently stayed
overnight at your hotel. 8. a. I think governments
should ban the advertising of tobacco. b. I think
governments should ban the publicity of tobacco.
9. a. I find this lifestyle very attractive. b. I find
this living style very attractive. 10. a. He was
reading a short story by Saki titled The Open

51

Window. b. He was reading a short story by Saki


called The Open Window.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
a; 9. a; 10. b.
54. Write the following sentences in an
alternative form:
1. Pressed by the others, he confessed it to
be likely that the truth would come to light later
on. Pressed by the others, he confessed that ... 2.
It has been announced that the new satellite has
been set on orbit. The new satellite ... 3. I knew
that the bad news would upset John and so I held
it back from him. Knowing ... 4. Shall we go to the
cinema tomorrow instead of today? Shall we
postpone ... 5. What hes hoping for is none of
their business. Its ...
Key:

1.

Pressed

by

the

others,

he

confessed that the truth was likely to come to


light later on. 2. The new satellite has been
52

announced to have been set on orbit. 3. Knowing


that the bad news would upset John, I held it back
from him. 4. Shall we postpone going to the
cinema until tomorrow? 5. Its none of their
business what hes hoping for.
55. Negate the finite verb in each of the
following sentences and make other changes that
then become necessary:
1. We must go a long way to find someone
as good as this. 2. There are a lot of people in the
auditorium already. 3. Tar from cigarette tobacco,
painted onto the skin of mice, produced skin
cancer on some of them. 4. We have enough
evidence already.
Key: 1. We need not/dont have to go far to
find anyone as good as this. 2. There are not
many people in the auditorium yet. 3. Tar from
cigarette tobacco, painted onto the skin of mice,
did not produce skin cancer on any of them. 4. We
havent enough evidence yet.
53

56. Finish each of the following sentences


in such a way that it means exactly the same as
the sentence printed before it:
1. It is said that those dangerous criminals
have been arrested. Those dangerous criminals ...
2. Is it absolutely necessary to repair the roof this
week? Does the roof ... 3. He usually drives
carelessly.

He

usually

drives

in

...

4.

The

policeman started shouting and was immediately


hooted at. No sooner ... 5. Unfortunately, our
beloved teacher will leave next year. If only ... 6.
When the rain started, the children were watching
a cartoon. A cartoon ... 7. The beauty of the
scenery in the Carpathians is the most likely
reason why so many tourists come here. So many
tourists must ... 8. They say that Mr. Strawback,
the English teacher, is a good fisherman. Mr.
Strawback, the English teacher, ... .
Key: 1. Those dangerous criminals are said
to have been arrested. 2. Does the roof have to
54

be repaired this week? 3. He usually drives in a


careless way. 4. No sooner had the policeman
started shouting than he was immediately hooted
at. 5. If only our beloved teacher wouldnt leave
next year. 6. A cartoon was being watched by the
children when the rain started. 7. So many
tourists must come here on account of the beauty
of

the

scenery

in

the

Carpathians.

8.

Mr.

Strawback, the English teacher, is supposed to be


a good fisherman.
57. Supply correct prepositions in front of
the gerunds and gerundial constructions:
1. ... coming here I dined out with Ethel.
2. ... having another cup of hot tea I felt much
better. 3. I tried to improve my English ... reading
books in the original. 4. I have raised the
money ... saving every dollar for many years.
Key: 1. before; 2. after; 3. by; 4. by.
58. Choose the correct version:
55

1. a. Only small numbers of students will be


admitted. b. Only small amounts of students will
be admitted. 2. a. Under the table there were
some empty wine bottles. b. Below the table
there were some empty wine bottles. 3. a. During
the protests, some students were killed and
others were seriously damaged. b. During the
protests, some students were killed and others
were seriously injured/wounded. 4. a. We must all
work together to protect the earth. b. We must all
work together to protect the planet. 5. a. Most
females want to continue their careers after
marriage. b. Most women want to continue their
careers after marriage. 6. a. Only very wealthy
tourists can afford to stay at the Imperial Hotel. b.
Only very wealthy tourists can afford to stay at
Imperial Hotel. 7. a. It is one of the most popular
touristic resorts in Spain. b. It is one of the most
popular tourist resorts in Spain. 8. a. Why do we
have to learn words that are of no use? b. Why do
we have to learn useless words? 9. a. Everything
was well until somebody came and sat in the seat
56

next to mine. b. Everything was fine until


somebody came and sat in the seat next to mine.
10. a. Ive only been here two weeks and
everything is still strange. b. Ive only been here
two weeks and everything is strange yet.
Key: 1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
a; 9. b; 10. a.
59. Change the following sentences to
present-unreal conditions:
1. If he doesnt have to learn, he will go to
the cinema. 2. If we are in Bucharest, we shall
accept the invitation. 3. If I have a spare
afternoon this week, I shall go to the swimmingpool. 4. If mother is at home, she can cook dinner
for us.
Key: 1. If he didnt have to learn, he would
go to the cinema. 2. If we were in Bucharest, we
should accept the invitation. 3. If I had a spare
afternoon this week, I should go to the swimming57

pool. 4. If mother were at home, she could cook


dinner for us.
60. Rewrite the sentences below using the
adverb only in its correct place(s):
1. The liberty of the press that the eastern
countries boast of is a freedom that the ruling
classes enjoy (only). 2. He made Jackson answer
in a way that damaged the case (only). 3. You do
not say that a child is inferior to a man. He is
younger than an adult (only).
Key: 1. The liberty of the press that the
eastern countries boast of is a freedom that (only)
the ruling classes enjoy (only). 2. He made
Jackson answer in a way that only damaged the
case. 3. You do not say that a child is inferior to a
man. He is only younger than an adult.
61.

Turn

the

sentences

hypothetical statements:

58

below

into

1. John will only come if you send for him.


2. Since she doesnt love him, she wont marry
him. 3. As Susan didnt take my advice, she is in a
difficult position now. 4. As I havent seen the
play, I cant tell you whether the acting was good
or not. 5. Since they know the area so well, they
can travel without a map.
Key: 1. John wont come unless you send
for him. 2. If she loved him, she would marry him.
3. If Susan had taken my advice, she wouldnt be
in a difficult position now. 4. If I had seen the play,
I could tell you whether the acting was good or
not. 5. If they didnt know the area so well, they
couldnt travel without a map.
62. Supply the appropriate word:
1. a ... of ships. 2. a ... of people. 3. a ... of
medicine. 4. a ... of ants. 5. a ... of robbers. 6. a ...
of thunder. 7. a ... of fish. 8. a ... of whales.

59

Key: 1. fleet; 2. crowd; 3. dose; 4. nest; 5.


gang; 6. peal, row; 7. shoal; 8. school.
63.

Select

an

appropriate

alternative,

noting that more than one may be acceptable:


1. We have received your estimate for the
alterations you propose but have decided that
it/they would be too high/unnecessary. 2. You
have always been such a good friend/good
friends. 3. The Committee will insist on its/their
rights.
Key:

1.

it

...

too

high

or

they

...

unnecessary. 2. a good friend or good friends. 3.


its or their.
64.

Rephrase

each

of

the

following

sentences using the pattern (subject) + verb +


direct object + prepositional phrase, but only
when such rephrasing is admissible:

60

1. An uncle left her a small fortune. 2. We


have caused you so much trouble. 3. We booked
you a double room with bath. 4. Someone has just
handed me this message. 5. Throw me that towel,
will you?
Key: 1. An uncle left a small fortune to/for
her. 2. We have caused so much trouble for you.
3. We booked a double room with bath for you. 4.
Someone has just handed this message to me. 5.
Throw that towel to me, will you?
65. Identify (a) the subject, and (b) the
theme, of each of the sentences below. Say
whether the theme occurs as S, Cs, Od, Co, C
prep. (prepositional complement), P (predication)
or V (verb):
1. Break his bloody neck, I will. 2. A scandal
I call it. 3. My husband will carry your suitcase. 4.
Suddenly, there was a loud knock at the door.

61

Key: 1. a. I; b. break his bloody neck, P; 2.


a. I; b. a scandal, Co; 3. a & b. my husband, S; 4.
a. there; b. suddenly, conjunct.
66. Express the same ideas by using
passive constructions:
1. They will give him a prize. 2. They will
consider everything. 3. They will change nothing.
Key: 1. He will be given a prize. 2.
Everything will be considered. 3. Nothing will be
changed.
67. Choose the correct version:
1. a. The police are in favour of stricter
punishments. b. The police are in favour of
harsher punishments. 2. a. When I took the two
oranges out of the bag, I discovered that one of
them was bad. b. When I took the two oranges
out of the sack, I discovered that one of them was
bad. 3. a. I wonder if you could possibly correct
62

my mistakes. b. I wonder if you would kindly


correct my mistakes. 4. a. I went near to the girl
and told her my name b. I went up to the girl and
told her my name. 5. a. She was listening outside
of the door. b. She was listening outside the door.
6. a. I now regret not having worked harder at
school. b. I now regret not to have worked harder
at school. 7. a. To live in Britain you need a lot of
money. London especially is very expensive. b. To
live in Britain you need a lot of money. Specially
London is very expensive. 8. a. There is always
controversy when a treasure is discovered. b.
There is always controversy when treasure is
discovered. 9. a. If a developing country will
become a developed country, it has to attract
foreign investors. b. If a developing country is to
become a developed country, it has to attract
foreign investors.

10. a. Another thing that

education has changed is industry. b. Another


thing that education has changed is the industry.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. a; 8.
b; 9. b; 10. a.
63

68. Build meaningful sentences that start


with the words given below:
1. We drove slowly for fear ... 2. They
slowed down for John ... 3. Tom wishes he ... 4.
You came as soon as she ... 5. If Tony wrote to
Jane, he ...
Key: 1. We drove slowly for fear we
might/could/should ...; 2. They slowed down for
John + infinitive; 3. Tom wishes he + Past
Tense/Past Perfect; 4. You came as soon as she +
Past Tense; 5. If Tony wrote to Jane + second
Conditional.
69. Reformulate the sentences below:
1. Its a pity you dont marry George. 2. I
regret you dont remember his name. 3. Its a pity
Mary does not understand French. 4. I regret he
doesnt love and respect me.

64

Key: 1. I wish you married George. 2. I wish


you remembered his name. 3. I wish Mary
understood French. 4. I wish he loved and
respected me.
70. Complete the sentences, using the
gerund of a suitable verb. To functions as a
preposition in every case. Note that the perfect
form is required in some sentences:
1. The committee could see no alternative
to ... the plan in its original form. 2. He said he
wasnt used to ... in public. 3. He should be
accustomed by now to ... English food.
Key: 1. following; 2. speaking; 3. eating.
71. Translate into English:
1. Ziua cea mai lung a anului este 22
iunie. 2. Au fost n stare s fac o cas nou. 3. Ai
citit aceast carte ? Este foarte interesant. 4. Ct
cost o pereche de pantofi?
65

Key: 1. The longest day of the year is June


22nd. 2. They were able to build a new house. 3.
Have you read this book? 4. How much is a pair of
shoes?
72. Choose the correct version:
1. a. The countrys small food supply is not
proportion about the size of the population. b.
The countrys small food supply is small in
proportion to the size of the population. 2. a. I
think the microphone or the recording mechanism
is broken. b. I think the microphone or the
recording mechanism are broken. 3. a. She was a
very happy person, and very intelligent. b. She
was a very glad person, and very intelligent. 4. a.
Why did you get engaged with Paul if you dont
want to marry him? b. Why did you get engaged
to Paul if you dont want to marry him? 5. a. My
criticism of this type of journalism is that it is
totally irresponsible. b. My criticism on this type
of journalism is that it is totally irresponsible. 6. a.
66

Both the husband and the wife arent reliable. b.


Neither the husband nor the wife is reliable. 7. a.
Ive come here to obtain a Masters degree in
International Journalism. b. Ive come here to do a
Masters degree in International Journalism. 8. a.
With regard to accommodation, there are several
excellent

hotels.

accommodation,

b.

there

With
are

regards

several

to

excellent

hotels. 9. a. On the other hand, I can understand


why she feels disappointed. b. On the other side, I
can understand why she feels disappointed. 10. a.
People are not allowed to vote more than one
candidate. b. People are not allowed to vote for
more than one candidate.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. b; 8.
a; 9. a; 10. b.
73. Answer the following questions in
indirect form. Begin each answer with the words
given in parentheses:

67

1. Did they play football yesterday? (I dont


know) 2. Where does Johns family live? (Find out)
3. What time do you begin classes each day? (I
didnt know) 4. Where did Mother go? (I want to
know).
Key: 1. I dont know if/whether they played
football yesterday. 2. Find out where Johns family
lives. 3. I didnt know what time you begin classes
each day. 4. I want to know where mother went.
74. Finish these sentences:
1. We will fulfil our plan so that our
country ... 2. My sister offered to help me with my
spring cleaning so that we ... 3. Mother took me
to the cinema so that I ... 4. She didnt tell him
anything lest he ... 5. They worked hard in order
that they ...
Key: 1. may prosper; 2. might finish it as
soon as possible; 3. might see Gone with the

68

Wind; 4. should be angry with her; 5. might have


a day off on New Years Eve.
75. Which of the dependent clauses below
express (a) purpose, and which express (b)
result?
1. We watered the garden thoroughly, so
that it smelt fresh when the guests arrived. 2. So
that everyone could hear, they used a loud-hailer.
3. The police used a loud-hailer so that everyone
in the building heard them.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. b.
76. Punctuate the following:
1. Whatever he had to do with it he was not
the

ringleader.

2.

An

image

in

some

way

resembles the thing it stands for whereas a


symbol is not like it but represents it arbitrarily. 3.
Robert Burns Scotlands national poet was born in

69

1759. 4. The monkeys were under the table


perching on chairs swinging on light-fittings.
Key: 1. Whatever he had to do with it, he
was not the ringleader. 2. An image in some way
resembles the thing it stands for, whereas a
symbol is not like it but represents it arbitrarily. 3.
Robert Burns, Scotland national poet, was born in
1759. 4. The monkeys were under the table,
perching on chairs, swinging on light-fittings.
77. Say which of the dependent clauses
below are unacceptable, and rephrase each
sentence concerned:
1. Grazing by the river, we suddenly came
across a fine herd of cattle. 2. Considering the
weather is so uncertain, the reception will be held
indoors. 3. When fully grown, these trees are a
magnificent sight. 4. Speaking clearly, everyone
at the back of the hall could hear what I was
saying.

70

Key: 1. Put the -ing clause at the end; 2. ;


3 ; 4. Since I spoke clearly, everyone at the back
of the hall could hear what I was saying./Speaking
clearly, I made myself heard by everyone at the
back of the hall.
78.

Write

the

sentences

in

Reported

Speech, using the most suitable reporting verb, or


said with an adverb of manner.
1. Dont forget to send Mary a letter as
soon as you arrive in Egypt. 2. Surely you dont
think you can take her word for it! 3. It was my
fault. I shouldnt have come. 4. Please dont
remonstrate with him, for my sake!
Key: 1. I reminded him to send Mary a
letter as soon as he arrived in Egypt. 2. He was
surprised that I should think I could take her word
for it. 3. He admitted that it had been his fault
and that he shouldnt have come. 4. She begged
her mother not to remonstrate with her boyfriend,
for her sake.
71

79.

Complete

the

sentences,

using

gerunds:
1. Who is responsible for ...? 2. On ..., he
took off his hat. 3. The public were warned of the
dangers of ... . 4. The judge was accused of not ...
. 5. By ..., the student improved his chances of ... .
Key: 1. locking the building at night; 2.
entering my house; 3. walking unaccompanied in
the park at night; 4. giving the jury clear
directions; 5. taking fewer subjects/getting a good
result in the examination.
80. Choose the correct version:
1. a. You should try to keep the car in good
condition. b. You should try to keep the car in a
good condition. 2. a. His mother thinks that
somebody must have dared him to steal the
bicycle. b. His mother thinks that somebody must
have dared him steal the bicycle. 3. a. If ever you
72

have any kind of doubt, come and see me or one


of the other teachers. b. If ever you are in any
doubt about anything, come and see me or one of
the other teachers. 4. a. The medicine proved
very efficient. b. The medicine proved very
effective. 5. a. Im looking forward to your visit
and hope that you will be writing soon with the
details. b. I expect your visit and hope that you
will be writing soon with the details. 6. a. On my
birthday I had a good fun with my friends. b. On
my birthday I had some good fun with my friends.
7. a. What do you think of the hotel? b. How do
you think of the hotel? 8. a. Solutions to the
countrys internal problems are still a long way
away. b. Solutions to the countrys interior
problems are still a long way away. 9. a. The
volume of the radio should be kept in a low level.
b. The volume of the radio should be kept at a low
level. 10. a. There are as many disadvantages as
advantages. b. There are as much disadvantages
as advantages.

73

Key: 1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8.
a; 9. b; 10. a.
81. Complete the sentences with a noun
formed by a suitable combination of the words in
brackets, using plural forms where necessary:
1. Britain made the ... to decimal coinage in
1971 (change over) 2. Since last March, there has
been an encouraging ... in the volume of our
exports. (turn up) 3. As the ... of answers to the
questionnaire shows, there was rarely a full
response to every question. (break down) 4. Our
companys ... of this chain of stores will increase
the number of our retail ... to 250. (take over, let
out) 5. After being out of favour with investors for
several years, the shares are now staging a ... .
(come back)
Key:

1.

change-over;

2.

up-turn;

breakdown; 4. take-over/outlets; 5. come-back.

74

3.

82.

Rewrite

the

following

sentences

omitting whatever can be ellipted without change


of meaning:
1. Fat is used for cooking in northern
Europe, but oil is used for cooking in China. 2.
Many people have been suffering from influenza,
and

many

people

still

are

suffering

from

influenza. 3. The young animal is protected from


danger by its parents, or is protected from danger
by some mechanism built into its nervous system
from the start. 4. The Cantonese have developed
an astonishing variety in their cooking and they
have brought the preparation of sharksfin to an
exceedingly fine art.
Key: 1. the second is used for cooking; 2.
the first from influenza, and the second people; 3.
the second is protected from danger; 4. they
have.
83. Fill the gaps in the following sentences
by either (a) until or (b) by the time that:
75

1. The water was boiling ... the electricity


failed. 2. ... I come back, I want you to be on your
way. 3. They did not arrive ... it was dark.
Key: 1. b or a; 2. b; 3. a or b.
84. Point out what noun phrases are in
apposition

to

each

other

in

the

following

sentences; and indicate, by the symbols A to Bc,


whether the apposition is: A Restrictive, B Nonrestrictive

(a

equivalent,

attributive,

inclusive):
1. An enquiry was held at Plymouth, the
port where the ship docked. 2. Captain McKay was
on the quarter-deck, that part of the deck which is
reserved for officers. 3. Your cousin Robert has
just arrived. 4. All the men swore they saw a sea
serpent, a dark-brown monster with a mane like
that of a horse.
Key: 1. B, a; 2. B, a; 3. A; 4. B, a.
76

85. Convert each of the phrases below by


using the pattern head + postmodifying phrase:
1.

fish

protein

production;

2.

storage

capacity; 3. the volume change; 4. the cupboard


door; 5. ground-water possibilities; 6. peak power.
Key: 1. production of protein derived from
fish; 2. capacity for storing; 3. change in volume;
4. the door of the cupboard; 5. possibilities of
obtaining water from the ground; 6. (electric)
power required at the peak (=busiest) hours.
86. Choose the correct version:
1. a. Meno Park in Central Tokyo is very
huge.

b.

Meno

Park

in

Central

Tokyo

is

(absolutely) huge. 2. a. Lots of kings chose to live


here because of the beautiful landscape. b. Lots
of kings chose to live here because of the
beautiful scenery. 3. a. I was woken up by a loud
noise outside the room. b. I was woken up by a
77

big noise outside the room. 4. a. I was so excited


that I forgot to ask them to check that the camera
was working properly. b. I was so excited that I
forgot to order them to check that the camera
was working properly. 5. a. The shop assistant
was very rude with me. b. The shop assistant was
very rude to me. 6. a. Our new neighbours are not
very social. b. Our new neighbours are not very
sociable. 7. a. During your visit youll be able to
try some of the local Catalan specialities. b.
During your visit youll be able to taste some of
the local Catalan specialities. 8. a. The present
government doesnt care

enough about the

poorer sections of out society. Businessmen are


encouraged to exploit workers and make huge
profits. In spite of all this, I believe in the
principles of free enterprise. b. The present
government doesnt care

enough about the

poorer sections of out society. Businessmen are


encouraged to exploit workers and make huge
profits. In spite of all these, I believe in the
principles of free enterprise. 9. a. More houses are
built yearly. b. More houses are built every year.
78

10. a. Two minutes later it started pouring with


rain. b. Two minutes later it started pouring rain.
Key: 1. b; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. a; 8.
a; 9. b; 10. a.
87. Fill in the blanks with adverbial particles
or prepositions:
1. Mary couldnt make a cake for us
because she was/had run ... ... sugar. 2. Though
they had invited him, he didnt show ... . 3. They
had promised to bring ... his booklet of verse in a
year but they were already ... the term. 4. I felt
the tears well ... ... my eyes and made terrible
efforts to hold them ... . 5. Ive had enough of
them, they go ... each other every time they
meet. 6. The dish I really wanted to have is ... so
Ill take the same with you. 7. Her nerves have
broken ... so badly that she needs someone to
stand ... her. 8. He has never called ... us again
since we told him we disliked early callers. 9. He
was run ... by a car before he had made ... a will,
79

so all his property went to his wife. 10. He said he


was not born yesterday and he could look ...
himself. 11. Come ..., muster ... a little courage,
cant you? 12. She likes to put ... dresses that
show ... the figure. 13. He is angry with me for
meddling ... what he calls his personal problems.
14. The hungry boys fell ... before everyone sat
down. 15. I crossed ... the mistakes and wrote the
sentences again.
Key: 1. out of; 2. up; 3. out, behind; 4. up
to, back; 5. for; 6. off; 7. down, by; 8. on; 9. over,
out; 10. after; 11 on, up; 12. on, off; 13. in; 14. to;
15. out.
88. Change the sentences in such a way as
to

make

compound

adjectives

out

of

the

underlined words.:
1. The film was about a marshal who was
always happy to pull the trigger. 2. His wife, who
looks spectacular, is actually quite dumb. 3. The
witness for the defence gave evidence that
80

opened everybodys eyes. 4. The heroes of


Hollywood westerns inevitably place their guns in
the service of citizens who abide by the law.
Key: 1. a trigger-happy marshal; 2. a
spectacular-looking wife; eye-opening evidence;
4. law-abiding citizens.
89. Classify the function of the dependent
clauses in the sentences below:
1. He strongly disapproved of what I had
been doing. 2. The truth is that I really liked him.
3. Walking along from St. Marys, you come to a
high wall. 4. I was terrified, to tell you the truth.
Key:

1.

prepositional

complement;

2.

subject complement; 3. adjunct; 4. disjunct.


90. Say whether the items underlined in the
following sentences are grammatically obligatory
or optional:

81

1. Please answer this letter by return of


post. 2. That made me very annoyed. 3. He
convinced us of his innocence. 4. Let me give you
a drink.
Key: 1. opt.; 2. obl.; 3. obl.; 4. obl.
91. Fill in the blanks with hung or hanged
as required by the context:
1. He ... his head in the grief. 2. Two
pictures ... on the wall. 3. Your sentence is to be
taken from here to the place whence you came
and from there to the place of execution and
there to be ... by the neck until you are dead. 4.
The monkeys ... by their tails.
Key: 1. hung; 2. hung; 3. hanged; 4. hung.
92. Isolate and label the dependent clause
or clauses in each of the sentences below, using
the

symbols

(=subject),

(=complement), A (=adjunct):
82

(=object),

1. The long journey over, we relaxed in the


warm sunshine. 2. What I wanted to say was, as I
didnt know whether you were going to say that
you could come or you couldnt, could you make
it the following Saturday? 3. I think you can do it.
4. Standing here all day, I see many strange
faces. 5. That you can do it is still uncertain.
Key: 1. The long journey over, non-finite,
verbless clause, acting as A; 2. What I wanted to
say, finite clause, S; as I didnt know, finite, A;
whether you were going to say, finite, O; that you
could come or you couldnt, finite, O; 3. You can
do

it,

finite

clause

acting

as

in

the

superordinate clause; 4. Standing here all day,


non-finite, -ing participle clause acting as A; 5.
That you can do it, finite clause acting as S.
93. Choose the correct version:
1. a. He felt refused by the man he admired
most. b. He felt rejected by the man he admired
83

most. 2. a. As far as I remember, you both


take/are both the same size. b. As far as I
remember, you both have the same size. 3. a.
Hes thinking to make another trip to Italy next
month. b. Hes thinking about making another trip
to Italy next month. 4. a. The new tunnel means
that we can drive (all the way) to London. b. The
new tunnel means that we can drive until London.
5. a. My examinations are within two weeks time.
b. My examinations are in two weeks time. 6. a.
One of the men walked over to me and held my
bag. b. One of the men walked over to me and
took hold of my bag. 7. a. The South has fewer
industrial

areas.

b.

The

South

has

fewer

industrious areas. 8. a. One of the curtains caught


fire. b. One of the curtains became on fire. 9. a.
Simon gave me the ring when we got engaged. b.
Simon gave me the ring when we engaged. 10. a.
There was few people at the funeral. b. There
were few people at the funeral.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. a; 8.
a; 9. a; 10. b.
84

94. Use an intensifier to fill the gaps below:


1. We ... agree with your proposal. 2. I am
sure she must have been ... shaken. 3. I can see
what you mean. I am not ... blind. 4. The result of
the elections is now ... confirmed.
Key:

1.

fully;

2.

badly;

3.

totally,

4.

definitely.
95. Finish each of the following sentences
in such a way that it means exactly the same as
the sentence printed before it:
1. This is the craziest thing I have ever
heard. I ... 2. There are more books on the bottom
shelf than on the top one. There are not ... 3.
Eighteen-year-old young people can get a driving
licence. 4. Young people can get ... 4. We would
like the prisoner to get this statement down. We
would like the prisoners to make ... 5. Walking on
the grass is not allowed. You are ... 6. She
85

admitted having lost her key. She admitted


that ... 7. I advise you to teach him a lesson. Its
time ... 8. Our master insists that we should give
him the essays tomorrow. He insists on ... 9.
Theres no reason for you to complain. I dont see
why ... 10. The box was so heavy that the boy
couldnt carry it. The box was ... 11. She always
uses a sharp knife to cut up meat. She always
cuts up meat by ... 12. I will give you a rise
provided you work on Saturday, too. Unless ... 13.
But for the money, I would change this car any
day. If it ... 14. Please talk to her whenever you
meet her. No ... 15. The prisoner claimed that he
had not murdered the old woman. The prisoner
denied ... 16. His parents hope hell make a good
doctor. Theyd like ... 17. He didnt drown because
that young man reached him in time. If ... 18. Was
it necessary for her to get up so early? Did ... 19.
Her daughter had an operation yesterday. Her
daughter was ... 20. It is not necessary for them
to give us so many details. They dont ... 21. They
missed the train because they got up late. If ...
22. It would be silly of you to ask him this
86

question now. Your ... 23. I regret attending that


boring lecture. I wish ... 24. Bob had his car fixed.
Bob arranged ... 25. She couldnt walk to the
station on account of the rain. The rain ... 26.
Emily little thought that she would find such a
good job. Little ... 27. He should have told me this
from the very beginning. It would ... 28. The child
was listening to me silently. The child was
listening to me without ... 29. With a lot of luck,
you may win the scholarship. If you ... 30. He left
home because he didnt expect them to come
that evening. If ... 31. It takes twenty minutes to
walk to school. Its ... 32. Jimmy is still doing his
homework. Jimmy hasnt ... 33. She didnt know
about

that

house

until

she

read

the

advertisement. It was not ... 34. Is this the only


way to the railway station? Isnt there ... 35. Both
you and your friends disapprove of his talking like
that. Neither ... .
Key: 1. I have never heard such a crazy
thing. 2. There are not so many books on the top
shelf as on the bottom one. 3. Young people can
87

get a driving licence when they are eighteen/at


eighteen. 4. We would like the prisoner to make a
note of this statement. 5. You are not allowed to
walk on the grass. 6. She admitted that she had
lost her key. 7. Its time you taught him a lesson.
8. He insists on us/our giving him the essays
tomorrow. 9. I dont see why you should complain.
10. The box was too heavy for the boy to carry. 11.
She always cuts up meat by using a sharp knife.
12. Unless you work on Saturday, I wont give you
a rise. 13. If it werent for the money, I would
change this car any day. 14. No matter when you
meet her, please talk to her. 15. The prisoner
denied

murdering/having

murdered

the

old

woman. 16. Theyd like him to make a good


doctor. 17. If that young man hadnt reached him
in time, he would have drowned. 18. Did she have
to get up so early? 19. Her daughter was operated
on yesterday. 20. They dont have to give us so
many details. 21. If they hadnt got up late, they
would not have missed the train./If they had got
up earlier, they would have caught the train. 22.
Your asking him this question now would be silly.
88

23. I wish I hadnt attended that boring lecture.


24. Bob arranged to have his car fixed/for his car
to be fixed. 25. The rain prevented her from
walking to the station. 26. Little did Emily think
that she would find such a good job. 27. It would
have been better for him to have told me this
from the very beginning. 28. The child was
listening to me without uttering a word/saying
anything. 29. If you are lucky, you may win the
scholarship. 30. If he had expected them to arrive
that evening, he wouldnt have left home. 31. Its
a

twenty-minute

walk

to

school./Its

twenty

minutes on foot from here to school. 32. Jimmy


hasnt done/finished his homework yet. 33. It was
not until she read the advertisement that she
learnt about that house. 34. Isnt there any other
way to the railway station? 35. Neither you nor
your friends approve of his talking like that.
96. Change the following from Direct to
Indirect Speech:

89

1. Mother asked me, Where did you put


my gloves? 2. The tourists asked, When did
Stephen the Great build this monastery? 3. They
said, We had never seen that play before. 4.
The teacher asked the pupils, Did you buy the
dictionary

recommended

to

you?

5.

They

repeated, We had been working the whole time


before leaving for the cinema.
Key: 1. Mother asked me where I had put
her gloves. 2. The tourists asked when Stephen
the Great had built that monastery. 3. They said
(that) they had never seen that play before. 4.
The teacher asked the pupils if they had bought
the dictionary recommended to them. 5. They
repeated that they had been working the whole
time before leaving for the cinema.
97. Choose the correct form of the verbs
and pronouns given in parentheses:
1. Every five pages (has, have) (his, their)
metaphors, and pieces of irony. 2. (Has, Have)
90

anyone else slackened (his, their) pace? 3. Since


Peter is not one of those men who (boasts, boast)
of (his, their) achievements, few people know
what a good locksmith he is. 4. At the end of each
class everyone (gets, get) up and (takes, take)
(his, their) things to move to another room.
Key: 1. have, their; 2. has, his; 3. boast,
their; 4. gets, takes, his.
98. Supply of, about, on or in:
1. You cannot always depend ... people. 2.
What, me? Jump from an aeroplane? I wouldnt
dream ... it! 3. We suppose we can count ... your
help ... this matter. 4. Its no use complaining ...
the heat. 5. Can you advise me ... the subject?
The serial was based ... a novel by Galsworthy.
Key: 1. on; 2. of; 3. on, in; 4. about; 5. on;
6. on.

91

99. Put the following into direct speech with


the appropriate punctuation:
1. He said that he thought my electric iron
was unsafe and advised me to have it seen to. 2.
The clerk in the booking office inquired if I wanted
a single or return ticket. I asked if a return was
any cheaper. He said it made no difference. 3. He
said that if I found the front door locked I was to
go round to the back. 4. They said that while they
were bathing they saw someone examining their
clothes.
Key: 1. I think your electric iron is unsafe. I
advise you to have it seen to, he said to me. 2.
Do you want a single or a return ticket? asked
the clerk in the booking office. Is a return any
cheaper? I asked. It makes no difference, he
said. 3. If you find the front door locked, go round
to the back, he said to me. 4. While we were
bathing, they said, we saw someone examining
our clothes.

92

100. Translate into English:


1. M-am gndit s m duc la un muzeu
dup-amiaz. 2. i mulumesc c m-ai ajutat. 3.
Copiii

au

continuat

vorbeasc

timpul

concertului. 4. M intereseaz s nv franceza.


5. Este de dorit s fii prezeni la conferin.
Key: 1. I thought of going to a museum in
the afternoon. 2. Thank you for helping me. 3. The
children went on talking during the concert. 4. I
am interested in learning French. 5. It is desirable
that you should be present at the conference.
101. Choose the correct version:
1. a. In spite of the films many faults, in
the overall its worth seeing. b. In spite of the
films many faults, on the whole its worth seeing.
2. a. My job provides me with the opportunity to
meet new people every day. b. My job provides
me the opportunity to meet new people every
day. 3. a. In our next class were going to say
93

about pollution. b. In our next class were going to


talk about pollution. 4. a. They never complain
because they are afraid or something like that. b.
They never complain because they are afraid or
something. 5. a. Hed left all his tennis stuff at
home. b. Hed left all his tennis stuffs at home. 6.
a. Sitting next to me was an old lady, who
seemed to be sound asleep. b. Sitting next to me
was an old lady, that seemed to be sound asleep.
7. a. Could you let us know your decision until the
end of October. b. Could you let us know your
decision by the end of October. 8. a. He wishes he
can drive a car; taxis are so expensive. b. He
wishes he could drive a car; taxis are so
expensive. 9. a. Harsher punishments will not
reduce the number of crimes/the amount of
crime. b. Harsher punishments will not reduce the
number of crime. 10. a. This phenomena is called
culture shock. b. This phenomenon is called
culture shock.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
b; 9. a; 10. b.
94

102. Finish these sentences:


1. The poor woman sewed night after night
so that her little boy ... 2. He didnt dare ski lest
he ... 3. I wrote to him a long letter so that he ...
4. I shall give John your telephone number so that
he ... 5. She always cooks on Saturdays so that
she ...
Key: (Possible solutions) 1. might get
oranges for his thirst; 2. should fall and break his
legs; 3. might understand my position; 4. may
ring you up and make it up with you; 5. may be
free on Sunday.
103.

Rewrite

the

following

sentences

omitting whatever can be ellipted without change


of meaning:
1. People who pride themselves on needing
little

sleep

may

imagine

themselves

more

efficient than others, but in fact they often prove


to be less efficient than others. 2. During an
95

epidemic many people seem to escape infection


but they do not really escape infection. 3.
European marriages are often celebrated with
champagne,

Chinese

marriages

are

often

celebrated with a meal of at least a dozen


courses. 4. Some people require eight hours
sleep a night, others are satisfied with six hours
sleep a night or less.
Key: 1. the last three words; 2. wither the
first infection or the second escape infection; 3.
the second (marriages) are often celebrated; 4.
the second hours sleep a night.
104. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and
adverbs where necessary:
1. The nerves ... his victim lagged ...
reporting the pain, and ... the time the distant
head ... the diplodocus was notified, the wound
would have healed. 2. I think that was foolish ...
her. 3. She met Lord Byron ... the steps ... the
Acropolis ... Athens. 4. Her unmanageable funny
96

black hair was all ... end. 5. He wished ... God now
they had a couple children she could take
it ... ... . 6. She held ... ... the chair ... one hand. 7.
Rosemary took her hands ... ... her long gloves. 8.
That has nothing to do ... it; nothing ... all.
Key: 1. of, in, by, of; 2. of; 3. on, of, in; 4.
on; 5. to, of, out on; 6. on to, with; 7. out of; 8.
with, at.
105. Say which of the wh-clauses below are
wh-interrogative clauses, and which are nominal
relative clauses:
1. Home is where your friends and family
are. 2. We never discovered what caused the fire.
3. What we all need is a spell of warm sunshine.
Key: 1. nominal relative; 2. could be either;
3. nominal relative.
106. Fill in the blanks with the necessary
adverbial particles or prepositions:
97

1. A moment later she was turning wide


unfledged eyes ... to the boy, with a look of the
deepest admiration. (G.G.) 2. Ill put them ... for
the night but since Im doing so at such short
notice theyll have to put ... with the discomforts.
3. It is a nice question whether the resumption of
trade talks with Japan comes at the 11th hour, just
in time to head ... the Mills anti-trade bill, or at
the 13th hour, too late to do any good. (I.H.T.) 4.
We dreamed ... through glades in a mist of green
light that got its tint from the un-drenched roof of
leaves overhead, and by our feet the clearest and
coldest of runlets went frisking and gossiping
over its roofs and making a sort of whispering
music comfortable to hear. (M.T.) 5. We were ... at
the villa betimes next morning. (A.C.) 6. By the
time hed splashed the aching sleep ... of his eyes
and run ... on deck, the Niagara was nosing her
way slowly ... the greengray glinting bay. (D.P.) 7.
A pair of very round, wide-open grey eyes
looked ... from under the hair. (A.H.) 8. She
cocked her cigarette ... towards her nose in a
98

jaunty errand-boy sort of way. (A.W.) 9. A large


crowd went to the airport to send him ... . 10.
When one has business on hand it is hard to
get ... from home. 11. But Philip thought ... all that
the headmaster had said and presently, his mind
taken ... entirely with the ceremony that was
before him, a mystical rapture

seized him.

(W.S.W.) 12. He tore ... the ad and let the rest of


the paper go with the wind. (J.D.P.) 13. Arent you
a

professor?

he

asked,

and,

when

Gerald

assented, both he and his wife put ... a pious


church-going

face

in

reverence

for

higher

education. (A.W.) 14. And if I ventured to say a


word, Mrs. Welman was ready to bite my head ...,
though Id been with her nearly twenty years.
(A.C.) 15. So rich and varied. But you turn ... your
nose and find it all vapid and empty. (A.H.) 16.
Do you at least keep ... to date in a theoretical
way? Do you study the political scene? (I.M.) 17.
The boy didnt like what I told him; I sent him ...
with a flea in his ear. 18. They all gave him a
leg ... when they saw he was in trouble. 19. It was
with an effort that he stopped himself from
99

speaking ... of the side of his month. (J.W.) 20. He


had succeeded during the day in bringing ...
fruition, a scheme... A plan, carried at last in the
teeth of great difficulties. (J.G.)
Key: 1. back; 2. up, up; 3. off; 4. along; 5.
up. 6. out, up, across; 7. out; 8. up; 9. off; 10.
away; 11. over, up; 12. out; 13. on; 14. off; 15. up;
16. up; 17. away; 18. up; 19. out; 20. to.
107. Join the sentences by changing the
second sentence of each pair into a defining
relative clause:
1. Immigration is an issue. This issue raises
strong emotions. 2. I know the very person. He
will do the job quickly. 3. The aims are very
laudable. The society is pursuing these aims. 4.
British shipyards are now quoting prices. These
prices

compare

favourably

with

foreign

competitors. 5. One of the chief things is to save


money, manpower, and time. A computer can do
this thing. 6. Only by exporting enough can we
100

pay for the goods. We buy these goods from


abroad.
Key: 1. Immigration is an issue which/that
raises strong emotions. 2. I know the very person
who will do the job quickly. 3. The aims the
society is pursuing are very laudable. 4. British
shipyards are now quoting prices which/that
compare favourably with foreign competitors. 5.
One of the chief things a computer can do is to
save money, manpower, and time. 6. Only by
exporting enough can we pay for the goods we
buy from abroad.
108. Put the following into direct speech
with the appropriate punctuation:
1. The AA man told the woman that if her
wheels had gone a couple of inches nearer the
edge, the car would have plunged into the ravine.
2. He asked what the weather had been like
during my holiday and I said that it had been
awful. 3. She said that she was surprised to see
101

that the grandfather clock had stopped and asked


if anyone had been fiddling with it. 4. He
suggested giving her a bottle of wine.
Key: 1. If your wheels had gone a couple
of inches nearer the edge madam, said the AA
man, the car would have plunged into the
ravine. 2. What was the weather like during your
holiday? he asked. It was awful, I answered. 3. I
am surprised to see that the grandfather clock
has stopped. Has anyone been fiddling with it?
she asked. 4. What about giving her a bottle of
wine? he said.
109. Rewrite these sentences, using a noun
phrase with infinitive clause as post-modifier:
1. Meanwhile, we were not disturbed when
the enemy threatened to attack us. 2. We thought
the idea that we should create a diversion
upstream was a good one. 3. We felt they were
cowardly to hesitate to come to our aid.

102

Key: 1. Meanwhile, we were not disturbed


by the enemys threat to attack us. 2. We thought
the idea to create a diversion upstream was a
good one. 3. We felt their hesitation to come to
our aid was cowardly.
110. Supply correct prepositions in front of
the gerunds and gerundial constructions:
1. Carrie surprised them all ... leaving all of
a sudden ... saying good bye. 2. ... seeing her, she
has changed a lot. 3. You will get nothing ...
asking her to be nicer and more understanding. 4.
Brian Was fined ... having driven too fast.
Key: 1. by, without; 2. since; 3. by; 4. for.
111.

Find

the

examples

of

discourse

reference in the sentences below, and say


whether

each

example

cataphoric reference:

103

is

of

anaphoric

or

1. When I reached home, I found that the


whole house had been ransacked. This convinced
me that I had enemies somewhere. 2. This is part
of a transcript of a recorded interview: You said in
your last broadcast that, if there were fewer cars
in our cities, the buses would be able to give
better service. But isnt that hypothesis quite
unrealistic? 3. The chief came to New York when
he was well past sixty. He flew over here,
rocketed, as it were, in a matter of hours. 4. You
want to know where we stand. This is the
position. We are surrounded on all sides, but have
ammunition to withstand any attack.
Key: 1. this, ana.; 2. that hypothesis, ana.;
3. here, ana.; 4. this, cata.
112. Replace each group of words in italics
by one adjective:
1. At certain ages, many children are very
difficult to please or very particular about the
food they eat and the clothes they wear. 2. It was
104

regarded as an event of great importance and


consequence when man first stepped on to the
moon. 3. Nobody could agree with the speaker
because all his arguments and ideas sprang from
assumptions that were based on error.
Key: 1. fastidious; 2. a momentous event;
3. fallacious.
113. Point out what noun phrases are in
apposition

to

each

other

in

the

following

sentences; and indicate, by the symbols A to Bc,


whether the apposition is: A Restrictive, B Nonrestrictive

(a

equivalent,

attributive,

inclusive):
1. The court room, an eighteenth century
building, was crowded with excited people. 2.
Another officer and a midshipman, John Sartoris,
were keeping watch from the bridge. 3. The truth,
that what they had seen was really a wave,
began to dawn on them at last. 4. My Lords

105

Commissioners

of

the

Admiralty,

the

senior

officials of the navy, were highly skeptical.


Key: 1. B, b; 2. B, a; 3. B, a; 4. B, a.
114.

Rewrite

the

sentences

in

Direct

Speech. Note that there is an implied dialogue in


the examples below:
1. He looked worried when he said he was
feeling awful. I advised him to take a rest. 2.
When I told Jim that we should go for an outing
the

following

Saturday,

he

accepted

my

suggestion unreservedly. 3. I asked him why he


said Id better write his address down, and he
answered that one never know, I might want to
write him a letter.
Key: 1. God, I feel awful, he complained.
You should take a rest. I recommended. 2. We
should

go

for

an

outing

next

Saturday,

suggested to Jim. Why not?, Jim answered. 3.


Why did you say Id better write your address
106

down, I asked. Well, you never know. You might


want to write me a letter, he answered.
115.

Complete

the

sentences

with

adjectives ending in -able, -ible, or -uble, derived


from the verbs given in brackets. Note that in
some cases the negative form of the adjective is
required if the sentence is to make good sense:
1. You wont persuade him to change his
mind. His decision is (revoke). 2. The engineers
engaged on tunnel construction had to blast away
tons of (penetrate) rock. 3. When shown the
music

of

Tchaikovskys

violin

concerto,

the

violinist for whom it was written declared it to be


(play). 4. Floods having carried away the bridge,
the river was (pass). 5. Britain has many miles of
(navigate) waterways. 6. We spent a very (enjoy)
evening talking about old times.
Key: 1. irrevocable; 2. impenetrable; 3.
unplayable;

4.

impassable;

enjoyable.
107

5.

navigable;

6.

116. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and


adverbs where necessary:
1. This irreducible point was ... some sense
her mind: the focus ... the minimal interest she
brought to play .. the incohate and edible green
world flowing all ... her. 2. Like many other young
American

girls

...

that

day

and

this,

my

grandmother went ... Europe. 3. She screamed ...


laughter. 4. If she had had any reason to believe
he was going to fix the sashes ... this summer she
would have left the hammer and nails right where
he put them. 5. I still love to walk ... Fifth
Avenue ... three oclock ... the east side ... the
street ... Fiftieth and Fifty-seventh Streets. 6. I
havent been there ... three years. 7. She heard
herself saying afterwards ... the amazement of
her friends, I simply took her ... home ... me. 8.
It isnt often that I step ... the threshold.

108

Key: 1. in, of, upon, about; 2. of, to; 3. with;


4. ; 5. along, at, on, of, between; 6. in; 7. to, ,
with; 8. over.
117. Combine each of the following pairs of
sentences so as to form one sentence containing
either a wh-clause or the fact + a that-clause,
and retaining the words underlined:
1. You want to go to Peru. I am interested.
2. All the men were heavy smokers. The disease
was clearly related to that. 3. His salary has been
increased? I was not aware of it. 4. What started
the fire? I am not sure about it.
Key: 1. I am interested (in the fact) that
you want to go to Peru. 2. The disease was clearly
related to the fact that all the men were heavy
smokers. 3. I was not aware of the fact that his
salary has been increased. 4. I am not sure about
what started the fire.

109

118. Replace the words in italics by an


infinitive construction:
1. I vowed that I would never follow his
advice again. 2. He claimed that he was an expert
in such matters. 3. They couldnt, however,
guarantee that they would meet all the mens
demands. 4. The police hope that they will solve
the crime soon.
Key: 1. never to follow; 2. to be; 3. to meet;
4. to solve.
119. Choose the correct version:
1. a. I shall never forget the place where I
brought up. b. I shall never forget the place where
I was brought up. 2. a. When he reached the point
in his story when his friends were arrested and
tortured, he began to cry. b. When he reached the
point in his story when his friends were arrested
and tortured, he began to weep. 3. a. London is
different

from/to

Hong
110

Kong.

b.

London

is

different of Hong Kong. 4. a. The old lady never


spoke to anyone except when/unless someone
came to visit her. b. The old lady never spoke to
anyone except someone came to visit her. 5. a.
The eight oclock train is usually filled with office
workers. b. The eight oclock train is usually full of
office workers. 6. a. We hope that you will like this
school and be happy here. b. We hope that you
will like this school and be glad here. 7. a.
Nowadays young people want to be independent
from their parents. b. Nowadays young people
want to be independent of their parents. 8. a. I
wonder if you would be so kind as to send me
further details and an application form. b. I
wonder if you would be so kind to send me
further details and an application form. 9. a. We
have a lot of rain lately. b. Weve had a lot of rain
lately. 10. a. She claimed that the jumper was
made of wool. b. She claimed that the jumper
was made from wool.
Key: 1. b; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
a; 9. b; 10. a.
111

120. Fill in the blanks with the necessary


adverbial particles or prepositions:
1.

There

was

George,

throwing

...

in

hideous sloth the inestimable gift of time. (J.K.J.)


2. Another Sunday was drawing to a close and Mr.
Mulliner had come into the bar-parlour of the
Anglers Rest wearing ... his head, in place of the
seedy old wideawake which usually adorned it, a
glistening top hat. (P.G.W.) 3. They must pull
themselves ... of this awkward stalemate by their
own

bootstraps.

4.

few

seconds

later

it

apparently passed over some points and shivered


briskly ... its whole length. (P.G.W.) 5. He swivelled
..., all the way, his feet moving in a blind and
practical manner around the rim of the periscope
well. (A.F.) 6. I suppose youre living ... the fat of
the land. (P.G.W.) 7. Michael threw himself ... that
like a pail of water. (J.W.) 8. The sun was almost
vertically above us: splinters of light darted here
and there from the glass of the hearse. The driver
turned ... his engine and we could hear the
112

sudden silence extending a long way to where a


dog whined ... the fringes of the capital. (G.G.) 9.
A young girl at the side was elbowing ... her,
saying to her lad: We got to get along. (J.L.) 10.
Its terrible the way people let you ...! 11. She was
evidently put ... by his words and looked ... him
angrily. She felt hurt and turned ... all his
attempts at making ... . 12. And take care that
those little kids dont get caught in a stampede
and get shoved ... to the ground. (E.C.) 13. The
next day, 600 more guardsmen arrived and an 8
p.m. to 6.30 a.m. curfew clamped ... the campus.
But fitful skirmishing continued ... the day and ...
the

night.

(...)

While

cops

and

guardsmen

pulled ..., 250 green-ribboned faculty members


and 50 student marshals wearing yellow arm
bands moved ... the Oval, exhorting friends and
demonstrators to cool it. (N.) 14. Clouds all
streaming ... like ghost fish under ice. (J.C.) 15.
But this evening has was not putting ... a story to
an untried audience ... . For Frank he was defiant,
the boy who was blazing a trial through life, his
cheeks aflame, his blue eyes glowing ... the
113

future before him. (A.W.) 16. It was simpler for the


airport to do what the ex-owner would not, pay
for the car to be taken ... and junked. (A.H.)
Key: 1. away; 2. on; 3. out; 4. down; 5.
round; 6. off; 7. on; 8. off, on; 9. at; 10. down; 11.
out, at, down, up; 12. off; 13. on, through, into,
back, onto; 14. away; 15. over, at; 16. away.
121. Put the verbs in brackets into the
correct tense, present perfect simple or present
perfect continuous:
1. She (practise) reversing for the last week
and I think she (get) a bit better at it. 2. They are
throwing crockery at each other in the next flat.
This (happen) before? 3. We (mend) sheets all
morning but we only (do) three, and now the
sewing machine (break) down so well be even
slower with the next one. 4. Why you (not bring)
me the letters for signature? You (not type) them
yet? 5. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the

114

last half hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus
already (go)?
Key: 1. has been practising, has got; 2. has
this

happened;

3.

have

been

mending/have

mended, have only done, has broken down; 4.


havent you brought, havent you typed; 5. has
been standing, has already gone.
122. Change the following from Direct to
Indirect Speech:
1. He said, Nobody came to see me at the
hospital. 2. The young man said, Im sure I shall
be met by my friends at the airport. 3. Doesnt
she always say, Id like you to speak English to
me? 4. We said, We are anxious that you should
attend the performance at our school. 5. The
young girl said to her mother, I have often
played tennis with Dana. 7. The teacher asked
me, Will you have finished reading this novel by
next Thursday? 8. I often hear you say, I work
very hard. 9. The old man said, Good Gracious! I
115

never expected to hear such a thing! 10. The boy


is saying, I cant play baseball.
Key: 1. He said (that) nobody had come to
see him at the hospital. 2. The young man said
(that) he was sure he would be met by his friends
at the airport. 3. Doesnt she always say (that)
shed like you to speak English to her? 4. We said
(that) we were anxious that they should attend
the performance at our school. 5. The young girl
told her mother (that) she had often played
tennis with Dana. 7. The teacher asked me if I
should have finished reading that novel by the
following Thursday. 8. I often hear you say (that)
you work very hard. 9. The old man exclaimed
(that) he had never expected to hear such a
thing. 10. The boy is saying (that) he cant play
baseball.
123.

Complete

the

compound nouns:

116

sentences

with

1. There was a sudden ... of violence


among students, following a period of relative
calm. 2. The British company is an ... of a much
larger American concern. 3. Only one prisoner
remains at large, following yesterdays ... by six
men from Dartmoor prison. 4. British hopes of a
gold medal in the Olympic Games suffered a
sharp ... yesterday, when Smith failed to qualify
during the preliminary heats.
Key: 1. outbreak; 2. offshoot; 3. break-out;
4. set-back.
124. In the sentences below, replace each
prepositional phrase by a prepositional adverb if
one is available. If one is not available, put a
dash:
1. Get inside the car. 2. I am going with
Jack. 3. Were leaving for Rome. 4. Stand at the
back. 5. We come from Italy.
Key: 1. inside; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. .
117

125.

Fill

the

spaces

in

the

following

sentences by inserting a verb + down, away or


over combinations:
1. When the first act ... ... we had a drink in
the theatre bar. 2. I ... ... the accounts several
times but couldnt find the mistake. 3. The new
idea is that young delinquents should gather
together in groups and ... ... their problems with
social workers. 4. After the blizzard, it took a long
time to ... ... the snow from the main streets. 5.
He doesnt think much of contemporary authors;
he is always ...... their work.
Key: 1. was over; 2. went over/through; 3.
talk over; 4. clear away; 5. running down.
126. Determine the kind of each of the
adverbial clauses in the following sentences:
1. Youll be judged according to what you
do. 2. If you dont bring that book in time you will
118

not get another one. 3. You may do it how/as you


like. 4. The pupils wrote the composition as their
teacher had explained them. 5. He borrowed all
the books he needed for the seminar in English
literature in order that he might read them until
the examination. 6. I will not go unless you come,
too.
Key: 1. quantity; 2. condition; 3. manner; 4.
manner; 5. purpose; 6. condition.
127. Indicate the way the verb phrase in
each of the sentences below can be analysed:
1. Dont give up. 2. It has passed over
safely. 2. I rushed out of the house. 4. He flew
across the Atlantic. 5. Dont give me away.
Key:

1.

verb

particle;

2.

verb

prepositional adverb; 3. verb + prepositional


phrase;

4.

verb

prepositional

transitive phrasal verb + object.

119

phrase;

5.

128. Indicate the way the verb phrase in


each of the sentences below can be analysed:
1. Will you come up for a cup of tea? 2.
They all trooped off. 3. I went into the dining
room. 4. Has anyone rung me up? 5. Go onto the
platform.
Key: 1. verb + prep. adv. + prep. phrase;
2. verb + particle; 3. verb + prepositional phrase ;
4. transitive phrasal verb + object ; 5. verb +
prepositional phrase.
129.
dependent

Change
finite

the

clause

verb
so

phrase
as

to

in

the

use

the

subjunctive:
1. Suppose every word of this was true,
what action would the Committee wish to take? 2.
If this report was more accurate, it would be an
invaluable document. 3. I propose, Mr. Chairman,
that the Committee should adjourn and should
meet again tomorrow.
120

Key: 1. Suppose every word of this were


true, what action would the Committee wish to
take? 2. If this report were more accurate, it
would be an invaluable document. 3. I propose,
Mr. Chairman, that the Committee adjourn and
meet again tomorrow.
130. Turn the following into the Active
Voice. Provide the doer when necessary:
1. Money is wrongly assumed to bring
happiness. 2. The door must be kept shut. 3. The
Danube was swum across in the wee hours of the
morning and the manoeuvre was not observed. 4.
A

more

careful

reading

of

this

essay

is

recommended.
Key: 1. People wrongly assume money to
bring happiness. 2. You must keep the door shut.
3. They swam across the Danube in the wee
hours of the morning and the enemy did not

121

observe

the

manoeuvre.

4.

The

teacher

recommends a more careful reading of this essay.


131. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and
adverbs where necessary:
1. Minutes elapsed as stimuli and reactions
travelled ... and ... ... his length. 2. The old woman
withdraws

gradually

...

the

curtain.

3.

She

walked ... him ... one hand hooked ... his leather
belt. 4. They might very well cook the meat ... the
same time they cooked the eggs and then
warm ... the meat ... tomorrow. 5. I got all this
stuff accumulated ... me because Ive been
thinking ... it ... ten years and now youve
asked ... it and here it is. 6. Come and sit down,
she cried, dragging her big chair ... ... the fire, ...
this comfy chair. 7. The girl put her fingers ... her
lips. 8. Let him go ... home ... the rain.
Key: 1. back, forth across; 2. behind; 3.
beside, with, into; 4. at, up, for; 5. in, about, for,
for; 6. up to, in; 7. to; 8. , in.
122

132. Insert the given adverbs in the correct


place:
1. My brothers and my husband will be
(soon, home) from the shooting. 2. Tom, Huck and
Joe decided to run away (at daybreak, from
home). 3. Jim was to recite his poem (that very
morning, in the centre of the examination hall).
Key: 1. My brothers and my husband will
be home soon from the shooting. 2. Tom, Huck
and Joe decided to run away from home at
daybreak. 3. Jim was to recite his poem in the
centre of the examination hall that very morning.
133.

State

whether

the

preposition

underlined indicates (a) position (b) orientation


(c) passage or (d) resultative state:
1. A monkey was sitting on the edge of the
bath. 2. They were still dancing around the house.

123

3. Out of the house, I felt calmer. 4. My best friend


lived down the road.
Key: 1. a; 2. c; 3. d; 4. b.
134. Complete the sentences, using a
gerund construction:
1. Why dont you stop ... if you so
dislike ...? 2. Its no good ... . You know how he
detests ... . 3. My wife suggested ... for a holiday,
but I favoured ... instead. 4. Forgive my ..., but
dont you miss ... now that youre living in
England?
Key: 1. buying your things there/waiting in
queues; 2. inviting him to the party/meeting lots
of strangers; 3. going to Scotland/visiting Wales;
4. mentioning it/having friends of your own
nationality.

124

135.

Put

the

following

sentences

into

reported speech, introducing them with a verb in


the past tense:
1. Cowards die many times before their
deaths. 2. I bought this book yesterday. 3. I think
that pushing the car from behind will start it; the
engine should keep going once its started. 4.
Mike is ill. 5. I like the idea very much.
Key: 1. They all stated that cowards die
many times before their deaths. 2. He announced
that he had bought that book the day before. 3.
The driver said that pushing the car from behind
would start it; the engine should keep going once
it was started. 4. She announced that Mike was ill.
5. He said that he liked the idea very much.
136. Join these pairs of sentences. Use the
joining words in brackets:
1. Then he spoke slowly. I could not
understand him. (but) 2. The thief gave back the
125

money. He paid for the window he had broken.


(not only ... but also) 3. I repeated the question
several times. At last he understood. (and)

126

Key: 1. Then he spoke slowly, but I couldnt


understand him. 2. John not only gave back the
money, but he also paid for the window he had
broken. 3. I repeated the question several times
and at last he understood.
137. Complete the sentences with the
gerund or the infinitive of the verbs in brackets,
using the correct form of any pronouns that are
included:
1. They began (drive) at six in the morning,
and were still on the road ten hours later. 2. I
vaguely remember (he, say) something like that.
3. If the Governments policy is to succeed, they
must (keep) prices in check. 4. A membership
card authorizes (the holder, use) the clubs
facilities for a period of twelve months. 5. The
reporter asked many questions which the freed
men declined (answer).

127

Key: 1. driving; 2. him or his saying (or


having said); 3. to keep; 4. the holder to use (or
the holders using); 5. to answer.
138. Rewrite the following using a wish
construction (phrases in brackets should be
omitted):
1. Id like him to cut his hair (but I dont
suppose he will). 2. Im sorry we accepted the
invitation. 2. Im sorry I called him a liar. 4. Im
sorry I didnt bring a map. 5. Im sorry you arent
coming with us. 6. Its a pity you are going
tonight.
Key: 1. I wish he would cut his hair. 2. I
wish we hadnt accepted the invitation. 2. I wish I
hadnt called him a liar. 4. I wished I had brought
a map. 5. I wish you were coming with us. 6. I
wish you werent going tonight.

128

139. Put the transitive verbs into the


passive voice. Do not mention the agent unless it
seems necessary:
1. Dogs guard the warehouse. The other
day a thief tried to get in and a dog saw him and
chased him. 2. The postman clears this box three
times a day. He last cleared it at 2.30. 3. We will
prosecute trespassers. 4. Men with slide rules
used to do these calculations; now a computer
does them. 5. You mustnt move this man; he is
too ill. Youll have to leave him here. 6. We cannot
exchange articles which customers have bought
during the sale. 7. We had to give the books back;
they did not allow us to take them home. 8.
Candidates may not use dictionaries.
Key: 1. The warehouse is guarded by dogs.
A thief who tried to get in was seen by a dog and
chased. 2. This box is cleared three times a day. It
was last cleared at 2.30. 3. Trespassers will be
prosecuted. 4. These calculations used to be done
by men; now they are done by a computer. 5. This
129

man mustnt be moved; he is too ill. He will have


to be left here. 6. Articles (which have been)
bought during the sale cannot be exchanged. 7.
The books had to be given back; we were not
allowed to take them home. 8. Dictionaries may
not be used.
140.

Rewrite

the

sentences

in

an

alternative form, using the words in brackets:


1. The man was afraid he would be
dismissed. (of) The man ... 2. If only I hadnt
behaved like a fool last night! (be sorry) Im ... 3.
John almost won a silver medal in the Olympics.
(come close to) John ... 4. If she hadnt eaten so
many

sweets,

she

wouldnt

be

overweight.

(because) She is ...


Key: 1. The man was afraid of being
dismissed. 2. Im sorry I behaved like a fool last
night! 3. John came close to winning a silver
medal in the Olympics. 4. She is overweight
because she has eaten too many sweets.
130

141. For each of the following sentences,


write another sentence as similar as possible in
meaning, using the verb in brackets together with
a preposition and a gerund:
1. Visitors to the zoo are not allowed to
feed the animals. (prohibit) 2. The solicitor talked
his client out of taking legal action. (dissuade) 3.
The customer said that the cashier had tried to
overcharge her. (accuse) 4. The student said he
was sorry that he had missed the previous lesson.
(apologize)
Key: 1. Visitors to the zoo are prohibited
from

feeding

the

animals.

2.

The

solicitor

dissuaded his client from taking legal action. 3.


The customer accused the cashier of trying to
overcharge her. 4. The student apologized for
missing/having missed the previous lesson.
142. Turn the following into the Active
Voice. Provide the doer when necessary:
131

1. Nothing in your room has been moved


since you were taken away. 2. Leningrad was
being shelled by the Wehrmacht from a distance
of several miles. 3. I was greatly amused to see
that she had been taken in by his ruse. 4. The
inscriptions were made by unidentified authors in
the tenth century A.D.
Key: 1. We havent moved anything in your
room

since

Wehrmacht

they
was

took
shelling

you

away.

Leningrad

2.

The

from

distance of several miles. 3. It amused me greatly


to see that his ruse had taken her in. 4.
Unidentified authors made these inscriptions in
the tenth century A.D.
143. Choose the correct verb from those
given in brackets:
1.

We

...

about

home.

(reminisced,

reminded) 2. Ill ... you in case you forget.


(remember, remind) 3. Try to ... yourself before
132

you speak. (recall, recollect) 4. I dont ... his


name. (remember, reminisce) 5. Please ... me to
your parents. (remember, remind)
Key: 1. reminisced; 2. remind; 3. recollect;
4. remember; 5. remember.
144. Choose the correct version:
1. a. Whenever there is a strike, we have to
go to work by foot. b. Whenever there is a strike,
we have to go to work on foot. 2. a. Once one has
acquired the habit, smoking is very difficult to
give up. b. Once one has taken the habit,
smoking is very difficult to give up.

3. a.

Secondary students are under great pressure


indeed. b. Secondary students are under very
great pressure indeed. 4. a. I dont know much
about it. b. I dont have much knowledge about it.
5. a. In art we discover the beauty of the human
imagination. b. In art we discover the beauty of
mankinds imagination. 6. a. He was a good boy
and obeyed to his parents all the time. b. He was
133

a good boy and obeyed his parents all the time. 7.


a. She suddenly stood up and ran out of the
room. b. She suddenly stood up and ran out from
the room. 8. a. He is a man of strong personality
who will fight for what is right. b. He is a man of
strong character who will fight for what is right. 9.
a. England is okay on the whole, although some
places are very dirty. b. England is okay on the
overall, although some places are very dirty. 10.
a. As soon as I came in I noticed your note on the
table. b. As soon as I came in I remarked your
note on the table. 11. a. These vitamin pills are
always available at the chemist. b. These vitamin
pills are always available at the chemists. 12. a.
You will be able to sightsee the volcanoes. b. You
will be able to see/visit the volcanoes. 13. a. Lets
go somewhere different for a change. b. Lets go
to somewhere different for a change. 14. a. He
said he felt worried because of all the recent air
disasters. Naturally I became worried too. b. He
said he felt worried because of all the recent air
disasters. Surely I became worried too. 15. a. One
of the children wanted to go to toilet. b. One of
134

the children wanted to go to the toilet. 16. a. She


tried to get him to listen but in vain. b. She tried
to get him to listen but to no avail/but it was all in
vain. /She tried in vain to get him to listen.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8.
b; 9. a; 10. a; 11. b; 12. b; 13. a; 14. a; 15. b; 16. b.
145.

Rephrase

the

following

incorrect

sentences into correct ones:


1. The University imposes no penalties for
absences, you are, however, expected to make
up all work that you miss. 2. The next day he
departed for Atlanta this city is the capital of
Georgia.
Key:
penalties

1.
for

The

University

absences;

you

imposes
are,

no

however,

expected to make up all work that you miss.


/Although the University imposes no penalties for
absences, you are expected to make up all work

135

that you miss. 2. The next day he departed for


Atlanta, the capital of Georgia.
146. Turn the following statements into
indirect speech:
1. I didnt know you were here! 2. I
would do it if I knew I was totally right. 3. I know
you cant change your mind at this late moment.
4. There are a lot of things to be learned from
this story. 5. Skirts have been much longer for
the last two seasons. 6. He never forgets to
remind me of my promise.
Key: 1. He maintained that he hadnt
known that you were there/had been there. 2. She
argued that she would have done it if she had
known that she had been totally right. 3. He
argued that he knew I couldnt change my mind
at that late moment. 4. He admitted that there
were a lot of things to be learned from that story.
5. She maintained that skirts had been much
longer for the previous two seasons. 6. She told
136

us that he never forgot to remind her of her


promise.
147. Finish each of the sentences in such a
way that it means exactly the same as the one
printed before it:
1. Follow the instructions carefully and you
wont have any problems. As long as ... 2. Without
proper lessons, you could pick up a lot of bad
habits. If you ... 3. Its my opinion that you should
take more exercise. If I ... 4. Given favourable
weather, all the yachts should have reached the
half-way stage by the weekend. Provided that ...
5. But for his presence of mind there might have
been a serious accident. If it ...
Key:

1.

As

long

as

you

follow

the

instructions you wont have any problems. If you


dont/didnt have proper lessons you could pick
up a lot of bad habits. 3. If I were you, Id take
more exercise. 4. Provided that the weather is
favourable, all the yachts should have reached
137

the half-way stage by the weekend. 5. If it hadnt


been for his presence of mind there might have
been a serious accident.
148.

Rephrase

the

following

incorrect

sentences into correct ones:


1. There will be a meeting of the Science
Club

on

Friday

evening,

several

important

matters are to be discussed. 2. I had sprained my


ankle was the reason I could not go to the dance.
Key: 1. There will be a meeting of the
Science Club on Friday. Several important matters
are to be discussed. 2. The reason I could not go
to the dance was that I had sprained my ankle.
149. Indicate whether the dash in each of
the sentences below can be replaced by each or
every. If either word is acceptable, give them
both:

138

1. The players received 100 ... . 2. ... one


of the two men was six feet tall. 3. ... man in the
crowd raised his hand. 4. They were ... looking
anxiously at the referee. 5. ... received a medal,
too.
Key: 1. each; 2. Each; 3. Every, Each; 4.
each; 5. Each.
150. Supply an appropriate question tag for
each of the sentences below:
1. Wed set out tomorrow if we could. 2. You
saw what happened. 3. He has enough money. 4.
Im

coming

with

you.

5.

Youd

be

more

comfortable here.
Key: 1. wouldnt we? 2. didnt you? 3.
hasnt he? or doesnt he? 4. arent I? 5. wouldnt
you?
151. Say which of the underlined items can
be replaced by the genitive variant:
139

1. I often find myself repeating it. 2. How


can I stop you biting your nails? 3. The police
caught Wilson climbing the wall. 4. We object to
them being given preferential treatment. 5. Do
you mind me opening the window?
Key: 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.their being given; 5.
my.
152. Each of the following is ambiguous by
itself. Paraphrase each sentence, in two different
ways, so as to show the difference in possible
interpretations:
1. You must be very quick. 2. You may be
out late this evening. 3. Henry can drive my car
now. 4. Shall we see him this evening? 5. They
should be home now.
Key: 1. are obliged to be or undoubtedly
are; 2. perhaps you will or have permission to; 3.
He is able to or has permission to; 4. Will we be
140

seeing him or I suggest we see him; 5. ought to


be or probably are.
153.

Make

the

right

concord

between

subject and verb by selecting one member of


each of the pairs of verbs in the following
sentences:
1. The acoustics of the hall is/are excellent.
2. The youth is/are more serious than my
generation

was.

3.

The

police

has/have

an

unenviable task. 4. There is/are people waiting to


see you. 5. Do/Does people always believe what
you say?
Key: 1. are; 2. are; 3. have; 4. are; 5. do.
154. Complete the sentences, following any
correct sequence of tenses:
1. When ..., supposing we left immediately?
2. How ..., if you didnt know my address? 3. If you
really have been studying English for so long, its
141

about time you ... 4. If ..., tell him Im out. 5. If you


knew the answer, why ...?
Key: 1. ... would we be likely to arrive, ...?
2. ... on earth did you find me, ...? 3. ... were able
to write your letter in English. 4. ... my bank
manager calls, ... 5. ..., why didnt you write it
down?
155.

Write

either

the

simple

or

the

progressive form, as appropriate. Use only the


past tense, non-perfective aspect:
1. Im afraid theres no more bread. We
(eat) it all last night. In any case, it (go) stale. 2. A
young lady (leave) this note for you ten minutes
ago. As you (have) breakfast, I (not disturb) you
at the time. 3. Shes alive! She (drown) but that
handsome young man (dive) in and (save) her,
just in time. 4. At school, we (study) two foreign
languages.

142

Key: 1. ate, was going; 2. left, were having,


did not disturb; 3. was drowning, dived, saved; 4.
studied.
156.

Rephrase

the

following

incorrect

sentences into correct ones:


1. Go south until you come to the corner of
State and Madison streets, this is one of the
busiest

intersections

in

the

world.

2.

The

automobile ran smoothly the train was rough.


Key: 1. Go South until you come to the
corner of State and Madison streets, which
intersection is one of the busiest in the world./Go
south until you come to the corner of State and
Madison streets, one of the busiest intersections
in the world. 2. The automobile ran smoothly. The
train was rough./The automobile ran smoothly;
the train was rough.

143

157. Replace the words in italics, using the


verb to go with an appropriate adverbial particle,
making any necessary changes in word order:
1. He left for the States last week. 2. He is
not the man to break his promise. 3. He will have
to sit for six exams this session. 4. I dont want to
enter into details now. 5. Shall I continue or do
you want me to stop telling you the story?
Key: 1. went away; 2. to go back (up)on; 3.
to go in for; 4. go; 5. go on.
158. Supply the appropriate word chosen
from those given in brackets:
1. The kitchen was heavy with the (smell,
odour, stench) of fried fish. 2. This wine has a
peculiar (fragrance, smell, odour, aroma), quite
its own. 3. The (odour, fragrance, aroma) of
Havana cigars is world-famous.
Key: 1. odour, smell; 2. aroma; 3. aroma.
144

159. Respond to the following:


1. Mother has given all my clothes away! 2.
Cut the string! 3. Hes married at last! 4. Ive just
received a big parcel. 5. Play with me! (at) 6. Take
it away! (to)
Key: 1. What with/for? 2. What with? 3.
Who to? 4. Who from? 5. What at? 6. Where to?
160. Supply an appropriate question tag for
each of the sentences below:
1. Youll be quite all right. 2. Hes doing his
best. 3. Youd set out too late and missed the
train. 4. You can see what is happening. 5. Youd
been up since five oclock.
Key: 1. wont you? 2. isnt he? 3. hadnt
you? 4. cant you? 5. hadnt you?

145

161. Give the affirmative counterparts of


the following negative sentences:
1. Not a cheer came from the crowd. 2. No
one must smoke in the childs room. 3. She is no
fool. 4. Not anyone can swim across the river.
Key: 1. Cheers came from the crowd. 2.
Anyone can/may smoke in the childs room. 3.
She is some fool. 4. Anyone can swim across the
river.
162.

Rephrase

the

following

incorrect

sentences into correct ones:


1. We had taken a wrong turning near
Northville, thus we found ourselves travelling
miles out of our way. 2. His only fault is he has a
bad temper.
Key: 1. Having taken a wrong turning near
Northville, we found ourselves travelling miles out

146

of our way. 2. His only fault is that he has a bad


temper.
163. Say which of the underlined items can
be replaced by the genitive variant:
1. Dont let me find you opening this door
again. 2. You wont keep us waiting, will you? 3. I
remember John telling me that story. 4. I dont
approve of you climbing cliffs. 5. Do you ever
remember that happening to you?
Key: 1. ; 2. ; 3. Johns telling; 4. your; 5.
164. Give the affirmative counterparts of
the following negative sentences:
1. Scarcely anybody expected him to get
there until midnight. 2. She couldnt have been
gone long. 3. I havent got much spare time. 4. No
man will ever make Snoopy a good wife.

147

Key: 1. Almost everybody expected him to


get there before midnight. 2. She must have been
gone (for) a long time. 3. I have got a lot of spare
time. 4. One day some man will make Snoopy a
good wife.
165. Distinguish among: personal subject
(a), indefinite personal subject (b), demonstrative
subject (c), negative subject (d), interrogative
subject (e), impersonal subject (f):
1. Ones religion is whatever he is most
interested in, and yours is success. (J.M.B.) 2.
People like Jimmy, anyway. (J.O.) 3. I suppose one
ought to consider oneself fortunate that one can.
(S.M.) 4. I have an appointment tomorrow in
Birmingham, about a job. Theyve just sent me a
script. Its rather important, and I dont want to
miss it. 5. Whats that? asked Jennie (T.D.).
Key: 1. religion (a), he (a); 2. people (b); 3.
I (a), one (f), one (f); 4. I (a), they (b), it (f), I (a);
5. what (e), Jennie (a).
148

166. Choose the correct version:


1. a. I havent seen any good films in this
year. b. I havent seen any good films this year. 2.
a. After a while he stopped running and lay down
on the ground. b. After a while he stopped
running and lied down on the ground. 3. a. Both
girls are clever, but Edna is the most intelligent.
b. Both girls are clever, but Edna is (the) more
intelligent. 4. a. The old man then offered the
little boy something to eat. b. The old man then
offered something to eat to the little boy. 5. a. Im
sorry, but I was very busy and couldnt spare the
time. b. I beg your pardon, but I was very busy
and couldnt spare the time. 6. a. I reject the idea
that

men

and

women

are

psychologically

different. b. I refuse the idea that men and


women are psychologically different. 7. a. I slept
at ten oclock last night. b. I went to bed at ten
oclock last night. 8. a. On my first day at the
school, I had to make a test. b. On my first day at
the school, I had to take a test. 9. a. To tell you
149

the truth, its the most unsatisfying job Ive ever


had. b. To tell you the truth, its the most
unsatisfactory job Ive ever had. 10. a. If there is a
gas leak, the house could go on fire. b. If there is
a gas leak, the house could catch fire.
Key: 1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. a; 6. a; 7. b; 8.
b; 9. a; 10. b.
167. Translate into Romanian:
1. Have you ever visited a foreign country?
2. She did not see the car coming and so she had
an accident. 3. Why didnt you phone mother
from Bucharest?
Key: 1. Ai vizitat vreodat o ar strin?
2. Ea nu a vzut maina venind i astfel a a avut
un accident. 3. De ce nu ai telefonat mamei din
Bucureti?
168.

Rewrite

the

following

beginning each with anticipatory it:


150

sentences

1. He is quite likely to let you down. 2. Yes, I


happen to have had some nasty experiences in
dealing with him. 3. This question is very easy to
answer.
Key: 1. It is quite likely that he will let you
down. 2. Yes, it happens that I have had some
nasty experiences in dealing with him. 3. It is very
easy to answer this question.
169. Reply in the affirmative to each of the
questions below, using a pro-form for the part of
the sentence underlined:
1. Is this the same soup that they gave us
yesterday? 2. I have your ticket. Do you have my
ticket? 3. Have you answered all of these
questions? 4. Do you have any stamps? 5. Were
all the other tickets sold?
Key: 1. the same (soup); 2. yours; 3. all (of
them); 4. some; 5. the others.
151

170. Decide whether to is functioning as a


preposition or as part of an infinitive, and then
complete the sentences with the gerund or the
infinitive of the verbs in brackets:
1. Jones came very close to (win) a gold
medal for Britain in the Olympics. 2. Hard work is
the key to (pass) examinations. 3. Since the
introduction of new services, many businessmen
have taken to (travel) by train for journeys
between 100200 miles. 4. He used to (dislike)
London, but he now seems resigned to (live)
there.
Key: 1. winning; 2. passing; 3. travelling; 4.
dislike/living.
171. Choose the correct version:
1. a. In my opinion, this is too traditional an
approach. b. In my opinion, this is a too
traditional approach. 2. a. As usually, he arrived
152

five minutes late. b. As usual, he arrived five


minutes late. 3. a. Its also worth visiting the
north of England if you have time. b. Its also
worth to visit the north of England if you have
time. 4. a. Theres no good putting a very young
child in a kindergarten. b. Its no good putting a
very young child in a kindergarten. 5. a. There
has been an increase of the number of cars. b.
There has been an increase in the number of
cars. 6. a. I got out of the car and waited for
someone to stop and help me. b. I went out of the
car and waited for someone to stop and help me.
7.

a.

You

shouldnt

judge

people

by

their

appearance. b. You shouldnt judge people for


their appearance. 8. a. The cold water made me
shivering. b. The cold water made me shiver. 9. a.
Nowadays, there are far more criminals than
policemen. b. Nowadays, there are much more
criminals than policemen. 10. a. His idea of a
good time included the sun, the sea, jokes,
laughter, and overall friendship. b. His idea of a
good time included the sun, the sea, jokes,
laughter, and above all friendship.
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Key: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. a; 8.
b; 9. a; 10. b.
172. Say which of the dependent clauses
below are unacceptable, and rephrase each
sentence concerned:
1. Before retiring, take two of these pills
with a little water. 2. When fully grown, the men
cut off all the lower branches. 3. Speaking frankly,
the situation is worse than we feared. 4. Shouting
slogans, the streets were thronged with indignant
workmen.
Key: 1. ; 2. When the trees are fully
grown, the men cut off all the lower branches; 3.
; 4. Put the -ing clause at the end.
173. Supply equivalents for the italicized
phrasal verbs:

154

1. He tried to force her by refusing to


support her and turning her out of the house. 2. I
was just strolling along to my cottage to put on a
dinner jacket. 3. I dont know what you are aiming
to catch him with, so I cant say how to go about
it, but I sure dont advise shooting him with a
gun. 4. Ill turn the light out so it wont hurt his
eyes. 5. Hughie, do you think Arnold takes after
me or after his father?
Key: 1. evicting from the house; 2. walking
leisurely, dress for dinner; 3. deal with it; 4.
extinguish; 5. resembles.
174. Identify (a) the subject, and (b) the
theme, of each of the sentences below. Say
whether the theme occurs as S, Cs, Od, Co, C
prep. (prepositional complement), P (predication)
or V (verb):
1. That shelf, he probably put it on. 2. Not
one girl in ten can a young man trust these days.
3. Die is the last thing I shall do, doctor.
155

Key: 1. a. he; b. that shelf, C prep.; 2. a. a


young man; b. not one girl in ten, Od.; 3. a. I; b.
die, V.
175. Leave out that wherever possible:
1. This is the car of the boy that won the
race. 2. I am thinking of the kind of people that
make you laugh all the time. 3. She is suffering
from a disease that is quite uncommon with us. 4.
It is advisable that you should work harder for
your exams.
Key: 1. that; 2. that; 3. that; 4. that.
176. Supply the appropriate verb:
1. Birds ... 2. Bees ... 3. Bulls ... 4.
Rattlesnakes ... 5. Lions ... 6. Robins ... 7. Geese
and hens ... .

156

Key: 1. chirp, twitter; 2. hum, drone; 3.


bellow; 4. rattle; 5. roar; 6. warble, sing; 7. cackle.
177. Give the correct form of the verb in
brackets:
1. It was vital that she (to get married) to
John. 2. It is imperative that they (to send) the
goods immediately. 3. It is necessary that you (to
be) here on time.
Key: 1. It was vital that she get married to
John. 2. It is imperative that they send the goods
immediately. 3. It is necessary that you be here
on time.
178.

State

whether

the

preposition

underlined indicates (a) passage (b) position (c)


destination or (d) pervasive motion:
1. I shouted, and we dived under the bed.
2. If you can get past his dog, youll be perfectly

157

safe. 3. It was squeezing toothpaste all over its


chest. 4. Down the road was an old temple.
Key: 1. c; 2. a; 3. d; 4. b.
179. Complete the sentences with a noun
formed by a suitable combination of the verbs in
brackets with one of the following particles: back,
out, by.
1. Despite its many ..., the plan has much
to commend it. (draw) 2. No one can yet predict
what the ... of the talks is likely to be. (come) 3.
We always keep a spare gallon of petrol in the car
as a ... . (stand) 4. There was yet another ...
yesterday at the factory over the question of teabreaks. (walk)
Key: 1. drawbacks; 2. outcome; 3. standby; 4. walk-out.
180. Fill in each blank with to or from:

158

1. He escaped ... the woods. 2. He has


retired ... the army. 3. She learnt English ... books.
4. They saved him ... drowning.
Key: 1. to; 2. from; 3. from; 4. from.
181.

Combine

each

of

the

pairs

of

sentences below so as to form one sentence


containing a wh-clause. Say what function the
wh-clause is fulfilling in the superordinate clause:
1. How much will all this cost? I am
concerned about that. 2. When did the fever
begin? I am not quite sure. 3. What caused the
explosion? No one ever discovered.
Key: 1. I am concerned about how much all
this will cost, C. of prep., about; 2. I am not quite
sure when the fever began, C. of adj. sure; 3. No
one ever discovered what caused the explosion,
O.
182. Choose the correct version:
159

1. a. My sister is very good at squash. b. My


sister is very good in squash. 2. a. If I drink coffee,
I get headache. b. If I drink coffee, I get a
headache. 3. a. Im afraid that I wont be able to
come to your wedding. As it happens, Im giving a
lecture on that day. b. Im afraid that I wont be
able to come to your wedding. Indeed, Im giving
a lecture on that day. 4. a. When a woman goes
out to work, she knows other people. b. When a
woman goes out to work, she gets to know other
people. 5. a. In Italy we have made a great deal to
prevent pollution. b. In Italy we have done a great
deal to prevent pollution. 6. a. A lot of new
doctors emigrate to America where they can earn
more money. b. A lot of new doctors migrate to
America where they can earn more money. 7. a.
She said some of the rudest things I have ever
heard in all my life. b. She said some of the
rudest things I have never heard in all my life. 8.
a. She phoned to the hospital to ask about her
husband. b. She phoned the hospital to ask about
her husband. 9. a. Tennis has become popular in
160

Germany in the recent years. b. Tennis has


become popular in Germany in recent years. 10.
a. Most of these drugs come from what is called
the Golden Triangle. b. Most of these drugs come
from the so-called Golden Triangle.
Key: 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. a; 8.
b; 9. b; 10.a.
183.

Give

passive

equivalents

to

the

following sentences:
1. Someone had written something on the
book. 2. The sight of the body has upset her. 3.
One makes such mistakes sometimes. 4. Had you
made

all

the

necessary

arrangements?

5.

Somebody would have told her, if it had been


necessary. 6. You found the door shut.
Key: 1. Something had been written on the
book. 2. She has been upset by the sight of the
body. 3. Such mistakes are made sometimes. 4.
Had all the necessary arrangements been made?
161

5. She would have been told if it had been


necessary. 6. The door was found shut.
184. Say which of the underlined noun
modifiers are (a) restrictive, (b) non-restrictive:
1. The theatre to which we were taken was
the oldest one in Paris. 2. The demonstrators,
whose names had already been taken by the
police, refused to move. 3. Her devoted elder
daughter takes care of her. 4. Cuzco is still a
thriving city, its Inca buildings merged into the
buildings of the Spaniard.
Key: 1. to which we were taken, a; oldest,
a; 2. whose names had already been taken by the
police, b; 3. devoted, b; elder, a; 4. Cuzco, a;
thriving, a; Inca, a; of the Spaniard, a.
185. Translate into English:
1.

Marele

umanist

englez

William

Shakespeare s-a nscut la 23 aprilie 1564. 2.


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Opera sa poate fi mprit n trei perioade. 3.


Shakespeare a creat lumea n apte zile. 4. n
prima zi, a fcut cerul, munii i prpstiile
sufleteti.
Key: 1. The great English humanist William
Shakespeare was born on the 23rd of April 1564. 2.
His work can be divided into three periods. 3.
Shakespeare created the world in seven days. 4.
On the first day, he made the sky, the mountains
and the soul abysses.
186. Decide which verb is right. Explain
why:
1. John is the only one of those men who
knows/know how to hand the problem. 2. There is
not one of them who wants/want to walk so far. 3.
I decided to go and see how one of these new
cars is/are put together. 4. He is not one of those
Americans who is/are capable of melancholy. 5.
The kind of manners they all strive for is/are
irreproachable.
163

Key: 1. Knows. Who refers to one: John is


the only one who knows. 2. Wants. Who refers to
one: there is not one person who wants to walk so
far. 3. Is. One stands for a new car. 4. Are. Who
refers to Americans. 5. Is. Kind remains the
subject.
187. Supply the appropriate word:
1. a ... of swine. 2. a ... of china. 3. a. ... of
flowers. 4. a ... of hay. 5. a ... of quails. 6. a ... of
teeth. 7. a ... of relics and curios. 8. a ... of bees.
9. a ... of keys. 10. a ... of partridges.
Key: 1. herd; 2. set; 3. bunch; 4. stack; 5.
bevy; 6. set, row; 7. collection; 8. swarm; 9.
bunch; 10. covey.
188. Which of the sentences below contain
nominal that-clauses?

164

1. Youve had some trouble with your


telephone, I understand. 2. My opinion, that no
action need be taken yet, is shared by most of us
here. 3. Everyone tends to think that he is not
sufficiently appreciated.
Key: 1. Sentences 2, 3.
189. Reduce the finite time clauses to nonfinite or verbless time clauses whenever such
reduction would be acceptable without change of
voice:
1. Before he served in the army, he was
much too fat. 2. Once your book is published, it
will sell very rapidly. 3. When you lived in
Washington, did you ever meet Tom?
Key: 1. Before serving in the army, he was
much too fat. 2. Once published, your book will
sell very rapidly. 3. When living in Washington, did
you ever meet Tom?

165

190. Supply the correct tense of the verbs


in parentheses:
1. He has got to do it whether he (to like) it
or not. 2. She (to read) for five hours when I (to
come) to visit her. 3. If we (to go) to the pictures,
we shall see them. 4. He came in the room on tiptoe lest he (to wake up) the children, who (to be)
fast asleep for more than two hours.
Key: 1. likes; 2. had been reading, came; 3.
go; 4. should wake up, had been.
191.

Combine

each

of

the

pairs

of

sentences below so as to form a single sentence


containing a conditional or a concessive clause:
1. I am sure that never really happened.
Otherwise, we would all be dead by now. 2. You
can tell me or not. But in any case I will find out
the truth. 3. You could have the best binoculars in
the world. But still you wouldnt be able to see
anything more.

4. All you had to do was


166

telephone me. Then I would have come round at


once. 5. Stand up here. That is the only way you
can see anything.
Key: 1. If that had really happened, we
would all have been dead by then. 2. Whether
you tell me or not, I will find out the truth. 3. Even
if/though you had the best binoculars in the
world, you wouldnt be able to see anything more.
4. If only you had telephoned me, I would have
come round at once. 5. You wont see anything
unless you stand up here.
192. Fill in the blanks by using one or
several prepositional phrases:
1. This is a new reason ... my proposal. 2. ...
your letter of October 10th, I have the pleasure of
acknowledging the receipt of the book. 3. He
avoided any discussion ... his new job. 4. He is
guilty ... the court. 5. The scenery was ... the
atmosphere of the play.

167

Key: 1. in support of; 2. in (with) regard


to/in (with) reference to; 3. in (with) respect to/in
(with) reference to; 4. in the sight of/in the eyes
of; 5. out of keeping with.
193. Combine these sentences by using the
appropriate preposition with the ing form of the
verb:
1. Susan was upset. She had missed the
train. 2. Mike was sorry. He wasnt included in the
tennis team. 3. He is ashamed. He hardly ever
helps his little brother.
Key: 1. Susan was upset at/over having
missed the train. 2. Mike was sorry for not being
included in the tennis team. 3. He is ashamed of
never helping his little brother.
194. Change the following sentences to
indirect speech:

168

1. The teacher asked the little boy, With


what does a man see? 2. I asked him, Whats
wrong with you? 3. She asked me, When did
you get here? 4. He asked everybody, Whose
money is this?
Key: 1. The teacher asked the little boy
what a man sees with. 2. I asked him what was
wrong with him. 3. She asked me when I had got
there. 4. He asked everybody whose money that
was.
195. Select the correct form of the verbs
given in brackets:
1. We guess father (hasnt heard, hadnt
heard) this news yet. 2. I am sure that Thomas
(will come, would come) here when he (feels, will
feel) better. 3. When I (leave, will leave) school
next year, I (will learn, will have learnt) here for
seven years. 4. John didnt remember what he
(told, had told) me the day before.

169

Key: 1. hasnt heard; 2. will come, feels; 3.


leave, will have learnt; 4. had told.
196. Choose an acceptable verb, giving two
answers if necessary:
1.

War

and

peace

is/are

alternatives

between which man must constantly choose. 2.


Neither John nor Mary has/have replied to my
letter. 3. What are often regarded as poisonous
fungi is/are sometimes safely edible. 4. The seven
wonders of the world was/were well-known in
ancient times.
Key: 1. are; 2. has; 3. are; 4. were.
197. State whether the verbs in brackets
ought to be made use of (with or without to) and
point out the cases in which a present participle
could be used instead of an infinitive:
1. Did you forget (ask) Tom (pay back) the
money he owes us? 2. He tried (make) us
170

(believe) that he was a specialist in electronics. 3.


It is up to you (pass) your exams successfully. 4.
That is far too difficult for a beginner (solve); let
me (help) you.
Key: 1. to ask, to pay back; 2. to make,
believe; 3. to pass; 4. to solve, help.

171