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Social awareness or social change means that you should know what is socially
acceptable from you in society and you should act in that manner. Mass media has a
prominent role to play in modern society. It can bring about radical changes and
improve social situation as it influences our social, civil, cultural, political, economic
and aesthetic outlook. Modernization has converted media into an indispensable
feature of human activity. However, factors like age, education, economic condition,
personal needs and availability of proper components decide the quantum and
frequency of media use. This is evident from the fact that most media centres are
located in urban areas. The majority of consumers of media products are also
concentrated in and around cities and towns. Scientific literacy is the knowledge and
understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision
making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity. It
involves the negotiation of socio-scientific issues and requires ability to make
informed decisions regarding these issues as they have moral and ethical implications
too. We confront issues with a scientific dimension on a daily basis through the media.
If the idea of scientific literacy is to have relevance for situations where students
encounter science, it has to include the ability to engage constructively in socioscientific issues in examining a variety of real world issues and grounding scientific
knowledge in such realities. In today's world, such issues might include the impact on
society of: global warming, genetic engineering, animal testing, deforestation
practices, nuclear testing and environmental legislations.
The influence of media on society has been growing fast renewals in the community.
Renewal of the intangible changes nothing and there are negative toward the positive
direction. Media influence is related to other aspects such as the nature of a

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communicator, the content / information from the media itself, as well as responses
from the community.
Consciously or unconsciously, people are often influenced by mass media, such as
persuading the media to use a particular product or indirectly persuaded to support a
particular political ideology or political party. In connection with this matter, there are
some contemporary theories related to the influence of mass communication which
has been classified into four sections, namely:
Individual Differences Theory:
According to this theory there is a new trend in the formation of a persons character
through the learning process. The big difference in mindset and motivation based on
the experience of learning. Individual differences due to environmental differences
resulting in different views in the face of things. Environment will influence the
attitudes, values and beliefs that underlie their personalities want to respond to
incoming information. Thus the influence of media on
individuals will vary from one another.
Social Categorization Theory:
Social classification is based on income level, sex, education, residence or religion. In
this theory says that people who have certain traits that tend together will form the
same attitudes in the face of certain stimuli. This equation affects their responses to
receive the messages conveyed in the mass media.
Theory of Social Relations: According to this theory most of the people receiving the
messages conveyed in the media many obtained through relationships or contacts with
others rather than accept direct from the mass media. In this case, inter-personal
relationships have a strong influence on the delivery of information by the media.
Theory of Cultural Norms:
This theory assumes that the message / information conveyed by the mass media in
certain ways can lead to different interpretations by the public in accordance with the
culture. This implies that the media influence individual attitudes. There are several
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ways by the mass media in influencing cultural norms. First, the information conveyed
to strengthen the cultural patterns prevailing and convinces people that culture is still
valid and must be obeyed. Second, the mass media to create a new culture that can
complement or improve the old culture that is not contradictory. Third, the mass media
can change the cultural norms that already exist and are valid for a long time and the
changing attitudes of society itself.
Social change is a symptom of the changing social structure and cultural patterns
within a society and is a general phenomenon that happens all the time in every
society. Social change in the community includes several orientations, including
1. Changes with the orientation in an effort to leave the factors or elements of
social life that must be abandoned or changed.
2. Changes with the orientation in some form or element or elements that do form
3. Change-oriented forms, elements, or values that have existed or exist in the
In establishing the orientation of a change process, there are several factors that
give strength to the orientation of these changes, among others, are as follows:
1. Attitude, in this case both the scale and the scale of groups of individuals who
are able to appreciate the works of others, without being seen from the largescale or small labour productivity itself,
2. The ability to tolerate some deviation from the forms or elements of routine,
because in fact one of the drivers of change in the individuals who deviate from
the routine things, creatures who like to deviate of the elements of routines,
3. Establish a habit or a mental attitude, which could give an award (reward) to
other parties (individuals, groups) who excel in innovation, both in the field of
social, economic, and science and technology.
4. Availability of facilities and education and training services that have the
specifications and qualifications progressive, democratic, and open to all
parties who need them.

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A process of social change is not always oriented to the advancement alone. A setback
and the degradation (fade or loss of a degree or qualification forms or Nial-values in
society), not only in one direction or orientation changes linearly, but also had the
residual effect of the success of a change process. For example changes in science and
technology, from science and technology that earthy to modern science and
technology (forward), may lead to jiggle-jiggle on the elements or the values
prevailing in society was concerned, which is often referred to as culture-shock.
Consciously or unconsciously the mass media has become an important part of
community life.
Through media we can learn many things that can be made a lesson. News
about the events that occurred abroad and domestic to know quickly and easily
through the mass media. This is because the mass media have the ability to deliver
information effectively.
The roles of mass media are:
Firstly, the media can expand the horizons of thought. Most people who live in
traditional societies consider the media have supernatural powers when you first knew
him because the media can make a person see and know the places that have never
visited and know people who have never met. The media has helped people recognize
the developing countries of other peoples lives so that they gain a new outlook in life.
The mass media can be a bridge between traditional societies transition toward a
modern society.
Secondly, the mass media to focus attention. Traditional society moving toward
a modern little by little began to hang up his knowledge on the mass media so that the
things about whats important, which is dangerous, what is interesting and forth from
the media. As a result, over time people began to leave the customs or culture and
assume that culture as something ancient and modern. Therefore, the mass media
should be able to decide exactly what information or rubric that will be delivered
because the media can influence in public mindset and raise peoples aspirations.
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Thirdly, able to raise the aspirations of the mass media. Indirectly growing
community aspirations through broadcasts or information delivered media. Many new
things are delivered by media, for example of the style of dress or hairstyle that makes
people compelled to make or use the same things as their views through the media.
The important thing to realize and note that sometimes excessive aspirations will take
the risk and bad things will not be considered as a fault.
The function of the mass media as a supporter of social changes:
First, as a giver of information. In this case the function of information delivery
can be done alone by the media. Without the media, it is unlikely the information can
be delivered accurately and quickly.
Second, as decision-making. In this case the mass media play a role as a
support which requires discussion groups that will take a decision, besides that it
expected a change in attitudes, beliefs and social norms. This means that mass media
play a role in delivering information as a discussion, to convey the message of
community leaders and clarify the issues that it conveys. Third, the media serve as
educators. In this case, the media can increase the level of public knowledge
Rapid development of information and communication technologies such as
mass media, causing rapid changes occur everywhere. The mass media gradually
bringing in community into a new cultural patterns and begin to determine the cultural
mindset and peoples behaviour. Without realizing the mass media have helped set the
schedule of our lives and create a number of needs.
Existence of mass media in presenting the information tends to trigger a change
and an impact on determining the pattern of community life. Various information
presented is considered to give a tangible influence positive and negative. Slowly but
effectively, the media shape public views on how a person sees his own and how one
should relate to the everyday world.

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The media shows the public how the standard of living worthy of a human
being, thus indirectly causing the community to assess whether their environment is
feasible or whether it has met these standards and this figure is heavily influenced
from whats seen, heard and read from the media.
Message / information conveyed by the media can be a supportive community
for the better, making people feel good about themselves, feel fairly or otherwise
restore trust him or feel low than the other.
The shift pattern of behaviour that resulted from the mass media can occur in a
family environment, school, and in social life. Lifestyle changes in terms of mimesis
or imitation excessively against themselves a figure that was idolized based on
information obtained from the media. Usually someone will imitate everything
connected with her idol was both in terms of dress, look, cut her hair or the way of
speaking that reflects his idol . The above tends to be more influential on the younger
The socio-psychological, information flows that continue to hit our lives will
cause various effects on mental development, especially for children and adolescents.
The pattern of their behaviour, little by little influenced by what they receive that may
deviate from the stage of mental development as well as the norms and regulations.
This can happen when watching or information that should be consumed by adults
was watched by children (Amini, 1993).
The impact of mass media can include a wide range of behaviours that deviate
from social norms or cultural values. In modern times the public generally assumes it
is not something that violates the norm, but considered part of a mass trend now. In
addition, the development of mass media is very fast and can be enjoyed easily
because people tend to think practically.
With the development of mass media especially with the advent of electronic
mass media (the modern mass media) to make people more or less constantly

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overwhelmed felt not satisfied and life-style instant-paced lifestyle like this without
any conscious will kill the creativity that is in us in the future.
Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and
cultural values and norms. By significant alteration, sociologists mean changes yielding
profound social consequences. Examples of significant social changes having longterm
effects include the industrial revolution, the abolition of slavery, and the feminist movement.
In todays modern world, media has a great role spreading awareness among the
masses. Whether its television, radio or the Internet, have a great role in enhancing the
general knowledge of the people. News, telefilms and documentaries revolving around social
issues increase a social awareness in children and develop their concern towards society. The
media has played a major role in positive developments like the fight against racism, gender
bias, poverty, and spreading awareness about the need for a peaceful world.
However, with its many positive aspects, the negative role of media seems to be
rapidly increasing. In its fight for higher ratings medias, media seems to have forgotten its
true role. Glamour has taken over substance. They cross all limits and its difficult to see TV
programs with family. Simplicity is diminishing due to more materialism. Generation gap is
increasing. Our religious and cultural values are being corrupted due to over excessive
coverage of the foreign content on our national media.
Conversely, Pakistani media has a much bigger responsibility than any other media in
the world. It has to work and educate the masses about the importance of religious harmony
and the concept of coexistence. It has to inculcate the importance of pluralism in the minds of
the people. Media could easily achieve this goal and bring this social change provided that it
directs its full attention towards this issue.
Today's sociologists readily acknowledge the vital role that social movements play in
inspiring discontented members of a society to bring about social change. Efforts to
understand the nature of longterm social change, including looking for patterns and causes,
has led sociologists to propose the evolutionary, functionalist, and conflict theories of change
(discussed in the next few sections). All theories of social change also admit the likelihood of
resistance to change, especially when people with vested interests feel unsettled and
threatened by potential changes.

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Social change is related with Social media now permeates almost every aspect of our
lives, from how we manage relationships to the way we shop and work. It is not surprising,
then, that the private sector has long recognised its potential as a route for influencing
consumers. Campaigners, too, are beginning to recognise its power as an advocacy tool.
Social media offers much more than traditional media; it is free, allows campaigners
and marketers to reach far more people and gives a voice to those that otherwise might not
have one. In addition, platforms such as Twitter enable direct engagement with individuals
and groups who have the power to effect change.
Despite these advantages, the third sector has been slow to harness the full potential
of social media. For many this is due to a lack of knowledge, perhaps even a fear, about
social media tools. Furthermore, many small organisations simply havent had the time or
resources to develop these skills. In response to this reality, this report offers an account of
social media and its potential use by campaigners: social media for social good. It contains
the results of background research, findings from a series of expert workshops and the trial of
an experimental social media campaign aimed at tackling homophobia, which acted as a
piece of action research to establish the potential of social media and the most effective ways
to put it to use to tackle intolerance.

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Sociologists use many different designs and methods to study society and social
behavior. Most sociological research involves ethnography, or field work designed
to depict the characteristics of a population as fully as possible.
Three popular social research designs (models) are:
Crosssectional in which scientists study a number of individuals of different ages
who have the same trait or characteristic of interest at a single time.
Longitudinal in which scientists study the same individuals or society repeatedly
over a specified period of time.
Crosssequential in which scientists test individuals in a crosssectional sample
more than once over a specified period of time.
Six of the most popular sociological research methods (procedures) are the case study,
survey, observational, correlational, experimental, and crosscultural methods, as well
as working with information already available.
2.2 Case study research:
In case study research, an investigator studies an individual or small group of
individuals with an unusual condition or situation. Case studies are typically clinical
in scope. The investigator (often a clinical sociologist) sometimes uses selfreport
measures to acquire quantifiable data on the subject. A comprehensive case study,
including a longterm followup, can last months or years.
On the positive side, case studies obtain useful information about individuals
and small groups. On the negative side, they tend to apply only to individuals with
similar characteristics rather than to the general population. The high likelihood of the
investigator's biases affecting subjects' responses limits the generalizability of this

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Survey research involves interviewing or administering questionnaires, or
written surveys, to large numbers of people. The investigator analyzes the data
obtained from surveys to learn about similarities, differences, and trends. He or she
then makes predictions about the population being studied.
As with most research methods, survey research brings both advantages and
disadvantages. Advantages include obtaining information from a large number of
respondents, conducting personal interviews at a time convenient for respondents, and
acquiring data as inexpensively as possible. Mailin surveys have the added
advantage of ensuring anonymity and thus prompting respondents to answer questions
Disadvantages of survey research include volunteer bias, interviewer bias, and
distortion. Volunteer bias occurs when a sample of volunteers is not representative of
the general population. Subjects who are willing to talk about certain topics may
answer surveys differently than those who are not willing to talk. Interviewer bias
occurs when an interviewer's expectations or insignificant gestures (for example,
frowning or smiling) inadvertently influence a subject's responses one way or the
other. Distortion occurs when a subject does not respond to questions honestly.
Because distortion can be a serious limitation of surveys, observational
research involves directly observing subjects' reactions, either in a laboratory (called
laboratory observation) or in a natural setting (called naturalistic observation).
Observational research reduces the possibility that subjects will not give totally honest
accounts of the experiences, not take the study seriously, fail to remember, or feel
Observational research has limitations, however. Subject bias is common,
because volunteer subjects may not be representative of the general public. Individuals
who agree to observation and monitoring may function differently than those who do
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not. They may also function differently in a laboratory setting than they do in other
A sociologist may also conduct correlational research. A correlation is a
relationship between two variables (or factors that change). These factors can be
characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, or events. Correlational research attempts to
determine if a relationship exists between the two variables, and the degree of that
A social researcher can use case studies, surveys, interviews, and observational
research to discover correlations. Correlations are either positive (to +1.0), negative
(to 1.0), or nonexistent (0.0). In a positive correlation, the values of the variables
increase or decrease (covary) together. In a negative correlation, one variable
increases as the other decreases. In a nonexistent correlation, no relationship exists
between the variables.
People commonly confuse correlation with causation. Correlational data do not
indicate causeandeffect relationships. When a correlation exists, changes in the
value of one variable reflect changes in the value of the other. The correlation does not
imply that one variable causes the other, only that both variables somehow relate to
one another. To study the effects that variables have on each other, an investigator
must conduct an experiment.
Experimental research attempts to determine how and why something happens.
Experimental research tests the way in which an independent variable (the factor that
the scientist manipulates) affects a dependent variable (the factor that the scientist
A number of factors can affect the outcome of any type of experimental
research. One is finding samples that are random and representative of the population
being studied. Another is experimenter bias, in which the researcher's expectations
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about what should or should not happen in the study sway the results. Still another is
controlling for extraneous variables, such as room temperature or noise level, that may
interfere with the results of the experiment. Only when the experimenter carefully
controls for extraneous variables can she or he draw valid conclusions about the
effects of specific variables on other variables.
Sensitivity to others' norms, folkways, values, mores, attitudes, customs, and
practices necessitates knowledge of other societies and cultures. Sociologists may
conduct crosscultural research, or research designed to reveal variations across
different groups of people. Most crosscultural research involves survey, direct
observation, and participant observation methods of research.
Participant observation requires that an observer become a member of his or
her subjects' community. An advantage of this method of research is the opportunity it
provides to study what actually occurs within a community, and then consider that
information within the political, economic, social, and religious systems of that
community. Crosscultural research demonstrates that Western cultural standards do
not necessarily apply to other societies. What may be normal or acceptable for one
group may be abnormal or unacceptable for another.
Research with existing data, or secondary analysis:
Some sociologists conduct research by using data that other social scientists have
already collected. The use of publicly accessible information is known as secondary
analysis, and is most common in situations in which collecting new data is impractical
or unnecessary. Sociologists may obtain statistical data for analysis from businesses,
academic institutions, and governmental agencies, to name only a few sources. Or
they may use historical or library information to generate their hypotheses.
Basic Sociological Research Concepts
An investigator begins a research study after evolving ideas from a specific
theory, which is an integrated set of statements for explaining various phenomena.
Because a theory is too general to test, the investigator devises a hypothesis, or
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testable prediction, from the theory, and tests this instead. The results of the research
study either disprove or do not disprove the hypothesis. If disproved, the investigator
cannot make predictions based on the hypothesis, and must question the accuracy of
the theory. If not disproved, the scientist can make predictions based on the
A goal of sociological research is to discover the similarities, differences,
patterns, and trends of a given population. Members of a population who participate in
a study are subjects or respondents. When the characteristics of a sample of the
population are representative of the characteristics of the entire population, scientists
can apply, or generalize, their findings to the entire population. The best and most
representative sample is a random sample, in which each member of a population has
an equal chance of being chosen as a subject.
In quantitative research, information collected from respondents (for example,
a respondent's college ranking) is converted into numbers (for example, a junior may
equal three and a senior four). In qualitative research, information collected from
respondents takes the form of verbal descriptions or direct observations of events.
Although verbal descriptions and observations are useful, many scientists prefer
quantitative data for purposes of analysis.
To analyze data, scientists use statistics, which is a collection of mathematical
procedures for describing and drawing inferences from the data. Two types of
statistics are most common: inferential, used for making predictions about the
population, and descriptive, used for describing the characteristics of the population
and respondents. Scientists use both types of statistics to draw general conclusions
about the population being studied and the sample.
A scientist who uses a questionnaire or test in a study is interested in the test's
validity, which is its capacity to measure what it purports to measure. He or she is also
interested in its reliability, or capacity to provide consistent results when administered
on different occasions.

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Scientific Method for Sociology

An area of inquiry is a scientific discipline if its investigators use the scientific
method, which is a systematic approach to researching questions and problems
through objective and accurate observation, collection and analysis of data, direct
experimentation, and replication (repeating) of these procedures. Scientists affirm the
importance of gathering information carefully, remaining unbiased when evaluating
information, observing phenomena, conducting experiments, and accurately recording
procedures and results. They are also skeptical about their results, so they repeat their
work and have their findings confirmed by other scientists.
Is sociological research scientific? Yes! By definition, sociological research is
the scientific means of acquiring information about various aspects of society and
social behavior. Sociologists use the scientific method. Like other scientists, they
stress the accurate and unbiased collection and analysis of social data, use systematic
observation, conduct experiments, and exhibit skepticism.
Ethics in Sociological Research
Ethics are selfregulatory guidelines for making decisions and defining
professions. By establishing ethical codes, professional organizations maintain the
integrity of the profession, define the expected conduct of members, and protect the
welfare of subjects and clients. Moreover, ethical codes give professionals direction
when confronting ethical dilemmas, or confusing situations. A case in point is a
scientist's decision whether to intentionally deceive subjects or inform them about the
true risks or goals of a controversial but muchneeded experiment. Many
organizations, such as the American Sociological Association and the American
Psychological Association, establish ethical principles and guidelines. The vast
majority of today's social scientists abide by their respective organizations' ethical
A researcher must remain mindful of her or his ethical responsibilities to
participants. A researcher's primary duty is to protect the welfare of the subjects. For
example, a researcher whose study requires extensive questioning of volunteers'
personal information should screen the subjects beforehand to assure that the
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questioning will not distress them. A researcher should also inform subjects about
their expected roles in the study, the potential risks of participating, and their freedom
to withdraw from the study at any time without consequences. Agreeing to participate
in a study based on disclosure of this type of information constitutes informed
consent. After the study is finished, the researcher should provide subjects with
complete details about the study. Providing details at the conclusion of an experiment
is called debriefing.
Many critics believe that no experiment justifies the intentional use of
deception, or concealing the purpose and procedures of a study from participants. Not
only does deception carry the risk of psychologically harming subjects, it reduces the
general public's support for research. Proponents, however, view deception as
necessary when prior knowledge of a study would sway a subject's responses and
invalidate the results. If subjects learn that a study measures attitudes of racial
discrimination, they may intentionally try to avoid appearing prejudiced.
Even the most ethical and cautious researcher cannot anticipate every risk
associated with participating in a study. But by carefully screening subjects, informing
subjects of their rights, giving them as much information as possible before the study,
avoiding deception, and debriefing following the study, the researcher can at least
minimize the risks of harm to the subjects.

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3.1 Research Analysis
This project aimed to understand whether and how social media could be used for
social good to influence attitudes, inspire action and create change, whether through
promoting positive messages or taking on negative ones, and specifically in tackling different
forms of intolerance. Given that this field of work is in its infancy and the technology is
changing constantly, there is a lack of expert knowledge about how social media works and,
by extension, how it could be used by campaigners.
Where this knowledge is advancing, it is mostly held within the private sector or
special interest groups, and academic research is lacking and woefully out of date.
As a result, the project adopted an action research methodology, learning through the
running of a social media campaign.
Listening exercise to determine the focus of the social media campaign In the first
instance, ISD commissioned a listening exercise10 over an eight-day period around three
potential areas of focus: homophobia and faith, Islamophobia and the English Defence
(EDL), and intergenerational and class issues. This shortlist of issues was prepared in
consultation with the Phoenix Group,11 based on an assessment of terest areas, timeliness
and opportunities for public intervention. The exercise used a bespoke application that
browses the Internet and social media platforms to collect online mentions in websites, news
articles, blogs, tweets or other publicly-available online content within parameters set by the
user. It uses sentiment analysis to categorise meaning as positive, negative or neutral and
collates a range of statistics that inform campaign choice and strategy:

Frequency, timing and volume of discussions

Where discussions are taking place across the
Internet and social media platforms.
Whether content is positive, negative or neutral
Who are the main influencers, content creators and contributors
Which are the most mentioned key words and phrases.

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On the basis of the results of the listening exercise, further consultation with Phoenix Group
members, and an assessment of the UK political context, it was decided to focus the social
media campaign on tackling homophobia. This listening exercise focused on conversations
about the UK governments consultation on extending civil marriage laws to include samesex couples. (referred to as equal marriage), searching specifically for the reference terms
Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist. It was conducted using the following
("gay marriage" OR "same sex marriage" OR "same-sex marriage" OR "homosexual
marriage") AND (faith OR religion OR Christian OR Catholic OR religious OR Muslim OR
Islam OR Islamic OR Jew OR Jewish OR Judaism OR Hindu OR Hinduism OR Buddhism
OR Buddhist OR Sikh OR Sikhism) AND location: UK Results of the listening campaign on
homophobia and faith Of the three themes monitored, homophobia and faith received the
most mentions, with 763 online mentions over the eight days (see Figure 1, below).
Figure 1: Volume of online mentions of the homophobia and faith related search during the
eighty-day listening exercise, analysed over time.

Most conversations took place during the week, with over 100 mentions per day from
Tuesday to Friday, dropping to about half this amount over the weekend. This contrasted with
conversations around the EDL and Islamophobia, where peaks occurred during the weekend
and around key events, such as street marches and rallies. This implied that faith and gay
rights was a consistently popular issue online, especially among those who use social media
perhaps through or while at work. This suggested that our campaign should share its content
during the week, but be ready to compete with a high level of noise.
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Faith communities were particularly vocal in the blogosphere (see Figure 2), with almost
two-thirds of the mentions occurring on blogs, suggesting a willingness and desire to engage
in lengthier debate.
Figure 1: Media by volume, illustrating the categories of internet site on which online
mentions of the search topic were more or less common during the listening exercise.

The key blogs used included mainstream sites like the Student Room and TES for teachers,
and faith-based blogs, such as Anglican Mainstream, Premiere Community (Christian radio)
and Atheist Forums (see Figure 3)

Figure 2: Top site showing the website with the largest volume of mentions during the
listening exercise.

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Figure 3: top authors by number of posts per individual relating to the search topic during
the listening exercise

The exercise also highlighted a number of authors who were particularly vocal
in this debate, and who were therefore potential starting points for engagement on the
campaign (Figure 4). There was a significant amount of news content concerning the
governments consultation (nearly 100 mentions), including some criticism of
religious responses to it within gay press sites such as Pink News. There were only a
small number of mentions found on Twitter, suggesting a similar amount on
Facebook,13 and there was no new video content on YouTube. This suggested that
blog activity should YouTube central to the campaign, that there was the potential to
build new audiences through social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook, and
that the campaign should seek out a small number of key influencers.
Each online mention was analysed first by software and then manually
according to its sentiment; i.e. whether it was expressed in a positive (friendly,
agreeable or happy), negative (hateful, aggressive or angry), or ne ral (informative or
factual) tone. The entiment of conversations on homophobia and faith was mostly
neutral (Figure 5), which reflected the fact that a large proportion of mentions were on
news or blog sites, where comment tends to be more measured and nuanced (Figure6).

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Figure 5: Sentiment by volume for all mentions of the topic over the course of the
listening exercise

In contrast, Twitter tends to produce personal opinions using emotive language,

something that was evident in the listening exercise on Islamophobia, where most
conversation took place on Twitter. Interestingly, faith-based blogs presented their
anti-equal marriage arguments in a neutral tone of voice, whereas gay-rights
campaigners in support of equal marriage were often more combative towards the
attitudes of the faith communities with which they disagreed. Only a small number of
mentions demonstrated a positive middle ground on the subject of faith and sexual
orientation. There was a polarised debate, with most religious commentary being antiequal marriage, and most equal marriage supporters being critical of religious
responses. This suggested that the campaign should create and disseminate a middleground narrative promoting positive messages on reconciling the issues around faith
and sexual orientation. There was also very little content from or about any religions
other than Christianity, which suggested that the campaign should seek to provide an
opportunity for other faiths to share their views on gay rights.

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Figure 6: Sentiment by media type, indicating amount of positive, negative and

neutral mentions found on various categories of website

A word cloud (Figure 7) was generated to depict the most common topics and phrases
used, with the size of the word representing the frequency of mentions. Certain terms
and themes dominated:
Barack Obama, Supreme Court and Rick Santorum: although the search was
limited to the UK, it generated references to the US linked to the 2012 presidential
race. This highlighted that events outside the UK would be of interest to the
campaigns audience.
Christian values and religious liberty, pushing gay marriage and force churches:
there were recurring concerns about civil marriage for same-sex couples being in
opposition to Christianity, and the worry that churches would be forced to conduct
such marriages. This suggested that the campaign should highlight the fact that
faith communities can support gay rights without endangering religious liberty.
Gays and blacks, human rights and civil rights: the arguments for equal marriage
centred on equal civil and human rights, which suggested that the campaign should
take a human and civil rights focused approach.

Figure 7: Word cloud showing topics by frequency

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1. It is evident from the study that Social Networking Sites benefits the growth of hotels in
Pune based on the responses the benefits includes that it increase the product/service
awareness among customers
2. Through Social Networking Sites the hotel awareness has identified that it improve
customer relation , built more business connection and social networking sites since act as
connection between business owners and consumers
3. Through research it is found that marketing strategy through Social Networking Sites is
relatively efficient and it reduce money spend on advisements ie it is cost effective also.
4. From the study it is evident that the most common member of website used by customers
for hotel bookings are Facebook Google, twitter and LinkedIn.
5. Hotel using Social Networking Sites for advertisements and promotion have a
competitive advantage over other unions traditional methods of marketing as the Social
Networking Sites is cost effective way and it also help them to capture large customers
6. The most common marketing tool used by Social Networking Sites for Hotel growth
includes wall posting & photo gallery of Hotel displayed on the Social Networking Sites.
7. It is evident from the result Social Networking Sites trigger the Hotel industry growth in
Pune region h. Customers demographic significantly impacts the benefits of Social
networking Sites for Hotel business
8. Hotel Industries uses promotional tools like Blogs, video, Photo, Gallery. Popup and
Micro-Blogging for enhancing visibility in Social Networking Sites j. Customers
demographic play a vital role on business practices of the hotels with respect to Social
Networking Sites


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1. It would be wise not to underestimate the costs associated with marketing on social
media. Though the potential to reach a wide audience is both immediate and as simple as
opening a Facebook account it should not be undertaken lightly.
2. A serious point to be remembered is the potential for damage to the brand going viral
across the internet. Repairing this damage could cost considerable money and effort.
3. Sufficiently qualified staff would need to be hired plus the costs associated with training
other staff using the company accounts would need to be factored in. These costs are
beyond the purview of this report and further research in this area is highly
4. A very minimum interaction that Hotels should consider is to treat TripAdvisor and as an influential means of reputation management. At present reviews
whether they are bad or good, are left unanswered.

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1. It is suggested that offline and online marketing strategies be brought into alignment to
prevent mixed messages and to promote the availability of the online forums for
interaction. Offline advertising should be used to complement the online media. Adding
visit us on Facebook and other such texts to promotional material will help to raise
2. The social networking strategy should sufficiently flexible to allow it to adapt to new
developments and to determine what works and what does not work.
3. A dedicated social media co-ordinator is recommended to monitor the impact of any
changes implemented. A dedicated co-ordinator would also allow for consistency in
communication. At the very least a profession agency experienced in social media
marketing should be consulted at from the earliest planning stages.
4. The reviews and complaints raised by the customers on the SNS should be effectively
managed and proper actions should be taken by the hotels management and the action
taken should also be communicated to the customer.
5. The promotional offers during season on should be displayed on the SNS on regular
basis, so that large number of customers is captured

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1. Social media has become an integral part of the algorithms that decide where a particular
website is placed in the search rankings. The higher the ranking the more visible it is to
the consumer. One of the core questions behind this research was to find out what impact
social networking sites is having on the hotel sector.
2. The ability to interact with the guests of the hotel should be viewed as a very positive
aspect by Hotel business. It offers very real insight into how the hotels are viewed.
3. The feedback shared on the review social networking sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn,
Twitter, Google+, & TripAdvisor is an opportunity to improve the service
4. Measuring the affects that reviews, Wall-posting, Blog, Photo Video, Pop-up, tweets and
posts can directly have on bookings could be quite difficult.
5. In conclusion the ability to reach out to such a huge volume of potential guests would
make ignoring social media a poor business choice. The other side of the coin is that
potential for damage to the brand by reaching out in a haphazard fashion could be quite
destructive and costly to repair.
6. A well planned and coherent marketing strategy is needed to limit potential damage and
give the chance of succeeding greater odds. It would be wise to consider hiring a qualified
dedicated member of staff or to consult with an outside agency or expert from the earliest
stages to avoid negative outcomes.
7. Social Networking Sites creates a real Connection between companies and customers;
that connection creates a trend for purchase intensity.
8. Social Networking Sites provide ample of opportunities for interacting with Hotel
industries partners
9. Social Networking Sites provides a platform to innovative advertising to be effectively
used for business growth of Hotel industries
10. From data interpretation we observed that hotel industry in Pune prefer Facebook and more than any other Social Networking Sites for their Promotional

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11. Hotel Industry with use of Social Networking Sites can gain competitive advantage by
reducing advertising cost , create awareness, capture large market, able to transact
globally , can improve customer service quality and acquire new customers.

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