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Variable Loading

Bearing loads are frequently variable and occur in some identifiable


patterns:
Piecewise constant loading in a cyclic pattern
Continuously variable loading in a repeatable cyclic pattern

Variable Loading with Piecewise Constant Loading

The loads Fei are equivalent steady radial loads for combined radial-thrust loads.

Variable Loading with Periodic Variation

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Variable Loading with Periodic Variation

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Selection of Ball and Cylindrical Roller Bearings


We have enough information concerning the loading of rolling-contact ball and roller
bearings to develop the steady equivalent radial load that will do as much damage to
the bearing as the existing loading. Now lets put it to work.

Example 11-7
shown in Figure 11-12 is a gear-driven squeeze roll that mates with an idler roll. The roll
is designed to exert a normal force of 5.25 N/mm of roll length and a pull of 4.2 N/mm on
the material being processed. The roll speed is 300 rev/min, and a design life of 30 kh is
desired. Use an application factor of 1.2, and select a pair of angular-contact 02-series ball
bearings from Table 11-2 to be mounted at 0 and A. Use the same size bearings at both
locations and combined reliablitiy of at least 0.92.

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Example 11-7

Example 11-7

Example 11-7

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Example 11-7

A 02-35 bearing will do.

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Bearing Lubrication

The purposes of bearing lubrication


To provide a film of lubricant between the sliding and rolling
surfaces
To help distribute and dissipate heat
To prevent corrosion of the bearing surfaces
To protect the parts from the entrance of foreign matter

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Bearing Lubrication

Either oil or grease may be used, with each having advantages in


certain situations.

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Some Common Bearing Mounting Configurations

Fig. 1120
The most frequently encountered mounting problem is that which requires one bearing
at each end of a shaft. Such a design might use one ball bearing at each end, one tapered
roller bearing at each end, or a ball bearing at one end and a straight roller bearing at the
other. One of the bearings usually has the added function of positioning or axially
locating the shaft. Figure 1120 shows a very common solution to this problem. The
inner rings are backed up against the shaft shoulders and are held in position by round
nuts threaded onto the shaft. The outer ring of the left-hand bearing is backed up against
a housing shoulder and is held in position by a device that is not shown. The outer ring
of the right-hand bearing floats in the housing.
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Some Common Bearing Mounting Configurations

Fig. 1121

Figure 1121 shows an alternative method of mounting in which the inner


races are backed up against the shaft shoulders as before but no retaining
devices are required. With this method the outer races are completely retained.
This eliminates the grooves or threads, which cause stress concentration on the
overhanging end, but it requires accurate dimensions in an axial direction or
the employment of adjusting means. This method has the disadvantage that if
the distance between the bearings is great, the temperature rise during
operation may expand the shaft enough to destroy the bearings.
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Some Common Bearing Mounting Configurations

Fig. 1122
It is frequently necessary to use two
or more bearings at one end of a
shaft. For example, two bearings
could be used to obtain additional
rigidity or increased load capacity or
to cantilever a shaft.

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Some Common Bearing Mounting Configurations

Fig. 1123
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Duplexing

When maximum stiffness and resistance to shaft misalignment is


desired, pairs of angular-contact bearings can be used in an
arrangement called duplexing.
Duplex bearings have rings ground with an offset.
When pairs are clamped together, a preload is established.

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Duplexing Arrangements

Three common duplexing arrangements:


(a) DF mounting Face to face, good for radial and thrust loads
from either direction
(b) DB mounting Back to back, same as DF, but with greater
alignment stiffness
(c) DT mounting Tandem, good for thrust only in one direction

Fig. 1124
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Preloading

Object of preloading
Remove internal clearance
Increase fatigue life
Decrease shaft slope at bearing

Fig. 1125

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Enclosures

Common shaft seals to exclude dirt and retain lubricant

Fig. 1126
Felt seals may be used with grease lubrication when the speeds are low. The
rubbing surfaces should have a high polish.
The commercial seal is an assembly consisting of the rubbing element and,
generally, a spring backing, which are retained in a sheet-metal jacket.
The labyrinth seal is especially effective for high-speed installations and may be
used with either oil or grease.
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