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When it was formed many million years ago
the earth was a liquid. It is still cooling and
many miles below the hard crust is still hot.
However, in some places the heat is closer to
the surface. These places are associated with
volcanic activity or hot sulphur springs. By
drilling deep into the earths crust we can
reach rocks that are much warmer than those
at the surface. Pumping water down into
contact with these rocks and extracting the
steam so produced is a source of energy that
can be used to produce electricity. It is called
geothermal energy.

It is explained in the passage that under

the hard surface of the earth there ____ .

A) exists a hot core which can be used as a

source of energy
B) seems to be a great deal of volcanic
activity which threatens life
C) is a hot liquid layer which has never been
D) could be a number of hot sulphur springs,
the main cause of volcanic activity
E) has never been sufficient heat to melt

According to the passage, geothermal

energy ____ .

A) has been used by man for millions of

B) can be produced both plentifully and
C) is a by-product of extensive volcanic
D) is the result of the contact of water with
the hot rocks below the earths surface
E) is recognised as the only form of energy
that would never be exhausted

Sayfa 1 / 344

We can infer from the passage that the

earths crust ____ .

A) has completely stopped the process of

cooling underneath
B) is a constant source of geothermal
C) is not suitable for any kind of drilling
D) is constantly warming and cooling due to
volcanic activity
E) varies in thickness from place to place




The Japanese have a special way of making

decisions. They call it the consensus system.
This is how it works. When a firm is thinking
of taking a certain action, it encourages
workers at all levels to discuss the proposal
and give their opinions. The purpose is to
reach consensus (general agreement). As
soon as everyone agrees on the right course
of action, the decision is taken. Because of
this method, a group of workers, rather than
a person, is responsible for company policies.
One advantage of this is that decisions come
from a mixture of experience from the top,
the middle and the bottom of an enterprise.
Another advantage is that junior staff
frequently suggest ideas for change. A
disadvantage, perhaps, is that decisionmaking can be slow.

A) policies can go into effect more speedily

B) the working conditions can be improved
much more efficiently
C) the workers find themselves at the
mercy of their employers
D) the interaction between the
management and the workers has
reached a low ebb
E) tends to take a long time before any
action is agreed upon


In view of the explanation given in the

passage, the consensus system ____ .

It is pointed out in the passage that, with

the Japanese style of decision-making in
industry ____ .

A) can be defined as a collective decision

making process

According to the passage, the most striking

feature of the Japanese consensus system
is that ____ .
A) the introduction of changes into a firms
policy-making is more or less impossible

B) has a number of drawbacks that can not

be overcome

B) decisions are taken fast and accurately

C) is rapidly falling out of favour as a result

of the economic recession

C) it is the point of view of management

that prevails

D) gives undue importance to the views of

the junior staff

D) everyone, from the top to the bottom, in

a firm has a fair share in decision-making

E) has already led to the laying off numerous


E) workers are denied the right to discuss

proballss in detail

Sayfa 2 / 344




Rabies is a very frightening disease because

once symptoms develop it is always fatal. The
disease is caused by a virus and it affects
many species of animals, particularly dogs,
jackals, foxes and bats. In Britain no
indigenous case of human rabies has been
reported since 1902 but it is widespread
among animals in most parts of the world.
Unfortunately, in the last 30 years the
disease has been spreading across Europe
from the East, especially in foxes, and has
now reached Northern France. For this
reason strict animal quarantine laws are in
force in Britain and it is rightly regarded as a
serious offence to attempt to evade them.


As it is pointed out in the passage, what

makes rabies so dangerous a disease is that
____ .

The passage suggests that the British

government has already taken strict
measures to ____.
A) ban the import of animals from France
and other countries
B) discourage the keeping of pets in Britain
C) deal with the recent outbreaks of rabies,
especially in foxes in Britain
D) ensure that no rabies enters the country
E) make sure that rabies patients will
receive affective treatment


It is clearly stated in the passage that, for

nearly a century ____ .
A) thanks to new diagnostic techniques
rabies has been confined to dogs, jackals,
foxes and bats

A) quarantine regulations concerning the

disease are disregarded by most people

B) strict quarantine laws have been in effect

in Britain

B) very few people can recognise the

C) as soon as it manifests itself in the patient
it is already too late for any treatment
D) it is now threatening the whole of Europe
E) during the last thirty years it seems to
have become indigenous even in England

Sayfa 3 / 344

C) rabies has been one of the most

frightening diseases in Europe
D) there have been remarkable advances
made in the treatment of rabies
E) no one in Britain has contracted rabies


When we turn to the problem of fishing, we
see that through a UN Convention on the Law
of the Sea, the worlds nations have indicated
that they recognize the risks of over-fishing.
Nations can now declare 200-mile exclusive
economic zones and exclusive fishing zones
and control the catch at a level that is
sustainable. Developing nations seem to be
beginning to benefit from the new fisheries
regime which offers the promise of allowing
them to manage fishing resources for
optimum, that is long-term, benefits.

11. One major benefit arising out of the 200mile exclusive fishing zone is, as we
understand from the passage, to ____ .
A) ensure that an ever increasing quantity
of fish shall be caught
B) keep under control the amount of fish
C) exploit the marine resources through
international cooperation
D) help developing countries to improve
their inefficient economies
E) prevent new fisheries from coming into
12. It is stated in the passage that in the
management of fisheries, ____ .

10. We can understand from the passage that

the statutory measures taken by the UN,
regarding fishing ____ .

A) no consideration should be given to the

size of the catch

A) are unlikely to be abided by, at least not

in the near future

B) one cannot plan ahead to the future

B) have had no beneficial impact on the


C) the introduction of restrictive measures

should be avoided

C) have been welcomed by all the member


D) one should give importance to future

rather than to present gains

D) came into effect too late to be of any use


E) the 200-mile zone policy can be ignored

E) have unfortunately served the interests of

only the developed countrie

Sayfa 4 / 344


The exact number of people who died in the
cyclone that struck Bangladesh last year will
probably never be known. Winds reaching
145 miles per hour hammered the countrys
low-lying south-eastern coast for nine hours,
at one point driving a wall of water roughly
20 feet high across the area one of the
most densely populated places in the world.
It was the strongest storm ever recorded in
the region. The official news agency reported
that 125.000 victims had been confirmed
dead, but it was believed that the toll was
actually much higher.
13. One can infer from the passage that one
reason why so many lives were lost in the
cyclone was because ____ .

14. We can understand from the passage that

the official figures given regarding the
death toll ____ .
A) didnt reflect the actual extent of the
B) overestimated the number of victims
C) were much higher than the authorities
D) included only those drowned
E) exceeded the number of those who
survived the disaster

15. The passage aims to impress on the reader

___ .
A) the extent of suffering experienced by
the people in Bangladesh

A) most of the population had no decent

B) the Bangladesh government had failed to
foresee such a disaster
C) the country had still not recovered from
the previous similar cyclone
D) it struck only a very narrow stretch of land
E) the area struck was one of the most
overcrowded in the world

Sayfa 5 / 344

B) the magnitude of the cyclones

destructive force
C) the inadequacy of the relief work sent in
D) the extent of poverty and misery in
E) the frequency with which such disasters
hit the world



17. The main concern of the passage is to ____


Written communication is the basis of much

communication in business. This includes
letters, reports, memoranda, notices, telex,
and fax messages. Although written
communication is a slower form of
communication than verbal or oral, it
provides a record of what is being discussed
so that disagreements are avoided and
accuracy can be checked; it will also be more
detailed than other forms of communication,
with the possibility of technical points being
explained and interpreted.

A) establish the advantages of written

communication over oral in business
B) explain the technical points involved in
written communication
C) emphasize the drawbacks of written
D) differentiate between the uses and
abuses of various types of
E) draw attention to the fact that the
business world no longer uses written

18. It is pointed out in the passage that written

communication ____ .

16. From the passage it is clear that one of the

advantages of written communication is
that ___ .
A) no elaborate equipment is involved

A) is always open to dispute

B) it is one of the fastest forms of


B) takes various forms, ranging from letters

to telex and fax messages

C) one has a reliable document to which one

can always refer

C) is mostly seen in the form of reports

D) it can be used only in business

E) it requires almost no effort and very little

Sayfa 6 / 344

D) does not require any interpretation

E) often leads to serious controversies



20. It is understood from the passage that only

a fraction of Nigeria exports ____

Nigeria is heavily dependent on the export of

crude oil to finance industrial development.
90% of Nigeria's exports by value are crude
oil. At current production rates, known
reserves are only sufficient until the end of
the century. Industrialisation was boosted
after I973 following the fourfold increase in
oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and
Nigeria lost important income. Oil production
peaked in 1974 when output reached 112
million tonnes.

A) are goods other than crude oil

B) would be needed to support industrial
C) were affected by the fall in oil prices in
the 1980s
D) were oil-related
E) have benefited from price increases

21. According to the passage, so long as the

current rate of oil production is maintained
____ .

19. It is pointed out in the passage that the

sharp rise in oil prices in 1973 ____ .
A) had less effect on Nigerias economy than
might have been expected
B) contributed greatly to industrial
development in Nigeria

A) world oil prices are not expected to rise

B) Nigerias industrial development plans
will soon be fully realised
C) Nigeria is likely to have no oil reserves
left by the year 2.000

C) coincided with a considerable fall in oil

D) provided Nigeria with a high revenue well
into the late 1980s
E) put a great deal of pressure on Nigerias
oil Reserves

Sayfa 7 / 344

D) Nigeria will continue to enjoy large

E) the variety of goods exported from
Nigeria will increase



23. The writer suggests that people with

depression ____

Real depression cannot be as easily overcome

as some people often suppose. It usually
passes with time - but the time can seem
endless. Activities giving companionship and
a new interest can help. But for the sufferer
to talk, again and again, about the causes of
the depression helps most. People with
depression need to be listened to and
encouraged to find their own solutions, not
made to feel yet more inadequate by good
advice. They may need professional
counselling as well as the support of family
and friends.

22. In overcoming depression the support of

friends and family ____

A) should not be allowed much social

B) should rely solely on professional
C) need, more than anything else, someone
to listen to them
D) ought to remain alienated from society
for a long time
E) receive an unnecessary amount of

24. According to the passage some people ____

A) seem to underestimate how difficult it is
to get over depression

A) can best be directed into giving good

B) is the only solution

B) suffer from depression over long periods

of time

C) may cause more harm than good

C) refuse to get professional counselling

D) never contributes to any improvement in

the patient

D) suffering from depression have been

cured through the good advice of friends

E) is not always sufficient

E) with depression dont want to talk about

their problems

Sayfa 8 / 344



26. One can infer from the passage that if a

generation of young artists is lost ____

Many art museums and galleries and many

individuals in the world faced financial
problems in 1975 as the effects of world
recession deepened. On the surface, things
seemed to continue as before, with
important exhibitions in major museums
attracting large crowds. But smaller galleries
and the artists whose work was shown by
their resourceful proprietors fared less well,
and over the long term it is the work of young
artists that determines the course of art for
the future.

25. The point made in the passage is that the

recession in the 1970s ____ .

A) this would not have a damaging effect on

art museums and galleries even in the
long run
B) the future development of art will be
greatly hampered
C) recession in the art market would not
last very long
D) smaller galleries would benefit from it
E) the organisation of exhibitions would be
even more costly

27. According to the passage, the people in the

art world who were most strongly affected
by the recession ____ .

A) forced many young artists to give up their

B) led to the immediate closure of several
major museums in the West

A) were young artists and the owner of art

B) tried to balance their losses by buying up
the work of young artists

C) was one of the most serious in economic


C) were the well established art dealers

D) didn't at first appear to hit hard at the art


D) decided to stop holding exhibitions


E) meant exhibitions were regarded as

unnecessary luxuries

E) resorted to all sorts of methods of

attracting large crowds to their galleries

Sayfa 9 / 344



29. It is explained in the passage that the

efficiency of the computer ____

Computers should never have acquired the

exalted status they now have. Fascinating
and invaluable as they are, even the most
advanced have less brain power than a threeyear-old. They do, however, score on singlemindedness. The three-year-old uses his
brain not only to think but also to do tasks
like seeing, hearing and running about, which
need incredibly rapid and sophisticated
electro-mechanical interactions - we too run
on electricity. But the computer just sits
there and sends spacecraft to the moon or
re-organises the world banking system, which
is very much easier. That's why mans dream
of robot servants is still a long way off.

28. The main point made by the passage is that

the human brain ____ .

A) will soon make it possible for man to be

served by robots
B) depends on the speed with which the
data are fed
C) can best be appreciated in the decision
making positions
D) is the result of its being concentrated on
one task at a time
E) depends upon sophisticated electromechanical interactions

30. The author feels that computers ____ .

A) are becoming unaffordable as they get
more advanced

A) is much inferior to any known computer

B) have contributed immensely to the

improvement of living standards

B) is infinitely more complex and powerful

than any computer
C) reaches its maximum efficiency at the age
of three
D) is not as complicated and mysterious as
has usually been thought
E) has been entirely reproduced in computer

Sayfa 10 / 344

C) have been unnecessarily overrated

D) will be a major force behind all future
E) are capable of doing all the tasks the
human brain performs even more



32. It is pointed out in the passage that the

increase in the world population ____ .

The dramatic growth of the worlds

population in the twentieth century has been
on a scale without parallel in human history.
Most of this growth has occurred since 1950
and is known as the population explosion'.
Between 1950 and 1980 the world
population increased from 2,5 to over 4
billion, and by the end of the century this
figure will have risen to at least 6 billion.
Growth of this size cannot continue
indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the
total population will level-out at between 10
and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first century.
Already there are encouraging signs that the
rate of increase in many less developed
countries is beginning to slow down.

31. According to the passage, at no period in

human history has there been ____ .

A) is a highly encouraging sign for the

general economy
B) is expected to continue even faster until
C) will not continue into the next century
D) has been going on noticeably since 1950
E) has been much faster in the
industrialised countries

33. It has been forecast that, by the middle of

the next century ____

A) so much consensus among nations

concerning the population of the world

A) various measures will have been taken to

encourage population growth

B) a sharp decline in population like the one

since 1980
C) a universal fear about the future of man

B) the population growth rate in less

developed countries will be much higher
than that in previous years

D) as comprehensive a study of population

problems as the one envisaged now

C) the world population will be stabilised at

around 10 to 15 billion

E) a population explosion of the magnitude

of the one in this century

D) the rate of increase will still be rising

Sayfa 11 / 344

E) the rate of population increase will have

doubled the 1950 rate



35. The author points out that the danger

posed to man by many substances ____ .

Many substances, whether man-made or

natural, can cause harm to man or the
environment. Some of these reach the
environment in waste streams; however,
emission limits and environmental quality
standards can, in some instances, reduce the
amounts released. But some other
substances cannot be controlled in this way
because they are released, not in industrial
waste streams, but through the use or
disposal of products which contain them. In
many cases these substances pose little or no
threat if the product containing them is used
and disposed of properly. The right way to
deal with them is usually through controls
over their supply, use and disposal.

34. According to the passage, the threat of

certain substances to the environment ____

A) is unrelated to environmental pollution

B) is even greater than generally admitted
C) continues to grow despite constant
control of disposal systems
D) is solely due to the use of industrial
waste streams
E) arises from their misuse and wrong

36. The passage is concerned with the question

of ____ .

A) is far less than that to man

A) how the harmful effects of certain

substances can be brought under control

B) could be reduced by enforcing emission

limits and environmental controls

B) why industrial waste streams have

caused so much pollution

C) has been unnecessarily overemphasised

D) has to date been completely ignored
E) can be eliminated by the use of industrial
waste streams

C) whether man made substances or

natural ones cause more pollution
D) what measures are to be taken against
the supply of dangerous substances
E) who is responsible for taking the
required measures.

Sayfa 12 / 344



38. One advantage of using prefabricated parts

is that ____ .

The practical advantages of prefabrication

are two-fold: It is quicker and it does away
with uncertainty. Speed in building is
important in these days because of the high
cost of land: the time during which such an
expensive commodity is out of use must be
reduced to a minimum. And, partly or wholly
prefabricated methods of construction save
time on the job because parts are prepared in
the factory beforehand. Prefabrication does
away with uncertainty because it means that
the whole building is made of standard parts
the behaviour of which is known and has
been tested.

37. Since land is extremely valuable it is

important that ____ .

A) fewer skilled workmen are required

B) this method is much cheaper than
standard methods
C) less land is required
D) buildings can be put up much faster
E) there is more scope for experiment

39. When a building is constructed from

standard parts that have been well tested
____ .

A) costs do not continue to rise

A) there is no scope for originality

B) the building materials should also be


B) the costs will naturally be excessively


C) people should not disagree as to the

advantages of prefabrication

C) new methods of construction are


D) building costs be reduced to a minimum

D) one knows in advance that the result will

be satisfactory

E) it does not remain out of use for long

E) one is still not sure how they will behave

in a particular situation

Sayfa 13 / 344



41. The author points out that ____ .

Computers can store vast amounts of

information in a very small space and are
used by the banks to keep accounts, print out
statements and control transactions. They
are also used by the police to keep personal
records, fingerprints and other details. In the
rapidly developing field of robotics
computers are now being used to control
manual operations done by mechanics.
These, too, are taking over work, previously
done by people in the manufacture of cars, in
weaving and in other industries. Computers
play an important role in controlling artificial
satellites, decoding information and
communications generally. They are used to
predict the weather with increasing accuracy.

A) industry is turning back to traditional

methods of production
B) the police use computers to make sure
that their records are not tested
C) the principal use of computers is in space
D) computers are too complex for everyday
E) the use of robots, directed by computers,
is becoming widespread in industry

42. The passage is not concerned with ____ .

40. One can conclude from the passage that
____ .

A) the application of computers in industry

B) how computers are manufactured

A) computers have become an indispensable

part of our life

C) the conservation of information by


B) despite great advantages in computer

techniques, they are not proving as useful
as once was hoped

D) the role played by computers in crime


C) weather forecasts carried out by

computers are not reliable at all
D) robotics has long been a field of keen
scientific interest for man
E) computerised banking has led to an
increase in unemployment.

Sayfa 14 / 344

E) the use of computers in communications

and the transfer of information



44. It is argued that in the passage that ____ .

Looking ahead from the present position

where food production has kept ahead of
population growth globally, but has fallen per
capita in 55 (mainly African) countries, it
would seem that these trends will continue.
About 30 countries - most of them African can expect serious problems unless they
reduce population growth and give higher
priority to agriculture and conservation.
Though a warmer, wetter earth with high
CO2 levels is likely to be capable of producing
more food, the amounts will still be
inadequate for many poorer countries. In
many cases, the population projections are
greater than the entire local land resources
can supporT.
43. Of all the countries in the world it is those in
Africa ____ .

A) changes in the world climate are

increasing the problems of food
B) agricultural development will presently
put an end to global food shortages
C) with the exception of African countries,
the global production of food is
adequate and likely to continue so
D) the conservation of land resources is of
minor importance
E) any effort must be made to prevent the
co2 level from rising.

45. According to the passage it is anticipated

that ____ .
A) the per capita income in African
countries will continue to increase

A) which have taken the most drastic

measures to prevent population growth

B) food production will double in the years


B) that are most threatened by food


C) the present situation concerning

population growth and population will
soon improve

C) which are environmentally most at

D) that are most conscious of the need to
preserve this environment

D) all the African countries will soon solve

all their population problems

E) in which poverty has been greatly

reduced through agricultural

E) unless serious measures are taken, the

poor countries of the world will be faced
with famine.

Sayfa 15 / 344



47. In the passage attention is drawn to the

fact that ____ .

Psychology is literally the study of mind (or

soul) but its areas has broadened somewhat
in the last century as we have learned that
one cannot consider the mind as totally
isolated from the body, and it now includes
the study of human personality and
behaviour. It is important to realise that
psychologists are first and foremost trained
as scientist rather than as medical experts
and do not necessarily take much interest in
abnormalities of the brain and mental

A) psychologists give great importance to

the study of mental processes for
medical purposes
B) psychologists are basically scientists
C) the body and the mind are separate
entities in the eyes of psychologists
D) the human mind can best be understood
through the study of animal behaviour
E) there have been no noticeable
developments in psychology since the
last century

48. It is pointed out in the passage that ____

46. As can be inferred from the passage,

psychology ____

A) a close cooperation between

psychologists and medical experts is

A) has in time developed as a branch of

B) has always been confined to the study of
the mind
C) primarily concentrates on the study of
animal behaviour
D) mostly deals with mental abnormalities
E) is not concerned with the mind alone, but
also with human personality and

Sayfa 16 / 344

B) the study of human behaviour alone is

what interests present day psychologists
C) as a branch of science, psychology is no
longer to be understood in its literally
D) the mind and the body function
E) in recent years psychologists have
concentrated mostly on the study of the



50. One infers from the passage that what is

generally referred to as aid ____ .

Aid to underdeveloped countries takes many

forms and it is given for many reasons.
Underdeveloped countries need aid to
provide finance for development projects; to
provide foreign exchange with which imports
for development purpose can be bought; and
to provide the trained manpower and
technical knowledge they lack. The motives
of the donor are not always humanitarian.
Aid can take a military form; it can be used
to support an incompetent or unjust
government. Nor is aid always beneficial to
the recipient country. It may be wasted on illconceived or prestige projects, or cause the
government simply to relax on its own
49. In the passage, it is argued that the reasons
behind the aid given to the underdeveloped
countries ____

A) usually leads to the overthrow of the

government of the recipient country
B) is, in fact, monetary support for
development projects only
C) is actually one countrys intervention in
another countrys internal affairs
D) does not necessarily benefit the recipient
E) can really be regarded as a waste of

51. According to the passage, unless they

receive aid, underdeveloped countries ____
A) will lose their world-wide prestige
B) often face military coups

A) are always of a military nature

C) will be at the mercy of donor countries

B) are varied in purpose and in effect

C) can be disregarded altogether
D) invariably involve humanitarian principles
E) relate only to the technical needs of the
recipient country

Sayfa 17 / 344

D) will have to rely on foreign technical

advice for many years to come
E) cannot provide money and human
resources for development



53. The economic crisis of the mid-1970s ____ .

Both as a profession and a science,

economics lost considerable prestige during
the recession of 1974-75. The crisis that
seized the western industrialised countries
including Japan was of a character not to be
found in economics textbooks. Rate of
inflation exceeding 10% a year coupled with
declining production and high levels of
unemployment. Hitherto, peacetime inflation
had been associated with high employment
and an overactive economy, while high rate
of unemployment went with the recession or
depression. The next combination was apply
called stagflation.

52. The term stagflation can be defined as ____ .

A) followed the same pattern as earlier

economic crisis
B) caused economy to overactive
C) caused people to lose faith in economics
D) had little effect on the industry of
developed countries
E) was characterised only by high inflation
and low production

54. The main subject of the passage is ____ .

A) the combination of high inflation and

economic recession
B) inflation in an overactive economy

A) the growing unpopularity of economics

as a science

C) high unemployment in spite of high levels

of production

B) the relationship between unemployment

and recession

D) a decrease in the rates of inflation

C) the industrial decline of Japan and some

Western countries

E) high levels of peacetime inflation

D) the unusual nature and extensive effects

of the economic crises of the 1970s
E) how to combat high inflation and

Sayfa 18 / 344


There are twelve and a half acres of land for
each man, woman, and child in the world
today. However, only three and a half acres
of this land can be cultivated. If the
population of the world reaches six billion by
the year 2000, there will be only one and a
half acres for each person. Man just increases
his production of food. One scientist has said
that the world could support ten billion
people if better agricultural methods were
used everywhere. The supply of food can also
be increased by the control of plant diseases,
and by the irrigation of desert lands. By using
these ways and others, man can feed himself
and his fellow men.

55. The passage emphasises that the growth of

the world population ____ .

56. The writer suggests that, by the end of the

century, the amount of the arable land
available ____ .
A) will be doubled in size through the
irrigation of desert lands
B) per person will drop to three and a half
acres from twelve and a half
C) will be fully adequate for the support of
a ten billion world population
D) per person will fall from three and a half
acres to one and a half
E) E)will continue to diminish and, hence,
famine will be inevitable

57. According to the passage, the world food

problem can be solved ____ .

A) makes food production a vital question

B) must not be allowed to continue at the
present rate

A) by a fair and even distribution of

available arable land throughout the

C) is no longer a cause for international


B) only if new ways of overcoming plant

diseases can be discovered

D) has now made it necessary to cultivate all

the desert lands in the world

C) simply by cultivating desert lands in an

efficient way

E) has jeopardised the farmlands in the


D) so long as the population does not

exceed ten billion at the most
E) if various effective measures are taken,
such as the improvement of farming

Sayfa 19 / 344



59. It is implied in the passage that both

industry and governments have ____ .

Though there has always been a certain

amount of concern about pollution since the
start of the Industrial Revolution, this was
largely an interest of relatively limited
numbers of concerned people. But during the
1960s there was a great upsurge of anxiety
which was reflected internationally by the
calling of the Stockholm UN Conference. In
response to the rising public pressures, action
has been taken mainly in the industrial
countries, even though sometimes
reluctantly and with many warnings from
industry and governments about the costs.
However, in many areas there has been a
gratifying improvement.

58. The author points out that, to some extent,

public awareness of pollution ____ .

A) found ways of thwarting public pressures

as regards pollution
B) not always been willing, mainly for
economic reasons, to take action to
prevent pollution
C) come out in support of the policies
recommended at the Stockholm UN
D) constantly been in the forefront of
pollution control policies since the 1960s
E) done more than was required of them in
eliminating pollution.

60. According to the passage, in spite of the

lack of cooperation from industry and
governments ____ .

A) dates back to the first years of the

Industrial Revolution

A) the UN has introduced drastic measures

to ensure the prevention of any further

B) emerged late in the process of

C) first appeared in the 1960s

B) the problem of pollution has now been

fully solved worldwide

D) was first voiced at the Stockholm UN

E) played a part in the rapid development of

C) the costs of pollution control work have

been less than was expected
D) the prices of goods remained the same
E) some considerable progress has been
made towards controlling pollution

Sayfa 20 / 344



62. The writer explains that, in lean production

____ .

For nearly a decade now, the manufacturing

of automobiles has been undergoing radical
changes. The principle cause is the
introduction of new production and
management techniques, originally
engineered by Toyota and subsequently
applied by other Japanese car manufacturers.
This is called lean production. It implies no
less a revolution in the process of car
manufacturing than the mass production
Henry Ford introduced at the beginning of
the century. In fact, lean production
combines the advantages of craft and mass
production. A vital feature of this production
technique is that it achieves its highest
efficiency, quality and flexibility when all
activities - form design to assembly - occur in
the same area.
61. It is pointed out in the passage that; in the
car industry, the traditional mass production
techniques ____ .

A) Japanese, companies have followed

Henry Ford's example
B) there is less need for skilled workers
C) costs are kept to a minimum
D) the techniques of mass production are
no longer applicable
E) the best of mass and craft production
come together.

63. According to the passage, lean production

techniques work best ____.
A) in industries where specialised
craftsmanship is not required

A) introduced by Ford were soon outdated

B) are popular only in Japan
C) have contributed significantly to Japanese
success in this area

B) not only in car manufacturing but also in

other branches of machine production

D) are beginning to fall out of favour

C) in a country like Japan where the skilled

work force is limited

E) in fact require a higher degree of

management efficiency.

D) when the whole production process

takes place in one place
E) if management procedures do not
disrupt the manufacturing process

Sayfa 21 / 344


Much in medicine which is now taken for
granted was undreamed of even as recently
as 50 years ago. Progress in diagnosis, in
preventive medicine and in treatment, both
medical and surgical, has been so rapid as to
be almost breathtaking. Today a doctor
retiring from active practice will among other
things have seen smallpox completely
eradicated, tuberculosis become curable,
coronary artery disease relievable surgically.
One aspect of medicine still resistant to
progress in understanding is the effect of
mind on body. Many of us still like to think
that our bodies are just something we have
got into, like cars, that ill health is simply
something that has gone wrong in one
system or another and that therefore
provided we find the appropriate expert to
correct the fault, we will recover.

64. According to the passage, the rate at which

medical advances have taken place during
the recent decades ____ .

65. It is pointed out in the passage that there is

a close relationship between the workings
of mind and the body ____ .
A) which is of little importance in the
treatment of illness
B) but this has yet to be properly
C) which most doctors tend to overlook
D) and medical research has made great
progress in this field
E) but research into this area is not likely to
prove useful

66. The writer uses the car comparison to

emphasise that most people ____ .
A) tend to have a mechanical view of the
human body

A) was previously envisaged

B) has been underestimated

B) have great confidence in the medical


C) is quite startling
D) cannot be accounted for

C) have the right attitude towards medical


E) has been subject to a great deal of


D) egard surgery as an indispensable part of

E) think some body parts cannot be
replaced at all

Sayfa 22 / 344



68. By "transfer income", the writer means


National income is a measure of the total

income accruing to the residents in a country
in return for services rendered. It therefore
consists of the sum of wages, salaries, profits
and rents. But not all these income accrues to
persons; for instance, companies do not
distribute all their profits to shareholders and
some nationalised industries earn profits.
This is part of national income but not of
personal income. On the other hand, some
personal incomes are not payments for
services rendered. Such incomes are called
transfer incomes to emphasise that their
payment does not add to the national
income, but only transfers income from one
agent to another. Included in this category
are retirement pensions, family allowances,
and student grants.

A) an income like a student grant, which is

not paid in return for services rendered
B) the sum total of payments, including
retirement pensions, distributed by
companies to their employees
C) the revenues contributing to the growth
of the national income
D) the circulation of money through trade
and other means
E) the incomes realised by shareholders out
of company profits

69. It is understood from the passage that the

national income ____ .

67. The passage is concerned with ____ .

A) the need to maintain a balance between
the various types of incomes
B) methods of increasing various types of
C) how incomes can be transferred from one
person to another
D) the importance given to wage problems

A) does not benefit from the majority of

financial transactions
B) mainly consists of the profits made by
C) relies almost exclusively on personal
D) does not include all income categories

E) the definition of various income


E) can be increased through the

nationalisation of industry

Sayfa 23 / 344



71. According to the passage, the demographic

trend, observed in various countries ____ .

According to the United Nations sources,

world population in mid-1985 was, 5,290
million, an increase of 90 million in one year.
More than half of the total live in Asia (56,9
per cent). Different countries are at different
stages in a demographic transition from the
stability provided by a combination of high
birth rate and high death rate to that
provided by a combination of low birth rate
and low death rate. Their recent population
history and current trend of growth, the agestructure of their population, and
consequently their population potential for
the near future are all widely different. Most
rapid growth is in Africa with rates of over 3
per cent in some countries. In most European
countries the rate is less than 1 per cent.
70. It is pointed out in the passage that, of the
continents of the world, it is ____ .

A) is towards a stability with low birth and

low death rates
B) involves high birth and low death rates
C) is pointing to a continued state of
population instability
D) will have to be checked
E) will be reversed in the near future

72. The author points out that there is little

uniformity ____ .

A) Asia where population stability has been

achieved most recently

A) in the way birth rates are being

controlled among rural and urban

B) Europe that hopes to see an increase in its


B) of population growth among African


C) Asia that accommodates the largest

proportion of the world's population

C) as regards population figures in Europe

D) as far as birth and death rates are

D) Africa where the population growth has

stabilised over recent decades
E) Africa which is the most densely populated

Sayfa 24 / 344

E) in the current pattern of the

demographic transition of the various
countries of the world




74. According to the passage, coughing and

sneezing _____ .

Ever since Nobel prize-winner Linus Pauling

first advocated vitamin C as a common-cold
war weapon more than 20 years ago,
researchers have been busy trying to verify
that claim. But so far, they've found little
evidence that vitamin C prevents colds - in
fact, there are more studies that say it
doesn't. But there is evidence that it can keep
coughing and sneezing to a minimum, and
that low levels of vitamin C in the body may
be related to bronchitis.

73. The passage makes the point that Dr

Pauling's view as regards vitamin C _____ .

A) should be taken seriously and treated

B) are the early symptoms of bronchitis
C) are now being effectively treated
without vitamin C
D) can be reduced with the help of vitamin
E) do not respond to any treatment

75. During the last two decades there has been

a great deal of scientific effort made to

A) has greatly improved the treatment of

B) has caused a revolution in medical studies

A) convince the public of the dangers of

vitamin C

C) aroused very little interest among medical


B) prove that the common cold can be

prevented by vitamin C

D) was based on the results of years of


C) establish a connection between coughing

and bronchitis

E) has not been verified scientifically

D) study the adverse effects of vitamin C

E) demonstrate how the body reacts to low
levels of vitamin C

Sayfa 25 / 344



77. It is pointed out in the passage that modern

research forces one to consider _____

Since early times it has been assumed that

the actions of animals are unconscious.
Behaviour, in this view, stems almost
exclusively from instinct. If animals behave in
ways that seem pretty clever, they do so
without thinking about it. Animals may know
things, the argument goes, but they don't
know that they know. Or do they know?
Recent research reports suggest a startling
depth of intelligence among animals.
Although no one can yet 'prove' the existence
of animal consciousness, the data offered
make a compelling case for at least
considering it.
76. It is pointed out in the passage that
traditionally, animals are believed to _____
A) behave not instinctively but logical

A) why animals behave differently under

different circumstances
B) the possibility of intelligence in animals
C) the means by which animal behaviour
can be improved
D) how animals can be made to acquire new
E) animals to be the equal of man in

78. The passage makes it quite clear that, in the

light of modern research, our traditional
assumptions about animal behaviour _____

B) have an intelligence comparable with


A) have been totally disproved

C) imitate man in many ways

B) have been confirmed

D) act on instinct

C) have to be reconsidered

E) know exactly what they are doing

D) were indeed based on scientific fact

E) should never have been questioned

Sayfa 26 / 344


The first universities developed in Europe in
the 12th century. By 1600 Western Europe
boasted 108 institutions of higher learning,
many of which had obtained special
privileges from existing regimes because of
their close association with the Church. In
most European countries, universities were
designed primarily for the sons of nobility
and gentry. Scholarly standards were low,
and scholarship was irrelevant for most
professions. Education for earning a
livelihood in, say, medicine or law could be
acquired after college by serving as an

79. According to the passage, in the early years

of the universities, _____

80. it is pointed out in the passage that, since

most of the early universities enjoyed the
support of the Church _____
A) state authorities granted them various
B) the number of students they admitted
increased rapidly
C) the academic level of the education they
offered was extremely high
D) law naturally became one of the major
subjects offered
E) the education offered was free of charge

81. As explained in the passage, real

professional skills _____

A) most students wanted to train for a


A) were taught during the university years

B) the Church disapproved of much of their

C) Western European governments were not
at all interested in education
D) medicine was the most popular subject
for study
E) the majority of students came from upper
class families

Sayfa 27 / 344

B) were normally acquired through a period

of apprenticeship
C) gained importance in the universities
only after 1600
D) were acquired by nearly all university
E) were taught only to the children of


The effects of sleep loss are subject to a
number of popular misconceptions. The
belief that everyone must sleep 8 hours a
night is a myth. According to the results of a
recent survey on the subject, adults average
about 7 to 7 1 / 2 hours of sleep per night,
and many individuals function effectively
with 5 to 6 hours of sleep. In fact, 20 percent
of the population (slightly more in men) sleep
less than 6 hours per night. Another
significant fact is that sleep time decreases
with age.

83. The survey referred to in the passage

indicates that as people get older and older
A) they sleep less and less
B) they require more sleep than formerly
C) their sleep time varies between 7 and 8
D) they rarely sleep less than 7 hours
E) sleep loss ceases to be a problem

84. It is pointed out in the passage that a sleep

time under 8 hours _____ .

82. According to the passage, the popular

assumption that eight hours of sleep per
night is essential _____ .

A) is not recommended in the survey

B) invariably leads to noticeable inefficiency

A) is only true for the elderly

B) has been supported by scientific evidence
C) is actually a fallacy

C) does not necessarily reduce a person's

D) causes a number of complications in old

D) is only true for 20 percent of the


E) is common among women but not

among men

E) is very rarely disputed

Sayfa 28 / 344



86. It is pointed out in the passage that the Nile

valley and Mesopotamia _____ .

Until recently, many archeologists took the

view that civilized communities first arose in
Egypt, though only a very short time before a
similar development In Mesopotamia: a more
recent opinion is now that the earliest
advances may have taken place in
Mesopotamia. Whichever view is followed, it
is necessary to bear in mind that geographical
conditions in both regions were not identical,
and it can in fact be stated that in
Mesopotamia environmental factors were
not as wholly favourable as In the valley of
the Nile.

85. According to a more recent view, the

beginnings of the development of
civilisation _____ .

A) have never attracted the attention of

B) were equally suitable for the rise of
C) could not have been the home of our
earliest civilisations
D) do not share the same geographical
E) are no longer as fertile as they used to be
in early times

87. From the passage we can understand that

A) our opinions of early history may
sometimes need to be revised

A) have only recently been a major

preoccupation among archaeologists

B) archaeologists have never regarded

either Egypt or Mesopotamia as the
cradles of civilisation

B) were wrongly assumed to be in

C) were apparently not affected by
geographical conditions

C) geographical conditions play an

important role in the decline of

D) in Egypt were greatly hampered by

unfavourable environmental factors

D) the early civilisations in Egypt and

Mesopotamia were not similar at all

E) seem to have occurred in Mesopotamia

rather than, as once thought, in Egypt

E) archaeology has not, until recently, been

concerned with this part of the world

Sayfa 29 / 344



89. The division of history into periods _____

Dates and periods are necessary to the study

and discussion of history, for all historical
phenomena are conditioned by time and are
produced by the sequence of events. Periods
especially, are retrospective conceptions that
we form about past events; they are useful to
focus discussion, but very often they lead
historical thought astray. Thus, while it is
certainly useful to speak of the Middle Ages
and of the Victorian Age, those two abstract
ideas have deluded many scholars and
millions of newspaper readers into supposing
that during certain decades called the Middle
Ages, and again during certain decades called
Age of Victoria, everyone thought or acted
more or less in the same way- till at last
Victoria died or the Middle Ages came to an
end. But in fact there was no such sameness.

88. The author argues that, contrary to common

assumption, the behaviour of people _____ .

A) is both useful and deceptive

B) is avoided by modern historians
C) was rejected in the Victorian Age
D) has been in use since the Middle Ages
E) serves no useful purpose at all

90. According to the passage, the study of

history _____

A) was more uniform in the Middle Ages

than in the Victorian Age

A) began in the Middle Ages and reached its

height in the Victorian Age

B) was not uniform, at all, in any given


B) has changed greatly in our time

C) is a subject that should also be studied by

D) in any given period is always the same
E) is unrelated to the age they live in

C) requires a knowledge of dates and

D) includes a great variety of interrelated
E) should concentrate on the
reconstruction of past events

Sayfa 30 / 344


Society is, regrettably, less interested in the
individual than in the position which he
occupies. One almost never asks a person
Who are you?, but one constantly asks
What do you do?. For one reason or
another, people are assorted into various
categories which determine the roles they
are to play in society. This assorting process,
called social differentiation, goes on in all
societies. Women as a class have a status
distinct from that of men, and children have a
status unlike that of adults.

91. The constant use of the question, What do

you do? _____ .

92. In the passage the term social

differentiation means the process by
which _____ .
A) women alone are put into a special
B) an individual is assigned his role in
C) children are given the same status as
that of adults
D) the individual comes to acquire a new
role in society
E) the personality is analysed

93. The passage is largely concerned with

_____ .

A) shows that for women, work is of minor


A) the status and the role people have in


B) suggests that the working day receives a

large part of our attention

B) the conflict of the various groups in


C) is disliked by working women

C) womens problems in a male-centred


D) suggests that people give more

importance to position than to

D) the generation gap between adults and


E) implies that we live in a very materialistic


Sayfa 31 / 344

E) the importance of the question Who are




95. Mercury is often used in thermometers

_____ .

Mercury has a number of interesting

properties and a variety of industrial uses. It
expands at a constant rate through the range
of temperatures at which it is a liquid.
Because of this property and because it does
not cling to glass, mercury is often used in
thermometers. At ordinary temperatures it
evaporates very slowly and can thus be left in
an open container for long periods of time.
For this reason it is used in one type of
barometer. Mercury is a good electrical
conductor and is used in sealed electrical
switches. An electric current passing through
mercury vapour causes it to give off light,
hence its use in certain kinds of lamps.

94. In the passage, it is pointed out that mercury

_____ .

A) because it never turns into a solid

B) since, so long as it is a liquid, it expands
at a constant rate
C) as it is unaffected by temperature
D) since it is attracted to glass
E) even though it shows a tendency to
evaporate slowly even in an enclosed

96. Mercury vapour will give off light _____ .

A) when an electric current is passed
through it

A) never ceases to be a liquid

B) if left to evaporate slowly

B) is used primarily in the making of


C) but no use has been found for this


C) is of limited use since it is a poor

conductor of electricity

D) so it is a good conductor of electricity

D) has certain special qualities that make it a

very useful substance
E) has certain unpleasant characteristics

Sayfa 32 / 344

E) and is commonly used to light up

electrical switches



98. It is understood from the passage that the

science of botany _____ .

Protoplasm, which is the fundamental basis

of life, is constantly undergoing physical and
chemical change. Life, therefore, is the
resultant of these constantly occurring
changes. There are two great groups into
which living things may be classed: plants and
animals. Both the plant and the animal
kingdoms are very extensive. It is customary,
therefore, to regard the science of life under
two comprehensive heads, namely, botany
which is the study of plants, and zoology
which is the study of animals. Both subjects
are subdivided into various specialised

97. It is pointed out in the passage that life is

the outcome of _____ .

A) is less specialised than that of zoology

B) deals with a limited number of plants
C) is concerned with the plant world
D) is a subsection of zoology
E) fundamentally concentrates on the study
of protoplasm

99. The author points out that the study of

living things, although carried out under
various specialised headings, _____ .

A) the interaction between plants and

B) change from a physical to a chemical state
of being
C) physical change taking place in the animal
D) the constant change, both physical and
chemical, occurring in protoplasm

A) emphasises the importance of genre and

B) depends upon extensive field research
C) is mainly related to zoology
D) takes physical rather than chemical
changes into consideration
E) actually involves two basic fields of

E) constant transformations in the plant


Sayfa 33 / 344



101. The author suggests that nations should

compete _____ .

Many observers, including policy makers,

mistakenly assume that economic
competition between nations must result in
winners and losers. It has been
demonstrated, however, that international
trade increases the wealth of all participants,
even those with lower productivity than their
trading partners. The real issue, it appears, is
the way international competition affects all
kinds of goods that any country produces. It
seems that the proper role of government is
to ensure that its people are prepared to
compete in those industries in which they
could or should have an advantage.

100. According to the passage, economic

competition _____ .

A) to improve their balance of payments

B) in line with the principles of international
C) with nations of parallel economic
D) with those whose industrial production is
the highest
E) in those industries in which they have an

102. The author emphasises the idea that

international trade _____ .
A) is not one nations gain and anothers

A) does not affect industrial activity

B) only benefits the richer nations

B) should be the major concern of all

developing countries

C) should be regulated at an international


C) does great damage to those countries

with lower productivity

D) is beneficial to everybody involved

E) may lead to lower productivity

D) should not be the concern of policy

E) has lost its momentum in recent years
due to economic recession

Sayfa 34 / 344



104. According to the passage, within the

general unity of the Mediterranean ____ .

Those who visit the Mediterranean are

invariably impressed with its unity.
Everywhere it is the same, for the shades of
difference here is less important than the
resemblances. Yet this unity is the result of
aggressive contrast; sea and mountain, sea
and desert, sea and ocean! In these respects
the Mediterranean is very different from
either central Europe, or high tablelands of
Asia, the Syrian and Saharan deserts, or even
the Atlantic Ocean.

103. What distinguishes the Mediterranean from

the other parts of the world is ____ .

A) the deserts of Syria and the Sahara have

their special place
B) the contrast between the sea and the
desert is exceptional
C) one is also aware of startling contrast
D) some people find a depressing monotony
E) there is very little that appeals to the eye

105. It is stressed in the passage that the

Mediterranean ____ .

A) that it is characterised by high tablelands

B) the fact that the landscape varies greatly
from part to part

A) extensively resembles the rest of the


C) that it is surrounded by vast deserts

B) is, in many ways, similar to central


D) the combination of features, everywhere,

is the same

C) has an endless changing coastline

E) that it is attracting more and more visitors

Sayfa 35 / 344

D) is the most crowded part of the world

E) makes the same impression on all visitors
to the area



107. The passage is concerned with ____ .

It is the opinion of most archaeologists that

civilisation first developed in the Middle East,
where, of all the regions in the world, natural
conditions offered the greatest assistance to
man in his changeover from a life of nomadic
wandering as a hunter to settled occupation
of the soil. The regular rise of the three larger
rivers, Nile Euphrates, and the Tigris; annual
renewal of soil fertility by the deposition of a
layer of silt; and the generally warm climate,
favourable both to the growth of a rich plantlife, and to the activities of man himself, were
all special inducements to the adoption of a
way of life based on agriculture.

106. According to the passage, one of the striking

features of the three great rivers of the
Middle East, is that ____ .

A) how man first began to benefit from the

B) the geological features of the Middle
C) the circumstances which contributed to
the rise of civilisation in the Middle East
D) the rich plant life that existed in the
Middle East in prehistoric times
E) a comparison of the nomadic and
agricultural way of life

108. Before man took to a way of life based on

agriculture ____ .
A) he had already settled near the Nile and
the Euphrates

A) they provide cheap transport

B) they contribute to soil fertility
C) there is little annual change in the water
D) they all run through extensive forest lands
E) they are depositing less and less silt each

B) he led a nomadic existence and lived by

C) warm climates did not attract him
D) the natural conditions of the world were
of supreme importance to him
E) he avoided the Middle East entirely.

Sayfa 36 / 344



110. It is obvious from the passage that the

Queen's power ____ .

In Britain, the Queen is a constitutional

monarch. In law she is the head of the
executive, an integral part of the legislature,
head of the judiciary, commander-in-chief of
the armed forces and temporal head of the
Church of England. In practice, the Queen's
role is purely formal: she reigns, but she does
not rule. In all important respects she acts
only on the advice of her ministers. However,
she still plays an important role symbolically
as Head of State and Head of the

109. The main concern of the passage is ____ .

A) extends through all the main institutions

of the state
B) is strictly confined to the affairs of the
C) is controlled by the legislature
D) depends fundamentally on the support
of the armed forces
E) has no legal basis

111. It is stressed in the passage that on all

serious issues the Queen ____ .

A) how the Queens progress could be


A) relies heavily on the guidance of the


B) the Queen's firm control of the

government through her executive

B) does not act on her own initiative, but

consults the government

C) the powers the Queen has and the role

she plays in the rule of the country

C) acts in accordance with the principles of

the Church of England

D) the influence the Queen has over the

Church of England

D) turns to the Commonwealth for advice

and support

E) the need for the abolishment of the

monarchy in Britain

E) keeps aloof so as to maintain her symbol


Sayfa 37 / 344



113. The author explains that unless the burning

of fossil fuels is radically reduced ____ .

Of all the environmental problems facing us

today, global warming is likely to have the
most devastating effects. In order to combat
these, the emission of harmful gases must be
reduced; for this purpose, the rainforests,
which absorb carbon dioxide in vast
quantities must be protected. Global
warming will place a premium on energy
efficiency, for controlling global warming
inescapably means reducing the burning of
fossil fuels. The two industries that are most
obviously going to be affected are the power
suppliers and the vehicle manufacturers, but
since energy is consumed by almost
everything we manufacture, design or do, the
effects will be felt everywhere.

112. It is emphasised in the passage that global

warming seems to be ____ .

A) global warming cannot possibly be held

in check
B) they will soon be used up
C) traditional power supplies will not be
D) energy efficiency cannot be achieved
E) the effects will be far reaching and
beyond our control

114. According to the passage, power supply

and vehicle manufacturing ____ .

A) easier to control than other

environmental problems

A) are two industries that do not affect

global warming

B) of less of a threat than formerly it used to


B) rely heavily on fossil fuels

C) the most terrible of the problems facing

the environment

C) are environmentally less harmful than

other industries
D) have carried the problems of global
warming everywhere

D) one of the causes for the disappearance

of the rainforests

E) must be strictly controlled to prevent any

further pollution

E) reasonably under control in all parts of

the world

Sayfa 38 / 344



116. The writer points out that, due to growing

inflation, publishers ____ .

The 1970s were a period of marked economic

recession in the West. The effects were
widespread, even the publishing sector was
badly hit. Inflation continued to push up the
costs of paper and printing, increasing the
price of books generally and reducing the
amount of money available for the
publication of new and experimental work.
There was a growing sense, in the world of
literature no less than in other spheres of
production, that this crisis must involve
changes that would be neither simple nor

115. It is explained in the passage that, as a result

of the economic recession experienced in
the West in the 1970s, both publishers and
writers ____ .

A) took temporary measures to overcome

the recession
B) ceased to publish literary works
C) introduced a number of radical changes
D) could no longer afford to bring out new
and experimental work
E) refused to get involved in the crisis

117. According to the passage, the recession in

the1970s in the West ____ .
A) did not have a long term effect on the

A) felt that a long and difficult period lay

ahead of them

B) affected really all sectors, including that

of publishing

B) made huge profits from the sale of new

and experimental works

C) had no impact on the inflation rate

C) were in agreement with the measures

being introduced to check inflation

D) was hardly felt in the world of literature

E) caused the sudden decline of various
spheres of production

D) recognised the need to keep down book

E) were extremely worried about the rising
cost of living

Sayfa 39 / 344



119. At present, the main threat to the survival

of the Taj Mahal is ____ .

Built by the disconsolate Emperor Shah Jahan

in memory of his wife, the Taj Mahal
mausoleum has survived the rise and fall of
many empires and it attracted looters, too;
over the years they carried away the silver
doors from its gates, the precious stones
from its marble wall: and the gold from its
graves. But those were small threats
compared with the modern danger of
pollution. Emissions from the coal-fired steel
foundries thermal power stations, cars and
an oil refinery in the industrial belt around
Agra are corroding and yellowing the Taj
Mahal's white marble.

118. According to the passage, the Taj Mahal

mausoleum ____ .

A) the lack of interest in the building

B) small scale robbery
C) on-going looting
D) industrial pollution
E) damaging effects of the climate in Agra

120. The passage is mainly concerned with ____


A) is no longer richly decorated as it once

used to be

A) the restoration work planned for the Taj


B) is not in need of any extensive restoration

B) the steadily worsening condition of the

Taj Mahal mausoleum

C) has, on several occasions, been almost

completely destroyed
D) was built to be the tomb of the Emperor
Shah, Jahan
E) was deliberately sited in an industrial area

C) measures taken to prevent robbery in

the past
D) the various kinds of industries in the Taj
Mahal area
E) historic importance and value of the Taj
Mahal mausoleum

Sayfa 40 / 344




122. The writer himself is fully convinced that

true education ____ .

Usually educational processes involve not

only learning, but teaching as well. There is,
however, no logical connection in this case.
Education can go on without any teaching. W
e can say it was a 'real education for
someone to take a boat out on his own,
implying that he learnt something desirable
without anybody having been there to teach
him the lesson. There are many forms of
learning that go on without teaching and
educative' learning does not mean that the
learning must take place in a teaching
situation. It may be argued that most things
are learnt more rapidly and more reliably in a
classroom situation. But even so, learning is
not dependent upon teaching.
121. As is stated in the passage, it is generally
assumed that ____ .

A) is what everybody desires to have

B) can only be provided in a classroom
C) results from the acquisition of all kinds of
D) is an ideal which cannot be achieved in
E) can be acquired without the help of a

123. The writer seems to admit that a teacher

may often make the process of learning
____ .

A) schools are not important at all in the

learning process

A) more interesting

B) teachers do not further the learning


B) quicker and more dependable

C) education means both learning and


D) a purely formal affair

C) safer and more regular

E) too 'educative' to be effective

D) people learn most effectively by

E) a good education makes teaching a

Sayfa 41 / 344




125. The passage is mainly concerned with ____


Since health care accounts for nearly one

seventh of the American national economy,
any attempt to reform it enters a minefield of
explosive issues. President Clinton's healthcare plan, many experts say, might shake up
the health-insurance industry so violently
that it could shrink from about 500 to as few
as to 10 companies; costing thousands of
jobs. Businesses complain that new healthcoverage contributions would be disastrous;
there is even talk that up to a million jobs will
be lost as a consequence. Though the
American Medical Association has so far sent
signals that it would endorse the plan, the
physicians themselves and the taxpayers are
extremely worried about it.

124. The writer argues that President Clinton's

health-care reform policy ____ .

A) the rising problems of unemployment in

the American economy
B) the economic problems of the American
medical staff
C) the financial burden health care has on
the American economy
D) President Clinton's reasons for a
thorough reform in health care
E) the likely economic consequences of the
new health care plan in the States

126. According to the passage, one of the major

problems likely to result from the new
health-care plan is that

A) is being favourably received by private

doctors and taxpayers

A) a few physicians will find themselves

without work

B) has been completely rejected by the

American Medical Association

B) businesses will be badly affected by the

health-care fees demanded of them

C) is bound to cause a great deal of unrest

and discussion

C) there will be a fierce competition among

insurance companies for coverage of the

D) will boost the insurance sector

E) will create many new jobs for the

D) the taxpayers will not be able to receive

adequate medical care
E) president Clinton's popularity will decline

Sayfa 42 / 344



In one century of strenuous research a vast
amount of source material about
Michalengelo has been collected, reviewed,
edited and annotated including letters,
poems, contracts, receipts and biographies.
Biographical and artistic data have been
checked and rechecked, sometimes
corroborating and sometimes correcting our
previous ideas, and an abundance of new
facts has been revealed. Long lost works have
been rediscovered and every single known
piece has been studied in its formal and
functional aspects. The artists character, his
daily habits, his working methods, his
personal attitudes and his artistic and
political opinions have been traced as well as
the peculiarities of the people with whom he
had contact. Thus modern history of art has
formed an image of Michalengelo that is
much nearer to truth than those presented
by his first biographers.
127. We understand from the passage that over
the past hundred years _____

128. It is obvious from the passage that the

source material concerning Michalengelo
A) has shed light only on his daily routine
B) consists only of books written about him
by his contemporaries.
C) has taken nearly a hundred years to be
annotated and published.
D) has not received adequate critical
E) not only includes his letters, poems and
biographies but also documents relating
to his commissions and sales.

129. According to the passage, the new data

about Michalengelo ____

A) a vast amount of new facts concerning

Michalengelo have come to light.

A) have led to similar studies about his


B) the research carried out about

Michalengelo has proved inadequate and
in places irrelevant.

B) have, in some instances, contradicted

the traditional view of him.

C) scholars have concentrated solely upon

Michalengelos artistic creativity.
D) In spite of much research, little has been
learned about Michalengelo.
E) though many new biographies have been
written about Michalengelo, they are all
far short of truth about him.

Sayfa 43 / 344

C) have fully confirmed the views expressed

by his early biographers.
D) have created a great deal of controversy
among historians.
E) have yet to be analysed and collected.



We can understand from the text that,
in man, each half of the brain ____

The fact that the brain is divided into a left

and a right half is not a new discovery. Once
the skull is removed the division is obvious to
the naked eye and it is a common feature of
brains throughout the animal kingdom. What
is interesting about this division in man is
that each half seems to have developed
specialised functions, the left side appearing
to be better at some tasks and the right side
better at others. The most obvious difference
in functioning is that the left side of the brain
receives sensations from and controls the
right side of the body and vice versa. The
reasons for this are still unclear. Despite a
number of interesting theories there is no
obvious advantage in such a crossover.

A) is characterized by a crossover of
innumerable nerves.
B) functions in full harmony with the other
in all activities.
C) performs certain specialised tasks.
D) controls the corresponding side of the
E) can be removed without damage being
caused to the other.

132. The passage is mainly concerned with ____

130. As the writer points out, it has long been

known that ____

A) the recent history of brain studies.

A) damage to the left half of the brain
produces far more serious defects.

B) how the body is controlled by the brain

B) the human brain is unlike that of other

animals has a very complicated structure.
C) the right side of the brain has the same
functions as the left side.

C) the division of the brain into two halves

and the way each half functions.
D) the reason why there is a crossover of
nerves in the brain.
E) how the sensations of the body are
transmitted to the brain.

D) the left side of the brain works more

efficiently than the right.
E) in the animal world brains consist of two

Sayfa 44 / 344



134. The writer points out that from the 1960s

onwards, women in America ____

For years the theory of higher education in

the United States operated something like
this: men went to university to get rich, and
women went to university to marry rich men.
During the 60s, as a result of the fact that this
theory lost much of its popularity, as the
nation began to recognize the folly of
relegating women to a secondary role,
women soon joined men in what once were
male pursuits. This rebellious decade pushed
women toward independence, showed them
their potential and compelled them to take
charge of their lives. Many women took this
opportunity. Since then famine autonomy
has been the rule not the exception at least
among university women.

133. According to the passage, the view had long

been held in the States that ____

A) became more and more dominated by

men in their working life.
B) began to assert themselves in society
both as individuals and professionally.
C) became less and less interested in their
fight for emancipation.
D) began to go to universities in much
greater numbers.
E) became aware of the fact that the
universities were prejudiced against

135. According to the passage most American

women today ____

A) the independence of women would

impair the integrity of family life.

A) are obsessed with their inferior status in

business life.

B) only rich men had the opportunity to

have higher education.
C) the rights of women were first recognized
at the universities.
D) a womans potential could be brought to
the fore only through education.
E) universities were the place where women
found rich husbands.

Sayfa 45 / 344

B) are not content with the change in their

C) regard marriage as outdated and
potentially harmful
D) claim and enjoy a position of full
E) still prefer to play a secondary role in



137. The writer points out that, in our time, it is


The collection of foreign intelligence, which is

the pursuit of a special kind of information, is
an indispensable service for any government
having even the most elementary
international associations. Nations must
devise a strategy to provide for both their
security and well-being. History teaches us
that responsibility cannot be met without
knowledge of the political, economic and
military capabilities and intentions of other
nations. Indeed advance knowledge of these
matters, or its absence, could well settle the
fate of a great nation especially in an era
when a single nation or consortium of
nations is capable of smashing another
society in a single stroke or of controlling it
under the threat of poised catastrophe. The
well-being of any great nation will depend on
decisions taken by others, which must be
foreseen, correctly analysed and countered.
136. As is clear from the passage a nation for its
own well-being even survival ____

A) a major concern in foreign intelligence to

study the political and economic
developments in neighbour states
B) usual for governments to rely more on
military strength than on foreign
C) possible for one nation to be completely
wiped out by another or others.
D) almost possible to get reliable
intelligence about other nations.
E) scarcely necessary to anticipate attack
from consortium of nations

138. In the passage foreign intelligence is

regarded as ____

A) needs to know what is going on in other

countries and what is being planned.

A) the unfair pursuit of the data relating to

the military potential of another nation.

B) must have a good standing army to

defend itself.

B) essential only for the economic wellbeing of a country.

C) should be on good terms with several

other countries as a safeguard.

C) clandestine interference in the affairs of

another nation.

D) must be prepared to counteract any

internal revolt.

D) the acquirement of a particular type of


E) should not put much faith in foreign

intelligence to maintain its security.

E) a series of strategies devised to counter

any military threat.

Sayfa 46 / 344



140. According to the passage one can define

talking as ____

A subject in which there has been a lot of

interest recently is the acquisition of
language. Normal children - that is, those
who have not had a particularly rich early
environment - usually begin talking after the
first year of their life. By eighteen months
they have a vocabulary of about half a dozen
words; at two years a vocabulary of more
than a hundred words. The traditional view
has been that during the first year of life
babies are not mature enough to learn
languages. Talking, however, is only the outer
manifestation of the development of the
language. Long before he first utters a
meaningful word a baby can be observed
responding to the language of the others.

A) the first means for a child to

communicate with others.
B) the positive proof that a language is
being learned.
C) the manifestation of a childs physical
D) the first step towards acquiring a
E) a way of building up a vocabulary.

141. The passage makes the point that we now

have ____

139. As pointed out in the passage the way in

which a language is acquired ____ .
A) is noticeably affected by the social
background of the child.

A) a revised review of language acquisition

among normal children.

B) follows a very similar pattern in all


B) a distorted view of how a child begins to


C) has rarely attracted a great deal of


C) returned to the traditional theory

concerning language acquisition among

D) does not depend at all upon the age of a

E) is best observed during the first year of

D) a rather contradictory theory concerning

the acquisition of language by two-yearolds.
E) the means and techniques to speed up
vocabulary acquisition among one-yearolds.

Sayfa 47 / 344


Economic dynamics have decisively shifted
from the national economy. From now on,
any country and also any business, especially
a large one that wants to prosper will have to
accept that it is the world economy that leads
and that domestic economic policies will
succeed only if they strengthen or at least do
not impair the countrys international
competitive position. This may be the most
important - it surely is the most striking feature of the changed world economy.

143. From the passage it seems that for a

country to achieve economic prosperity, it
____ .
A) has to encourage and support big
B) must protect itself from new dynamics in
domestic economy
C) has to think and plan in terms of world
D) must be ruthless in economic policies
E) must create competition within the
domestic market

144. The passage deals with ____ .

142. The writer explains that one significant

development in economy has been ____ .
A) the stress on the importance of domestic
economic policies

A) the growing importance of

internationalism in the field of

B) the growing importance of national

economic policies

B) the dangers of foreign competition in


C) a keener competition between domestic

and international companies

C) the dynamics in the implementation of

domestic economic policies

D) that national economics are now closely

interrelated with the world economy

D) the question of how big business can

influence the world economy negatively

E) the decline of competition in home


E) some of the more striking features of the

current economic policies.

Sayfa 48 / 344


Today, the United States is in the grip of a
second Industrial revolution. While the first,
stretching from the 1870s to the 1970s,
shifted the main sector of the American
economy from agriculture to industry, the
new revolution is shifting the economy away
from traditional "smokestack" manufacturing
industries to those based upon information,
services and new technologies. It took the
country decades to accommodate the
cultural and social changes resulting from the
first industrial revolution and it would be
rashly optimistic to assume that Americans
will not face serious stresses in coming to
terms with the changes that are transforming
the workplace today.

146. The writer points out that the change in

America from an agricultural to an
industrial economy ____ .
A) was bitterly opposed by a large segment
of society
B) was achieved in a very short period of
time, actually only about two decades
C) made the use of information
technologies indispensable
D) brought with it many new cultural and
social conditions which took years to
E) brought little benefit to the country as a

147. The author is worried that the Americans

145. It is understood from the passage that the
American economy ____ .

A) will find the second industrial revaluation

hard to cope with

A) as, at the beginning, largely an

agricultural one

B) are closing down heavy industry far too


B) was, from the start, based on heavy


C) don't pay adequate attention to

conditions in the workplace

C) has, over the years, undergone very little

radical changes
D) has recently entered a period of recession
E) has invariably kept a balance between
agriculture and industry

Sayfa 49 / 344

D) may turn back to an agricultural

E) have already lost their control over
manufacturing industries



149. According to the passage, publications on

computer technology ____ .

A great many books have been written on

computers, computer programming
languages, particularly Fortran. To produce
another book on Fortran, even the newest
Fortran IV, probably seems unreasonable to
most, and it is with mild trepidation that, I,
the author, embark on this project. However,
several good reasons can be stated for doing
just that. Most computer professionals will
agree that the field of computer and
information science has quickly become a
valid discipline for academia and that rapid
changes are occurring in computer
programming languages. Both of these facts
demand that a new direction be taken in
presenting the subject.

A) are only concerned with Fortran

computer programming
B) have already reached a very high number
C) are brought out by academia for
D) invariably cause a great deal of public
E) are largely repetitive and very costly

150. The writer of this passage feels that his new

book on Fortran is justified because ____ .

148. From the passage we understand that the

writer is somewhat apprehensive in case
____ .

A) computer science is a new science with

little relevant literature

A) computer sales should drop sharply

B) developments in computer programming
will become more and more costly

B) computer professionals have not as yet

recognised the changes taking place in
computer science

C) his book will be felt, by many people, to

be superfluous

C) it will boost the sale of computers

throughout the world

D) computer programming should be taken

over by professionals

D) it introduces a new approach to

computer programming languages

E) programming languages should become

far more complicated

E) it will change the concept of computer

science among academia

Sayfa 50 / 344



152. According to the passage, some American

artists felt that watercolour ____ .

Until the late l9th century most American

museums and art academies considered
watercolor an amateur pursuit or a
preliminary to serious work in oils. Many
American watercolorists saw the medium as
a holiday diversion, using portable paint
boxes and a free style to make what they
called "snapshots" of their travels. In
contrast, a few recognised the exceptional
capacity of watercolours as a medium to
provide clear and luminous colours in works
that would evoke the ever changing nature of
lakes and rivers they knew so well, and
ultimately vie for supremacy with oil
paintings in major art collections.
151. We can understand from the passage that,
in America, it was a long time before
watercolours ____ .

A) and oil painting were equally effective as

mediums for the portrayal of human
B) had been overworked for centuries
C) was only to be practised as a hobby on
D) had always been superior to oil painting
E) was an ideal means for representing
nature in its various shades and colours

153. The passage explains clearly how ____ .

A) watercolour has revolutionised
landscape painting in America

A) were taken seriously as an art form

B) watercolour slowly gave way to oils in art


B) fell out of public favour

C) lost their appeal and gave way to oils

C) American museums and art galleries

have collected their oil paintings and

D) were confined to the depiction of lakes

and rivers
E) became an amateur pursuit among the
ordinary people

D) watercolour has come to be recognised

in America as a valid art medium
E) watercolour differs in style and
execution from oil painting

Sayfa 51 / 344



"Human rights" is a fairly new name for what
were formerly called "the rights of man. It
was Eleanor Roosevelt in 1940s who
promoted the use of the expression "human
rights" when she discovered, through her
work in the United Nations, that the rights of
men were not understood in some parts of
the world to include the rights of women.
The "rights of man at an earlier date had
itself replaced the original term "natural
rights", in part, perhaps, because the concept
of natural law, with which the concept of
natural rights was logically connected, had
become a subject of controversy.
154. The passage explains the stages by
which____ .

155. By referring to Eleanor Roosevelt, the

author points out that, before the 1940s,
the term "the rights of man ____ .
A) had always been used in conjunction
with "the rights of women"
B) had come under severe criticism
C) had long been a subject of controversy
among politicians
D) had already become irrelevant in world
E) had often been misunderstood by some

156. It is pointed out in the passage that the

disagreement over the concept of natural
law ____ .

A) the United Nations carried out its

B) Eleanor Roosevelt developed the idea of
human rights

A) was actually of no significance in many

parts of the world

C) the term "human rights" came into use

B) meant that the term "natural rights" was

no longer acceptable

D) the various "rights of man" came to be


C) forced Eleanor Roosevelt to introduce

the term "human rights"

E) human rights are today being violated

throughout the world

D) undermined the work of the United

E) was closely connected with the growing
recognition of the rights of women

Sayfa 52 / 344




158. The writer suggests that a major distinctive

feature of "law" is ____ .

After 1933 the Western World realised that it

was living in another age of absolutism, or
rather, in an age of totalitarian dictatorship
far worse than the worst of the old absolute
kings; such regimes could be seen to be
enforcing a "law" that was the command
hardly of a "sovereign" but of a cruel and
genocidal despot. It was ordinary people who
protested: "This cannot be law. Law, if it is to
deserve the name of law, must respect at
least some basic rights to which every human
being is entitled simply because he is
157. According to the passage, compared with the
absolute kings of the past, modern dictators
____ .

A) to prevent the rise of totalitarianism in

B) that it disregards the rights of ordinary
C) respect for basic human rights
D) to uphold respect for the sovereign
E) that it should make a return to
absolutism impossible

159. According to the passage, the major protest

against the despots of modern times ____ .

A) have been far more cruel and oppressive

B) have shown a relatively high respect for
the rights of the individual

A) has been largely on account of their

genocidal actions
B) began to increase after 1933

C) have received considerable support from

ordinary people
D) have shown leniency in the enforcement
of law

C) has largely been confined to the Western

D) has been due to a growing fear of
E) has come from common people who are
concerned about their basic rights

E) have always been anxious to rule by law

Sayfa 53 / 344




161. A popular site for the early shopping

centres in the United States was ____ .

The shopping centre emerged in the early

1900s in the suburbs that encircled American
cities. Suburbs of that time tended to be
chiefly residential and to depend on the
traditional city centres for shopping. The first
suburban commercial centres had three
identifiable features; they consisted of a
number of stores built and leased by a single
developer; they were usually situated at an
important intersection, and they provided
plenty of free, offstreet parking. These
"shopping villages" resembled small-town
shopping districts, both in their architecture
which was carefully traditional, and in their
layout, which integrated them into the
surrounding neighbourhood. The stores faced
the street and the parking lots were usually in
the rear.

160. Before the introduction of shopping centres

those living in the residential suburban
areas ____ .

A) the very heart of a big city with roads

directly serving all the suburbs
B) one near an important road junctions
with enough space to provide adequate
parking facilities
C) the villages bordering on the suburbs of
a town, since they too would benefit
from the facilities
D) a suitable point far away from two or
three suburban areas
E) one that was in the hands of a single
developer and architect

162. The new "shopping villages" were

reminiscent of small-town shopping areas
____ .
A) since many architects felt these could
hardly be integrated effectively into
suburban conditions

A) were anxious to keep commercial

activities there to a minimum
B) usually preferred to go to nearby small
towns in order to do their shopping
C) found parking a great problem when they
went downtown to shop
D) had to go into the centre of the city to do
their shopping
E) felt that shopping facilities could not be
integrated into such neighbourhoods

B) although the stores faced onto the

parking lots, not the streets
C) as regards both the architectural style
and the arrangement of the buildings
D) even though the architecture was very
E) as most developers wanted to bring
something new into the commercial
activities of the region.

Sayfa 54 / 344




164. As is pointed out in the passage, the design

of motorways is such that ____ .

Certain features of the motorway

undoubtedly ease the strain of driving.
Gradients and bends are so controlled as to
obviate the necessity of sharp braking and
the absence of traffic approaching from the
other direction removes one of the
commonest sources of accidents. Many
dangers remain, however, made more
terrible by the high speeds of vehicles. A
collision at seventy miles an hour is almost
inevitably in its results. A mechanical defect
in the car or a puncture can lead to loss of
control and catastrophe. The car should be
completely roadworthy and tyre pressures
and treads need to be checked at regular

A) it should never be necessary to brake

B) catastrophes can always be averted so
long as the car has no mechanical defect
C) a collision at seventy miles an hour is
rarely fatal
D) the dangers of driving are minimised but
not the strain
E) it is difficult to estimate whether a
vehicle really is roadworthy

165. One can understand from the passage that

the majority of motorway accidents are
catastrophic ____ .

163. The passage emphasises ____ .

A) that uneven tyre pressures and poor
treads are the major cause of accidents

A) as they involve head on collisions

B) The fact that speed limits on motorways

should be reviewed

B) because they occur at high speeds

C) as brake defects are the cause

C) The high incidence of accidents on

motorways in comparison with other

D) since they occur on gradients or bends

E) since the motorways themselves are not
adequately policed and controlled

D) Both the advantage and the

disadvantages of motorway
A) The fact that basically motorways are no
different from other roads, only wider

Sayfa 55 / 344




167. We can understand from the passage that

the Antarctic ____ .

The Antarctic is the most remote continent in

the world and the last to be discovered, but
nevertheless constitutes about one tenth of
the worlds land surface. So far it has escaped
the worst of mans destructive ingenuity but
today it is threatened by mans insatiable
appetite for natural resources, and seems to
be in danger of losing its pristine
environment which serves as the perfect
natural laboratory for scientists to pursue
knowledge for its own sake.

166. The human qualities that are dwelt upon in

this passage are mainly mans ____ .

A) is at present virtually unspoiled

B) is a very small and quite useless
C) has noting to offer in the way of natural
D) has suffered greatly from natural sources
of destruction
E) has a climate so incompatible to man
that it is safe from man

168. One can understand from the passage that

the writer ____ .

A) concern for the environment and his

determination to protect it

A) greatly admires mans persistent search

for fresh natural resources

B) devotion to knowledge and scientific


B) looks forward to the time when the

world will benefit from the rich natural
resources of the Antarctic

C) concern for the underprivileged and his

desire to open up new areas of natural
resources for them

C) is opposed to all scientific projects

concerning the Antarctic

D) respect for man and the whole created


D) does not want to see the exploitation of

the Antarctic by man

E) greed and the reckless way he spoils the


E) is rather scornful of those who pursue

knowledge for its own sake

Sayfa 56 / 344




170. As is pointed out in the passage, the

condition of demand-pull inflation ____ .

Inflation is process of steadily rising prices,

resulting in a diminishing of the purchasing
power of a given nominal sum of money. In
other words, you can buy fewer goods for 1
pound in December than you could in
January of the same year. One type of
inflation is known as demand-pull inflation.
This occurs under conditions of full
employment, when demand exceeds supply
of goods; that is to say, when people want to
buy more goods than are available. The
process of demand-pull inflation operates as
follows. An increased demand for goods
leads to an increased demand for labour,
resulting in higher wages and salaries. This
has the effect of increasing costs of
production and thus causes increased prices.
However, as wages and salaries are higher,
the increased demand for goods continues,
and so the cycle goes on.

169. When there is inflation the purchasing

power of any given amount of money ____ .

A) has a positive effect on production

B) occurs when there are plenty of goods
but few buyers
C) invariably leads to a state of
D) can only be checked by devaluation
E) is to be found when there are plenty of
would-be buyers, but not enough goods
on sale

171. The writer points out that, with demandpull inflation there is an unending cycle of
____ .

A) remains unchanged throughout a

calendar year

A) full employment and stabilized salaries

B) starts to increase at a steady rate

B) higher wages and more expensive goods

C) gradually becomes less and less

C) overproduction and falling prices

D) has to be readjusted at the end of each

fiscal year

D) higher wages but falling sales

E) is completely unpredictable from month

to month

Sayfa 57 / 344

E) increased prices but better quality goods



In the business world today, many companies
are showing less interest in the theoretical
potential of their staff and more in what they
are actually doing at the time. As an
alternative or supplement to judging
academic credentials, many firms have
developed assessment-centres in which
employees handle simulated business
problems, in a setting as close to real life as
possible, to demonstrate their competence
or indicate the need for training. Candidates
for administrative jobs, for example, might
work their way through a sample in-box.
Bosses find those promoted because of their
assessment-centre scores to be competent
and the candidates feel the system is fair. In
fact, the systems can be working well and
giving satisfaction.
172. According to the passage, the trend in
business today ____ .

173. We can understand from the passage that

candidates who get poor assessmentcentre scores ____ .
A) are, in the majority of cases, without
much theoretical potential
B) invariably lose their jobs
C) will never again be considered for
D) are turned down as incompetent
E) will probably be offered further training

174. It is clear from the passage that the system

of promotion on the basis of assessmentcentre scores ____

A) is to put less and less emphasis on

academic qualifications
B) remains roughly what it was at an earlier

A) is proving unsatisfactory as too much

emphasis is placed upon theoretical

C) is to make all employees try their hand at

administrative work

B) it is starting to make for bad relations

between management and worker

D) is to promote those who have theoretical

knowledge though lacking in technical

C) is proving satisfactory to employer and

employee alike

E) is to keep moving employees round from

one job to another

D) is to be discontinued as it only tests a

candidates ability to get through an inbox at speed
E) generally applies only to candidates with
an exceptionally good academic

Sayfa 58 / 344


176. According to the passage, the biographies
of Lytton Strachey are of a kind that ____ .


In Eminent Victorians Lytton Strachey
portrays four dominating personalities of the
nineteenth century. He is, noticeably, free of
undue reverence for the great; indeed his
satirical view of life enables him to discover
in them many flaws which were discreetly
overlooked by previous historians. Perhaps
his portrayal of General Gordon is the most
controversial of all. Certainly he was a gifted
and gallant soldier, but was he also an
unbalanced mystic and a self opinionated
eccentric? His portrait of Dr Arnold is also
disturbing. Was he a wise and foreseeing
educationalist and headmaster or try sternly
imposing his will on the students in care? The
questions thus raised are intensely
provocative and make reading stimulating.

A) unduly emphasise the faults and

weaknesses of the person portrayed
B) leave the reader stimulated and in doubt
as to the essential nature of the person
C) trick the reader into disliking the person
D) give the reader a great deal of
unsupported gossip
E) the intelligent reader would do well to

177. The main point of the passage is to ____ .

175. From the passage we understand that as a
biographer, Lytton Strachey was remarkable
in his time for ____ .

A) bring to our notice how unreliable Lytton

Strachey is as a biographer
B) explain why so many people have been
disappointed by Lytton Stracheys

A) avoiding all subjects of a controversial

B) writing biographies not of the great but of
little known people
C) concentrating his attention on the bad,
even vicious people of his age
D) not giving an idealised picture of the great
E) conforming to the established norms and
attitudes of his society

Sayfa 59 / 344

C) defend Stracheys view of Victorian

D) compare and contrast Stracheys
portrayal of General Gordon with that of
Dr Arnold
E) give an idea of the content, character
and approach of the book Eminent



179. The author points out that the kinds of

vegetable at our disposal ____ .

If the key to good nutrition is consuming a

variety of foods, then vegetables can truly
stand as the cornerstone of a health diet. Of
all foods, they offer the most diversity. There
are literally hundreds of varieties available to
us, and because of careful plant breeding,
todays vegetable harvest is continually being
expanded and improved. In addition,
vegetables are replete with nutrients. They
supply nearly all of the vitamins and minerals
required for good health, many of them
especially starchy vegetables like potatoes
and winter squash - contain complex
carbohydrates, which furnish us with energy.
Most also provide dietary fiber, and a few,
such as lima beans and potatoes, can
contribute significantly to our protein intake.
At the same time, vegetables contain no
cholesterol, have little or no fat, and are low
in calories. In nutritional parlance, vegetables
are nutrient dense that is, their store of
nutrients is relatively high for the number of
calories they supply.

A) are constantly increasing as new kinds

are frequently being bred
B) are deceptive as the nutrient content is
invariably the same
C) are unfortunately inadequate in most
parts of the world
D) are not sufficient to keep anyone in
really good health
E) have a dangerously high cholesterol

180. We can understand from the passage that

____ .

178. It is emphasised in the passage that

vegetables ____ .
A) provide us with vitamins and minerals but
not carbohydrates or proteins

A) vegetables must be eaten in conjunction

with foods rich in fats and minerals

B) are a pleasant but unessential part of

most people's diet

B) only a limited range of vitamins are to be

found in vegetables

C) are highly nutritious and at the same time

low in calories

C) potatoes are among the least valuable of

the vegetables

D) have a surprisingly high calorie content

D) the starchy vegetables are a good source

of energy

E) cannot take the place of meat in our diet

E) only a small fraction of the nutrients we

need for health can be derived from

Sayfa 60 / 344



182. According to the passage, studies into the

adverse effects of smoking _____ .

The unfavourable effects of cigarette

smoking on the heart have frequently been
described, but the exact basis for these
effects has not been clarified. Some
investigators believe nicotine to be culprit
and there has been some experimental work
in animals indicating that large doses of
nicotine in conjunction with cholesterol
feeding and vitamin D could produce a
disease of the arteries resembling that seen
in humans. An alternative explanation has
been offered by other scientists who have
pointed to the possible role of carbon
monoxide being inhaled with the cigarette
181. It is pointed out in the passage that nicotine
_____ .

A) have ruled out any relationship between

smoking and cholesterol levels in
B) have not been able to establish for
certain whether or not carbon monoxide
could be a factor
C) have so far not raised any controversial
D) have shown that vitamin D reduces
nicotine in the body
E) indicate that nicotine and carbon
monoxide may be only minor factors

183. The main concern of the passage is to

_____ .

A) is considered by some to be one of the

reasons why smoking has an adverse
effect on the heart

A) describe certain experiments on animals

relating to the effects of carbon

B) is the only harmful factor in relation to


B) emphasises the role nicotine and vitamin

D play in the heart diseases

C) affects animals more seriously than


C) demonstrate that the adverse effects of

smoking on the heart are still under

D) has been established as more dangerous

than carbon monoxide for smokers
E) has an adverse effect only upon the

D) compare the effects on the heart of

nicotine and carbon monoxide
E) give an account of the research work
concerning animal diseases

Sayfa 61 / 344



Agriculture remains the most crucial area for
development, here it seems that the most
intractable problems of resistance to change
exist. One may argue that scientific training in
agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any
marked impact on agricultural output. Any
attempt at vocational training in agriculture
presupposes that a meaningful structure of
incentive exists for the individual farmer to
increase his output, improve his techniques,
and expand his range of activities. Without
such incentives and opportunities,
agricultural education can have little impact.

184. The author is of the opinion that

improvements in the field of agriculture
_____ .

185. We can understand from the passage that

the agriculture community _____ .
A) tends to disregard the problems of the
individual farmer
B) is eager for more vocational training
C) is fully aware of the long-term benefits of
scientific training
D) has already begun to benefit from the
improved techniques
E) is not the one that welcomes change

186. The author concludes that vocational

training in agriculture _____ .
A) will be an effective way of eliminating
resistance to change in society

A) cannot be achieved through vocational


B) will provide farmers with a wide range of


B) can easily be realised

C) have already led to good results

C) will be futile unless its backed up with

various incentives

D) are absolutely vital for productivity

E) have largely been confined to technology

D) is regarded as a priority for social

E) has often been underestimated by
various authorities

Sayfa 62 / 344




188. According to the passage, the economics of

education _____ .

Some decades ago there was hardly such a

subject as the economics of education. Today
it is one of the most rapidly growing branches
of economics. Together with health
economics, it makes up the core of the
economics of human resources, a field of
inquiry which in the last few years has been
silently revolutionising such traditional
subjects as growth economics, labour
economics, international trade, and public
finance. Consequently, the economics of
education with its concept of human
investment has rapidly transformed large
areas of orthodox economics.

A) is not connected in anyway with

investment in man
B) relates to a very narrow sphere of
human activity
C) has had no impact whatsoever on other
areas of orthodox economics
D) has today come into the forefront of
economic thinking
E) is one of the earliest branches of general

189. The author suggests that the earlier

branches of economics _____ .

187. The author points out that the term the

economics of education _____ .

A) have grown steadily in importance

A) has only come into use in very recent

B) have been substantially modified

through the introduction of the
economics of human resources

B) has for decades been under discussion

among economists
C) is of little significance in orthodox

C) have been virtually unaffected by health

economics or the economics of human

D) has only been accepted in educational


D) gave great importance to the idea of

human investment

E) is gradually disappearing from economic


E) constituted the essence of the

economics of human resources

Sayfa 63 / 344


Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more
and can be bigger than the largest lion. They
have immense strength. They clutch their
prey to them, holding on with their claws,
and depend on the crushing bite of their
powerful jaws to end the struggle. They swim
very well and can often be seen splashing
about in water on very hot days, since they
apparently suffer from heat. When the air is
chilly, however, they avoid wet or damp
vegetation. They can climb, but do not
approach the leopards ability in this. They
can negotiate treacherous rocky areas but
generally prefer to stay on level ground. They
are not as well equipped with senses as one
might expect. They apparently depend on
their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is
not particularly good, they seem unable to
spot prey until it moves.
190. It is clear from the passage that tigers _____

191. As is mentioned in the passage, a flat

terrain _____ .
A) is usually the favoured habitats of the
B) rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better
opportunities for hiding
C) provides camouflage for leopards
D) is usually wet, so tigers prefer higher
E) usually has thicker vegetation which
shelters more prey

192. From the passage we learn that, contrary to

what is generally thought _____ .

A) rely on their huge claws alone to catch

and kill their prey

A) once a prey starts to move a tiger can

rarely catch it

B) are the most skilful climbers of all wild


B) hearing is the least developed sense of

the tiger

C) are sensitive to significant variations in


C) the leopards hunting ability is far behind

that of the tiger

D) closely resemble lions as regards size,

speed and strength
E) rely heavily upon their eyesight in locating
and catching prey

Sayfa 64 / 344

D) rocky areas are invariably avoided by all

wild animals
E) the tigers senses are not particularly
well developed


Scientists have long sought ways to define
and measure human intelligence. And while
theories of intelligence have grown more
sophisticated since the 1800s when some
believed mental abilities were determined by
the size of a persons head, researchers still
do not agree about certain fundamental
principles of human thought. They, therefore,
continue to debate such basic questions as
whether heredity or the environment is more
important in forming intelligence.

193. As we learn from the passage, the age-old

controversy about whether intelligence
depends upon heredity or the environment
_____ .

194. According to the passage, in the early

nineteenth century, some people held the
view that a persons mental capacity _____.
A) could never be changed
B) depended upon the head size
C) was purely heredity
D) was completely shaped by the
E) was fundamental to his character

195. One may conclude from the passage that a

full understanding of the nature and the
capacity of human intelligence _____ .
A) can only be achieved by exceptionally

A) is now being ignored as it is seen to be


B) has finally been achieved by modern


B) was finally received in the 1800s

C) has only recently become a subject for
serious research

C) is sure to be realised within the next few


D) does not seem to have ceased yet

D) is not likely to be achieved in the near


E) was more sophisticated in the 19th

century than it is today

E) will emerge through theoretical rather

than experimental studies

Sayfa 65 / 344




197. From the passage we learn that a blend of

fiction and history _____ .

The novelist E. L. Doctorow is best known

for his mixing fiction with historical fact, by
placing his stories within the framework of
public events. In fact, by integrating the
front-page news of the 20th century America
with the lives of his characters, Doctorow
gives readers the feel of an era, combining
the unusual and the commonplace. His latest
novel Worlds Fair shows how the events of
the turbulent 1930s helped mold the
sensibilities of his young protagonist.

A) has not always been Doctorows primary

B) is deliberately avoided by Doctorow in
his most recent novels
C) is a striking feature of Doctorows writing
D) is commonly used by contemporary
American writers, including Doctorow
E) is never to be found in the traditional

198. We see in the passage that Doctorows

purpose in bringing together in his novels
the usual and the extraordinary _____ .

196. It is explained in the passage that

Doctorows novel Worlds Fair _____ .

A) is to build up a convicting picture of a


A) describes the damaging effects of the

turbulent 1930s on the sensitive young

B) did not achieve the result he aimed for in

Worlds Fair

B) is actually a full historical account of the

great changes that took place in the

C) has been frequently criticised by his


C) demonstrates his theories concerning the

relationship between man and his society

D) has not been properly appreciated

except in the case of Worlds Fair

D) fails to give his readers a feel of the

1930s in America

E) has been shared by other 20th century

American novelists

E) gives the account of how the thoughts

and feelings of the main character are
shaped by the period in which he lived

Sayfa 66 / 344


In 1964 the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development was held. For the
first time the poorer nations of the world
came together to act as a pressure group on
trading matters. The Conference made the
following recommendations. The Developing
countries should be given free access to
world markets for their manufactures and
semi manufactures by the elimination of
quotas and tariffs. International commodity
agreements should be made for each major
primary commodity in world trade to stabilise
commodity prices. Moreover, compensation
schemes, whereby the underdeveloped
countries are compensated for the declining
prices of their primary products, were
recommended for consideration. The
Conference also resolved that the developed
countries should aim to provide at least 1 per
cent of their national income as aid for the
underdeveloped countries.
199. As can be understood from the passage, the
1964 United nations Conference on Trade
and Development was remarkable because

200. With reference to this Conference, one

development mentioned in the passage
was that ____
A) each country was to benefit from
compensation schemes.
B) the idea of compensation schemes came
to the fore.
C) developed countries should not benefit
from compensation schemes.
D) compensation schemes were to be put
into effect as soon as possible.
E) the poorer countries should be
compensated for their general trade

201. From the passage we learn that one of the

resolutions adopted by the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development

A) the developing countries now had the

chance, for the first time, to have free
access to the markets of the developed

A) was soon revoked due to strong pressure

coming from underdeveloped member

B) it failed to formulate a policy that would

ensure the stabilisation of world
commodity prices.
C) all the demands of the underdeveloped
countries were accepted without
reservation by the developed countries.

B) considerably raised the world trade

tariffs on a variety of commodities.
C) concerned the amount of aid to be given
by the developed countries to the
D) envisaged a step-by-step lifting of the
worlds trade barriers.

D) a number of deadlines were set for the

signing of international commodity
E) the worlds poorer countries participating
in the Conference took joint action to
influence the resolutions on trading

Sayfa 67 / 344

E) made it imperative for the developed

countries to open up their markets to the
manufactured goods of the
underdeveloped countries.


In earlier centuries it was thought that a
great continent must exist in the southern
hemisphere, around the South Pole, to
balance the known land masses in the north.
Its real extent was better understood in the
18th century, particularly when Captain Cook
sailed for the first time south of the Antarctic
Circle and reached the edge of the icepack. A
portion of the ice-covered continent was first
sighted by Edward Bransfield in 1820.
Explorers of several other nations also
sighted portions of the coast-line in other
quarters and wrote detailed accounts of their
observations. However, in the light of these
accounts, the first extensive exploration was
made by Captain James Clarke Ross in 1841
when a great part of the Antarctic was
202. As we can understand from the passage, it
was assumed many centuries ago that the
large land mass around the North Pole ____

203. It is pointed out in the passage that it was

only with Captain Cooks voyage in the 18th
century that ____
A) the first serious expedition into the
interior of the Antarctic was launched
B) a partially accurate assessment of the
size of the Antarctic could be made.
C) people began to realise just how small
the land mass here was.
D) multi-national projects for the
exploration of the Antarctic were put
into effect.
E) the rich natural resources of the
Antarctic became known to the outside

204. It is clear from the passage that, following

various earlier reports concerning the
Antarctic, ____
A) Edward Bransfield joined the
international project to study the icepack of the continent.

A) seemed to be impenetrable and, hence,

B) could not have a counterpart in the
southern hemisphere.
C) had a regular and unchanging coastline.

B) many explorers were discouraged from

undertaking any serious exploration

D) must have been balanced by a similar

extent of land mass around the South

C) explorers from various countries began

to compete with each other for the
conquest of the continent.

E) would be reduced in size once the edge of

the ice-pack began to melt.

D) Captain Cook decided to undertake a

second voyage of discovery in the area.
E) the first major, large-scale discovery of
the continent was undertaken by James
Clarke Ross in 1841.

Sayfa 68 / 344


Oceanography is the scientific study of the
worlds oceans which cover over 70 percent
of the earths surface. The beginnings of
modern oceanography go back to the 1870s
when, for the first time, wide ranging
scientific observations and studies of the
oceans were undertaken by British. Since
then, oceanography has developed into a
highly technical and interdisciplinary science
which is now divided into several fields of
study. These are biological oceanography,
which deals with the study of the marine
organisms and marine ecology, chemical
oceanography, which is concerned with the
composition of sea water, and physical
oceanography, which studies ocean currents,
tides, waves, and the role played by the
oceans in climate and weather. Geological
oceanography is also another branch of
oceanography and is mainly concerned with
the formation, composition and evaluation of
the ocean basins. Oceanographic knowledge
is essential to allow exploitation of the
enormous food, mineral and energy
resources of the oceans wi
205. In the passage the writer does not dwell on

206. It is clear from the passage that, due to the

complexity and variety of its research
activities, oceanography ____
A) cooperates with some of the other
B) focuses only on the discovery of the new
energy resources in the oceans
C) benefits extensively from the findings of
D) is rarely concerned with the problems of
the ocean environment.
E) has developed into a separate and
independent discipline with no
relationship with other sciences.

207. We understood from the passage that over

the last hundred years or so ____

A) the purpose and research concerns of

biological oceanography.
B) the history of oceanography studies, and
the range of these studies
C) how oceanographic studies can
contribute to the improvement of

A) many wide ranging studies have been

made of ocean currents and their effects
on climate.
B) the oceans have been extensively
exploited for food and mineral deposits.
C) British scientists have carried out
extensive studies of the ocean basis.

D) the uses for us of the information

provided by oceanographic studies about
the oceans.

D) scientists have been much concerned

with the pollution of the ocean

E) what geological oceanography and

chemical oceanography deal with.

E) much progress has been made in the

development of oceanography as a

Sayfa 69 / 344


In 1945, following the Second World War, the
allies that is, the United States, the Soviet
Union, and Britain drew up and signed the
Potsdam Agreement. The main points of this
agreement were that militarism and Hitlerism
should be destroyed; that industrial power
should be so reduced that Germany would
never again be in a position to wage
aggressive war; that surplus equipment
should be destroyed or transferred to replace
wrecked plants in allied territories; that
Germany should be treated as an economic
whole, and that local self-government should
be restored on democratic lines as rapidly as
was consistent with military security.

208. As we learn from the passage, the Postdam

Agreement ____

209. According to the passage, one of the major

provisions made in the Postdam Agreement
was that ____
A) the necessary measures should be taken
to prevent Germany from any future
renewal of aggression.
B) the rearmament of Germany should be
under allied supervision.
C) the military, but not the domestic,
policies of Hitler should be discontinued.
D) Germanys industrial production should
be reduced to a pre-Hitler level.
E) local administrations in Germany should
concern themselves only with social

210. It is pointed out in the passage that the

Postdam Agreement envisaged ____

A) was originally proposed by the United


A) a European political institution to

safeguard peace.

B) was the first treaty of its kind to be signed

with the Soviet Union.

B) a step-by-step reduction of Germanys

economic efficiency.

C) was a treaty, which was signed by the

allies, with the principle aim of ensuring
peace and security in Europe.

C) the restoration of democracy throughout


D) improved the relations between the

Soviet Unions and the West.

D) the transfer of surplus equipment from

Germany to the allied countries to help
the recovery of industry there.

E) was drafted by the allies in consultation

with Germany.

E) the maintenance of military security

through a new alliance with Germany.

Sayfa 70 / 344



212. We understand from the passage that the

powers of the police ____

The police are a regular force established for

the preservation of law and order and the
prevention and detection of crime. The
powers they have vary from country to
country and with the type of government;
the more civilised and democratic the state
is, the less police intervention there is.
England, compared with other countries, was
slow to develop a police force, and it was not
until 1829 that Sir Robert Peels Metropolitan
Police Act established a regular force for the
metropolis. Later legislation established
county and borough forces maintained by
local police authorities throughout England
and Wales.

A) are much stronger in country areas than

in cities.
B) cannot be limited in democratic
C) have been strongly criticised in England.
D) were first defined by the British
government in 1829.
E) are closely related to the political regime
of a country.

213. The writer tells us that, before England set

up a police force, ____

211. It is clear from the passage that one of the

major concerns of the police is ____

A) various countries had already established

one of their own.

A) to uphold the law and maintain order in


B) the preservation of law and order was

being maintained by local authorities.

B) to put on trial those guilty of criminal


C) Sir Robert Peel showed little interest in

the preservation of law and order.

C) the enlargement of their own powers as

far as is compatible with democracy.

D) the prevention and detection of crime in

the boroughs was almost impossible.

D) to uphold the universal principles of

E) to intervene, when necessary, in matters
of legislation.

Sayfa 71 / 344

E) Wales had the highest crime rate in



The International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development (IBRD)
known as the
International Bank or as the World Bank is
an agency of the United Nations established
in 1945. It has the primary function of making
loans available to assist developing countries.
Usually, loans are made to finance specific
projects of investment in underdeveloped
countries; and the Bank will normally make a
loan only if it is satisfied that the investment
will yield a revenue sufficient to enable the
payment of interest on the loan, and
repayment of the sum lent. In 1983 the Bank
made loans to the value of $3.300 million.
Thus a sizeable amount of lending is
channelled through the Bank, but it is clear
that some projects of great value to
underdeveloped countries cannot be
financed in this way, because they would not
yield returns quickly enough or large enough
to meet the Banks requirements for interest
and repayment.
214. It is pointed out in the passage that the
World Bank was founded in order to ____

215. We can understand from the passage that

the World Bank will usually not provide
loans for investment projects in developing
countries unless ____
A) it is absolutely certain that the money
lent will be returned in full and with
B) it has been unanimously approved by the
United Nations.
C) these countries are in a position to
finance a good part of these projects.
D) these projects are indeed of vital
importance for the industrialisation of
these countries.
E) these countries are prepared to pay a
sizeable interest rate on the money lent.

216. The passage gives a general account of ____

A) provide the nations with a constant

source of income for its various projects.
B) bring all developing countries up to the
same level of economic prosperity.
C) provide underdeveloped countries in
particular, with the necessary financial
support for the realisation of their major
development projects.

A) why the World Bank has relaxed its

traditionally strict loan policies in favour
of developing countries.
B) how the World Bank was founded and
has been financed by the United Nations.
C) the ways and means by which the World
Bank has influenced developing

D) give loans to all the countries in the world

on an equal basis, regardless of their
economic position.

D) how the financial policies of the World

Bank are controlled by the United

E) make loans available to those countries

not receiving support from the developed

E) the main funding policy followed by the

World Bank in relation to
underdeveloped countries.

Sayfa 72 / 344


Paper has been known in one form or
another from very early times. The papyrus
reeds of the Nile swamps served the ancient
Egyptians for sheets upon which to inscribe
their records. The Chinese and Japanese,
centuries later, were using something more
akin to modern paper in substance, an Asiatic
paper-mulberry, yielding a smooth fibrous
material, being utilised. With the spread of
learning in Western Europe the necessity of a
readier medium made itself felt, and paper
began to be manufactured from pulped rags
and other substances. Other papermaking
staples were later introduced, such as linen
cotton and wood-pulp. The chief raw
material in the world paper industry now is
wood-pulp, the main exporters being the
timber-growing countries of Canada, Sweden
and Finland.
217. We can understand from the passage that,
throughout history, paper ____ .

218. It is obvious from the passage that today

the wood-pulp needed for the manufacture
of paper ____ .
A) is largely provided by the countries
which produce a great deal of timber
B) is produced from a variety of substances
other than timber
C) can only be produced economically with
the aid of sophisticated technology
D) is normally made from raw materials
locally available
E) can most readily be prepared from
timber with a high fibrous content

219. The main concern of the passage is to --____ .

A) has played a vital role in the advancement

of learning
B) has been a major export item for Asian
countries, and for China in particular
C) has been produced from a wide range of
D) has been valued as a means of
communication more in the West than in
the East
E) has largely been used for documentation
rather than for learning

Sayfa 73 / 344

A) explain why there has been so little

change in the development of
B) describe how the West learned the
techniques of papermaking
C) account for the economic implications of
the paper industry
D) give a historical account of papermaking
with emphasis on the main raw materials
E) alert the reader to the fact that very
large amounts of timber are consumed in



221. One can understand from the passage that

further oil explorations ____ .

The great expansion in energy demand over

recent years has been met to a large extent
by petroleum oil. The total world reserves of
petroleum oil are still uncertain since large
parts of the world are still not fully
prospected. The cutback in oil production
and the rise in the price of Middle Eastern oil
following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war
unleashed a worldwide energy crisis which
affected the economies of consumer
countries. One result of this crisis has been
that Britain has increased its North Sea oil
production and become the fifth largest oil
producing country in the world.

220. It is pointed out in the passage that, to meet

its increasing energy needs, the world ____ .

A) would inevitably result in a drop in oil

B) are unlikely to produce any positive
C) should be carried out both in the Middle
East and in the North Sea
D) may cause new tensions in the Middle
E) could lead to the discovery of rich
reserves of petroleum as yet untapped

222. According to the passage, one result of the

oil crisis caused by the Arab-Israeli war has
been that ____ .

A) will have to develop new sources of

energy in addition to petroleum oil
B) has had to face a recurrent energy crisis

A) the world has learned to reduce its

energy consumption

C) has, in recent years, relied heavily on

petroleum oil

B) Britain has become one of the leading oil


D) has had to rely more and more on British


C) many new oil fields throughout the world

have been prospected and brought into

E) is learning to depend upon a larger variety

of energy sources

D) Britain has emerged as the largest

exporter of petroleum oil in the world
E) consumer countries have had to redefine
their economic priorities

Sayfa 74 / 344


In 1903 the United States signed a treaty with
Panama, which gave the United States rights
in perpetuity ever a 16 km wide strip of land
extending across the narrowest part of
Panama for the purpose of building and
running a canal. The canal built, now known
as the Panama Canal, connects the Atlantic
and the Pacific Oceans and is just over 80 km
long. Its depth varies from 12 to 26 meters. It
is constructed above sea-level, with locks and
has been available for commercial shipping
since 3 August 1914. An agreement was
reached in 1978 for the waterway to be
turned over Panama by the end of the
223. According to the passage, with the 1978
agreement concerning the Panama Canal it
was agreed that ____ .

224. We understand from the passage that the

locks in the Panama Canal are essential
____ .
A) as, for a canal, 80 kilometres is a very
long stretch of waterway
B) since the canal authorities need to be
supervise shipping in the canal
C) lest enemy ships attempt to enter the
D) even though the United States would
have preferred not to build them
E) because there is a difference between
the level of the Canal and that of the sea

225. As it is pointed out in the passage, the

Panama Canal ____ .
A) will continue to be run jointly by Panama
and the United States

A) shipping through the Canal would be

jointly supervised by Panama and the
United States
B) the right to operate the Canal would rest
with the United States for ever
C) the Canal would revert to Panama at the
end of the century
D) the costs would be shared equally
between Panama and the United States

B) has continuously caused friction

between the United States and Panama
C) has had an increasing volume of shipping
since it was first opened
D) was constructed to connect the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans at their closest point
E) has become the worlds busiest
waterway for commercial shipping

E) the Canal had to accept commercial

shipping from all countries

Sayfa 75 / 344


When there has been a serious disaster such
as an earthquake or flooding, various relief
efforts are rapidly put into effect. However,
experience has shown that it is usually
impractical to attempt mass immunisation
immediately following a disaster and that,
when attempted, it detracts from the overall
relief effort without producing a discernible
benefit. Effective immunisation requires prior
planning good systems of communication
and transport and access to the population at
risk. These requirements cannot be met in
the immediate postdisaster period. Efforts to
achieve mass vaccination in the relief phase
also drain whatever limited manpower,
communication facilities, and transportation

226. It is pointed out in the passage that, as part

of the relief work following a disaster, ____ .

227. We can understand from the passage that,

in the main, in the aftermath of a disaster,
____ .
A) it is not often possible to have access to
adequate communication facilities
B) the transport of relief workers to the
area should be carefully planned
C) untold benefits are to be derived from
mass immunisation
D) the distribution of food and medicine is
the main activity of the relief phase
E) conditions are not favourable for the
implementation of an efficient
immunisation programme

228. We can understand from the passage that,

if transport and communication facilities
are inadequate, ____ .

A) the most difficult to organise is the fair

distribution of supplies

A) then relief efforts will be adversely


B) mass immunisation is not usually to be


B) the population at risk has to be removed

to a safer place

C) communication facilities are among the

most urgent measures to be taken

C) the problems facing relief workers will

not be so obvious

D) it is important to plan comprehensively

the evacuation of the badly wounded
E) one of the priorities must be the
resettlement of the displaced population

Sayfa 76 / 344

D) relief efforts have to be doubled to

improve the situation
E) the amount of man power has to be
increased by every means available



230. According to the passage, one of the

primary goals of a university is to ____ .

Universities are institutions of higher

education whose principal objects are the
increase of knowledge over a wide field
through original thought and research and its
extensions by the teaching of students. Such
societies existed in the ancient world, notably
in Greece and India, but the origin of the
University as we know it today lies in
medieval Europe, the word universitas
being a contraction of the Latin term for
corporations of teachers and students
organised for the promotion of higher
learning. The earliest bodies to become
recognised under this description were at
Bologna and Paris in the first half of the 12th
century. Oxford was founded by an early
migration of scholars from Paris, and
Cambridge began with a further migration
from Oxford. Other universities sprang up all
over Europe from the 14th century onwards.
229. The main concern of the passage is ____ .

A) encourage the establishment of higher

education institutions
B) undertake the furthering of knowledge,
teaching and research in a wide variety
of fields
C) provide students with professional
D) supervise the research undertaken by
other institutions in society
E) make arrangements for the exchange of
students and scholars in the world

231. The writer points out that, although the

origins of universities can be traced to
antiquity, the history of the modern
university ____ .

A) the comparison of different types of

B) the development of the European
universities from the Middle Ages to the

A) is closely linked to the history of Oxford

and Cambridge universities

C) to describe the aims and the early history

of universities

B) begins with the use, in the Renaissance,

of the word universitas

D) to explain how and why the medieval

university came into being

C) centres around the migration of scholars

in Europe

E) to emphasise the need for research in


D) really dates from the Middle Ages

E) largely depends on the studies carried
out at Bologna and Paris

Sayfa 77 / 344



233. It is suggested in the passage that as an

approach to life, the Romantic view ____ .

Romanticism is a term for a movement in the

arts, that is, in music, painting, sculpture or
literature, which seeks to give expression to
the artists feelings about his subject rather
than to be concerned with form and reality.
The romantic view is that art is nature seen
through a temperament; the realist view, on
the other hand, is that art is a slice of life. In
painting Delacroix (1789-1863) is the
romantic artist par excellence with his
uncontrolled expression of the passions and
love of the exotic. In literature the Romantic
movement reached its finest form in the
works of Goethe, Schiller and Heine; in the
poetry of Byron, Keats, Wordsworth, Shelly
and Blake; and in the writings of Victor Hugo.
Since Romanticism is partly a matter of
temperament in the artist just as Classicism
is, it may be found at all times and places,
although whether or not it becomes
predominant depends on contemporary
232. The writer explains that the most distinctive
characteristic of Romanticism is ____ .

A) is constantly recurrent in the human

B) has often been subordinate to Classicism
C) is out of favour in the contemporary
D) is best expressed in music, not in other
forms of art
E) came into being as a reaction against

234. The passage quite simply describes ____ .

A) the influence of Romanticism in art upon
Romanticism in literature

A) an accurate description of the natural


B) the romantic quality of Delacroixs

painting and its counterpart in literature

B) its dedicated concern with the issues of

actual life
C) the expression of individuals emotions
D) the importance it attaches to form rather
than to content
E) its avoidance of the pictorial and the

C) the similarities and differences between

Romanticism and other literary
D) the revival of Romanticism as an artistic
temperament in the contemporary world
E) what Romanticism is and who its major
exponents have been

Sayfa 78 / 344



236. According to the writer, if poverty is to be

overcome, ____

Eliminating poverty is largely a matter of

helping children born into poverty to rise out
of it. Once families escape from poverty they
do not fall back into it. Middle-class children
rarely end up poor. The primary reason poor
children do not escape from poverty is that
they do not acquire basic mental skills. They
cannot read, write, calculate or articulate.
Lacking these skills, they cannot get or keep a
well-paid job. The best mechanism for
breaking this vicious circle is to provide the
poor with better educational opportunities.
Since children born into poor homes do not
acquire the skills they need from their
parents, they must be taught these skills in
235. The writer makes the point that, once people
have overcome poverty, ____

A) the only effective means for this would

be to provide better education.
B) more well-paid jobs should be offered to
the poor.
C) all children, regardless of their social
class, should receive the same formal
D) middle-class children should be given
better educational opportunities.
E) the education of children should be
based on mental skills alone.

237. The main argument of the passage is that


A) the skills of reading and writing cease to

be important for them.

A) the elimination of poverty can only be

achieved if the poor and the rich attend
the same school.

B) they cease to mix socially with the poor.

C) they soon learn to adopt middle-class
manners and ways.

B) middle-class children do not need to

learn basic mental skills at school, since
they learn them at home.

D) it is most unlikely that they will ever

become poor again.

C) the children of the poor must learn basic

mental skills at school so that they can
escape from poverty.

E) they become eligible for well-paid

employment in industry.

D) Since basic mental skills are not being

taught efficiently at schools, educational
reform is essential.
E) a child born into a poor family will
inevitably stay poor all through his life.

Sayfa 79 / 344


Not just in substance but in manner too,
Robin Trevelyan, who is the Prime Ministers
new righthand man, is a politician in the old
style. He avoids the flourish which
characterises modern politicians. His
speeches are at best unemotional, at worst
dull. He is all but incapable of inspiring an
audience. His face is inexpressive, solid
almost. He evades making promises and is
completely lacking in vision. He is a politician
whose talent has never been to inspire the

239. With regard to the Prime Ministers new

righthand man, it is pointed out in the
passage that one of his shortcomings as a
politician is ____
A) his lack of any genuine belief in his own
B) his inability to follow someone elses
C) his reluctance to commit himself or
articulate a vision.
D) his tendency to scorn public opinion.
E) his fondness for modern political

240. In this passage, the writer has set out to


238. We can understand from the passage that

Robin Trevelyan ____
A) cannot keep his real feelings from the
public eye.

A) highlight the rare political qualities of the

present Prime Minister.

B) has, with his speech, always been able to

sway public feeling.

B) criticise modern British politics in the

person of the Prime Minister.

C) is, with his dramatic speeches, a typical

politician of our time.

C) portray the ideal type of a politician in

our time.

D) is trusted and valued by the prime


D) account for the failure of the Prime

Ministers previous adviser

E) is one of those rare politicians who really

understands the psychology of the

E) present a concise study of the political

personality of the Prime Ministers new

Sayfa 80 / 344



242. The writer points out that, unlike the case

in Britain, in some cultures ____

Work is central in British culture. When

someone asks one What do you do?, they
really mean What work do you do?. When a
woman is asked Do you work?, what is
meant is Are you doing a paid job?. Yet
many people without a paid job work at
other kinds of productive activities. Women,
notably, perform an unpaid double shift in
the home as housekeepers and mothers. To
confine the term work to paid employment,
therefore, restricts it far too narrowly. There
are many other kinds of work, some of which
can take more time and energy than we put
into our paid employment from the voluntary
working in the garden to repairs to the house
or the car. In other cultures, work is not as
highly valued as this; some people value
leisure more, and work only as much as they
need in order to provide basic necessities.

241. The writer suggests that people tend to

regard the word work as ____

A) work in any form is highly respected.

B) unpaid activities such as housework
make up virtually the whole of a
womans day.
C) voluntary work is held in high respect.
D) it is leisure, not work, that is of primary
E) people are unwilling to work to meet
even their basic necessities.

243. According to the passage, unpaid jobs ____

A) are invariably more pleasurable than
paid ones.

A) referring only to paid employment.

B) being limited only to voluntary work.

B) can be quite as time-consuming as paid


C) relating only to physical effort.

D) interchangeable with leisure.

C) are always assigned to women rather

than to men.

E) an activity with an end-product.

D) are not readily available in Britain.

E) are rarely taken on by people who go out
to work.

Sayfa 81 / 344



245. According to the author, the consumption

of alcohol in the world ____

Alcohol, nicotine and caffeine are

psychoactive drugs that are freely available in
our society. Their wide spread use shows that
they provide a common solution to the
problems of vast numbers of individuals. The
extent and the nature of their use is not ,
however, uniform but varies with the
particular sub-culture involved. To take
alcohol, for example, there are wide
differences between the drinking habits and
rituals of merchant, seamen and
businessmen, between Italians and Jews.
Each sub-group in society will have a
conception of what the permissible and
desirable effects of alcohol are, how much it
is necessary to drink to achieve this desired
state; what is normal and what is deviant
drinking behaviour.

244. It is pointed out in the passage that

psychoactive drugs such as alcohol, nicotine
and caffeine are widely used because _____

A) is particularly widespread among

members of sub-cultures
B) is directly related to the economic
prosperity of each sub-group
C) varies from race to race, culture to
culture and class to class
D) is closely linked with the increase of
deviant drinking behaviour
E) made the practices and behaviour of
sub-cultures in society more uniform

246. The writer points out that there is little

agreement among sub-groups _____

A) sub-groups in society identify themselves

with them.
B) people with problems find them helpful

A) about the extent to which psychoactive

drugs should be produced
B) about the benefits of psychoactive drugs
C) as regards why businessman drink so

C) their effects have been proved to be

D) they are much cheaper than many other
drugs and legally obtainable
E) society at large regards them as harmful

Sayfa 82 / 344

D) as to why Italians and Jews have

different drinking habits
E) as to how much alcohol can be properly



248. According to the author, legislation against

gender discrimination ____

In the early 1970s, there was a great deal of

optimism about improving womens position,
ending male privilege and doing away with
gender divisions and even gender difference.
Equal opportunities legislation was enacted
in many countries, and the voice of the
womens movement was heard criticising
discrimination between the sexes in every
sphere of working life. Now it is clear that
legislation can make only a marginal
difference to entrenched patterns of job
segregation and inequality. The voices of
feminism, too, are varied; some demand
equality with men while others pursue the
revaluation of womens skills and womanly

247. It is pointed out in the passage that many

people in the early 1970s ____ .

A) has contributed surprisingly little

towards the improvement of womens
position in society
B) has been grossly neglected especially in
less prosperous countries
C) has, in many countries, already made the
position of women fully equal to that of
D) has brought about balance in society that
satisfies the womens movement
E) has been fully successful in eradicating
job segregation in industrial countries

249. According to the passage, there are people

in the feminist movement who ____ .

A) realised that a majority of women were

not genuinely interested in job

A) argue that women dont deserve equal

opportunities with men in working life
B) believe that womens qualities have
been undervalued and should be

B) were doubtful as to whether legislation

could improve the position of women in

C) are convinced that women would have a

stronger position if they kept their

C) actively took part in womens

demonstrations against male aggression
and dominance in the workplace
D) confidently expected the elimination of
the inequality existing between the sexes
E) were scarcely aware of there being any
discrimination between the sexes

Sayfa 83 / 344

D) believe that the movement is far from

achieving any of its original objectives
E) are concerned that the legislation against
sex discrimination in working life may be
revoked in the near future


All of us are born, all of us will die; but there
is infinite variety in the nature and
circumstances of these two events
themselves and in what happens to our
bodies and our minds in between. Some
individuals, for example, are born without
difficulty and grow uninterruptedly during
childhood and adolescence, suffering at
worst only minor infectious diseases and
accidents. As adults, they reproduce their
kind. They age gradually until, in extreme old
age, they die peacefully without pain or
discomfort. This is an idealised picture of how
we would like things to be, rather than the
reality that most people experience. Death
comes to many of us, not when we are old,
but during or before birth, in infancy, in
adolescence, in early adulthood or in middle

250. One point made by the author in this

passage is that we, as human beings, ____ .

251. The writer points out that, though most

people expect life to be free of care and
death easy, ____ .
A) this is not likely to happen either in
adolescence or in adulthood
B) they have to strive hard to attain this
idealised condition
C) this is, in fact, very rarely the case
D) for many people a worthwhile life has
more to it than this
E) this is seldom the case except in old age

252. In this passage the writer points out the

disparity between ____ .

A) must face the fact that accidents in old

age are inevitable

A) the basically fortunate lives of the

majority and the tragic experience of a
small minority

B) have all similar opportunities but use

them differently
C) all enjoy a happy childhood and a healthy
D) ought to take certain measures to avoid
infections diseases in childhood
E) have widely differing experiences of birth,
life and death

B) what everyone expects of life and what

he actually achieves in life
C) the early happy years of our lives, and
the later tragic ones
D) the near ideal life experience of the few
and the actual life experience of the
E) the happier middle years of a persons
life and the more trying later years

Sayfa 84 / 344



254. It is pointed out in the passage that the

waters of the Amazon ____ .

The Amazon is the largest river in the world.

It carries about a quarter of the world's
running water and is the second longest after
the Nile. Much of it is brown, brackish,
piranha-infested and bitterly cold. Ranging
from narrow tributaries and raging rapids to
stretches of prodigious width and calm, the
river's banks can take half a day to reach. In
parts, it can drop up to 40 metres in less than
a kilometre Furthermore, it runs through
deep canyons and steep gorges that have
been carved out by its turbulent waters.

253. We learn from the passage that, though the

Amazon has the largest volume of water of
any river in the world, ____ .

A) shelter many species of exotic fish

B) are in parts muddy and not fresh
C) form a chain of spectacular waterfalls
D) are not suitable for the survival of
E) flow calmly throughout its course

255. The passage largely deals with ____ .

A) the differences and the similarities
between the Amazon and the Nile
B) the varying problems of navigation along
the Amazon

A) it is not the longest

B) it is in no parts particularly wide
C) there is very little topographical variety its
D) it is seldom used for the transportation of

C) the geological formation of the course of

the Amazon
D) the number and the size of the Amazon's
many tributaries
E) The size of the Amazon and its
topographical end aquatic features

E) it is in most parts congested with mud

and slime,hence slow-moving

Sayfa 85 / 344



257. It is suggested in the passage that Gene

Moore spent his early years ____ .

The great window-dresser Gene Moore

seems to have been self-taught. As a young
man his main idea was to get away from
Birmingham, Alabama, then a town of steel
and pollution. It was, he said, the wrong
place to be born in for anyone with dreams.
He dreamt of being a concert pianist and
then of being a painter. But he decided that
he did not play very well, and presently gave
up painting. In New York in the 1930s he got
various casual jobs. One was with a store that
decided he had flair and put him in its display
department, and that was the start of his
career. He worked for a number of shops
promoting their wares, and built a reputation
for innovative ideas.
256. One understands from the passage that it
took Gene Moore very many years to ____ .

A) preparing for the career of his choice

which was window-dressing
B) in New York where he made his dreams
come true
C) in an environment that he felt was
hostile to his creative development
D) in Alabama where he got his professional
E) painting industrial landscapes in Alabama

258. It is clear from the passage that Gene

Moore become a window-dresser ____ .

A) find out what he was really good at

B) return to his native town of Birmingham,

A) in order to make a name for himself in

New York's fashion circles
B) more by accident than by design

C) realise that he hated living in an industrial


C) only after he had established himself as a

musician and a painter

D) accept the fact that he wasn't a gifted


D) almost as soon as he arrived in New York

E) get a department store of his own in New


Sayfa 86 / 344

E) even though he lacked any form of

creative talent as his employers knew



Pollution is no respecter of national
boundaries today. But environmental
scientists can still be surprised by the
distances that large quantities of industrial
pollutants can sometimes be carried by
winds. For instance, a group of chemists at
the University of Washington in Seattle have
been involved in a case study of such
pollutants which reached the West Coast of
America all the way from Asia. They are keen
to understand how such an event could take
place and to what extent it could have been
forecast. In fact, back in March 1997,
pollutants such as carbon-monoxide from
Asia had been spotted as far across the
Pacific Ocean as Hawaii. Thus, it seems
increasingly likely that the West Coast of
America is particularly exposed to pollution
from Asia.

259. It is suggested in the passage that industrial

pollution in our world today ____ .

260. It is pointed out In the passage that one of

the issues the chemists from the University
of Washington are seriously concerned with
____ .
A) is how to clean up the Pacific Ocean and
save it from industrial pollutants
B) is whether it may be possible to foretell
the movements of pollutants from Asia
C) is whether it might be possible to change
the course of industrial pollutants along
the West Coast
D) has been the measurement of carbon
monoxide levels around Hawaii
E) should be the prevention of the emission
of pollutants along the West Coast of

261. One can conclude from the passage that

Asian industry appears to ____ .

A) is largely concentrated in the Pacific


A) be in desperate need of reconstruction

and relocation

B) is gradually being brought under full


B) be doing all it can to prevent

environmental pollution

C) has been the main concern of scientists

from the University of Washington

C) be emitting more carbon-monoxide than

any other industrial pollutant

D) can be predicted and the necessary

measures taken

D) pose a serious environmental threat to

the West Coast of America

E) can travel amazing distances

E) be a major competitor for the American

industrial enterprises along the West

Sayfa 87 / 344




263. According to the passage, a major concern

of some poetry anthologies is to ____ .

Most poetry anthologies are assembled by

poets. This is not necessarily a good thing.
They are in fact assembled for many different
reasons. Some resemble star charts, trying to
define the scope of the new and show us
what direction poetry is heading. Others turn
their gaze on the past, seeking to define
poetries of earlier centuries or to identify
influential currents of thinking and feeling.
Yet other anthologies strive to present
enduring images of the beautiful for the
reader's pleasure, as if poems were bunches
of flowers.
262. From the passage we understand that the
writer ____ .

A) introduce readers to the works of poets

who have generally been overlooked
B) emphasise the vital importance of poetry
in our everyday life
C) help people to understand and
appreciate the art of the past
D) offer guidance to aspiring young poets
E) illustrate certain major intellectual and
literary movements of the past

264. The writer compares some anthologies of

modern poetry to "star charts' because
____ .

A) considers the main role of poetry

anthologies to be the cultivation of a
sense of beauty

A) they attempt to foresee forthcoming

trends in poetry

B) is in favour of poets' compilation of

poetry anthologies

B) he is himself a representative of this type

of poetry

C) is rather critical of the way that most

poetry anthologies are compiled

C) his own predictions have rarely been


D) is himself compiling an anthology of

modem poetry

D) he doesnt believe the future can be

interpreted by reference to the past

E) seems to favour anthologies that give

priority to the poetry of the past

E) they provide a comprehensive

perspective of various poetical

Sayfa 88 / 344




266. In the passage it is claimed that XXX ____ .

Everybody needs vitamins and minerals to

remain healthy. The questions are, which
ones, how much and when? And the answer
is surprisingly simple: take XXX. Actually, the
Department of Health has recognised 18
essential vitamins and mineral that we need
on a daily basis. The daily amount required of
these vitamins and minerals is termed the
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). XXX
meet this requirement and more. As a new
vitamin complex, it contains these 18
essential vitamins and minerals, plus a total
of no less than 31 other micro-nutrients,
including the complete antioxidant group and
folic acid. There is no more complete a
multimineral-multivitamin on the market. So,
because you dont always eat as you should,
it makes sense to take XXX.
265. One essential point made in the passage is
that ____ .

A) is the easiest way of getting an adequate

supply of vitamins and other micronutrients daily
B) has been strongly recommended by the
Department of Health
C) is the only multimineral-multivitamin
complex currently on sale
D) is particularly effective if it is taken after
E) is an aid to better eating habits

267. It is clear from the passage that, in taking

vitamins and minerals, the basic problem
one faces is to ____ .

A) vitamins and minerals must always be

taken in conjunction with other micronutrients

A) decide the quantity required in any given


B) the Recommended Daily Allowance of

vitamins and minerals is actually not

B) keep the correct balance between the

C) avoid an excessive intake of the antioxidant group

C) the Recommended Daily Allowance of

vitamins and minerals should not be
exceeded by a supplementary intake of
other nutrients

D) determine the kind and the amount to

be taken daily

D) micro-nutrients, such as folic acid, are an

adequate substitute for the 18 basic
vitamins and minerals
E) a daily intake of vitamins and minerals is
vital for good health

Sayfa 89 / 344

E) follow a strict diet that includes them all




269. It is pointed out in the passage that the

resources of zaito were once used to ____ .

In Japan, there is a government investment

and loan programme, known as zaito. Unlike
normal government spending, zaito relies not
on tax revenues but on people's savings.
These are drawn from the publicly-owned
postal-savings system, which by law must
place all deposits with zaito, and from the
postal life-insurance schemes and various
pension funds. The finance ministry, which
has run zaito for more than 100 years, then
lends the money out. During the second
World War, zaito financed Japans military
build-up. Afterwards, it paid for
reconstruction and helped to channel lowcost funds into such strategic industries as
steel and car-making. More recently, it has
turned to social investments, such as
infrastructure projects and housing.
268. According to the writer, the most distinctive
feature of zaito is that ____ .

A) strengthen the financial position of

pension funds in the country
B) provide houses for the care of the elderly
in Japan
C) improve the efficiency and performance
of the Japanese postal-services
D) revive Japan's industrial potential
E) provide a supplementary source of
income for the needs of the ministry of

270. One can easily conclude from the passage

that the implementation of zaito has ____ .

A) it has continued to be in use for longer

than was originally envisaged

A) changed over the years in accordance

with the pressing needs of the country

B) its revenues are invariably directed

towards military rearmament

B) always been strictly confined to housing


C) it provides the government with a

revenue raised not through taxation but
by way of personnel savings

C) greatly increased the operational

capacity of the Japanese army today
D) always had in adverse impact upon the
saving habits of the Japanese people

D) it does not come under the mandate of

the ministry of finance
E) it has aroused a great deal of resentment
among Japanese savers

Sayfa 90 / 344

E) given a boost to the governments

insurance and pension policies




272. It is stressed in the passage that. with his

creative talent, Edison ____ .

Edison, one of the pioneers of modern

technology, lacked formal education. His
understanding of literature, art, history and
philosophy was superficial. Also, despite the
fact that he had invented the phonograph
and founded a recording company, his
musical taste was abominable. He is,
therefore, sometimes regarded with disdain
by academic scientists, who often forget that
his ingenuity, inquiring spirit and tireless
efforts contributed significantly to the
development of modern technology.

271. We can understand from the passage that

some scientists in the universities ____ .

A) became a favorite model for the

scientists in the universities
B) achieved great success in many
C) was able to contribute enormously to the
progress of modern technology
D) exercised a lasting influence in the music
E) was able to put his formal education to
pragmatic uses

273. This passage, while admitting some

deficiencies in Edison, ____ .

A) are oblivious of Edison's achievements

and look down on him

A) seeks to establish his moral integrity

B) in fact stresses his achievements in the

B) argue that modern technology owes

everything to Edison

C) finds nothing to criticize in his academic


C) have followed closely in Edison's

footsteps and upgraded his inventions
D) possess the same inquiring spirit as Edison
E) have no greater an appreciation of
literature than did Edison

Sayfa 91 / 344

D) suggests that he has been unjustly

criticized by non-scientists
E) actually focuses on the value of his work
in technology




275. To start with, as the writer suggests

women's access to higher education ____ .

Under increasing social pressure in the late

nineteenth century, some universities
opened their doors to a small number of
women. More significant, however, was the
founding of many women's colleges,
frequently run by women. These colleges
strove over the years to maintain a
curriculum equivalent to that of the largely
male universities. Therefore, many leaders of
the women's college movement saw
themselves as social reformers. Although
women entered universities in large numbers
in the first half of the twentieth century, their
participation was limited by their
professional objectives: teaching, social work,
nursing, home economics and the like were
"women's fields".

274. It is clear from the passage that higher

education for women ____ .

A) was confined to certain professions

B) was greatly eased when radical social
reforms were introduced in the
nineteenth century.
C) reached its highest peak in the late
nineteenth century
D) began to decline in the early decades of
this century
E) has still not reached the anticipated goal

276. It is explained in the passage that the early

colleges founded for women ____ .

A) received very little public attention prior

to the twentieth century

A) offered training in a very wide range of


B) had always been a primary concern for

governments throughout the nineteenth

B) were largely governed by male


C) became feasible only after the

establishment of women's colleges

C) made a great effort to keep their

educational standards on a level with
those of men's universities

D) only became available in the closing years

of the last century

D) acted as pioneers for social reforms in all

aspects of the community

E) was soon on a level with that for men

E) avoided any interaction with men's


Sayfa 92 / 344




278. As we learn from the passage, it is the

plants of the earth that ____ .

Atmosphere is the gaseous envelope of the

earth, and consists of a mixture of gases and
water vapour. The variability of the latter is
meteorologically of great importance. The
ozone layer, which absorbs solar ultra-violet
radiation, especially lethal to plant life, lies
between 12 and 50 kilometres above the
earth. The lower level of the atmosphere, up
to a height of about 12 kilometres, is known
as the troposphere, and it is in this region
that nearly all weather phenomena occur.
This is the region of most interest to the
forecaster studying temperature, humidity,
wind-speed and the movement of air masses.

277. According to the passage, the earth ____ .

A) are most obviously affected by the

meteorological changes in the
B) benefit most from the water vapour in
the atmosphere
C) help to reduce the effects of solar
D) suffer most from the ultra-violet
radiation of the sun
E) contribute to the elimination of toxic
gases in the atmosphere

279. We understand from the passage that the

troposphere is of vital importance as
regards the weather, ____ .

A) is exposed to the deadly effects of the

dangerous gases and water vapour that
surround it.

A) even though wind-speeds cannot be

accurately measured here

B) is surrounded by gases in combination

with water vapour

B) as it accommodates the ozone layer

C) has an atmosphere which is comprised of

extremely harmful gaseous substances

C) even though the atmospheric variability

is not predictable

D) has a constant climate in spite of

meteorological variations in the
atmospheric gases

D) since it prevents solar radiation from

reaching the earth
E) because all the meteorological
phenomena take place in this region

E) gives off a constant supply of water

vapour into the atmosphere

Sayfa 93 / 344




281. It is pointed out in the passage that

Doctorows works ____ .

Edger Lawrence Doctorow is 55, and on

almost anyones list he is counted among the
leading serious American novelists today.
Although he is not simply a writer of
comedies, his books sell widely, and three
have been made into movies. Readers, some
critics excepted, have come to relish the
blending of the fact and fiction that marks his
odd scrutiny of the American past. In his
recently published book, Worlds Fair, he
turns his historically inventive method on
himself drawing heavily on material taken
from his 1930s boyhood.

A) turn historical facts and events into

comic fiction
B) have nearly all been made into films
C) are rarely representative of the American
way of life
D) have received relatively little criticism in
literary journals
E) have a wide appeal for American readers

282. According to the passage, Doctorows latest

work ____ .
280. We understand from the passage that, in his
works, Doctorow ____ .
A) uses both true and imaginary material in
order to depict the past of his country
B) deals with not only the comic but also the
tragic aspects of his own life
C) concentrates on grotesque situations
largely pertaining to American history

A) has turned out to be the most popular of

all his works
B) is already attracting the attention of the
film makers
C) is a historical account of American life in
the 1930s
D) is autobiographical, but employs the
same method used in his earlier works

D) constantly reiterates the events of his

childhood in the 1930s

E) can be considered to be a political

analysis of the years of his childhood

E) draws on the American past so as to

instruct the present

Sayfa 94 / 344




284. One point made in the passage is that

Saroyan began his writing career ____ .

William Saroyans parents and relatives were

Armenian immigrants who settled in the
farming area around Fresno, California.
Saroyan left school at fifteen and went to
work, doing odd jobs. During this time he
read widely and began writing in his
distinctive natural style. By the late 1930s his
many short stories, novels and plays had
established him as a writer. Many of his
stories have grown out of his experiences in
the Armenian community around Fresno.

283. It is pointed out in the passage that Saroyan

____ .

A) with the aim of helping the Armenian

community to be better understood
B) before he reached the age of fifteen
C) after he arrived in America
D) as a self-taught man
E) with the encouragement and support of
his parents

285. According to the passage, what made

Saroyans writing so special was ____ .

A) was already an established writer when

he emigrated to America

A) that he was influenced by a wide variety

of other literatures

B) based most of his stories on the life of the

Armenian community that he knew so

B) that they all dealt solely with Armenian


C) expected that one day he would be

recognised as a great writer

C) the fact that he was the first writer to

present the Armenian community in

D) began his career by writing short stories

but later he became primarily a

D) that the setting was in all cases Fresno in


E) portrayed in his writings not only

Armenian types but also other ethnicities

Sayfa 95 / 344

E) the simple yet striking manner in which

he wrote them




287. We learn from the passage that the first

Everest expedition ____ .

For many years after Mt. Everest had been

shown to be the highest mountain in the
world, political conditions in Nepal, lying
south of the summit, and in Tibet to the
North, prevented mountaineers from
attending an ascent. At last in 1921 the
Tibetan authorities gave permission and the
first expedition organised, as were all
subsequent expeditions by international joint
committee, was sent out. This was primarily a
reconnaissance. Besides mapping the
Northern flank, it found a practicable route
up to the mountain. By 1939, six further
expeditions had climbed on the northern
face. Some were hampered by bad weather,
others by problems previously little known,
such as the effect of high altitudes on the
human body and spirit. Nevertheless, notable
climbs were accomplished, though the
summit was never reached.
286. It is pointed out in the passage that during
the 1920s and 1930s ____ .

A) was sponsored and encouraged by the

Tibetan government
B) established that high altitudes have a
negative impact on the human body
C) aimed to explore the terrain and chart
out a feasible route to the peak
D) was greatly hampered by the adverse
political conditions prevailing in Nepal
and Tibet
E) undertaken by an international team
failed to achieve its objectives

288. According to the passage, several

expeditions had, by the end of the 1930s,
attempted to climb Mt. Everest but ____ .

A) the governments in the Everest area were

invariably suspicious of the purpose of the
climbing expeditions

A) none of them succeeded in reaching the


B) several attempts were made to climb Mt.

Everest and learn more about it

B) none of them achieved any measure of

success at all

C) it was Nepal that made possible the

various efforts to climb

C) no suitable routes to the top could be


D) it was finally established that Mt. Everest

was indeed the worlds highest peak

D) unfavourable weather conditions meant

that no progress could be made at all

E) climbers heading for Mt. Everest

encountered almost no problems.

E) only one or two of them were in any way


Sayfa 96 / 344



Heat-waves, if the temperature is high
enough, above 400 for instance, lead to
wilting, and even death in plant, because of
structural damage to essential proteins. The
problem is that plants react by closing their
pores when, due to a serious heat-wave, they
are subjected to water stress, so shutting
down on transpiration and conserving water.
Just as the body would overheat dangerously
if it shut its pores to prevent sweating, so, in
a plant, the shutting of the pores will cause
permanent damage, if not death.
Temperatures above -50 can damage most
plants if lasting for half an hour or more. High
soil temperatures will also damage roots and
prevent nutrient uptake.
289. As we learn from the passage, a heat-wave
can cause serious damage to plant life ____

290. It is pointed out in the passage that the

death of a plant in a heat-wave is due to
____ .
A) a sudden loss of proteins which can
occur within half an hour
B) excessive transpiration in an effort to
keep its temperature down
C) overheating in the plant following the
closing of the little holes in its surface
D) a structural deformation which cannot
be detected easily
E) the plant's inability to conserve water in
its cells

291. It is understood from the passage that, in

extremely high temperatures, the roots of a
plant ____ .

A) even if the essential proteins remain


A) fail to supply the plant with adequate


B) even when the temperature remains

below 40C

B) dry out well before the leaves begin to


C) unless the soil temperature remains


C) store an adequate amount of nutrients

to prolong plant life

D) through harming the plant's essential


D) increase their nutrient intake in order to

protect the plant

E) especially if the soil is fertile

E) maintain their vitality so that they can

function normally

Sayfa 97 / 344




293. According to the passage, unlike the

Europeans, the Japanese ____ .

A conspicuous feature of cities in many

countries, in particular those of Western
Europe, is that buildings and streets
devastated during the war are, once peace is
reinstated, rebuilt in exactly the same
manner as they existed before. Enormous
efforts are taken to recreate the environment
with total fidelity. This reflects the extent to
which ordinary people value the traditions
and culture of the past. In Japanese cities,
however, one sees little evidence of such
respect for tradition. Tokyo presents an
extreme example: it is quite common these
days for the appearance of a street or quarter
to change almost beyond recognition every
year. In provincial cities as well, one often
finds that an absence of several years has
rendered a city almost unrecognisable.

A) take every opportunity to promote their

traditions and culture
B) reconstructed their cities in accordance
with their cultural traditions
C) were reluctant to introduce any novelties
into city planning
D) paid considerable attention to
environmental matters in rebuilding their
E) are, on the whole, indifferent to their

294. With reference to Japanese, the writer

points out that ____ .

292. It is emphasized in the passage that in

Western Europe, in the post-war period
____ .
A) people relished the chance to break with
tradition and create a new style of city
B) new style of architecture were favoured
in the bigger cities

A) the cities are constantly undergoing

massive changes in appearance
B) Tokyo is an extreme example of
traditional designs in architecture
C) provincial cities have imitated Tokyo as
regards city planning

C) every effort was made to rebuild the

cities in the pre-war style
D) environmental concerns were usually
disregarded in the reconstruction of cities
E) many countries were still doubtful about
the permanence of the peace

Sayfa 98 / 344

D) in major cities, the streets invariably

follow a similar design
E) there is a strong European influence in
city planning



296. The author argues that the young are

everywhere being educated to ____ .

Modern education is almost exclusively

focused on preparing children for an urban
future, as consumers in a global free
market. This makes a return to any sort of
rural existence almost an impossibility for
those tutored by the Western education
system in the 21st century. The fact is that,
for all the fashionable talk about cultural
diversity, schools, colleges and universities
today prepare their graduates poorly for
anything other than a uniform urban
existence. We educate the young from
country to city alike, to be urban with urban
appetites, skills, minds, dependencies and
expectations. And as globalised, future will
overwhelmingly mean an urban future, our
graduates of tomorrow will be trained, above
all, to keep the wheels of the global economy

A) be aware of the drawbacks of a global

"free" market
B) appreciate equally both the rural and the
urban ways of life
C) appreciate the joys of rural life
D) feel comfortable only in a purely urban
way of life
E) play a creative role in the intellectual life
of the 21st century

297. In the passage the author seems to ____ .

295. In this passage one feels that the author
____ .

A) deplore any effort in education to revive

rural values

A) greatly values the educational system

current in the West today

B) be confident of the future of the global


B) is not happy with the kind of education

the young in the West are receiving today

C) favour free market policies throughout

the world

C) admires the enormous contribution

modern education is making to the global

D) expect that the young will create a better

world in the 21st century

D) looks forward to the time when the

world's population will all be urban
E) emphasises the high quality of modern
education presently being offered to the

Sayfa 99 / 344

E) discount the idea that there is any

cultural diversity in modern life



299. It is pointed out in the passage that De

Gaulle ____ .

People in other European countries have

been wondering for some time why and how
Norway has stayed out of the European
Union. Austria, Finland, Sweden joined in
1994, almost without any public debate, just
a few months after their governments had
proposed the joining. By then, the
Norwegians had been debating the issue for
33 years, ever since their government had
started the drive towards unionisation. One
reason for the success of Norwegian
resistance is that in both 1952 and 1967,
when the Norwegian government sent off
applications for joining the EEC, President De
Gaulle of France rejected the proposals. He
feared that the inclusion of Norway, as of
England, would complicate and slow down
EEC integration.

A) personally urged Norway, but not

England to join the EEC
B) was the statesman largely responsible
for the establishment of the EEC
C) was anxious to keep both England and
Norway out of the EEC
D) was disillusioned by the unwillingness of
the Norwegian government to join the
E) was determined to keep the EEC solely
for the countries of Continental Europe

300. According to the passage, Austria, Finland

and Sweden ____ .

298. We learn from the passage that the

government of Norway ____ .
A) deliberated for over three decades
whether or not to become a member of
the European Union
B) openly disagreed with De Gaulle on many
issues concerning the future of Europe
C) has generally collaborated with England
on matters concerning the European

A) had, in the 1960s, been designated by De

Gaulle as future EEC members
B) entered the European Union with very
little opposition from their own people
C) worked together to persuade Norway to
join them in applying for European Union

D) never showed any desire to join what was

known in the 1980s as the EEC

D) had all applied for EEC membership in

the 1960s but they were only admitted in
the 1990s

E) was exceedingly disappointed when

Finland and Sweden decided to join the
European Union

E) were among the few European Union

countries to favour England's

Sayfa 100 / 344


In its full force the Gulf Stream, which begins
in the Gulf of Mexico, carries warm water to
a depth of up to 100 meters at rates of up to
8 kilometres an hour, and penetrates right up
into the Arctic Circle to the north of
Scandinavia, bearing with it a climate that
makes life just about tolerable, even in the
thick of the winter. The energy it carries in
the form of heat is equivalent to 100 times
the entire use of energy in human societies
across the world or put another way, more
than 27,000 times Britain's electricity
generating capacity. In terms of temperature
the Gulf Stream heats the surface over a wide
area by at least 5C. Were the-Gulf Stream to
fail, temperatures over northern Europe
would fall by more than 10 centigrade degree
during the winter months. Northern Europe
would have a climate comparable to that of
Siberia: just how it would support its current
population is difficult to imagine.
301. This passage mainly deals with ____ .

302. As we understood from the passage, one of

the great benefits of the Gulf Stream is that
it ____ .
A) causes an average ten percent rise in
temperature in Northern Europe
throughout the winter
B) provides a huge amount of electricity for
the Northern Europe countries
C) warms up the whole of Scandinavia and
Siberia in winter
D) circles around Britain and then moves
into the northern waters
E) carries warm waters nearly as far as the
Arctic Circle

303. It is clear from the passage that ____ .

A) the adverse effects that Gulf Stream has

on the wild life in Scandinavia
B) how the Gulf Stream transforms the
climate in the Arctic Circle
C) the question of whether man can benefit
from the energy latent in the Gulf Stream
D) the reasons why the climate of
Scandinavia differs from that of Siberia

A) the energy to be derived from the Gulf

Stream would theoretically barely meet
the needs of the whole world
B) the effects of the Gulf Stream are far
more noticeable in the Arctic Circle than
along the shores of Northern Europe
C) without the Gulf Stream, it would be
almost impossible for Northern Europe
to support its population

E) the course, climatic effects and energy

capacity of the Gulf Stream

D) the Gulf Stream brings with it

disadvantages as well as advantages for
the people of Northern Europe
E) the Gulf Stream is indispensable if the
people of Siberia are to survive

Sayfa 101 / 344


Within a short time after the outbreak of the
Second World War, Britain was without
imports of many vital pharmaceuticals that
had formerly come from Japan, Germany and
the Far East. As a result, the first wartime
government set up systematic research into
the cultivation and medical use of herbs, By
1940, women's voluntary organisations had
been drawn into a national campaign to
gather wild herbs, Up and down the country,
County Herb Committees were organised to
oversee the gathering, drying, distillation and
distribution of the medicinal herbs. Lay
people were given brief locally-based training
in how to recognise herbs, store and dry
them. Farmers were given subsidies to farm
certain naturally hard-to-find herbs. By 1943,
every county had its herb committee and
during the five years of the Second World
War, over 750 tons of dried herbs were
gathered and turned into medicines.

305. It is vividly described in the passage how,

during World War II, the British
government ____ .
A) banned the import of all kinds of
pharmaceuticals from Germany, Japan
and the Far East
B) gave priority to the import of medicines
C) encouraged scientific research into
improving the efficiency and variety of
vital pharmaceuticals
D) only gave subsidies to those farmers who
were interested in growing herbs
E) took serious measures to ensure that the
country should not be short of medicines

306. It is clear from the passage that, of the

special arrangements made in Britain
during the war, one was ____ .

304. We learn from the passage that, before

World War II, Britain ____ .
A) rarely traded with Germany or the Far

A) the reduction of imports from Germany

and Japan

B) traded primarily with Germany, Japan and

the Far East

B) the setting up of local and national

organisations to produce medicinal herbs

C) imported raw materials from Japan,

Germany and the Far East and exported
pharmaceuticals to them

C) the introduction of new agricultural

policies to increase production in every

D) was largely dependent on Germany,

Japan and the Far East for its

D) the launching of a national women's

campaign for the distribution of
medicines throughout the country

E) thought of exporting dried herbs for

pharmaceutical purposes

E) the training of local people in the

production of herb-based medicines

Sayfa 102 / 344



308. According to the writer, such a traditional

punishment as fining ____ .

Restorative justice does not ask 'how do we

punish?', but instead asks 'how do we get
people to take responsibility for what they
have done?'. Paying a fine, or even going to
prison are easy options for some people.
They are all ways that offenders can avoid
taking responsibility, because in this way they
never have to face the human reality of what
they have done. Prisons have been called
"universities for criminals". Young people go
in for unpaid fines, often for victimless
crimes, and they come out with a degree in
burglary or worse. I am not saying that the
answer is to tear down all prisons. Far from
it. There are people who are dangerous to
society, who the community will want to
keep locked up. Prison can also be part of a
sentencing package under restorative justice.
But the vast majority of people in prison are
not violent, and do not need to be there.
What they do need is to be brought face to
face with the human reality of the harm they
have caused, and they must be given an
opportunity to rectify
307. In the opinion of the author, prisons ____ .

A) helps to keep the crime-rate down

B) actually helps offenders to avoid facing
the fact that they have hurt society
C) has been shown to be far more effective
than imprisonment
D) is highly effective if the offenders are
E) is regarded as a harder option than

309. According to the passage, restorative

justice ____ .

A) teach people to become better citizens

B) serve no useful purpose whatsoever
C) should be remodelled on the lines of
universities and polytechnics

A) regards most criminals as not being

responsible for the crimes they have

D) should largely be reserved for violent

people who constitute a threat to society

B) is only concerned with punishment when

the criminal has proved violent

E) are essential as more and more violence

occurs in society

C) concentrates on criminal acts in which

there is no victim
D) is too idealised and has little chance of
working successfully
E) is less concerned with punishment than
with helping the offender to become a
better citizen

Sayfa 103 / 344



311. In the opinion of the writer, most of the

wine journalists ____ .

In the coming weeks, wine makers north of

the equator will oversee the harvesting and
fermenting of the first vintage of the
millennium. But long before the finished
product reaches the shelves - before it even
makes it out of the barrel, in some cases samples will be offered to exporters and
distributors. A select group of wine critics will
also be given a taste. Most will record their
impressions in the extravagant prose that
wine journalists unfortunately love to use.
Others will go one step further and assign
numerical grades. These days a high score is
more effective than mere praise. it can make
a comparatively unknown wine into a highly
desirable one that everyone is seeking to buy.
310. According to the passage, before the new
season's wines even reach the shops, wine
critics will have ____ .

A) dislike the practice of awarding wines

numerical grades
B) generally use too many exotic words and
literary expressions
C) have very little influence on the public's
choice of wine
D) are less influential than distributors in
the business of buying and selling of
E) should be consulted at all stages of the
wine-making process

312. It is pointed out in the passage that the

practice of awarding numerical grades to
wines ____ .

A) tasted samples and described or graded

B) suggested suitable prices for each type
C) bought up large quantities of what they
think will sell well

A) is not as reliable or satisfactory as the

practice of describing wines
B) is not at all popular among exporters and
C) has had a truly amazing effect on wine

D) advised producers on the fermenting

process for the next year's vintage

D) means that little known wines never get

a chance to be known

E) compared their impressions with those of

other wine critics

Sayfa 104 / 344

E) is rapidly giving way to the system of

verbal description



314. The writer feels that, if we are to enjoy

works of art, we must ____ .

One never finishes learning about art. There

are always new things to discover. Great
works of art seem to look different each time
one stands before them. They seem to be as
inexhaustible and unpredictable as real
human beings. It is an exciting world of its
own with its own strange laws and its own
adventures. Nobody should think he knows
all about it, for nobody does. Nothing,
perhaps, is more important than just this:
that to enjoy these works we must have a
fresh mind, one which is ready to catch every
hint and to respond to every hidden
harmony: a mind, most of all that has not
been dulled by the terminology and readymade phrases of art appreciation. it is
infinitely better not to know anything about
art than to have the kind of half-knowledge
which makes for snobbishness. The danger is
very real.
313. According to the passage, great works of art
are, in a way, like real people ____ .

A) concentrate on the ones that appeal to

us and ignore those that don't
B) learn everything there is to learn about
C) keep finding new works of art to look at
and compare them with our old
D) look at them again and again until we
have seen and understood everything
about them
E) come to them without preconceived
ideas and with a readiness to respond to
whatever they have to offer

315. In the opinion of the writer ____ .

A) and we can expect to like them for some

reasons, dislike them for others

A) the world of art is more exciting than the

real world

B) because there is a lot to learn about them

before we finally know them

B) the clichs of art appreciation are

extremely dangerous and likely to stand
in the way of genuine appreciation

C) and one needs a special vocabulary if one

is to discuss them effectively

C) it is easy for everyone to appreciate

great art

D) because they can surprise us and give us

something new each time we face them

D) everyone can and should acquire some

kind of half-knowledge of art

E) though, naturally, they are incapable of


E) it is not advisable to keep going back to a

work of art until we have exhausted all it
has to say to us

Sayfa 105 / 344


In theory, the multimedia age should be
killing off bookshops. Who still has time to
read books, what with surfing the Internet,
viewing scores of new digital television
channels, and putting in ever-longer hours at
work? And presumably those few people who
do still read books will be buying them on the
Internet. After all, Amazon, a bookseller, is
the most cited example of a successful online
retailer. So much for the theory. What about
the practice? This week the largest bookshop
in Britain opened up in the old Simpson's of
Piccadilly in London. With 265,000 titles and
1.5 million books, the new branch of
Waterstone's stretches over seven floors. A
department store, which once sold
everything from sushi to plus-fours, is now
devoted entirely to one product - books. The
new Waterstone's is almost next door to
Hatchards, a mere five-storey bookshop, with
a well-established clientele, and two smaller
bookshops. It is also less than a mile from
Borders, another huge bookstore in Oxford
316. The passage suggests that, in this world of
technological advance one might, in theory,
expect that ____ .

317. in the passage, we are given a great deal of

information about the new Waterstone's
bookshop, ____ .
A) together with the number and quality of
the staff employed there
B) including the exact postal address
C) and the incredible variety of second hand
books to be found there is given special
D) but it is the original use of floor space
that receives special attention
E) including the fact that the premises once
belonged to a department store that sold
literally every type of goods

318. As if to emphasise his own surprise, the

writer makes the point that the new
Waterstone's bookshop ____ .

A) Internet, among other things, would make

book shops obsolete

A) is designed and run like a department


B) Internet would prove a serious rival to


B) has deprived neighbouring bookshops of

a lot of their trade

C) smaller bookshops would be brought up

by larger ones

C) plans to open yet another branch in

Oxford Street

D) Internet book retailers like Amazon would

find few customers

D) is situated in a neighbourhood of well-established bookstores

E) new digital television channels have little

chance of success

Sayfa 106 / 344

E) is not likely to attract many customers


The seventeenth-century scientist Francis
Bacon was the first to insist that science be
methodically separated from values so as to
make it truly 'neutral', or objective. In reality,
he did nothing of the sort. His 'scientific
knowledge', instead of being value-free, set
out explicitly and purposefully to give
humanity power over nature. 'Truth and
utility are perfectly identical,' he wrote in his
Novum Organum, and 'that which is most
useful in practice is most correct in theory'. In
effect, he merely replaced the old 'subjective'
values of 'good' and 'evil' with the values of
'useful' and 'useless', or more precisely 'of
contributing or not contributing to man's
domination over or transformation of the
natural world'. There were to be no limits to
this transformation. His goal was explicitly
stated. It was to 'achieve all things
achievable'. At least he was honest enough to
admit the fact. Modern science has followed
Bacon's lead exactly, but does not admit it.
319. According to the author, the broad goals of
modern scientists are identical with those of
Bacon, ____ .
A) except that they regard nothing as

320. It is argued in the passage that though

Bacon was determined to make science
objective and value-free, ____ .
A) he know he was setting himself an
impossible task
B) this was impossible as truth and utility
are inseparable
C) he did not want man to have dominion
over nature
D) he was himself greatly influenced by the
concepts of right and wrong
E) he actually simply substituted one set of
values for another

321. We understand from the passage that

Bacon regarded science as a means to ____

B) only they avoid saying so

A) establish what was useful and what true

C) although Bacon never actually discussed


B) overcome such subjective values as

'good' and 'evil'

D) and even more ambitious

C) protect the natural world and so

preserve it

E) but they consider him too subjective in his


D) give man power over nature so he could

benefit from it
E) keep the natural world unchanged and

Sayfa 107 / 344


If a greater proportion of the food people eat
were to be locally produced, this would be of
great benefit to the farmer. A mix of local,
regional, national, and international
production would still be available; indeed,
the goal would not be to put an end to the
international trade in food, but to avoid
transporting food thousands of miles when it
could instead be produced next door. Such a
shift would help revitalise rural economies
ruined by the global economy. Less money
would go into the hands of corporate
middlemen, and far more would remain in
the hands of farmers, This would especially
be the case with the direct marketing of food
via farmers' markets and farm stands and
other forms of community supported
agriculture. If farmers were not impelled to
specialise their production in a few global
commodities, the trend towards ever larger
and more highly mechanised farms would
slow down. Moreover, since small farms use
a proportionally higher amount of human
labour than mechanised inputs, a return to
smaller farms would help bring back some of
the 700.000 farm jobs the UK has lost during
the last half-century of agricultural progress.
322. It is pointed out in the passage that it would
be to the advantage of the farmer and the
rural economy at large if ____ .

323. According to the author, farms are growing

larger and more highly mechanised ____ .
A) as this is the only sure way to make
money out of farming
B) as this is what the rural community
C) since no one is willing to work on the
D) because imported foodstuffs are so
much cheaper
E) because farmers feel obliged to
concentrate on a very few products for
global markets

324. The author is opposed to the trend towards

larger and mere highly mechanised farms
____ .
A) as they result in unnecessarily high food

A) people were to eat locally produced food

more often

B) since the quality of food they produce is


B) the sale of farm products were in the

hands of corporate middlemen

C) because it has resulted in a great many

farm labourers losing their jobs

C) the advantages of a global economy were

better appreciated

D) though he admits the quality of food

they produce is high

D) the practice of direct marketing of food at

farmers' markets were forbidden

E) though this is what the owners of small

farms want

E) the marketing of all food products were at

a national or international level

Sayfa 108 / 344



326. One can understand from the passage that

further oil explorations -----.

The great expansion in energy demand over

recent years has been met to a large extent
by petroleum oil. The total world reserves of
petroleum oil are still uncertain since large
parts of world are still not fully prospected.
The cutback in oil production and the rise in
the price of Middle Eastern oil following the
1973 Arab-Israel war unleashed a worldwide
energy crisis. The result has been that Britain
has increased its north sea oil production and
has become the fifth largest oil producing
country in the world.

325. It is pointed out in the passage that to meet

its increasing energy needs, the world -----.

A) would inevitably result in a drop in oil

B) are likely to produce many positive
C) should be carried out both in the Middle
East and in the North Sea.
D) may cause new tensions in the Middle
E) could lead to the discovery of rich
reserves of petroleum as yet untapped

327. According to the passage, one result of the

oil crisis caused by the Arab-Israel war has
been that -----.

A) will have to develop new sources of

B) has had to face a recurrent energy crisis

A) the world has learned to reduce its

energy consumption.

C) has, in recent years, relied heavily on

petroleum oil.

B) Britain has become one of the leading oil


D) is in search of new oil sites.

C) many new oil fields throughout the world

have been prospected and brought into

E) is learning to depend upon a larger variety

of energy sources.

D) Britain has emerged as the largest

exporter of petroleum oil in the world.
E) consumer countries have had to redefine
their economic priorities.

Sayfa 109 / 344


The continent of South America looks as if it
managed to escape the attentions of the
British Empire. However, this was more
because the British didn't need to exert
formal control over the countries and
peoples of this continent. The Monroe
doctrine imposed by America, served British
interests quite well enough. The doctrine
made it clear that the United States would
not tolerate foreign meddling in the
Americas. This policy meant that Britain could
get all the benefits of trade and investment in
South America with very little of the
administrative costs. In addition, it could be
reasonably safe in the knowledge that other
European states wouldn't be able to steal the
markets through annexation. Britain had very
strong commercial links with South America,
especially with Argentina. In many ways, the
influence and power that Britain could hold
over the policies of the individual South
American states meant that they could
almost be termed as being part of Britain's
informal empire. The islands in the region
that were formally annexed were done so
mostly out of strategic naval considerations.

329. The Monroe doctrine -----.

A) has adversely affected the Majesty's
tights over the continent.
B) has abated the administrative costs on
behalf of the US in the continent.
C) rendered new taxes for the Majesty.
D) opened the shortest route to the fabled
Spice Islands.
E) has enabled the British to sustain the
exploitation of the land.

330. Which of the following is correct according

to the passage?

328. According to the passage, the continent of

South America -----.
A) has always been under pressure of the
British Empire.

A) The continent of South America was

subjected to firm control of the British.
B) It was the Monroe doctrine that prevents
the other nations other than the British
from exploiting the continent of South

B) tentatively protected itself from

exploitation of other countries.

C) The high cost of administration has

prevented the other nation from
annexing the countries in the continent
of South Africa.

C) has little connection with England owing

to the dispute over islands.

D) The islands off the continent of South

America have vast areas of arable land.

D) was primarily under Portuguese's


E) Argentina was the only country in the

region that the British could exploit.

E) reimbursed its loss by annexation of


Sayfa 110 / 344



Failing to discover any account of the
purposes, for which nature is arranged as it
is, and finding the explanations actually
offered by the philosophers to be suspect
and non- illuminating, Socrates abandoned all
his effort to find out why things are as they
are by examining nature itself. He turned
instead to the examination of "logos" that is,
statements, arguments, or in general, wordsas a way of discovering something true. The
distinctive feature of Socratic inquiries is that
they took as their immediate object not some
phenomenon in the natural world but some
person and his ideas. Socrates hoped that by
methodologically and repeatedly examining
someone's ideas he might ultimately lead him
to the discovery and establishment of the

332. According to the passage, the peculiar

property of Socratic view is that the truth ----.
A) can be only achieved by careful and
repeated investigation of someone's
B) lies in nature itself.
C) can be discovered by reading the
writings of former philosophers.
D) can be established by dogmatic beliefs
about people.
E) can be integrated with nature via careful

333. It can be inferred from the text that -----.

331. According to the passage, Socrates -----.

A) is the first philosopher who found out
why nature is created as it is.

A) natural phenomenon should be the focus

of the philosopher looking for the truth.

B) believed that the causes of the existence

of the nature lie in itself.

B) Socrates had no suspicion of the earlier

thoughts developed before him.

C) established that in order to validate the

truth "logos" must be used.

C) "logos" are the means of discovering the

truth according to Socrates.

D) presupposed that nature is the capital

source of all goodness.

D) in order to discover the truth, Socrates

inquired the course of the nature.

E) diverted his interest from ideas to nature.

E) it is how a person acts rather than what

he preacheswhich gives way to the truth.

Sayfa 111 / 344




335. The writer suggests that -----.

Each year thousands of people are diagnosed

with congestive heart failure - a condition in
which a weakened heart can't pump much
blood as the body needs. Drugs like betablockers help stabilize many patients in the
earliest stages of the disease. But there aren't
a lot of options for folks in the later stages.
Heart transplants are one solution, but they
are short in supply. It is such good news to
hear that another type of mechanical pump,
called a left ventricular assist device, may be
a viable alternative. Instead of replacing the
heart entirely, the device attaches to the
organ's left main chamber, boosting its
output. The device is twice as likely as drugs
to keep patients alive after one year.

A) a left ventricular assist system is an

efficient solution to the disorder.
B) all patients diagnosed with congestive
Heart failure need organ transplantation.
C) a left ventricular assist system functions
best when, it replaces the heart.
D) there is a shortage of drugs like betablockers,
E) it is easy to cure a patient at the later
stages than at the earlier stages.

336. One can infer from the text that that -----.
334. It can be inferred from the passage that -----.
A) patients waiting for organ
transplantation do not suffer from the
lack of it.

A) diagnosis of congestive heart failure is

almost impossible.

B) there is more than one solution for the

patients suffering from congestive heart

B) a left ventricular assist device is used to

diagnose congestive heart failure.
C) heart transplantation is immoral.
D) heart transplantation is the only method
for the treatment of the illness.
E) methods like intake of beta-blockers can
be a viable solution at the beginning of
the illness.

Sayfa 112 / 344

C) in the event of congestive heart failure

one has no choice but to await death.
D) artificial devices are no good for
congestive heart failure.
E) the left ventricular assist device is
unlikely to prolong the patient's life more
than a year.



338. According to the passage, -----.

Hong Kong, with a population of about 6.8

million at mid-2000, is a small but dynamic
city which has earned an international
reputation as a leading commercial and
financial center as well as a highly efficient
port. Subsequent historical and political
events led to the development of the
manufacturing industry. Hong Kong has also
seen a rapid expansion of its services sector
in the past two decades, contributing over 85
per cent of Hong Kong's Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) in recent years. Hong Kong has
a two-tier system of representative
government. At the central level, the
Legislative Council legislates, approves
taxation and public expenditure and raises
questions on the work of the Government.
According to the Basic Law, the Legislative
Council is to be constituted by Election.

A) manufacturing industry in the region

brought about political conflicts.
B) the city has achieved fame as a center of
trade and finance.
C) small as the city is, Hong Kong is rich in
natural resources.
D) just as the area of the city is small, so is
its population.
E) service sector accounts for less than twothirds of Hong Kong's GDP.

339. It can be inferred from the text that, -----.

337. Hong Kong -----.
A) used to be more popular than it is now.

A) Hong Kong is a city in which there are

two political parties.

B) is mainly known for its impoverished


B) Hong Kong is a democratic city in which

people vote for their representatives.

C) is an emerging market for the

manufacturing industry.

C) the Legislative Council is appointed by

the president.

D) has been the cradle of civilization.

D) the Government can disapprove of the


E) has failed to surpass the other countries

in the region

Sayfa 113 / 344

E) the Government's work is not subject to

any criticism.




341. A lot of students could do better work if ----.

College students who eat all their meals at

one of the college or university regulated
food services are likely to be offered a wellbalanced diet. The offering of well-balanced
meals does not ensure, however, that the
students make wise selections. In addition
many students eat their meals in restaurants
or other public eating-places where they may
not be offered foods that provide all the
nutrients needed by the body. College
students, generally speaking, are well fed;
few of them show extreme deficiency
symptoms. Many students, on the other
hand, are operating at a level below their
achievement potential because of the
insufficiencies in their diet.
340. Students eating only at university cafeterias

A) they were more efficient in their

B) their food lacked certain essentials.
C) their bodies needed the nutrients
provided in their food.
D) they were able to eat enough food.
E) they failed to be well-nourished.

342. The phrase "university-regulated food

services means -----.

A) receive a diet that provides them with

extreme nutrients.

A) meals that are regularly served at a


B) always choose their diet sensibly.

C) have a chance of getting healthful food.

B) services which give university students

meals as a rule.

D) also perform below their normal


C) a university regulated by its food


E) are all insufficiently nourished.

D) services providing food controlled by the

E) services providing food under university

Sayfa 114 / 344



344. We understand from the passage that

before any tunnel is opened ____ .

In the case of shallow tunnels or in urban

areas it is often possible. by means of
carefully sited boreholes, to gain an idea as to
the nature of the ground and water
conditions. Under high mountains boring
becomes expensive so reliance has to be
placed upon geological interpretations. As
strata can vary so much, surprises are often
met with and techniques sometimes have to
change in a single tunnel. In the Severn
railway tunnel (4 mls 628 yd long, completed
in 1886) great quantities of water were
unexpectedly encountered and are still being
pumped out.
343. The writer explains that when a tunnel does
not go deep underground, ____ .

A) an exact understanding of the nature of

the rock strata around it must be gained
B) samples of the ground through which It
is to pass must always be taken
C) it is desirable to get an idea of the nature
of the ground that is being tunnelled
D) the area surrounding it should be
drained of any underground water
E) the suitability of the site has to be testblasted

345. It is pointed out in the passage that the

geological interpretations made of the
strata through which a tunnel is to go ____ .

A) one can learn about the type of ground it

is to pass through by means of
strategically placed boreholes

A) are based on samples of the ground

taken fromboreholes

B) the type of strata it is to pass through is


C) are particularly relevant in urban areas

B) cannot detect underground waterways

D) are not always reliable

C) it may prove unsuitable in urban areas

D) the geological nature of the terrain does
not, in general. have to be taken into
E) the techniques used to excavate it vary
very little

Sayfa 115 / 344

E) are especially useful if underground

water is suspected



347. According to the passage, by the time the

American Revolution took place, ____ .

As with all revolutions, the causes of the

American Revolution which separated the
original thirteen American colonies from
Great Britain were social, economic and
political and so inextricably interwoven that it
is difficult to appraise them. First there was
the distance from Great Britain and the
environment of a new country which,
whether they willed it or not, had gradually
over a period of 150 years turned Englishmen
into Americans. The older stock was largely
English but the bulk of them, as a
contemporary historian commented. "knew
little of the mother country, having only
heard of her as a distant kingdom, the rulers
of which had in the preceding century
persecuted and banished their ancestors to
the woods of America". With each generation
and with each move westward old contacts
were broken. Furthermore large groups of
colonists had come from Germany, Ireland
and other parts of Europe and had no ties
with England and, in the case of the Irish, no

A) generations of the colonists in America

had dreamed of gaining their
B) the non-British immigrants had
demographically far exceeded the British
C) many of the British colonists were still
trying to maintain their ties with the
mother country
D) the colonists living in America felt they
no longer had any ties with Britain
E) the number of the Irish in America had
more than doubled

348. The writer points out that, among the non

British colonists in America, it was the Irish
who ____ .

346. The writer makes the point that it is very

hard to ____ .
A) assess the separate causes of the
American Revolution because they are so
B) justify the American Revolution

A) had suffered most at the hands of the

B) were the least friendly towards Britain
C) united with the German colonists to
oppose Britain

C) relate the American Revolution to the

economic circumstances ollt1e lime

D) were among the first ones to settle there

E) felt they had been unjustly banished to
these parts

D) account for the political causes of the

American Revolution
E) explain the social implications of the
American Revolution on Britain

Sayfa 116 / 344



350. The writer stresses that the job of a

scientific translator ____ .

Translation renders knowledge mobile. The

task of the scientific translator, no less than
the literary translator, has been to create
new texts, to multiply sources into new
languages, and thereby to produce new
"originals". Over time, translation itself has
built a great scientific library, ever more
enriched, and accessible. Although we may
think of scientific translation as literal,
mechanical work, this has never been the
case. The reasons for this are complex, but
have much to do with the lack of exact oneto-one correspondence among languages.
Translating science always involves
interpretation, the remaking of an original. If
it did not, machine translation would have
long ago rendered the scientific translator
349. According to the passage scientific
translation, just like literary translation,
____ .

A) requires more technical knowledge than

B) is far easier than that of the translation
of literary texts
C) has been made much easier with the
introduction of machine translation
D) is actually far more creative than has
generally been assumed
E) goes back farther in history than does
that of the literary translator

351. As the writer suggests, an important

obstacle that a scientific translator faces, is
that ____ .

A) requires a kind of rewriting of the original


A) new scientific texts are growing more

and more complex in content

B) should avoid the temptation of trying to

interpret he original text

B) very few people are interested in the

translations of scienti1ic works

C) is becoming increasingly mechanised and

making translators themselves redundant

C) the machine translation of scientific texts

has reached a high level of efficiency

D) has actually played a very small part in the

spread of knowledge

D) the work is mechanical and tedious that

it offers almost no satisfaction

E) is presently being carried out into fewer

and fewer languages.

E) the exact translation of one language

into another can almost never be

Sayfa 117 / 344


The ideal of a family life shared by all in 19th
century England survived into the early 20th
century, until home life was seriously
dislocated in 1914 by World War I, which was
a war on the largest scale the world had ever
known. But since the last decade of the 19th
century new developments and inventions
had been rapidly affecting the home life of an
increasing number of people. Town and
country were knit more closely together by
easier railway travel, cheap and efficient
postal services, the popularity of the bicycle,
the development of the petrol engine and the
cheap popular newspaper; such things as
these helped to break down social formalities
and to place women again on a more equal
footing with men.
352. It is pointed out in the passage that, as a
result of a variety of changes in the way of
life in England at the turn of century, ____.

353. According to the author, one of the

damaging effects in England of World War I,
was that ____.
A) more and more people began to leave
urban areas and move to the countryside
B) the manufacturing industry experienced
a severe recession
C) technological progress was adversely
D) the traditionally close family life was
badly disrupted
E) everybody began to take an interest in
political and economic affairs

354. The author points out that World War I

A) helped to bring town life and country life
closer together

A) travel by rail became the most popular

form of transport

B) showed people how important family life


B) living conditions in the country couldn't

keep up with those in the towns

C) was a greater magnitude than any

previous war had been

C) the position of women in society

improved significantly

D) was an important factor in the break

down of social formalities

D) country people were for the first time

able to benefit from postal services

E) had been expected as far back as the last

decade of the 19th century

E) the urban people had the unique

opportunity of exploring to countryside
on their bicycles

Sayfa 118 / 344


Most people take it for granted prices will
always nice and understandably so. A 60year-old American has seen them go up by
more than 1.000 % in his life time. Yet
prolonged inflation is a comparatively recent
phenomenon. Until about 60 years ago prices
in general were as likely to fall as to rise. On
the of the First World War, for example,
prices in Britain, over all, were almost exactly
the same as they had been at the time of
London in 1666. Now the world may be
reverting to that earlier normality. The prices
of many things have fallen over the past 12
months or so. Not only computers and video
players, but a wide range of goods- from cars
and clothes to coffee and petrol - are in many
countries, cheaper than they were a year

356. We understand from the passage that the

experience of average Americans over the
last 60 years or so, ____ .
A) has made them one of the most
economy-conscious nations in the world
B) has taught them to expect continual
price increases
C) has impressed on them the need to
produce more and more goods
D) has encouraged them to cut down on
E) has made them fear deflation more than

357. The writer of this passage suggests that,

economic trends, worldwide, _____ .

355. It is emphasized in the passage that, up to

the last half century or so, _____ .
A) a period of prolonged inflation was a rare
B) prices were rigidly controlled to avoid

A) can rarely be accurately predicted

B) have been characterised by everincreasing inflation
C) have not been affected by a drop in
prices in a few countries

C) Britain was one of the few countries to

suffer from inflation

D) have been affected by the danger of


D) people were more disturbed by a fall in

prices than by a rise in prices
E) it was extremely unusual for prices either
to rise or to fall

Sayfa 119 / 344

E) seem to be changing as the prices of

many goods are falling


Water of doubtful purity for drinking can be
rendered safe by boiling and then can be
cooled in water bags or in earthenware
containers, which must be protected from
dust and flies when boiling is not possible,
drinking water can in many areas be
adequately sterilised by chlorination; one
tablet of halazone is added to one litre of
water and allowed to stand for 30 minutes.
Water containing suspended matter should
be filtered first. There is, however the danger
of a particularly serious infectious disease in
many regions of Africa, the Middle and Far
East and South America. In these regions the
water of rivers, lakes and canal may be
infected, and the disease is acquired when
the water comes in contact with the skin.
358. In this passage the writer points out that
boiling ____.

359. We learn from the passage that, when

sterilisation of water is to be carried out by
means of chlorination, ____.
A) It is important to make sure that the
water is not affected
B) it must be preceded by filtration
C) great care must be taken that no dust be
allowed to get into the water
D) the best containers for the job are
earthenware one
E) the process should be followed by the
boiling of the water

360. We understand from the passage that, in

certain regions of the world, such as parts
of Africa and Asia ____ .

A) is the only safe method of producing

drinking water

A) filtration is vital for the removal of

suspended matter from the water

B) is commonly used in Africa and the less

developed countries to purify water

B) river water may be so infected that

boiling cannot purify it

C) is a reliable method of making impure

water safe to drink

C) people are cautioned not to use canal

water because it is always infected

D) will purify water but must not continue

for more than 30 minutes

D) Halazone tablets are frequently used to

sterilise infected water

E) is one method of combating infectious

diseases in third world countries

E) skin contact with infected water can

cause the development of a highly
infectious disease

Sayfa 120 / 344


361.362.363.364.365. SORULARI

362. The writer points out that in the 1960s -----.

In modern times, it was perhaps the

"gentleman scientists" of the nineteenth
century who came closest to a genuinely
objective form of scientific research. These
privileged amateurs enjoyed a financial
independence which most scientists today
cannot have, and which enabled them to
satisfy their scientific curiosity without the
need to please patrons. With the growth of
scientific research after World War II, science
has become an expensive occupation. Many
scientists today look back upon the 1960s as
a golden age of modern-day science, when
research was mainly funded by the taxpayer,
and scientific enquiry was seen by
governments to be part of the public good,
and worth paying for. Today, the situation is
very different. "Academic freedom" is now
often little more than an illusion for most
scientists working at universities or in
publicly-funded research institutes.
Moreover, science is now largely dominated
by the interests of the industrial world, and
hence, hardly deserves the name "science".

361. According to the passage, the major

difference between the "gentleman
scientists" and presentday ones -----.

A) research activities were largely carried

out under the sponsorship of industry
B) scientists believed that they were
entering upon a golden age
C) academic freedom was already a thing of
the past
D) scientists carried out their research
activities at the public expense
E) scientific research largely concentrated
on meeting the needs of war

363. The writer of the passage argues that

contemporary scientific research -----.
A) is, to a large extent, controlled by the
interests of industry

A) has frequently been ignored by

governments and universities
B) is that the former were free to research
as they chose, while the latter are not
C) has become a highly controversial issue in
university circles
D) is not nearly so obvious as some people
believe it to be

B) finds its best milieu within the

C) is advancing at an incredibly fast rate
D) offers one of the most exciting and
stimulating of careers
E) is far more concerned with theory than
with any practical application

E) the former were less objective in their

research methods than the latter are

Sayfa 121 / 344


364. The writer of the passage regards the

"gentleman scientists" of the nineteenth
century as privileged because -----.

365. The phrase "part of the public good" (lines

13- in effect means -----.
A) deserving of a good public

A) the choice of field was rapidly expanding

B) setting good standards for society

B) there were plenty of patrons willing to

finance them

C) ensuring a better future for society

D) beneficial to society

C) they were unrestricted by financial


E) recognized by the general public as being


D) scientific research was still in its early

stages and it was easy to discover
something new
E) they were always well-rewarded for their

Sayfa 122 / 344


366.367.368.369.370. SORULARI

366. One important point made in this passage

is that -----.

Some people believe that meat consumption

contributes to famine and depletes the
Earth's natural resources. Indeed, it is often
argued that cows and sheep require
pasturage that could be better used to grow
grain for starving millions in poor countries.
Additionally, claims are made that raising
livestock requires more water than raising
plant foods. But both these arguments are
illogical. As for the pasturage argument, this
ignores the fact that a large portion of the
Earth's dry land is unsuited to cultivation. For
instance, desert and mountainous areas are
not suitable for cultivation, but are suitable
for animal grazing. However, modern
commercial farming methods prefer to raise
animals in an enclosed space feeding them
on grains and soybeans. Unfortunately the
bulk of commercial livestock is not range-fed
but stall-fed. Stall-fed animals do not ingest
grasses and shrubs (like they shoulD) , but
are fed an unnatural array of grains and
soybeans which could be eaten by humans.
The argument here, then, is not that eating
meat depletes the Earth's resources, but that
commercial farming methods do. Such
methods subject livestock to deplorable living
conditions where infections, antibiotics, and
synthetic hormones are common. These all
lead to an unhealthy animal and, by
extension, to an unhealthy food product.

A) desert and mountainous regions should

be developed as arable land for
B) the way livestock is raised on modern
farms involves various health hazards
C) more encouragement should be given to
the application of modern farming
D) meat production in the developed world
needs to be increased to combat famine
E) every measure must be taken to
conserve the Earth's natural resources

367. One argument that is clearly opposed in the

passage -----.
A) concerns the value of antibiotics in the
raising of healthy livestock
B) concerns the introduction of soybeans as
the basic feed for livestock
C) is related to the inadequate methods
employed in the prevention of famine
D) is that livestock need water as much as
plants do
E) is that land used for pasturage should be
utilized for the cultivation of crops

Sayfa 123 / 344


368. Contrary to what is often argued, the

passage points out that -----.

370. By the "pasturage argument" (line 9) is

meant the argument that -----.

A) synthetic hormones can be used to

improve the quality of meat

A) the land used for animal grazing ought to

be cultivated and used to grow grain

B) underdeveloped countries need to adopt

modern farming methods in order to
overcome famine

B) livestock should be stall-fed on grains

and not allowed to graze freely

C) grazing for sheep and cows needs to be

upgraded so as to increase meat

C) cultivated land ought to be turned into

D) only cattle that are allowed to graze
freely produce good meat

D) the famine in the world is not directly

related to the consumption of meat

E) dry mountainous areas could be watered

and turned into good pasturage

E) a very extensive part of the earth's

surface is ideally suitable for the
cultivation of crops

369. The writer attacks present day commercial

farming methods -----.
A) but admits that there is a higher
production rate than there was with
earlier methods
B) though the end product is extremely
C) and claims that they are responsible for
depleting the natural resources of the
D) though it ensures that there is sufficient
food for everyone
E) because, among other things, it makes no
effort to cultivate dry, mountainous

Sayfa 124 / 344


371.372.373.374.375. SORULARI
The chief triumph of this book is its depiction
of Wellington. He is not simply the famous
British general who defeated Napoleon at
Waterloo. He remains a great general but he
is also shown to have had feet of clay inside
his splendid boots. For example, the writer
dwells on Wellington's vanity and his
unattractive lack of generosity in sharing the
credit for his victories. This is a splendid
book. Never less than interesting, but always
trenchant. It redefines Wellington without
diminishing his achievements and ends by
reminding us that it was Napoleon who so
forcefully articulated a wish that there should
be "a European code of laws, a European
judiciary ... one people in Europe". The ogre's
dream is coming true.

373. It is clear from the passage that the book

under review differs from traditional
biographies of Wellington -----.
A) as his great enemy Napoleon receives
more than his share of praise
B) as it questions his skills as a leader
C) because it shows up his human
D) in attitude, but not in content
E) by putting the emphasis on his vices, not
on his Virtues
374. We understand from the passage that in the
book under review, Napoleon -.
A) is simply presented as the big enemy
B) receives acclaim for envisaging a united

371. From this passage, we get the impression

that the book being reviewed -----.

C) is shown to have had greater military

skills than Wellington
D) and Wellington each admired the
military skills of the other

A) makes fun of both Napoleon and


E) knew from the beginning that he would

never conquer Britain

B) overlooks the fact that Wellington was a

great general
C) pays more attention to Napoleon than to

375. In line 5, "feet of clay" stands for -----.

D) is unnecessarily critical of Wellington

A) disgraceful impulses

E) is well-written and gives a balanced

picture of Wellington

B) unmilitary feelings
C) desires that have to be suppressed

372. In the book under review, Wellington is

criticized for -----.

D) basic human weakness or faults

E) an overwhelming desire to deceive

A) not recognizing the role played by others

in his victories
B) his plan of campaign at Waterloo
C) trying to buy people's affection and
D) underestimating Napoleon's strength
E) failing to consult his subordinates

Sayfa 125 / 344


376.377.378.379.380. SORULARI

376. This passage on American's fast-food

industry -----.

Fast-food is such a pervasive part of

American life that it hasbecome synonymous
with American culture. Fast-food was born in
America and it has now swollen into a $106billion industry. America exports fast-food
worldwide and its attendant corporate
culture, has probably been more influential
and done more to destroy local food
economies and cultural diversity than any
government propaganda programme could
hope to accomplish. No corner of the earth is
safe from its presence and no aspect of life is
unaffected. Fast-food is now found in
shopping malls, airports, hospitals, gas
stations, stadiums, on trains, and
increasingly, in schools. There are 23,000
restaurants in one chain alone, and another
2,000 are being opened every year. Its effect
has been the same on the millions of people
it feeds daily and on the people it employs.
Fast-food culture has changed how we work,
from its assembly-line kitchens filled with
robotic frying machines to the trite phrases
spoken to customers by its poorly paid
parttime workforce. In the United States,
more than 57 per cent of the population eat
meals away from home on any given day and
they spend more money on fast-food than
they do on higher education, personal
computers, or even on new cars.

A) shows convincingly that it is falling into

B) is clearly written by someone who loves
good food
C) concentrates on negative aspects
D) gives a rational account of why it grew so
E) reveals the support it received from
government Propaganda

377. The word "swollen" in line 3 -----.

Sayfa 126 / 344

A) emphasizes the speed at which the

industry has grown
B) suggests that the growth is excessive and
C) has very positive connotations
D) draws attention to the inevitability of the
growth of the industry
E) implies that the industry will continue to
grow on steadily


378. One point that receives a lot of attention in

the passage is -----.

380. The assertion at the end of the passage that

Americans spend more money on fast-food
than they do on higher education -----.

A) the fact that fast-food is now more

popular outside the US than it is inside
B) the fact that fast-food meets our dietary
C) the consideration the fast-food
companies show to their employees

A) is a criticism of the amount of money

spent on fast-food by Americans
B) suggests that Americans are greedy for
good food
C) means that 57 percent of the American
population has very little money left over
when it has paid for its food

D) the far-reaching effects of the fast-food

E) the idea that in such places as gas stations
and trains fast-food is actually the only
practical kind of food

379. The writer of the passage clearly regrets the

fact that -----.
A) the fast-food companies cannot afford to
pay even their part-time workers
adequate salaries
B) the growth of the fast-food industry has
now come to a halt
C) there are still more traditional restaurants
than fast-food ones
D) the fast-food industry cannot retain the
high standards with which it started
E) local and traditional styles of food are
being pushed off the market

Sayfa 127 / 344

D) is an indication that higher education in

the US is not expensive
E) is, in the light of the rest of the passage,
a gross Exaggeration


381.382.383.384.385. SORULARI

382. According to the passage, cancer and heart

diseases are on the increase ----.

Even though there have been truly significant

advances in modern medicine, health
problems still abound and cause untold
misery. Although heart disease and cancer
were rare at the beginning of the 20th
century, today these two diseases strike with
increasing frequency, in spite of billions of
dollars in research to combat them, and in
spite of tremendous advances in diagnostic
and surgical techniques. In America, one
person in three suffers from allergies, one in
ten has ulcers and one in five is mentally ill.
Every year, a quarter of a million infants are
born with a birth defect and undergo
expensive surgery, or are hidden away in
institutions. Other degenerative diseases
such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes,
and chronic fatigue afflict a significant
majority of Americans. Further learning
disabilities make life miserablefor seven
million young people and their parents.
These diseases were extremely rare only a
generation or two ago. Today, chronic illness
afflicts nearly half of all Americans and causes
three out of four deaths in the United States.

A) and most of the cures have serious sideeffects

B) due to problems of diagnosis which for
the present seem insurmountable
C) since research so far carried out in these
fields has been quite inadequate
D) even though a great deal of money is
being spent on research into them
E) but very little is being done by the
authorities to combat them

383. The writer of this passage draws our

attention to -----.

381. One point that is stressed in the passage

about the American people is that -----.

A) the fact that it is young people who are

the most affected by degenerative

A) they are less liable to degenerative

diseases than most other peoples
B) the rate of infant mortality among them is
rising rapidly

B) the paradox that medicine today has

improved remarkably, but more and
more people are suffering from various
C) the commonly-held view that cancer will,
in a few decades, be completely

C) there is an alarming lack of

communication between parents and
their children

D) the argument that good health depends

upon a healthy diet and early diagnosis

D) the incidence of cancer among them is

slowly being reduced due to medical
E) in one way or another, a very large
proportion of them have health problems

Sayfa 128 / 344

E) the possibility that it is mental rather

than physical health that is going to be
the major problem of the future in the


384. The passage stresses that ill-health gives rise
to a great deal of misery ----.

385. In line 15 of the passage the term

"significant majority" refers to -----.

A) which is not confined to the patient alone

A) an articulate majority

B) which is largely associated with pain

B) a statistically small majority

C) especially in the case of chronic illness

C) a large and important majority

D) even before an accurate diagnosis has

been made

D) a rapidly increasing majority

E) an unexpected but continuing majority

E) especially when the symptoms are severe

Sayfa 129 / 344


Does advertising encourage waste by
persuading consumers to buy goods that they
do not need? In reply to this, it has been
pointed out that all the consumer really
needs, is a bare minimum of clothing, food
and shelter, and that one of the
distinguishing marks of any civilized
community is that it lives well above the
minimum subsistence level. Most advertising
is designed to influence the consumer's
spending power. In western countries,
advertising has played a great part in bringing
laboursaving equipment, and so a degree of
leisure, and even luxury, to millions.
Advertising that encourages the public to
want more is also claimed to act as an
incentive making people want to earn more
in order to buy the goods advertised, and
therefore making them work harder. For this
reason advertising has been defended as
having an essential part to play in the move
towards higher standards of living. The
defenders of advertising also point out that it
is not solely concerned with encouraging the
public to spend. Banks, insurance companies
and building societies are amongst the
commercial advertisers who encourage

387. According to the passage, one of the

ultimate benefits of advertising is to -----.
A) make working life more competitive and
B) encourage people to attain a higher and
better standard of living
C) help banks and insurance companies to
extend their activities to all sections of
D) make the public better informed about
how to manage their savings
E) advise working people on how to avoid
excessive spending on luxury goods

388. One of the points made in the passage is

that -----.
A) advertising does not always aim at
making people spend
B) advertising is most effectively practised
in western countries

386. The basic aim of this passage is to -----.

C) luxury goods are more extensively

advertised than other goods

A) emphasize the vital importance of

advertising for banks and insurance

D) the consumer can easily be deceived by

the clever advertising of very ordinary

B) initiate a controversy as regards the

advantages and disadvantages of

E) those who attack advertising are the very

people most affected by advertising

C) enlighten the public as to the misleading

aspects of advertising
D) draw attention to the large amounts of
money wasted as a result of
E) present a positive attitude towards
advertising and its benefits

Sayfa 130 / 344



390. The passage puts considerable emphasis on

the fact that -----.

Though Italy's national boundaries have

altered relatively little since unification in the
1860s, national identity is qualified by sharp
internal differentiation. Economic and
occupational structures, standards of living,
political loyalties, cultural traditions and even
language vary substantially between parts of
the country. Only since the 1970s has there
existed a comprehensive system of regional
government with financial and legislative
authority. However, the division of powers
between central and regional governments is
imprecise, and in practice the latter depend
on substantial resources from the former. In
the absence of clear and effective rules,
relations between the regions and the central
government are determined by a process of
political bargaining. In this process, political
alliances and personal linkages play a vital
role. In this respect, the Italian system may
be defined as a kind of federalism.
389. It is clear from the passage that in Italy,
during the past 25 years or so, regional
government -----.

A) there is a great deal of variety, in

virtually every respect, among the
regions of Italy
B) the vast regional differences in Italy
threaten the political unity of the country
C) the traditional cultural, economic and
linguistic differences in Italy have now
almost disappeared
D) federalism is a system of government
that is unsuitable to Italy
E) the central government exercises
excessive authority on the affairs of local

391. It is clear from the passage that local

administrations in Italy today -.

A) has slowly become more powerful while

central government has grown less
B) has enjoyed considerable power though
this is not very specific in nature

A) are hardly at all concerned about the

preservation of national unity
B) are trying hard to get rid of the local
differences of the country

C) has frequently been on bad terms with

central government

C) are, to a large extent, dependent upon

the central government for financial and
other support

D) has become financially independent of

central government

D) are far stronger and better organized

that they were in the 1860s

E) has resisted all efforts on the part of the

central government to bring uniformity to
the country.

E) change whenever there is a change in

the central government

Sayfa 131 / 344



393. It is pointed out in the passage that

Sidney's Defence of Poesy -----.

Sir Philip Sidney was a 16th-century English

poet and critic. His Defence of Poesy is the
only major work of literary criticism in
sixteenth-century England, a period during
which Italy and France produced large
numbers of critical treatises, heavily
influenced by Aristotle's Poetics. By contrast,
Sidney's text is highly eclectic, drawing
together aesthetic principles from several
traditions and emphasizing especially those
principles that are of primary importance to
the Elizabethans: ideal imitation, moral
teaching and decorum. Looking back to
Aristotle, Sidney defines poetry as an
imitation of nature, but links that imitation to
his view of the poet as maker. The poet
imitates not the real nature we see but rather
he imitates an ideal nature. Sidney also
makes large claims for the didactic role of
poetry, following Horace's idea that poetry
teaches by delighting.

A) is still the most highly-regarded work of

criticism in English literature
B) is essentially a mere imitation of
Aristotle's Poetics
C) enjoyed much popularity in 16th-century
Italy and France
D) was entirely original since it drew on no
other critical source or literary tradition
E) is the single important work of English
criticism in its time

394. As we understand from the passage, in

Sidney's view, the poet -----.

392. According to the passage, Sidney believed

that -----.

A) should make Horace his guide and


A) poetry's chief function was to give

pleasure rather than to convey a moral

B) must make pleasure the sole purpose of

his poetry

B) Horace was the most didactic of the

classical poets

C) should be fully familiar with the

principles of Aristotle's Poetics

C) Aristotle's Poetics had been unfairly

neglected up to the Renaissance

D) presents not an actual but a perfected

view of nature

D) poetry combines moral instruction with

E) literary criticism in 16th-century England
was far more advanced than it was in Italy
and France

Sayfa 132 / 344

E) must first be instructed in aesthetic



Although the idea of the skyscraper is
modern, the inclination to build upward is
not. The Great Pyramids, with their broad
bases, reached heights unapproached for the
next four millennia. But even the great Gothic
cathedrals, crafted of bulky stone into an
aesthetic of lightness and slenderness are
dwarfed by the steel and reinforced concrete
structures of the 20th century. It was modern
building materials that made the true
skyscraper structurally possible, but it was
the mechanical device of the elevator that
made the skyscraper truly practical.
Ironically, it is also the elevator that has had
so much to do with limiting the height of
most tall buildings to about 70 or 80 stories.
Above that, elevator shafts occupy more than
25 percent of the volume of a tall building,
and so the economics of renting out space
argues against investing in greater height.

396. We understand from the passage that the

construction of skyscrapers only became
structurally feasible -----.
A) after such new building materials as
reinforced concrete came into use
B) once the technique of broad foundations
had been perfected
C) after people had realized how much
space could be gained by them
D) for heights of 70 or 80 floors
E) if aesthetic considerations were

397. It is explained in the passage that

skyscrapers of above 70 or 80 floors are
generally uneconomic -----.

395. It is clear from the passage that the Great

Pyramids -----.
A) are at least as spacious as the average
modern skyscraper

A) as the price of installing fast elevators is


B) inspired the building of the great Gothic

C) were as tall as they were wide

B) as elevator shafts have then to occupy

too large a proportion of the volume of
the building

D) were designed on similar principles to the

modern skyscraper

C) since the majority of people feel insecure

above that height

E) had no rival, as regards height, for four

thousand years

D) though in appearance they are most

E) even though the lower floors no longer
need to be built on broad bases

Sayfa 133 / 344


Land cleared of trees is exposed to erosion,
which can be severe in deforested areas
having slopes greater than 15 to 17 percent.
If land is not disturbed any further and new
growth becomes established, erosion may
gradually subside. If, however, vegetation on
the cutover land is continually removed by
man or livestock, erosion will intensify, and
environmental problems can be severe.
When a forest is removed from a slope, the
rate of water runoff is increased two to
tenfold or more, depending on the degree of
clearing, slope, and rainfall. All too often this
leads to flooding of agricultural land in the
lowlands. In Pakistan, for example, almost 2
million hectares of standing crops on the
lowlands were destroyed by floodwater in
1973, and about 10,000 villages were wiped
out. Since valuable soil is lost in floods, the
quantity of the arable lands decreases.
Alluvial silt deposited elsewhere is rarely
usable enough to compensate for such

399. We understand from the passage that once

a forest has been removed from a slope,
the rate of water runoff -----.
A) may be in itself enough to prevent the
establishment of new growth there
B) will increase irrespective of the amount
of rainfall
C) will steadily increase even after new
vegetation starts to establish
D) will depend almost wholly on the
gradient of the slope
E) will increase and this is likely to cause

400. According to the passage, flooding-----.

398. It is pointed out in the passage that

deforestation -----.

A) occurs in Pakistan regularly every year

A) and erosion are only very loosely

B) results in silt deposits which compensate

for earth losses elsewhere

B) is a matter that man can do nothing about

C) is only a temporary disaster

C) is particularly serious when it occurs on a


D) leads to a reduction in the amount of

land that can be farmed

D) will stop once man has realized how

serious its effects can be

E) is a natural disaster that until recently

has been largely overlooked

E) has been practised more in Pakistan than


Sayfa 134 / 344



Trade unions, that is, workers' unions, are
usually concerned to some extent with
mutual benefit activities as well as with
collective bargaining and the endeavour to
establish standard rates and conditions. The
mutual benefit activities have been greatest
among the skilled manual workers, whose
craft unions have in most cases maintained
high rates of contributions and benefits,
covering not only dispute benefit but also
unemployment, sickness, funeral and often
superannuation benefits. The less-skilled
workers have not been able to afford the
high contributions necessary for such
benefits particularly superannuation and
have usually provided few mutual benefits
(except funeral benefit and of course dispute
benefit), though some have provided
optional benefits in return for higher
contributions. In addition to providing cash
benefits, most trade unions provide free legal
assistance to their members in cases arising
out of their employment, and fight important
cases affecting their several trades in the
courts of law.

402. We understand from the passage that

skilled manual workers enjoy more
benefits than unskilled ones -----.
A) though their contribution rates are about
the same
B) because they can afford higher
C) since there are so many more of them
D) but they have not won as many law suits
E) which gives rise to the bad relations that
exist between the two groups

403. As it is pointed out in the passage, most

trade union members are entitled to -----.

401. We clearly understand from the passage

that one of the main aims of trade unions ----.

A) free legal assistance in law cases in any

way pertaining to their work
B) equal superannuation benefits regardless
of their contribution rates
C) take part in collective bargaining

A) has always been to oppose management

D) dispute benefit but not funeral benefit

B) is to ensure that skilled and unskilled

manual workers enjoy the same benefits

E) invest in state insurance schemes and

usually do so

C) is to keep rates of pay and working

conditions equitable
D) is no longer to fight for full employment
E) is to keep contribution rates to a

Sayfa 135 / 344


404.405.406. 407.408. SORULARI

404. As we understand from the passage, golf

only became a popular game __________.

It may be that golf originated in Holland but

certainly Scotland fostered the game and is
famous for it. In fact, in 1457 the Scottish
Parliament, disturbed because football and
golf had lured young Scots from themore
soldierly exercise of archery, passed an
ordinance that banned football and golf.
James I and Charles I of the royal line of
Stuarts were golf enthusiasts, whereby the
game came to be known as "the royal and
ancient game of golf". The golf balls used in
the early games were leather-covered and
stuffed with feathers. Clubs of all kinds were
fashioned by hand to suit individual-players.
The great step in spreading the game came
with the change from the feather ball to the
present-day ball introduced in about 1850. In
1860, formal competitions began with the
establishment of an annual tournament for
the British Open championship. There are
records of "golf clubs" in the United States as
far back as colonial days. However, it
remained a rather sedate and almost
aristocratic pastime until a 20-year-old
Francis Ouimet of Boston defeated two great
British professionals, Harry Vardon and Ted
Ray, in the United States Open championship
at Brookline, Mass., in 1913. This feat put the
game and Francis Ouimet on the front pages
of the newspapers and stirred a wave of
enthuslasm for the sport.

A) after an unknown American beat two

famous British golf players in a US
B) following the annual tournament
organized in 1860.
C) in the time of James.
D) after the introduction of annual formal
competitions in both England and
E) after golf clubs were set up in colonial

405. According to the passage, it was at one

time believed in Scotland that __________.
A) football was a better game than golf for
young people.
B) annual tournaments made the game too
C) golf was having an adverse effect on
young people's military skills
D) young people should be encouraged to
take up either golf or archery
E) the origins of archery were in some way
associated with Holland

Sayfa 136 / 344


406. It is pointed out in the passage that golf

408. As we learn from the passage, it was

around the mid-19th century that

A) was to some extent practised in colonial

B) has been overshadowed by football in
recent times

A) the old golf ordinance of the Scottish

Parliament was repealed
B) the first formal golf competitions
between America and Britain were held

C) requires a great deal of expensive


C) ) the newspapers began to cover major

golf championships

D) receives less newspaper coverage than


D) Scotland became the world's leading

country in golf

E) didn't arouse as much enthusiasm as

archery did in medieval Scotland

E) important changes were introduced into


407. The point is made in the passage that golf

has been described as a "royal" game
A) though for the last two centuries no kings
have participated in the game
B) since the professionals of the game are
treated with so much respect
C) as golf clubs are particular about who
they accept as members
D) because two British kings were
E) which Americans find very annoying

Sayfa 137 / 344


409.410.411.412.413. SORULARI AAIDAK
The economic news from Europe was
particularly disappointing in the second half
of 2002. Moreover, recent surveys from the
region imply little prospect of improvement
in the near future. Perhaps the most
worrying aspect has been the sharp decline in
conditions in Germanythe area's largest and
most important economy. Domestic demand
in Germany is very weak and, with the global
economy also struggling, Germany's
manufacturers have not been able to export
their way out of trouble as they have done in
the past. With the economy in such a weak
state, it is no surprise then that European
stock markets have followed the US stock
markets' downturn over the past 6 months.
While individual share pries may be lower
and market valuations look attractive, the
economy does not. Recovery seems some
way off and strong equity performance from
Europe's markets seems unlikely in 2003.

409. We understand from the passage that the

economic prospects in the current year for
the European stock markets __________.

410. It is pointed out in the passage that the

present economic recession in Germany
A) is actually not as serious as is being
experienced in several other European
B) is being overcome by means of increased
C) is more persistent than previous ones
have been
D) should have been foreseen much earlier
E) has been exaggerated in several surveys

411. The passage points out that Germany's

current economic problems __________.
A) have left the stock markets of Europe

A) are not foreseeable

B) are certainly promising

B) have led to a worrying decline in the

world economy

C) are constantly under discussion

D) seem most encouraging

C) are far serious than those of any other

country in Europe

E) don't look hopeful

D) stem in part from a drop in domestic

E) are in fact not as alarming as they were
once thought to be

Sayfa 138 / 344


412. According to the passage, the trend in
European stock markets __________.

413. The phrase "to export their way out of

trouble" means __________.

A) does not reflect the economic situation in


A) to expand their market capacity through

more exports

B) has been roughly the same as that in the

US stock markets

B) to find trouble-free markets for exports

C) improved greatly during the last six

months of 2002

C) to work extremely hard to increase their

D) to put and end to the slump

D) is related to the level of domestic demand

in Germany
E) seems to change every six months

Sayfa 139 / 344

E) to get out of the recession through

increased exports


414.415.416.417.418. SORULARI
Scientist who study earth's moon have two
big regrets about the six Apollo missions that
landed a dozen astronauts on the lunar
surface between 1969 and 1972. The biggest
regret, of course, is that the emissions ended
so abruptly, with so much of the moon still
unexplored. But researchers also lament that
the great triumph of Apollo led to a popular
misconception: because astronauts have
visited the moon, there is no compelling
reason to go back. In the 1990s, however,
two probes that orbited the moon raised new
questions about Earth's airless satellite. One
stunning discovery was strong evidence of
water ice in the perpetually shadowed areas
near the moon's poles. Because scientists
believe that comets deposited water and
organic compounds on both Earth and its
moon, wellpreserved ice at the lunar poles
could yield clues to the origins of life.
414. The point made in the passage is that it may
be possible to __________.

415. As is pointed out in the passage, one

significant outcome of the lunar probes in
the 1990s was __________.
A) the staggering finding of evidence of
water on the moon
B) the focussing of scientific attention on
the comets
C) the resumption of lunar missions
D) the realization that life is possible on the
E) the realization that there were great
similarities between earth and moon

416. According to the passage, even through

there were six Apollomissions to the moon
roughly thirty years ago, __________.

A) come to a better understanding of comets

through the study of the moon
B) learn more about the beginnings of life
from the ice at the moon's poles

A) none of them could claim to be

B) man's knowledge of the moon has not
increased at all

C) resume Apollo missions as there is

evidence of water on the moon

C) a very large proportion of the lunar

surface remains to date unexamined

D) identify the origin of the organic

compounds found on the moon

D) it was only the lunar poles that were

explored fully

E) have a full knowledge of the moon

without sending anymore astronauts

E) the idea of sending astronauts back to

the moon seems even more far-fetched
than formerly

Sayfa 140 / 344


417. As we understand from the passage, a great
many people __________.

418. A major point made in the passage is that


A) believe lunar missions should continue


A) comets hold the secrets of the origins of

life in the universe

B) regard the Apollo missions as a scientific


B) the six Apollo missions to the moon were

a great scientific success

C) are sure the moon cannot support life

C) the chances of finding water on the

moon are very slim

D) feel that the very fact that man has

landed on the moon is enough

D) the probes of the 1990s demonstrated

that the lunar landings should have

E) regard scientific investigations of the

moon as unfeasible.

E) scientists are agreed that there is

nothing further to learn about the moon

Sayfa 141 / 344


419.420.421.422.423. SORULARI

420. It is clear from the passage that


The US National Institute of Standards and

Technology (NITS) will soon be testing a
controversial theory about the collapse of the
World Trade Center towers. According to an
analysis by a leading fire-safety expert, had
the fire-proofing insulation on the towers'
steel structures been thicker, the towers
would have survived longer and might even
have remained standing after they were hit
by the hijacked planes. The work is being
seized on by lawyers representing victims'
families and insurance companies. If
confirmed, it could also lead to changes in
building codes. NIST is responsible for
drawing up the final report on the towers'
collapses and recommending if any changes
are needed. It is widely accepted that the
collapses were caused by the failure of the
buildings' steel structure as it was weakened
by the heat of the fires.

419. As it is pointed out in the passage, it is

commonly recognized that the main cause
for the collapse of the twin towers

A) the strength of the steel structure of the

towers had been questioned when the
designs were drawn up
B) NIST has already made a through study
of the collapse of the towers
C) the reason for the sudden collapse of the
two towers is still under debate
D) the structure of the twin towers was in
many respects well below standard
E) the hijacked planes hit the weakest parts
of the twin towers

421. As we learn from the passage, a specialist in

fire safety __________.

A) will only be understood after the release

of a detailed report by NITS

A) puts the blame for the collapse of the

towers on the thin fireproofing insulation
B) is to blame for negligence as regards the
buming of the twin towers

B) can never be established beyond doubt

C) has been cooperating with the victims'

lawyers to start legal procedures

C) was the weakening of the steel structure

due to the heat of the fire

D) has been commissioned to prepare a

report on the collapse of the towers

D) was not so much due to the heat of the

fires as to the force of the impact of the
hijacked planes

E) should have been aware of the structural

weakness of the towers and given due

E) is of special interest to insurance


Sayfa 142 / 344


422. As is pointed out in the passage, the
inadequacy of the fireproofing insulation of
the towers __________.

423. According to the passage, if the tower

collapse theory concerning the fire-proofing
insulation proves to be true, __________.

A) has been accepted by NIST as the main

cause of the collapse

A) this will have, even so, no direct bearing

on the fight against terrorism

B) has aroused a great deal of legal attention

B) the victims' families will get no


C) is less important than the weakness of the

steel structure as the cause f the collapse
D) had long been recognized by fire-safety
experts as the weakest point in their

C) this will free NITS from all blame

D) then lawyers will have no grounds for

E) has never been considered by any serious


Sayfa 143 / 344

E) then NITS will probably introduce new

building regulations


424.425.426.427.428. SORULARI

425. It is stressed in the passage that for the

American economy, __________.

The long-expected decline in the dollar is

now well under way. For years economists
have predicted that America's huge currentaccount deficit would eventually cause its
currency to plunge. So far the dollar's slide
has been fairly gradual: it is down by 13% in
trade-weighted terms over the past year,
though it has dropped by almost twice as
much against the euro since its 2001 peak. As
the decline seemed to pick up speed this
week, John Snow, George Bush's Treasury
Secretary, declared that he favours a "strong
dollar policy". That was surely the wrong
answer, even leaving aside the debatable
issue of whether cabinet secretaries can
influence the level of exchange rates. A
weaker, not a stronger dollar, is what the
world needs now-so long as policymakers
elsewhere respond appropriately. America
promoted a strong dollar throughout the
1990s, when inflation was still thought to be
the main enemy. Today it makes less sense.
Even after its recent slide, the dollar seems
overvalued. Moreover, with ample space
capacity in America, deflation looks a bigger
risk than inflation.
424. It is pointed out in the passage that the
American policy, in the 1990s, for a strong
dollar __________.

A) John Snow's policies promise a great deal

of hope
B) it is not inflation but deflation that in fact
may pose the moreserious problem
C) the global level of exchange rates
constitutes a major threat
D) and for the world economy, a strong
dollar is of vital importance
E) policy makers agree that deflation has
been responsible for many of the

426. According to the passage, what has brought

about the fall of the American dollar,

A) seems less rational now than it did than

B) has proved successful in boosting the

A) is the erratic global fluctuations in

exchange rates
B) is the enormous deficit experienced by
the American economy

C) has been reversed by the Treasury

Secretary, John Snow

C) has been a persistent recession in the

global economy

D) has frequently been disregarded by

American economists
E) has been a major reason for the decline of
the euro

D) is the wrong economic policies

introduced by John Snow, Treasury
E) is the unexpected rise in the value of the

Sayfa 144 / 344


427. As we understand from the passage, the
decline in the value of the American dollar
has, __________.

428. In the passage, with the phrase "the wrong

answer" is meant __________.
A) the American government's indifference
to the decline of the dollar

A) had an adverse effect upon the value of

the euro

B) the policy of keeping the dollar in the

line with the euro

B) bolstered American trade

C) been foreseen by economists over a long
period of time
D) been a major headache for policy makers
E) followed an unpredictable pattern

C) keeping the dollar strong through trade

D) permitting the current-account deficit to
E) the Treasury Secretary's preference for a
strong dollar policy

Sayfa 145 / 344


429.430.431.432.433. SORULARI
During the past few decades four East Asian
economies South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore
and Hong Kong - have achieved the fastest
rates of economic growth the world has ever
seen. In 1962 Taiwan stood between Zaire
and the Congo on the global ranking of
income per head: by 1986 its neighbors were
Greece and Malta. In 1962 South Korea was
poorer than Sudan: by 1986 it was richer than
Argentina. Today the four "dragons" account
for 10 per cent of manufactured exports
worldwide, not far short of America's 12 per
cent. Understanding this miracle is the most
urgent task in development economics. But
most economists are content to cite the
dragons as proof of their favorite theories whatever those theories may be. Free
marketers point to the dragons' reliance on
private enterprise, markets and relatively
undistorted trade regimes. Interventionists
point with equal assurance to clever
bureaucracies, non-market allocation of
resources and highly distorted trade regimes.
429. According to the passage, the so-called four
"dragons" of East Asia ----.

430. It is pointed out in the passage that South

Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong ---.
A) export more to the US than to any other
country in the world
B) have been in fierce competition with
each other in the export of
manufactured goods
C) have developed their economies in
accordance with the theory of
development economics
D) admit openly that they have made use of
various distorted trade regimes
E) export almost as many manufactured
goods between them, as does the US

431. We learn from the passage that, in just over

two decades, Taiwan ----.

A) are hoping shortly to outpace Greece and

Malta in economic growth
B) have definitely benefited greatly from a
free trade policy

A) became the economic model for the

other "dragons" on account of its
economic success

C) are presently developing their own freemarket strategies

B) achieved the fastest rate of economic

growth among the four East Asian

D) have experienced a staggering and

unprecedented economic growth rate
over recent decades

C) rose from a low-level per capita income

similar to that of Zaire, to a relatively
high one

E) have finally managed to throw off

bureaucratic obstacles and disprove the
theories of many economists

D) attached far more importance to private

enterprise than any other Asian country

Sayfa 146 / 344

E) was the only one among the "dragons"

to exploit its resources to the full


432. According to the passage, there is no
unanimous agreement among economists as
to ----.

433. It is clear from the passage that the factors

leading to the amazing economic growth of
the East Asian "dragons" ----.

A) how far distorted trade regimes

contributed to the economic success of
the four dragons"

A) have not yet been determined by


B) why Taiwan and Hong Kong got ahead of

Singapore and South Korea in economic
C) whether the growth rate of the four
"dragons" will continue steadily

B) are closely related to distorted trade

C) are in line with the theories of
development economics
D) should have contributed to the rise of

D) when the four East Asian "dragons" will

catch up with the US regarding
manufactured exports

E) have confirmed the importance of

political stability

E) how the four East Asian "dragons"

achieved their miraculous growth rate

Sayfa 147 / 344


434.435.436.437. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

435. As we learn from the passage, it seems

likely that women --- -.

Although women have made huge strides in

catching up with men in the workplace, a
gender gap still persists both in wages and
levels of advancement. Commonly cited
explanations for this gap range from charges
of sex discrimination to claims that women
are more sensitive than men to work versus
family conflicts and thus less inclined to make
sacrifices for their careers. Now, however,
two new studies suggest that another factor
may be at work: a deeply ingrained
difference in the way men and women react
to competition that manifests itself even at
an early age. Apparently, females tend to be
far less responsive to competition than males
a tendency with important implications for
women and business. It may hurt women in
highly competitive labor markets, for
example, and hamper efficient job placement
- especially for positions in which
competitiveness is not a useful trait.

434. On the whole, according to the passage,

women in the workplace ----.

A) are about to rally against the gender gap

in the workplace
B) become seriously concerned, at a very
early age, about their future careers
C) will fight determinedly for their rights in
the workplace
D) will, due to their passive nature, find it
hard to get the promotion they deserve
E) have less of the competitive spirit than
men do

436. We understand from the passage that,

when a choice has to be made between
work and family, ----.

A) are content to let the men compete

among themselves

A) men are less likely, than women to risk

their careers

B) inspire a competitive spirit in men

B) most career women naturally give

precedence to work

C) receive the treatment they naturally


C) women expect men to give the priority

to the family

D) have rapidly attained a position

approaching that of men

D) it is the women, rather than the men,

who find making that choice hard

E) keep themselves upto- date with

developments in the labor market

E) neither the men nor the women can

readily makeup their minds

Sayfa 148 / 344


437. According to the passage, in working life
A) women are preferred for certain jobs that
require sensitivity
B) there still exists considerable
discrimination against women
C) men feel they have a right to higher
wages and quicker advancement
D) family concerns are what drive men to
work harder and earn more
E) fair competition is to be encouraged while
sex discrimination is to be banned

Sayfa 149 / 344


438.439.440.441.442. SORULARI

438. We understand from the passage that the

canal under construction ----.

The Sahara desert takes up most of Egypt's

land, so overcrowding is a huge problem.
Sixty-two million people live squeezed
together into the six million fertile acres
along the Nile delta and narrow river valley just five per cent of the total area of Egypt.
Between 12 and 15 million people live in
Cairo alone. Until recently, it was impractical
and dangerous to even consider moving into
the southern desert, where temperatures
regularly rise above 50 C and water is scarce
and can only be reached using carefully
placed irrigation wells. But in the last 20
years a "New Valley" has slowly been taking
shape. Towns with industrial centres, tourist
areas and spacious apartment blocks are
being constructed, factories are springing up.
The main development making this possible
is the construction of the vast Sheikh Zayed
canal, also known as the Toshka canal.
Named for Sheikh Zayed al Nahya, president
of the United Arab Emirates, which is
financially backing the project, the canal is
part of the irrigation scheme dreamed up by
the Egyptian government to make it possible
for people to move away from the traffic,
pollution and bustle of Cairo. If a "second
Nile" cuts through the desert and water is
distributed to surrounding land, people and
crops can thrive there as they do around the
existing Nile. The area is becoming known as
the New Valley.

A) is designed to meet the water needs of

Cairo and other cities
B) constitutes just a portion of a massive
irrigation project
C) will bring fertility to the whole of the
D) will irrigate only 5% of the total area of
E) passes through an overcrowded part of
the country
439. As it is pointed out in the passage, one of
the benefits of the New Valley will be that ---.

Sayfa 150 / 344

A) Egypt will change from an agricultural

country into a fully industrial one
B) Egypt can at last start a tourist industry
C) the overcrowding in Cairo and the Nile
delta area will be reduced
D) the hot, dry desert climate of Egypt will
be rapidly modified
E) it will set an example for the developed
world to invest in desert projects


440. We can conclude from the passage that the
New Valley project, which has been
underway for roughly two decades, ----.

442. It is pointed out in the passage that the

irrigation project for the New Valley ----.

A) was originally proposed by Sheikh Zayed

al Nahya of the United Arab Emirates
B) has already started to transform the
economic potential of Egypt

A) has received a mixed reaction from the

general public
B) is going to cost the Egyptian government
vast sums of money
C) has primarily been designed to case the
overcrowding in Cairo

C) is primarily an agricultural one, and

industrial activity is not provided for
D) is very near to completion and large
numbers of people have already moved in
E) is proving far more problematic than was
originally foreseen

441. It is clearly stated in the passage that almost

the whole of Egypt's population ----,
A) lives along the Nile Valley and its delta
B) wants to move into the New Valley
C) is engaged in agricultural activities rather
than in industrial ones
D) holds Sheikh Zayed al Nahya in great
E) is dubious about the outcome of the New
Valley Project

Sayfa 151 / 344

D) will enable Egypt to recover from its

chronic economic recession
E) will make the inhospitable desert far
more easily accessible


443.444.445.446.447 SORULARI PARAGRAFA
When Lyndon Johnson assumed the
presidency, after the assassination of John F.
Kennedy, in November of 1963, he knew that
in order to accrue political capital he would
initially need to champion goals and policies
that Kennedy had already been pursuing. Not
long before his death Kennedy had scrawled
the word "poverty" on a piece of paper and
circled it multiple times; this note fell into the
hands of his brother Robert and became a
symbolic justification for Johnson's
declaration of the War on Poverty, early in
1964. Similarly, many of the things that
Johnson pushed through Congress in his first
two years as President, can readily be seen as
extensions of the avowed policies of the
Kennedy Administration. The details might
have been different, but historians generally
agree that if Kennedy had lived out his first
term and won a second, America would have
witnessed something similar to the early
years of Johnson's Great Society. On foreign
policy, too, Johnson at first strove consciously
to follow his predecessor. And some
historians have argued that in this realm as
well, Johnson indeed pursued a course that
Kennedy had already introduced. If Kennedy
had lived, according to this line of thinking,
he would have continued a policy of
antagonism towards Cuba and steady
escalation of US involvement in Vietnam.
Johnson certainly believed that this was what
Kennedy intended to do.

443. It's clear from the passage that, on

assuming the presidency, Johnson ----.
A) maintained amiable relations with the
B) was determined to put his own policies
into effect, and leave his own mark
C) took great care not to antagonize
D) was careful not to deviate from
Kennedy's policies in international
E) chose to concentrate on foreign policy
and ignore domestic issues

444. As we understand from the passage, one of

the issues Kennedy was planning to tackle -- -.

Sayfa 152 / 344

A) concerned the improvement of relations

between his administration and Congress
B) concerned bringing to an end the
antagonism towards Cuba
C) related to the ending of the war in
D) was the redefinition of the aims of US
foreign policy
E) was the elimination of poverty in the US


445. It is clear from the passage that initially
Johnson intended to continue the Kennedy
policies ----.

447. The passage makes the point that Johnson

became the president of the US ----.
A) because Kennedy was assassinated

A) as far as they were in keeping with the

national ideal of a "Great Society"

B) since his policy as regards the War on

Poverty was extremely popular

B) although in essence they clashed with his


C) because he supported the war in


C) since he hadn't formulated any of his own

D) because he sensed this would make him
politically popular

D) even though he disagreed with Kennedy

on many national and international

E) but he soon found that they were


E) as he had the support of the Kennedy


446. According to the passage, Johnson's pursuit

of the Kennedy goals and policies ----.
A) has been condemned by several recent
B) largely occurred during the first two years
of his presidency
C) actually undermined his image as
D) brought him into conflict with Congress
E) hindered his own desire to wage a War on

Sayfa 153 / 344


448.449.450.451.452. SORULARI

449. We learn from the passage that in the usual

space shuttle, the weight ----.

The space shuttle and its rockets are huge

some 4.5 million pounds at lift-off. About 85
per cent of that weight is fuel. Since it is
designed to work in a vacuum, the shuttle
must carry not only fuel but the oxygen to
burn it. Because this is an inefficient way to
go, NASA engineers have recently tested an
engine that gets some of its oxygen on the
run. This should reduce takeoff weights by
half. A spacecraft equipped with this engine
would take off like a rocket. But within
minutes, incoming air would begin to
supplement liquid oxygen. Once the
spacecraft reaches a speed of 1,500 miles per
hour - twice the speed of sound - the liquid
oxygen would shut off completely and the
engine would burn fuel mixed with air.
Consequently the craft would accelerate to
about ten times the speed of sound. When
the air got too thin for the engine to breathe,
the ship would shift back to rocket mode to
punch its way into space.

A) makes high speeds impossible

B) consists very largely of fuel
C) does not pose any serious problem
D) of the liquid oxygen is enormous
E) of the rockets is insignificant

450. As the passage points out, a space shuttle

requires oxygen ----.

448. According to the passage, a new rocket

engine is presently being developed to ----.

A) only when it is travelling within the

B) if it is to attain very high speeds
C) but only in its liquid form
D) in order to burn the fuel

A) reach previously unimagined speeds

E) in quite small quantities except at lift-off

B) make space travel more comfortable and

C) halve the weight of a space shuttle at liftoff
D) enable NASA to remain in the forefront of
space exploration
E) reduce the physical effects of the
atmosphere on the shuttle

Sayfa 154 / 344


451. The point is made in the passage that the
reason for developing the new engine is to ---.

452. It is clear from the passage that, - once

there is not sufficient air to burn the fuel,
then ----.

A) reduce the time it takes the shuttle to

exceed the speed of sound

A) the speed of the shuttle increases to

over ten times the speed of sound

B) double the speed at which the shuttle


B) the engine reverts back to using the

liquid oxygen aboard the shuttle

C) economize on the use of liquid oxygen

C) the engine starts to increase the speed of

the shuttle

D) eliminate the need for liquid oxygen and

thus cut down on the shuttle's weight
E) allow the shuttle to function in a vacuum

D) it is impossible for the shuttle to

accelerate any further
E) the rocket can no longer function

Sayfa 155 / 344


453.454.455.456.457. SORULARI

454. It is clear from the passage that studies on

prejudice ----.

Why are people prejudiced? Not surprisingly,

theories of prejudice have tended to focus on
the more extreme forms of prejudice, in
particular when there is aggression and
violence. At the turn of the last century, it
was popular to consider prejudice to be an
innate and instinctive reaction to certain
categories of person (e.g. certain races) much
as animals would react in instinctive ways to
one another. This approach is no longer
popular, as it doesn't stand up well to
scientific scrutiny. However there may be an
innate component to prejudice. There is
some evidence that higher animals, including
humans, have an inherent fear of the
unfamilier and unusual, which might set the
mould for negative attitudes towards groups
that are considered different in certain ways.
There is also evidence for a mere exposure
effect, in which, people's attitudes towards
various stimuli (e.g. other peoplE)
,improve as a direct function of repeated
exposure or familiarity with the stimulus
provided that initial reactions to the stimuli
are not negative. Another perspective rests
on the belief that prejudices are learned.
Indeed, it has been argued that hatred and
suspicion of certain groups are learned early
in life before the child even knows anything
about the target group and that this provides
an emotional framework that colours all
subsequent information about an experience
with the group.

A) often spring from animal behaviour

B) suggest that most children adopt the
prejudices of their parents
C) have finally established that it is innate
D) aim to discover how they can be
E) have usually concentrated on the more
destructive expressions of it

455. One theory referred to in the passage,

suggests that man's innate fear of what is
rarely encountered or little known ----.
A) may play a role in creating prejudices
B) prevents him from developing his social
C) is an aspect of his character that relates
him very closely to the rest of the animal
D) is far less strong now than formerly

453. According to the passage, at the beginning

of the 20th century, Prejudice was generally
regarded ----.
A) in very much the same way as it is now
B) as a natural and intuitive response
C) as something that had to be corrected
D) as inevitable and therefore acceptable
E) as an outcome of parental conditioning

Sayfa 156 / 344

E) has helped to make society more



456. We learn from the passage that the "mere
exposure effect" occurs when ----.

457. According to the passage, certain studies

suggest that prejudice against various
groups of society ----.

A) opposing groups agree to meet each

other half way

A) is on the increase simply because it is

receiving too much attention

B) individuals start to copy the behaviour

patterns of the people they are with

B) develops early in life, even before any

real contact has been made with them

C) people learn to face the fact that their

prejudices are without foundation
D) repeated contact with a particular group
leads to a better understanding of that
E) people can admit that their first reactions
were far too extreme

Sayfa 157 / 344

C) could best be overcome by keeping

children unaware of it
D) is largely racial in character
E) has only resulted in violence on very rare


458.459.460.461.462. SORULARI

458. We learn from the passage that many

scientists ----.

By the early 19th century, the eminent

French zoologist Georges Cuvier believed he
had found rock solid evidence for the Biblical
great flood. While studying the geological
strata around Paris, Cuvier found that fossils
of sea creatures in one ancient layer of chalk
were overlaid by those of land creatures.
Then just as abruptly, the layer above
contained sea creatures again, with the top
layer showing evidence of a vast and rapid
inundation around present day Paris. Cuvier
regarded these sudden changes in the fossil
record as evidence for sudden catastrophes
which devastated life on Earth, of which the
great flood was just the most recent
example. Cuvier's discoveries, published in
1812 won support from a large number of
eminent scientists such as the geologist Sir
James Hall. However there were a few who
were deeply sceptical, pointing out that the
evidence of a global flood was far from
conclusive. Most sceptical of all were the
followers of the Scottish geologist James
Hutton. In 1795 he had published a two
volume text based on the view that the slow
steady processes that shape our planet
today, such as erosion, were also crucially
important in the distant past.

A) gave full support to Cuvier's view that

the great flood had actually taken place
B) were not at all impressed by Cuvier's
discoveries in the Paris area
C) followed up Cuvier's excavations of
marine fossils
D) were, like Cuvier, engaged in a search for
evidence of the great flood
E) ceased to be sceptical of the great flood
once Sir James Hail had given his support
to Cuvier

459. It is pointed out in the passage that in the

course of excavations near Paris, Cuvier ----.
A) slowly came to recognize the geological
significance of the biblical great flood
B) was particularly surprised that there
were chalk formations in the area
C) was slow to recognize the geological
importance of marine fossils
D) grew interested in the fossils of sea
creatures only after he came across a
second layer
E) discovered alternating layers of fossils
relating to sea and land creatures

Sayfa 158 / 344


460. It is clear from the passage that Cuvier -------.

462. As we learn from the passage, Hutton's

theory was that----.

A) adopted an indifferent attitude towards

the attacks of his critics
B) was greatly influenced by Hutton's theory
concerning the Earth's formation

A) long term geological change, such as

erosion, had been of paramount
importance in the Earth's history
B) erosion was the single most important
cause of geological change on Earth

C) was particularly interested in marine

fossils and concentrated on them for
research purposes
D) interpreted his fossil discoveries as
indications of major catastrophes similar
to the great flood
E) had devoted years of research to
establishing that the biblical great flood
had actually occurred

C) some geological processes, such as

erosion, were relatively recent in the
history of the Earth
D) our planet had been subjected to
countless catastrophes in the distant
E) the formation of our planet was the
outcome of different processes in
different places

461. According to the passage, Cuvier's critics ------.

A) were extremely jealous of his discoveries
near Paris
B) felt that there was insufficient geological
evidence to confrm that the biblical great
flood ever had occurred
C) regarded erosion as only a minor
geological process
D) were also equally opposed to the views
expressed by Hutton
E) certainly believed there had been a global
flood but did not regard his discoveries as
scientifically mportant

Sayfa 159 / 344


463.464.465.466.467. SORULARI

463. The main point the writer is making in this

passage is that ----.

No child is too young to play and therefore

toengage in engineering, even though it is of
a primitive kind. We all did so as children
ourselves when we devised our own toys and
games and sometimes even imaginary friends
to enjoy them with us. The idea of
playfulness is embedded in engineering
through the concepts of invention and
design. Not that engineering is trivial; rather,
the heart of the activity is to give imagination
its freedom to dream and turn those dreams
into reality. Children do experience the
essence of engineering in their earliest
activities, yet there is seldom any recognition
that this is the case. They may hear the word
"engineer" only in connection with railroad
locomotives and have no idea that their
playful activity could become a lifelong
profession. Engineers themselves are
understandably reluctant to equate their
professional activity with mere child's play.
After all, they studied long and hard to
master complicated knowledge of atoms and
molekules, stresses and strains, heat and
power, current and voltages, bits and bytes.
They use computers for serious modelling
and calculation, not for fun and games. They
design and build real towers and bridges that
test the limits of reliability and safety, not the
ones that totter and fall down with little

A) man has practised engineering ever since

primitive times
B) some children are born to be engineers
C) children and engineers both have the
capacity to imagine and create
D) reliability and safety are minor details for
the professional engineer
E) any engineering fault in design or
calculation does have serious

464. One point stressed in the passage is that

professional engineering ----.

Sayfa 160 / 344

A) is very different from all other scientific

B) requires more imagination than technical
knowledge and calculation
C) makes little use of theoretical knowledge
D) gives priority to design rather than to
E) covers a vast field of involved or intricate
subjects of wide scope


465. As we can see from the passage, the writer
is careful ----.

467. According to the passage, what children

and engineers have in common are ----.
A) reliability and safety

A) not to exaggerate the importance of

creative play to a child

B) experience and knowledge

B) to list all areas that are of concern to an


D) modelling and calculation

C) invention and design

C) to show how slowly a child's mental

capacity develops
D) not to offend engineers by his comparison
E) to avoid using technical terminology in
the Passage

466. It is suggested in the passage that children ---.

A) are not aware of the fact that in their
games they are involved in some kind of
engineering activity
B) should be constantly encouraged to play
games that involve engineering
C) love to imitate the activities that go on
around them
D) are incapable of imaginative thinking
E) have a primitive perception of life

Sayfa 161 / 344

E) recognition and reallty


468.469.470.471. SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Europe and Japan do not use fuel economy
standards to any significant degree, but
instead rely principally on high taxes to
reduce gas consumption. Their average tax is
more than $200 per gallon, while in the US,
federal gas taxes are only EURO per gallon
and average state taxes 22 EURO per gallon.
Higher prices at the pump rusulting from
higher taxes increase consumer demand for
cars with better fuel economy. They also
encouarege consumers to reduce their
driving. Research shows that federal taxes on
gasoline would have to increase by a bit less
than 50 euro per gallon to cut gasoline
consumptin in the US. Although a 50 EURO
incerase is a lot compared with the present
average total tax of 40 EURO, it would raise
retail gas prices to only a little more than $2
per gallon, tax included. This is far below
prices in Europe and Japan. Even if federal
taxes on gas were doubled, US retail gas
prices would still be much below those in
other developed nations.

469. It is clear from the passage that Japan's

strategy to keep fuel consumption down ---.
A) depends largely on the high taxation of
B) has been greatly criticized by the public
C) has not been as effective as was
originally envisaged
D) has set an example that Europe is now
E) has had no effect upon the country's car
production technologies

470. According to the passage, the combined

federal and state taxes on gas in the US ----.

468. According to the passage, efforts have been

made ----.
A) to compare the levels of fuel consumption
as well as fuel prices in Europe
B) to assess what price increases would lead
to a significant reduction in fuel
consumption in the US
C) to give more appeal to public transport
D) to establish what vehicle types consume
less fuel
E) to develop fuel efficient vehicles for sale
in the US

Sayfa 162 / 344

A) have exceeded those currently in use in

B) are so high that they have forced
Japanese car manufacturers to change
their production strategies
C) have become a major public concern
D) have suddenly caused fuel prices to rise
E) amount to much less than the tax paid in


471. We learn from the passage that one effect of
higher taxes on fuel ----.

472. One point stressed in the passage is that

fuel prices in the US, ----.

A) has been a great deal of uneasiness and

even anger among consumers

A) which include both federal and state

taxes, are expected to rise considerably

B) has been a noticeable drop in car sales


B) which have been increasing steadily for

quite some time now, have almost
equalled those in Japan and even Europe

C) has been to draw attention to a much

wider range of energy sources
D) is an increased demand for vehicles which
consume less fuel

C) even if the taxes were to be increased

considerably, would still be much lower
than in other industrialized countries
D) which have not risen for a long time,
seem likely to remain stable

E) is that Europe's production of fuel

economy vehicles has increased

E) where consumers go for cars with better

fuel economy, have caused no change in
driving habits

Sayfa 163 / 344


473.474.475.476.477. SORULARI

474. We learn from the passage that, in

Shakespeare's London, theatres ----.

Throughout his working life, Shakespeare

worked as an actor in the midst of a troupe.
We know little about his first years in
London. For a few years between 1585 and
1592 his name disappears altogether from
the public records, and the most likely reason
for this is that, for at least some of this time,
he was working for one of the city's acting
companies. As a junior member, he would
not be listed among the troupe's principal
players. In the late 1580s theatrical activity in
London was largely concentrated in
Shoreditch and Southwark districts of
London. Shakespeara could have lived
anywhere, but Shoreditch, which would have
been cheap and convenient, is a likely
candidate for a young actor. In his early
career Shakespeare may have moved from
troupe to troupe in order to survive.
Whatever the case, working conditions must
have been similar. Sundays, religious holidays
and disasters aside, a company would
perform a different play each afternoon of
the week, though some plays would be
repeated in the weeks ahead. An actor
usually had to keep at least 30 parts in his
memory and a leading player such as Alleyn
or Burbage must have kept in mind nearly
500 lines a week.

A) competed with each other to get Alleyn

or Burbage in their troupe
B) were normally open to the public six
afternoons a week
C) provided actors with a comfortable and
profitable way of life
D) were rather like drama schools and they
trained actors
E) all had their own leading players

475. It is clear from the passage that

Shakespeare, during his early years in
London, ----.

473. According to the passage, in Shakespeare's

time, ----.
A) it was not unusual for actors to appear in
a great many roles each week
B) there was no theatrical activity anywhere
in England except for London
C) leading actors would only agree to appear
in certain roles
D) an acting company usually staged a new
play each week
E) acting was regarded as an immoral

Sayfa 164 / 344

A) gained experience as an actor by

appearing in a huge variety of parts
B) was encouraged to write plays by Alleyn
and Burbage
C) devoted himself primarily to the writing
of plays
D) preferred living in Southwark to
E) was little known as an actor though he
was probably acting


476. We understand from the passage that in the
late 16th century, ----.

477. It was clear frorm the passage that, for

Shakespeare, the years in London up to
1592 ----.

A) it was illegal to hold theatrical

performances on religious days

A) were times of hardship and uncertainty

B) Shoreditch and Southwark were heavily

populated, commercial districts

B) were a period of widespread public


C) there was apparently a great deal of

public interest in the theatres

C) marked a turning point in his life

D) the popularity of Alleyn and Burbage was

already on the decline
E) working conditions in the theatres varied

Sayfa 165 / 344

D) brought many great changes and

E) were the period during which he
established a lifelong friendship with
Alleyn and Burbage


478.479.480.481.482. SORULARI
Behavioural biologist Jane Atkinson and her
colleagues have been studying the subtleties
of how crows steal food from one another.
Atkinson had been watching the birds at the
beach as they fed on fish, clams and other
small animals in the intertidal zone. She
noticed that if a crow had found a particularly
large meal that couldn't be eaten in a single
gulp, another crow would often come by and
try to steal the food away. Food theft is fairly
common in the bird world, so the crows'
thievery wasn't unexpected. What really
intrigued Atkinson was that the birds
employed two different tactics to take the
food. n some instances, the thieving bird
would take an aggressive approach - typically
involving some chasing or physical contact,
such as pecking in other exchanges, however,
the thief would use a more passive method:
merely approaching the other bird secretively
and steallng the food without any commotion
at all. What the team wanted to know was:
how did these tactics fit into the group
foraging practices of the crows?

479. It is clear from the passage that the

research team was not surprised that the
crows were trying to steal from each other
A) because this is a practice among birds
B) since there was a scarcity of food at the
C) though crows don't steal food as often as
other birds do
D) but it was surprised at their rate of
E) but the bitterness of the fight came as a

480. According to the passage, when one crow

plans to steal food from another one, _
A) this is really a means of establisning its
B) it will invariably try to do so in the first
place without being seen
C) there will inevitably be a fight between
the two

478. According to the passage, the question that

interested the research team was .

D) this is a sure sign that both crows are

really hungry
E) it will sometimes approach quite openly
and Boldly

A) whether the crows' srealing practices

were instinctive or acquired
B) wry the crcws chose to steal
C) related to the crows' foraging practices
D) whether the nature of the food affected
the degree of attempted theft
E) wheiher the stealing practices of crows
differed from those of other birds

Sayfa 166 / 344


481. We understand from the passage that so
long as a crow _ .

482. It is ciear from the passage that Jane

Atkinson and her colleagues

A) can swallow its food at one gulp, it will

encounter no challenge

A) knew rnuch more about crows than

accut any other type of bird.

B) can find food easily, it will not steal from

another crow

B) are speciallstc in bird behaviour

C) can get food by stealing, it won't look

elsewhere for it
D) has eaten well, it is unlikily to try to steal
E) is able to steal food without fighring, this
is the method it will favour

Sayfa 167 / 344

C) are only interested in the eating habits or

birds are parcculariy interested in the
airferent types of food thar crows like to
E) are impressed oy the similarity between
steallng practices of ail bird species


483.484.485.486.487. SORULARI

484. According to the passage, film-makers find

it difficult to.

In many ways, Hollywood seems to exemplify

the most joyless aspects of capitalism. The
"industry", as it insists upon calling itself,
packages artistic ideas and images as
commodities and then values those
commodities accordmg to how they
"penetrate" markets. The system's worrying
inefliciency, of course, is that studios never
know what the public at large will want to
buy. So films are tested in front of preview
audiences, revised according to the
audience's suggestions, tested again, and
then marketed with a vigour directly
proportionate to the test scores. There are
two problems with this approach. The first is
that the test-sample size is minimal but can
determine a film's fate. The second is that by
the time the test audience sees a film it's too
late to change it very much anyway,
particularly when twenty, fifty or a hundred
million dollars has already been spent.

A) carry out any market research to find out

about the wishes of filmgoers
B) find volunteers for their preview
C) raise the money needed for film- making
D) guess what sort of films will be popular
and so profitable
E) revise scripts to meet the expectations of
their audiences

485. As we understand from the passage, the


483. One point made in the passage about test

audiences is that they.

A) is a great admirer of Hollywood's filmmaking

B) seems reluctant to call tilm-making an
C) is sympathetic towards the film-industry
and wants it to be more successful

A) seldom have any real understanding of

artistic values
B) add to the expenses of film-making

D) attaches great importance to the

suggestions of preview audiences

C) rarely have any constructive criticism to


E) thinks that the amount spent on a film is

usually in proportion to its Success

D) are ignorant of the Hoywood techniques

of film making
E) are too small to be truly representative of
the general public

Sayfa 168 / 344


486. It is clear from the passage that Hollywood
regards its films as

487. We understand from the passage that the

making of a film.

A) commodities to be selectively marketed

to suitable audiences

A) is far more important than the marketing

of it

B) artistic creations designed for

sophisticated audiences

B) usually involves a very large financial


C) goods to be dynamically marketed

D) the most creative products of capitallsm

C) is a strictly secret process until it finally

goes on show

E) financial investments which are sure to

make a profit

D) usually follows the norms established by

E) is guided by a whole series o
representative previev audiences

Sayfa 169 / 344


488.489.490.491.492. SORULARI
Reading presents a real paradox to
neurobiologists. It was only invented a few
thousand years ago, so there really has not
been enough time for our brain to evolve
speciallzed ways to do it. How do brain
circuits produced by millions of years of
evolution in a world without written words
adapt to the specific challenges of reading?
We know we have to learn the skill but how
does our brain learn to read? in the social
sciences, the majority of researchers do not
see a problem. There is a widespread view
that the brain is a completely adaptable
organ, capable of absorbing any form of
culture. Yet recent findings from brain
imaging studies and neurophysiology throw
new light on the organization of the reading
circuits in the brain. The findings contradict
this simplistic model of a brain that merely
absorbs everything from its cultural
environment. And they suggest that the
architecture of our brain is limited by strong
genetic constraints though it seerns that it
has still some degree of flexibility.

489. The writer is intrigued by the fact that the

brain, which evolved long before the
written word came into use,
A) had already had the genetic capacity to
form words
B) had been able to communicate through
C) had already developed certain reading
D) managed to adapt itself to the very
distinct skill of reading
E) had already achieved full flexibility to
adapt itself to new forms of Culture

490. A recent view neurophysiologists, the

brain, is that _.

488. The passage makes the point that, until


A) it is extremely flexible as it is not affected

by genetic heritage

A) it was only the abnormal brain that

attracted any attention
B) researchers in social sciences ignored the
views of neurophysiologists concerning
the brain

B) its structure is largely shaped by genetic

C) it has developed various speciallzed skills
over the last thousand years or so

C) the brain was generally thought to adapt

itself easily to new cultural environments

D) its circuits have remained constant for

millions of years

D) the structure of the brain did not attract

much attention except from

E) its creative powers are more apparent in

some fields of learning

E) neurophysiologists were not aware of the

structural complexity of the brain

Sayfa 170 / 344


491. According to the passage, although people
have had the skiil of reading for several
thousand years, _

492. The purpose of the passage is to

A) the actual process of learning how to read

has only just been discovered by
B) there has been no improvement in the
speed at when people can read

A) explain how the brain has evolved

towards creativity over thousands of
B) raise questions about, rather than
explain, the reading abilities of the brain
C) highlight recent developments and
controversies in the field of

C) the brain remains inflexible and cannot

cope with different cultures
D) from the angle of evolution, this has been
insufficient for the brain to develop
particularized reading skills
E) it is only in the social sciences that this
skill has been seriously Studied

Sayfa 171 / 344

D) emphasize the adverse effects of

different cultural environments on the
human brain way from
E) draw attention to the neurobiology
differs neurophysiology


493.494.495.496.497. SORULARI

494. The passage emphasizes the fact that the

Marmara earthquake

Throughout history, eyewitnesses have

reported orange glows, fireballs or flashes in
the days before and during an earthquake. it
was in 1968, however, that the first
photographs of "earthquake lights" were
taken during a series of earthquakes in Japan.
Some showed red streaks across the sky.
Others looked like a low blue dawn from a
distance. in 1999, floating bails of light in the
sky were broadcast on Turkish television,
reportedly filmed the night before the
devastating earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter
scale that killed many thousand people in the
Marmara region of Turkey. Mysterious or
not, repeated sightings of earthquake lights
confirm their existence. it has to be said that
earthquake lights are a fairly well- known
phenomenon, but we don't know what they
mean, or what causes them. Seismologists
have struggled far years to find a reliable
earthquake predictor. Could the lights hold
the key?

A) was televised as it was happening

B) was followed by strange lights in the sky
C) was indeed a catastrophic one
D) greatly puzzled seismologists
E) took everyone, seismologists included,
by surprise

495. We understand from the passage that the

sighting of earthquake lights

493. In the passage, the writer wonders whether


A) has led to a great deal of confused and

contradictory reporting amcng

A) earthquaks lights might help in the

prediction of earthquakes

B) first occurred in Japan

B) the orange glows supposedly sighted

before an earthquake were actually seen

D) has attracted virtually no scientific

attention from seismologis's

C) the photographs taken of earthquake

lights in Japan are of any scientific use

E) goes back a very long way in time

C) is a fairly recent phenomenon in Japan

D) earthquakes cause the lights, or whether

the lights cause the earthquakes
E) the devastation caused by the Marmara
earthquake could have been prevented

Sayfa 172 / 344


496. It is pointed out in the passage that the
photographic recording of earthquake lights.

497. The writer of the passage seems to be

confident that.

A) was made tor the first time less than half

a century ago

A) seismology is advancing rapidly through

the stucd of eartquakes lights

B) was only done with great succsss during

the Marmara earthquake

B) future eartquakeswill be reliably

predicted by means of eartquake lights

C) is what finally convinced people of their


C) eartquake lights have frequently been

observed and even filmed

D) is widely regarded as a visual deception

D) the mystery of earthquake lignts can

never be resolved

E) has always been a major concern for


E) the appearance of fireballs and flashes in

the sky are a sure sign of an approaching

Sayfa 173 / 344


498.499.500.501.502. SORULARI
Much has been said and written about the
declining numbers of and disappointing lack
of diversity among American college students
majoring in engineering. Among the factors
cited to explain this phenomenon are the lack
of exposure of high school students to the
very idea of engineering and the fact that
many have insufficient mathematics and
science background to gain entrance to
engineering school, even if they do identify
the profession as a possible career. This is
unfortunate, for the ideas of engineering
should be integrated into the curricula not
only of high schools but also of middle and
primary schools. Our children are being done
a disservice by not being exposed properly
throughout their education to engineering
activities identifted as such. Arter all, even
pre-school children have the prerequisites in
their play for appreciating exactly what
engineering is: design. Indeed, design is
everywhere around them throughout their
school day, even in their before-school and
after-school activities. it need only be pointed
out to them that they are designing
something, and therefore being engirteers of
sorts, in virtually everything that they do.
498. The writer of the passage feels strongiy that

499. The writer points out chat children can, at a

very early age......................
A) be encouraged to take part in afterschool activities
B) devolop an interest in scientific matters
C) make up their minds to study
engineering at university
D) learn something about the basis of
engineering, which is design
E) be influenced by their school

500. The writer recognizes the fact that


A) children should be involved in engineering

activities at an early age

A) is becoming less and less popular as a

field of study among university students

B) many children are being unfairly directed

into a career in engineering

B) is only suitable for highly intelligent


C) the mathematics anc science courses in

schools need to be modernized

C) is a complicated subject only suitable for

really mature students

D) university engineering courses ought to

be upgraded

D) has become one of the most popular

fields of study at American universities

E) the educarion of pre-schcol children is

being given too much mportance

E) requires many years of treaning prior to


Sayfa 174 / 344


501. Among the reasons given in the passage for
the decline in the numbers of engeenering
students is that............

502. According to the passage, all school

A) should be designed to make students
aware of the engineering practices and

A) the American schools still follow outdated curricula

B) university entrance requirements are far
too demanding
C) it is generally recognized as one of the
most diffucult of all the courses
D) engeenering in the US is not considered
to be a competitive field of study
E) many of them fail to acquire an adequate
knowledge of mathematics and science at
high schools

Sayfa 175 / 344

B) ought to give priority to the sciences

C) must encourage children to make
creative designs
D) seem to put the emphasis on the need to
diversify learning
E) overlook the fact that all children are


503.504.505.506.507. SORULARI

504. In this dramatic account of the film

Supervolcano, the writer ----.

One of the greatest natural catastrophes the

world will ever see could be little more than a
decade away. The film Supervolcano traces
the evolution of an enormous volcanic
eruption - one that not only wipes out several
states of America but that threatens the
entire planet. But is such an eruption really
possible? Well, supervolcanoes certainly
arent fiction. Theyre a normal part of the
way the Earth works and occur perhaps every
50,000 years. Every statistic associated with a
super-eruption is always wildly overexaggerated. Molten magma is blasted out at
a rate 140 times greater than the flow of
water over the Victoria Falls. Ash and gas are
thrown more than 50km upwards to the edge
of space before falling over one percent of
the Earths surface. Enough ash would pile up
on the ground to bury Britain under a blanket
4m thick. Further, devastating winds carrying
burning gas and red hot ash would scour the
land surface over an area of 10,000 square
kilometers. Worst of all, a super-eruption is
followed by a dramatic fall in global
temperatures, leading to years and years of
bitter cold known as a volcanic winter.

A) urges the general public to go and see

the film
B) is primarily concerned with the measures
needed to contain a super-eruption
C) essentially deals with the causes of a
D) also includes certain specific details
E) is obsessed with the idea that the end of
the world is very near

505. According to the passage, one of the

devastating consequences following a
super-eruption would be ----.

503. We understand from the passage that the

film Supervolcano ----.

A) the complete destruction of America and


A) gives a convincing and credible account of

an imminent super-eruption
B) has attracted a great deal of attention in
the scientific world
C) has aroused little interest among the
general public

B) a very long period of excessive cold on

C) that deep layers of volcanic ash would
cover the whole surface of the planet
D) the drying-up of all water sources on
E) a dramatic increase of heat on earth, the
result of burning gas

D) focuses on the horrors of a volcanic

E) presents a futuristic account of the effects
of a volcanic super-eruption

Sayfa 176 / 344


506. The writer seems convinced that ----.

507. According to the passage, the destruction

caused by a volcanic super-eruption ----.

A) super-eruptions really do occur at long

but fairly regular intervals
B) no part of the US could possibly survive a

A) could lead to the break-up of the entire

B) could be contained, not prevented

C) Britain would be the first region of the

planet to be buried under the ashes of a
super-erupt on

C) would be on an unimaginably huge scale

D) a volcanic winter, following a supereruption, would wipe out life on earth

E) can only be guessed at as one has never


E) there is no likelihood of a super-eruption

happening in the near future

Sayfa 177 / 344

D) would result largely from the flow of

molten magma


508.509.510.511.512. SORULARI
Family-owned companies are bad for
business, a new study argues at least when
they dominate a large portion of a countrys
economy. Outside the United States and
Britain most major corporations are in the
hands of a few wealthy families, rather than,
as in the US and Britain, being owned by a
wide network of shareholders. The power of
these small families often extends far beyond
the companies they own directly, thanks to a
system of control pyramids in which they
exercise indirect control over a large number
of smaller companies. This concentration of
corporate power doesnt merely leave-a high
percentage of wealth in the hands of
billionaires. it also retards growth, diminishes
efficiency, and limits economic freedom.
Moreover, a tiny elite that cannot be
sacked, as the study puts it, is likely to
pursue economic entrenchment, in which
property rights and financial openness are
restricted to protect a few families economic
and political prerogatives or rights.

509. We understand from the passage that in

Britain and the US, the larger companies ---.
A) are constantly merging to create en
larger companies
B) frequently extend their control or
smaller corporations
C) are characterized by much financial
D) are usually owned by shareholders who
may be many in number
E) are highly competitive and growing fast

510. We learn from the passage that the control

pyramids ----.
A) offer smaller companies a much-needed

508. The aim of the passage is to ----.

B) are in general very beneficial

C) depict the system of management within
a large corporation

A) highlight the different ways in which

business is carried on in the US and in

D) characterize all family businesses

whether large or small

B) compare small family businesses and

large corporations
C) present the findings of a research project
into the nature of large, family-owned
D) discredit the practices of big business,
especially when shareholders are involved
E) contradict the conclusions of a study into
the practices of large, family-owned

Sayfa 178 / 344

E) tend to restrict growth and lower



511. By the tiny elite that cannot be sacked of
the passage is meant ----.

512. It is clear from the passage that a major aim

of the big family companies is to ----.

A) families running small businesses at the

base of the control pyramids

A) preserve the status quo that is, their own

wealth and power

B) the non-family share-holders

B) increase their political power and play a

role in policy making

C) the high-ranking employees of the big

D) the few billionaire families who own and
rule the major corporations
E) families without economic and political

C) make the business world more

D) reduce the powers of their shareholders
E) encourage the growth of economic
freedom throughout the world

Sayfa 179 / 344


513.514.515.516.517. SORULARI
We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote
his plays. He my have had his own writing
season perhaps in the quieter winter
months, but he never stopped acting,
probably taking two or three minor parts
instead of a major one. He seems to have
chosen for himself the more static and
undemanding roles in his plays, such as old
Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in
Hamlet. His audiences included many
habitual playgoers, and many must have
known Shakespeare and he must have known
them. We can imagine, as a recent
biographer has said, that there might have
been a complex, subtle communicative
exchange when he appeared in one of his
own plays. In spring 1613, he purchased his
first property in London. He was renting out
by 1616, but may originally have entertained
other intentions for the property. It would
certainly have been a handy place to stay,
being near the Globe, which was his theatre.
Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613,
which probably prompted him to sell his
share in the theatre company, altered his
plans for it. He may not have given up acting,
but his writing career was over by the end of
that year. In 1614, he returned to his
hometown, Stratford-upon-Avon, and died
there in 1616.

514. It is pointed out in the passage that, though

Shakespeare had stopped writing plays by
the end of 1613, ----.
A) it seems likely that be continued to act a
little longer
B) he sometimes revised some of his earlier
C) he wanted to keep his company intact
D) his company put pressure on him to
continue writing
E) he started again on his return to
Stratford-upon Avon

515. We understand from the passage that have

no evidence ----.
A) as to what sort of parts Shakespeare
B) to suggest that Shakespeare was popular
in his day

513. It is suggested in the passage that, when

Shakespeare acted, ----.
A) he was always assigned the most crucial
B) the audiences were thrilled by his acting
C) the Globe Theatre was always crowded
D) be could spare very little time for his
E) the parts be played were mostly easy,
unimportant ones

Sayfa 180 / 344

C) as to whether or not Shakespeare

actually did rent out his property
D) about when Shakespeare was writing his
E) that the destruction of the Globe had
any serious impact on Shakespeares life


516. It is suggested in the passage that
Shakespeare, ----.

517. It is clear from the passage that the Globe

Theatre ----.

A) as a playwright, preferred tragedies to


A) was partly owned by Shakespeare


B) as a property owner, got a good income

from his rents

B) was built on land that Shakespeare had


C) as an actor, was often in close contact

with his audiences

C) was particularly spacious so as to

accommodate large audiences

D) returned to Stratford-upon-Avon almost

as soon as the Globe was destroyed

D) was the most popular of the London

theatres in Shakespeares time

E) though he returned to Stratford, very

soon regretted leaving London

E) was designed and built especially for the

staging of Shakespeares plays

Sayfa 181 / 344


518.519.520.521.522. SORULARI
The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern
China is so commonplace that it often annoys
as much as excites, because it can delay
construction for months or even years. So
when archeologists were called in last May to
check structures discovered during the
expansion of a bone-meal factory in a
southern suburb of Beijing, they werent
expecting to find anything of great interest.
To the archeologists surprise, the structures
were the remains of two traditional domed
tombs, each over a thousand years old. One
was flooded and badly damaged, but the
other contained beautifully-preserved wall
frescoes from the 10th century. Its only
recently that the Chinese have been
publishing artifacts from ancient tombs, and
its unusual to see them in the Western
press, says Dr Jessica Rawson, Professor of
Oriental Art and Archeology at Oxford
518. We learn from the passage that the Chinese

519. It is clear from the passage that in China

today the progress of a construction work ---.
A) is very of ten hindered by the
unexpected discovery of ancient tombs
B) is frequently supervised by archeologists
C) is liable to be delayed for a variety of
D) depends, to a certain extent, on weather
E) often runs parallel with archeological

520. According to Professor Rawson in the

passage, China ----.

A) show archeologists a great deal of respect

B) are very proud of their ancient
archeological heritage

A) has only recently emerged as an area of

interest for archeologists
B) has only just started to publish art
objects for the West

C) are very skilled in the art of frescoes

C) is noted for its ancient domed tombs

with frescoes

D) often have mixed feelings when an

ancient tomb is discovered

D) continues to be very secretive about its

archeological finds

E) used to prefer tombs without domes to

those with Domes

E) has the finest frescoes anywhere in the


Sayfa 182 / 344


521. We understand from the passage that only
one of the tombs unearthed during
extension work at a factory in Beijing ----.

522. The passage points out that the

archeologists who were called in ----.
A) were not impressed by the frescoes on
the walls of one of the tombs

A) attracted e attention of Dr Rawson

B) had a domed roof which was undamaged
C) could be dated back to the 10th century

B) werent expecting to discover tombs of

such great value in a suburb of Beijing

D) revealed frescoes in excellent condition

C) made ancient tombs their specialty

E) caused a delay in the Project

D) had published extensively in the western

E) were annoyed by the discovery of two
ancient tombs in Beijing which suit
different environments.

Sayfa 183 / 344


523.524.525.526.527. SORULARI
We should care about dying languages for the
same reason that we care when a species of
animal or plant dies. It reduces the diversity
of our planet. In the case of language, we are
talking about intellectual and cultural
diversity, not biological diversity, but the
issues are the same. As a result of decades of
environmental publicity and activism, most
people have come to accept that biodiversity
is a good thing. But linguistic diversity has not
enjoyed the same publicity. Diversity occupies
a central place in evolutionary theory because
enables a species to survive in different
environments. Increasing uniformity holds
dangers for the long-term survival of a
species. The strongest ecosystems are those
which are most diverse. It has often been said
that our success in colonizing the planet can
be accounted for by our ability to develop
diverse cultures which suit different
523. It is stressed in the passage that biological
diversity ----.

524. The point is made in the passage that the

survival of species in different
environments ----.
A) is of no real importance except to
B) has been made possible by the
continuous efforts of man
C) has aroused very little interest in the
general public
D) has been made possible by diversity
E) bears no relation to the survival of
languages and cultures.

525. The author draws a strong parallel between


A) is not in any way related to eco-systems

B) has received far more attention than
linguistic diversity

A) cultural and linguistic diversity

C) is fast being reduced

C) linguistic and biological diversity

D) contributes very little to the survival of

plant and animal species

D) environmental and cultural publicity

B) plant and animal species

E) the uniformity of ecosystems and that of


E) is richer in northern regions than in

southern ones

Sayfa 184 / 344


526. It is pointed out in the passage that man ----.

527. According to the writer, diversity on earth ---.

A) has developed diverse cultures which are

appropriate for the environment he lives
B) has always been very much aware of the
benefits of biodiversity
C) has always valued cultural diversity well
above biodiversity
D) has always found it very hard to adapt
himself to any new environment
E) has always felt that cultural uniformity is

Sayfa 185 / 344

A) is rapidly becoming reduced owing to

lack of public interest in it
B) consist not only of the diversity of
species and plants but also of languages
and cultures
C) has only recent become a research
concern among environmentalists
D) has encouraged man to exploit his
E) can best be maintained through the
preservation of different languages


528.529.530.531.532. SORULARI

529. We learn from the passage that one of the

characteristics of mass production is ----.

For two decades after World War II, mass

production reigned supreme. Massproduction techniques pushed companies
into standardized products, long product life
cycles, and rigid manufacturing, emphasizing
efficiency and low cost over flexibility. Special
orders cost more. But today's consumers are
very choosy. They want quality, value and
products specially tailored to their needs, but
always at the lowest possible price. For now
mass customization has come to the fore.
Mass customization uses information
technology to produce and deliver products
and services designed to fit the specifications
of individual customers. Companies can
customize products in quantities as small as
one with the same speed and low cost as
mass-production methods. Masscustomization systems use information taken
from the customer to control the flow of

A) the need to please every customer

B) a disregard for flexibility
C) a disregard for cost-effectiveness
D) to take into consideration the
specifications given by individual
E) the rescheduling of production as the
need Arises

530. By the phrase "mass customization", as it is

used in the passage, is meant the
production of goods ----.

528. We learn from the passage that mass

production ----.
A) has now regained its previous popularity
B) was the leading method of production in
the twenty years or so that followed
World War II

A) in very large quantities and for general

B) to meet standardized specifications
which will please everyone

C) can easily be adapted to meet the needs

of individual customers

C) at high speed regardless of cost

D) can be very profitable because of the

wide appeal of its goods

E) designed to meet the specific needs of

individual customers

E) gives priority to quality and longevity in

the goods produced but ignores aesthetic

Sayfa 186 / 344

D) designed to have a long life


531. According to the passage, present-day
customers ----.

532. The point is made in the passage that mass

customization ----.

A) are encouraged to buy ready-made goods

available in the shops

A) is no more costly and no more timeconsuming than mass production

B) are pleased far more easily than

customers were in the past

B) is a system that dates back to the end of

World War 11

C) do not attach much importance to

production methods

C) has actually never been as popular as

mass production

D) specify what they want and insist on

getting it

D) is primarily concerned with efficiency but

overlooks quality

E) rarely distinguish between standardized

and nonstandardized Goods

E) does not attach much importance to


Sayfa 187 / 344


533.534.535.536.537 SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Before the Polish-born French-American
mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot made his
mark on the world, scientists liked to forget
about the imperfections and irregularities of
nature. The study of perfect squares,
triangles and planes had dominated their
field for over 2,000 years, since the Greek
geometer Euclid wrote maths' oldest treatise
"Elements" and provided us with the tools to
measure these flawlessly smooth shapes.
Early question about how to measure the real
shape of a tree, a coastline or anything with a
rough edge could not be tackled by Euclidean
geometry and had therefore been ignored.
But Mandelbrot changed all this when he
invented fractal geometry, which enables us
to measure roughness. "My whole career has
been one long, ardent pursuit of the concept
of roughness", he says. "The roughness of
clusters in the physics of disorder, of
turbulent flows, of exotic noises, of chaotic
dynamical systems, of the distribution of
galaxies, of coastlines, of stock-price charts
and of mathematical constructions."

534. According to the passage, Euclidean

geometry can, in a way, be regarded as
having had a negative effect upon the
development of mathematics because it ---.
A) can be neither substantiated nor
B) is too involved with measurement
C) makes the investigation of roughness
D) is far too comprehensive
E) put forward the concept of roughness

535. lt is clear from the passage that Mandelbrot


533. It is clear from the passage that, before

Mandelbrot's concepts attracted the
attention of the scientific world, ----.

A) only began to work on the concept of

roughness at a later stage in his career
B) finds the concept of roughness
immensely exciting, and apparent in
widely different areas
C) worked on the concept of roughness
because he wanted to prove that Euclid's
theories were contradictory
D) didnt discover fractal geometry but
worked to extend its uses

A) mathematics followed the lead of Euclid

and concentrated on regular shapes
B) everyone felt that Euclidean geometry
was inadequate
C) scientists relied on Euclidean geometry to
measure trees and exotic noises
D) Mandelbrot almost lost confidence in the
concept of roughness
E) Mandelbrot was careful to limit the scope
of his studies into roughness

Sayfa 188 / 344

E) has still to convince the scientific world

of the value of fractal geometry


536. One point made in the passage is that
Euclidean geometry ----.

537. According to the passage, fractal geometry


A) has led to a better appreciation of the

irregularities in nature

A) makes possible the measurement of

anything with a rough edge

B) has had to be modified in the light of new


B) is actually, as regards method, very

similar to Euclidean geometry

C) has been shown to be invalid

D) is not universally applicable

C) is merely an extension of Euclidean


E) doesn't deserve the respect it has enjoyed

for 2,000 years

D) is well on the way to replacing Euclidean

geometry entirely
E) is just one of several remarkable
innovations propounded by Mandelbrot

Sayfa 189 / 344


538.539.540.541.542.SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Therapists have to be very careful before
they make a diagnosis of delusional disorder.
A great many complaints are founded on fact.
It is possible that a patient is really being
harassed at work, that her husband is
deceiving her, or that her business partner is
cheating her. Indeed, therapists must be
careful not to mislabel facts as delusions, a
trap known as "the Martha Mitchell effect".
Martha Mitchell was the wife of former US
attorney general John Mitchell. In October
1972, he was accused of having ordered the
break-in at the Democratic campaign
headquarters in the Watergate Hotel in
Washington, D.C. Mrs Mitchell repeatedly
told the press that her husband was being
made a scapegoat to protect the real culprit
President Richard M. Nixon. The White House
spread disinformation about Mrs Mitchell,
saying she had a drinking problem and
implying that her statements were
delusional. When the scandal was ultimately
unravelled, Mrs Mitchell's statements were
proved true and she was shown to be utterly
sane and with no drinking problem.

539. We understand from the passage that Mrs

Mitchell .
A) was often treated by therapists on
account of her delusions
B) did indeed have a drinking problem
C) was indifferent to the disinformation
spread by the White House
D) was unjustly portrayed as suffering from
E) displayed little interest in the Watergate

540. We learn from the passage that, in the

Watergate affair, US attorney general John
Mitchell .
A) was criminally involved in the break-in at
the Democratic campaign headquarters

538. The passage draws attention to the fact that


B) was made to appear as the leading

C) asked the press to interview his wife

A) John Mitchell had indeed violated the law

on several occasions

D) advised President Nixon on the legal


B) it can sometimes be difficult for therapists

to distinguish between fact and delusion

E) was anxious that his wife should not get

involved with the press

C) President Nixon had never trusted his

attorney general
D) Mrs Mitchell had always been subject to
E) complaints always have a foundation in

Sayfa 190 / 344


541. According to the passage, Mrs Mitchell's
statements about her husband .

542. lt is clear from the passage that, by "the

Martha Mitchell effect" is meant .

A) were disregarded by the press

A) the labelling of facts as delusions

B) were imaginary rather than factual

C) were, in fact, true but deliberately denied

B) Mrs Mitchell's loyal support of her


D) convinced President Nixon that his

attorney general was innocent

C) the use of a wife's evidence against her


E) were examined by therapists on a regular


D) the unravelling of the Watergate scandal

Sayfa 191 / 344

E) the giving of false testimony at a trial


543.544.545.546.547. SORULARI
Recent activity in several US church
communities has seemed almost
unbelievable: churchgoers have gathered
around huge fires and cheered as they cast
Harry Potter books into the flames. They fear
that the incredibly popular series about a
school for young wizards is spurring children
and adolescents toward a life of witchcraft
and onto the dangerous path toward
Satanism. For these congregations, J.K.
Rowling's books are none other than the
work of the devil herself. To most people,
however, the Harry Potter books and films
are merely compelling adventure stories, not
a threat to children's psyches. But what has
been forgotten in the excitement of
"Pottermania" is that boys and girls have
been fascinated by magic and sorcery for
generations. Surveys about magical practices
among adolescents vary widely, but some
indicate that as many as 44 per cent have
shown some slight, passing interest in it.
Although satanically motivated violence
occasionally makes headlines, research
shows that less than 5 per cent of young
people take part in more extensive
witchcraft, and very few end up in the kind of
organized devil worship that can lead to such
acts as ritual murder.

544. One point emphasized in the passage is

that the interest of young people in magic
A) is no more dangerous than their love of
B) needs to be recognized by society and
firm action taken
C) really is largely due to the Harry Potter
D) is by no means a new development
E) should be encouraged as it is perfectly

545. According to the passage, though a fair

number of young people have felt a vague,
temporary interest in magic, .

543. The attitude of the writer of the passage

towards the burning of the Harry Potter
books by various church communities is .

A) it has always been easy to convince them

of its dangers
B) few have become seriously involved
C) they have never, in any way, been
harmed by it
D) most do not even know the meaning of

A) an understanding one, as many young

people have been led astray by these

E) this never continues into adolescence

B) one of deep anger

C) sympathetic as basically he believes they
are right about the ill-effects of the Harry
Potter books
D) one of amazement at their response
E) one of repulsion at their hysteria and

Sayfa 192 / 344


546. In the passage, though the writer does not
want to make a big issue of the matter of
witchcraft, he .

547. According to the passage, those who burn

the Harry Potter books .

A) would like more surveys and studies to be

carried out on it
B) feels it should receive more public

A) have previously burned other popular

B) are actually indulging in a form of
witchcraft themselves
C) mostly do so without having first read
the books

C) admits that it can, on occasion, lead to

terrible events

D) are being accused, quite unfairly, of

displaying extremist attitudes

D) hopes that "Pottermania" will soon die

out of its own accord

E) do so because they believe these books

encourage young people to turn to

E) believes that all cases of satanically

motivated violence should make the
headlines and so serve as warnings

Sayfa 193 / 344


548.549.550.551.552 SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Why does sea water taste salty? It is a
question that has been asked by countless
people down the ages. And the answer
seems straightforward: rain constantly
erodes the surface of the Earth, washing a
mix of natural chemicals into rivers and
thence into the sea. The most water-soluble
and abundant of these just happen to taste
salty. All very simple. Or is it? After all,
erosion has been taking place for millions of
years, dumping ever more of these salty
compounds into the sea, yet the
concentration is still far below the saturation
level. So the real mystery is not why the sea
tastes salty, but why it isn't utterly packed
with salt, and as lifeless as the Dead Sea.
Here is another curious thing about our
planet. Its atmosphere has existed for billions
of years, and yet it still contains a mix of
highly reactive gases like oxygen and
methane. Why haven't they settled down
into a boring unreactive atmosphere like that
of Mars or Venus?

549. One point made in the passage is that

unanswered questions about the world and
the universe ----.
A) will, at some point in the future, be
answered in a satisfactory manner
B) are now very few in number
C) are unimportant and can be ignored
D) help to highlight the mysteries of the
E) are only of interest to scientists

550. One aim of the writer in this passage is to

make people realize that ----.
A) it is dangerous to interfere with the
balance of nature

548. According to the passage, the most

important and fascinating question about
salt and the sea is: ----?

B) everything in the universe has an

C) many of the facts about various planets
are exceedingly boring

A) why do certain natural elements taste


D) all the seas in the world will eventually

be like the Dead Sea

B) how much salt is there in the sea

E) what may seem simple and

straightforward may actually not be so

C) how does the salt get to the sea

D) when will the salt in the sea reach
saturation level
E) why isn't the sea more salty

Sayfa 194 / 344


551. It is clear from the passage that writer often
wonders about why ----.

552. The phrase "just happen to" supports the

writer's view of the world as a place ----.

A) certain gases are not highly reactive

A) where many phenomena remain


B) there is no end to the chemicals that are

carried into the sea
C) the world is as it is
D) people are not attracted to the Dead Sea
E) the atmosphere of Mars is similar to that
of Venus

B) where everything goes according to a

master plan
C) where most occurrences have a logical
D) of continuous and relentless change
E) of little interest to anyone who is
interested in science

Sayfa 195 / 344


553.554.555.556.557.558. SORULARI
Unlike the older forms of occultism, such as
magic and astrology, organized occultism is a
modern phenomenon. Few of the various
organized occult movements have existed for
more than 150 years; some were formed as a
belated counter movement to the
Enlightenment, when people began to follow
rational schools of thought. Todays occult
views are based on the idea that there are
events within nature, as well as within ones
spiritual life, which seem mysterious and
cannot be explained by science. Examples
include extrasensory perceptions such as
telepathy and telekinesis, and haunted places
or people. Believers maintain that these
phenomena stem from unknown powers that
can often be accessed only by some people
with special abilities.

554. According to the passage, some of the

organized occult movements in the past
came into being ----.
A) as a result of various magical and
astrological practices
B) since people in the past were seriously
concerned about their extrasensory
C) because the public was not satisfied with
scientific explanations of events in
D) due to the assumption that many
phenomena in nature were related to
mans spiritual life
E) in reaction to the rational thinking style
that characterized the Enlightenment

555. As we learn from the passage, occult

practices in our time ----.
553. We understand from the passage that
adherents of occultism claim that certain
people ----.

A) are particularly widespread among

people who follow rational schools of

A) have extraordinary talents that allow

them to have contact with the unknown

B) have mostly focused on the mysteries of

telepathy and telekinesis

B) practise magic and explain events by

means of astrological signs

C) essentially stem from the occult

movements of the past

C) were the pioneers of the antiEnlightenment movements in the

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

D) are concerned with phenomena which

are thought to be scientifically

D) can tell us what places are haunted and


E) seem to benefit from science in

explaining natural phenomena

E) can teach others what extrasensory

perceptions are

Sayfa 196 / 344


556. It is implied in the passage that magic and
astrology ----.

558. It is obvious from the passage that

occultism ---.

A) have failed as occult practices in

explaining extrasensory perceptions

A) contributes enormously to a more

comprehensive understanding of nature

B) are forms of occultism which can be

traced back into the past

B) has gained far more popularity in

modern times than in the past

C) lost their significance with the rise of

rationalism during the Enlightenment

C) is an unscientific practice that doesnt

rely on rationality

D) did not exist as occult practices prior to

the Enlightenment

D) can fully explain the spiritual side of


E) have always been used in order to

communicate with unknown powers

E) derives a great deal from magic and


557. It is obvious from the passage that occultism

A) contributes enormously to a more
comprehensive understanding of nature
B) has gained far more popularity in modern
times than in the past
C) is an unscientific practice that doesnt rely
on rationality
D) can fully explain the spiritual side of
E) derives a great deal from magic and

Sayfa 197 / 344


559.560.561.562.563. SORULARI

560. As one concludes from the passage, racial

discrimination ----.

The assumption that a persons attitudes

determine his or her behaviour is deeply
ingrained in Western thinking, and in many
instances the assumption holds. However,
research has shown that the relationship
between attitudes and behaviour is complex.
A classic study conducted during the 1930s
was the first to question the link. A white
professor travelled across the US with a
young Chinese couple. At that time, there
was quite strong prejudice against Asians,
and there were no laws against racial
discrimination. The three travellers stopped
at over 200 hotels, motels and restaurants,
and were served at all the restaurants and all
but one of the hotels and motels without
problem. Later, a letter was sent to all of the
establishments visited, asking them whether
or not they would accept a Chinese couple as
guests. Of the 128 replies received, 92 per
cent said they would not. In other words,
these proprietors expressed attitudes that
were much more prejudiced than their
559. One understands from the passage that the
link between attitudes and behaviour ----.

A) is the way whereby the relationship

between attitudes and behaviour can
best be assessed
B) has always been a major issue in the US
and cannot be eradicated
C) was a problem of the 1930s in the US,
but has now disappeared altogether
D) in the US and the rest of the world can
be fought most effectively through
E) was not practised by a great majority of
the proprietors visited by the professor
and his Chinese companions

561. It is pointed out in the passage that, during

their travels, the professor and the Chinese

A) had already been established before the

B) has always been a major topic of
psychological research
C) has aroused a great deal of controversy in
the US
D) is an area which has been neglected and,
indeed, deserves fresh study
E) is not so definite as has been generally

A) were often harassed by the proprietors

B) were doing research to find out whether
a persons behaviour affects his or her
C) encountered discriminatory behaviour
only on one occasion
D) were not upset at all by the proprietors
racist attitudes
E) were extremely surprised by the
proprietors prejudice against them

Sayfa 198 / 344


562. The point has been made in the passage that

the American people ----.

563. It is clear from the passage that the replies

the professor received from the proprietors
to whom he sent letters ----.

A) have always been remarkably hospitable

to Asians visiting America
B) in the 1930s really did dislike Asians

A) revealed a strong attitude of racial

discrimination against the Chinese

C) have waged war against racial

discrimination since the 1930s

B) could not be regarded as an indication of

prevalent racism in the US

D) and the Asians have always discriminated

against each other

C) were not concerned with the

interrelationship between ones
attitudes and behaviour

E) always do their best to provide comfort

for their guests, no matter what their
racial background

D) were confined only to a very small part

of the US
E) clearly showed why ones attitudes
determine ones behaviour

Sayfa 199 / 344


564.565.566.567.568. SORULARI

565. It is suggested in the passage that a person

with a sense of independence ----.

When you stay as a guest in someones

house, you give up your anonymity. This
becomes quite a challenge if you are the kind
of person who cherishes independence.
However, when you and your host are on the
same wavelength, you can have a trip more
special than money can buy. Some years ago
when I went to Auckland, New Zealand, for
the first time, my hosts were a couple, about
my age, whom I had met while travelling in
Europe. They had a full programme lined up
for me. They drove me around and showed
me their favourite hot springs and also the
beach where a popular TV series had once
been filmed. At mealtimes, they introduced
me to their favourite restaurants, where I
sampled cheeses from south New Zealand
that dont get exported, and fruits grown
locally. Normally such a tight schedule would
make me nervous, but I found myself happily
relinquishing control to my hosts, who truly
understood the pleasures of their native
country and enjoyed sharing them. I couldnt
have encountered this New Zealand on my

A) enjoys travelling together with other

B) can make friends easily while travelling
C) soon mixes with other people
D) wants to be led around by friends who
know the territory
E) usually prefers to be anonymous when
he or she travels

566. According to the passage, while the

narrator was in New Zealand, he ----.
A) tried to find ways whereby he could
travel independently
B) had the opportunity to taste the native
produce unique to the country

564. As we understand from the passage, the


C) was frustrated with the programme

prepared for him by his hosts

A) was a person who shamelessly exploited

the couples hospitality

D) was particularly attracted by the location

of a popular TV series

B) expected his hosts to meet all the

expenses of his sightseeing in and around

E) did not have enough money to see the

other parts of the country outside

C) and his hosts had similar tastes and

interests, which made his trip most
D) was more interested in eating than
visiting places
E) enjoyed the beginning of the holiday but
not the latter part

Sayfa 200 / 344


567. It is pointed out in the passage that the

narrator and his hosts ----.

568. It is implied in the passage that the narrator

usually likes ----.

A) knew each other before he travelled to

New Zealand

A) local food more than nationally popular


B) had made a long journey together across

many European countries

B) to be in New Zealand rather than in

Europe or anywhere else

C) spent a fortune to experience the

pleasures of New Zealand

C) to follow a full programme on his travels

D) were genuinely interested in sampling a

large variety of New Zealands food and

E) to travel in a relaxed and leisurely way

D) to see his travels as a challenge

E) were independent people who preferred

to be on their own

Sayfa 201 / 344


569.570.571.572.573. SORULARI

570. It is clear from the passage that Finlands

previously weak economy ----.

In Finland now, everything is all right. Fifteen

years after one of the worst recessions any
European country has seen, triggered by the
collapse of the Soviet Union, the Finns feel
very content. Their small country of a
population of 5 million is the first in the
World Economic Forums list of the worlds
most competitive countries, and the second
in its business-competitiveness index. It is
also the first in the OECDs world ranking of
educational performance and has the
second-highest share of research-anddevelopment spending in the European
Union. Moreover, the country is reversing its
demographic decline and, hence, its fertility
rate is one of the highest in Europe. Perhaps
best of all the Finns are facing globalization
without paranoia. Theirs is one of the few
European countries to have succeeded in
businesses in which international prices are
falling because of global competition and
technological change. In most of Europe
public opinion and even business lites seem
gloomily resigned to being overwhelmed by
India and China. Finland suggests that this
fate is not inevitable.

A) was caused by the collapse of the Soviet

B) had no effect on the countrys standing
in the World Economic Forum
C) caused the country to spend more on
research and development
D) improved dramatically fifteen years ago
E) became stronger after it began to
reverse its demographic decline

571. We understand from the passage that

Finlands population ----.

569. We learn from the passage that, in addition

to Finlands recent economic success, ----.

A) resents outside interference in its

B) is becoming one of the highest in Europe
C) is an extremely competitive one when it
comes to internal trade
D) is now increasing due to a higher birth
E) is not well-educated by European

A) it is also a popular tourist destination

B) it is resigned to being overwhelmed by
C) it also ranks very high in education
D) it remains in a deep recession
E) its businesses are not globally competitive

Sayfa 202 / 344


572. We see from the passage that Finlands
economy ----.

573. According to the passage, one indicator of

Finlands economic success is its ----.

A) is by far the strongest in the world

A) experience with recession

B) remains unaffected by technological


B) high ranking within the World Economic


C) is still undergoing the effects of the fall of

the Soviet Union

C) paranoia regarding globalization

D) has had a direct effect on its fertility rate

E) public opinion regarding China

E) hasnt always been stable

Sayfa 203 / 344

D) small population


574. 575.576. 577. 578. SORULARI
Until the giant American energy company
Enron collapsed, and its director Kenneth Lay
was imprisoned, his life had been a model of
the American dream of rising from rags to
riches on the strength of merit and hard
work. His beginnings were socially and
financially very modest. He was born in
Tyrone, Missouri, in 1942, as the son of a
preacher who was also a part-time salesman.
He helped his father make ends meet by
cutting grass and delivering papers. His start
in the energy industry seemed similarly
modest. After obtaining a doctoral degree in
economics from the University of Houston,
he got his start in the booming Texan oil
industry. In 1985 he merged Houston Natural
Gas with InterNorth of Nebraska in order to
form Enron. As Enron became stronger, Mr
Lay turned increasingly to politics and was
one of the biggest donors to the Bush-Cheney
campaign. After Mr Bush entered the White
House, Mr Lay had hopes of a seat in the
cabinet, perhaps as energy secretary or even
at the Treasury. However, for reasons that
remain unclear, Mr Bush overlooked him, so
his professional life ended in frustration.

575. It is clear from the passage that the giant

American energy company Enron was
founded through ----.
A) Kenneth Lays increasing interest in
B) Kenneth Lays dream of rising from rags
to riches
C) the fact that Kenneth Lay had been
D) Kenneth Lays modest beginnings as the
son of a preacher and part-time
E) the merging of two companies: Houston
Natural Gas and InterNorth

576. We understand from the passage that,

when Kenneth Lay was a child, he ----.
A) worked as a part-time salesman together
with his father
B) wanted to become a preacher like his

574. According to the passage, after Mr Bush

was elected president of the US, Kenneth
Lay ----.

C) moved with his family from Tyrone,

Missouri, to Houston, Texas
D) contributed to his familys income by
working at part- time jobs

A) turned increasingly to politics

B) became involved in the Texan oil industry
C) was not offered a cabinet seat
D) obtained a doctoral degree from the
University of Houston
E) dissolved Enron, the company he had

Sayfa 204 / 344

E) dreamed of becoming an oil tycoon


577. We can infer from the passage that Kenneth
Lay expected Mr Bush to offer him a high
position in his administration because Mr
Lay ----.

578. We see from the passage that Kenneth

Lays imprisonment was ----.

A) had contributed a very large amount of

money to Mr Bushs presidential

A) the result of his involvement in theBush

Cheney campaign
B) a miscarriage of justice
C) due to a crime he had committed while
studying at the University of Houston

B) was an important player in the Texan oil

C) was frustrated with his political life
D) had obtained a high level of education,
and was therefore quite knowledgeable
E) had become very rich through his hard

Sayfa 205 / 344

D) carried out despite the fact that he was a

good friend of President Bush
E) implemented at around the same time
that Enron, the company he had
founded, collapsed


579.580.581.582.583. SORULARI

580. We understand from the passage that, for

the engineer, scientific laws ----.

Engineering is akin to writing or painting in

that it is a creative endeavor that begins in
the minds eye and proceeds into new
frontiers of thought and action, where it does
not so much find as make new things. Just as
the poet starts with a blank sheet of paper
and the artist with a blank canvas, so the
engineer today begins with a blank computer
screen. Until the outlines of a design are set
down, however tentatively, there can be no
appeal to science or to critical analysis to
judge or test the design. Scientific, rhetorical
or aesthetic principles may be called on to
inspire, refine and finish a design, but
creative things do not come of applying the
principles alone. Without the sketch of a
thing or a diagram of a process, scientific
facts and laws are of little use to engineers.
Science may be the theater, but engineering
is the action on the stage.

A) only have a role to play after a design has

taken some sort of form
B) are only relevant in details concerning
C) are a constant factor all through the
creative process of design
D) play an important role only when it
comes to finalizing certain details
E) are rarely applicable at any stage in his

581. The point is made in the passage that

aesthetic principles ----.
A) have no place in an engineers design
579. The writers main aim in this passage is to ---.
A) show how many different types of
creativity there are

B) are central to the very best works of art

C) and creativity are two very different
D) cannot be taught or learnt
E) can infuse life into an ill-conceived poem

B) stress the creative and constructive

aspects of an engineers work
C) compare and contrast the way poets and
painters work
D) show that literary creativity is superior to
the painters creativity
E) establish the fact that it is the engineers
scientific knowledge that makes him

Sayfa 206 / 344


582. It can be inferred from the passage that,
once a poet has achieved the basic core of
his poem, ----.

583. According to the writer of the passage,

each act of creativity ----.
A) necessitates the crossing of frontiers and
entry into unknown regions

A) the creative process is complete

B) he tends to lose interest in it
C) he should wait a while before transcribing
it onto a blank sheet of paper
D) aesthetic principles may help him to
intensify and complete it
E) he must start to examine it for flaws and
then remove them

Sayfa 207 / 344

B) is dependent upon a storehouse of

closely related knowledge
C) arises almost equally out of thought and
inspiration and knowledge
D) has some bearing on other acts of
E) in one sphere of endeavour has its
counterpart in another


584.585.586.587.588 SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Just as every teenager thinks he is brighter
than his parents, every decade considers
itself superior to the one that came before.
Over the past few months, we of the 2000
decade have made it quite clear that we are
morally heads above those who lived in the
1990s. Weve done it first by establishing a
reigning cliche for that period. Just as the
1960s are known for student unrest, the
1980s for Reagan, Thatcher and the Yuppies,
the 1990s will henceforth be known as the
second Gilded Age. They will be known as the
age when the real problems in the world
were ignored while the illusions of the
dotcom types were celebrated. It was the age
of effortless abundance, cell phones on every
ear, stock markets that only went up and
Mercedes sport utility vehicles. Never before
had business leaders enjoyed so much
prestige, and never before had capitalism had
fewer mortal enemies. Bill Gates couldnt be
on enough business-magazine covers;
tycoons like him felt free to assume the role
of global sages, writing books with such
weighty titles as The Road Ahead.

585. In the opinion of the author of the passage,

the 2000 decade ----.
A) differs very little from the decade of
Reagan, Thatcher and the Yuppies
B) inherited a failing global economy from
the previous decade
C) is far more moral than the preceding one
D) still admires the values of the business
leaders of the 1990s and the books they
E) is fast losing its idealism and growing
more and more like previous decades

586. The term Gilded Age as it is used in the

passage means ----.
A) to be admired
B) golden age
C) with moral principles
D) with surface shine
E) in bad taste

584. According to the passage, the decade of the

1990s was characterized by ----.
A) capitalism, blindness and possessions
B) hard-work, greed and the need to
C) indifference, immorality and selfishness
D) generosity, spontaneity and individuality
E) disagreements, competition and prejudice

Sayfa 208 / 344


587. We understand from the passage that,
during the 1990s, ----.

588. One point made in the passage is that ----.

A) there was a great deal of student unrest

B) capitalism again fell into disrepute

A) with each passing decade life gets easier

and more comfortable
B) any hopes of the 2000 decade are not
likely to survive the decade

C) technological advance took the form of

useful gadgets
D) teenagers grew very critical of their

C) the business magazines of this decade

differ very little from those of earlier

E) business tycoons received undue respect

and were indeed almost idolized

D) each new decade regards itself as

superior to the previous one
E) the real problems of each decade are
essentially the same

Sayfa 209 / 344


589.590.501.592.593. SORULARI

590. In the passage, BBC1 is described as being

ratings driven; this means ----.

BBC4, a comparatively new TV channel, has a

character of its own. From the start it aimed
to be a place to think, and it was always
designed as something that the commercial
market would never do, says Roly Keating,
its controller and formerly head of arts at the
BBC. Its first weeks schedule indeed verged
on a parody of non commercial TV, with
township opera from South Africa and a
performance by a Senegalese singer in a
London church hall. A top-rated show will
typically draw some 50,000 viewers almost
negligible in television terms. Yet that narrow
appeal makes BBC4 a model of what a
publicly financed broadcaster ought to do. It
has roamed into territory where its ratingsdriven sister channel, BBC1, seldom dares to
tread. Despite a tiny 35m budget, it boasts an
intelligent prime-time talk show and a world
news programme so internationally minded
that its London provenance is barely visible.
BBC4 may wear its gravity a little too heavily
at times, but it supplies a variety and
thoughtfulness unavailable on prime time
BBC1. The more the other BBC channels
chase the ratings, and the more that BBC4
refuses to be dictated to by them, the more
the channel looks like a model for what BBC
television could look like.

A) it is obliged to put on popular

B) its appeal is a very narrow one
C) it sees BBC4 as its greatest rival
D) it feels very secure and can take risks
E) it never experiments or tries out a new
type of programme

591. Before he took over the running of BBC4,

Roly Keating ----.
A) was involved in commercial TV
B) was criticized because his programmes
were too intellectual and too serious
C) was a severe critic of the BBC1 channel
D) had taken a firm stand against the trend
to let ratings dictate programming
E) was arts director at the BBC

589. It is clear from the passage that, since BBC4

is publicly financed, it ----.
A) has to give viewers the kind of
programmes they want
B) has a large budget with which to work
C) is under no pressure to attract large
numbers of viewers
D) is under an obligation to offer a great
variety of programme
E) is often severely criticized for the
subjectivity of its news programmes

Sayfa 210 / 344


592. According to the passage, the programmes
BBC4 has to offer ----.

593. It is clear that the writer of the passage ----.

A) rarely come up to expectations

A) feels BBC4 has not lived up to its aim to

be a place to think

B) are varied, unusual and thoughtprovoking

B) regards BBC4s budget of35m as


C) are mostly news programmes and


C) would like to see the BBC1 channel

closed down

D) are attracting very large numbers of


D) is very impressed by the performance of

the BBC4 channel

E) constitute a close rival for BBC1 as

regards ratings

E) was full of admiration for BBC4s choice

of programme for the first week

Sayfa 211 / 344


594.595.596.597.598. SORULARI

595. Its clear from the passage that for a long

time now the young people of Lewis ----.

The natives of the Lewis Island know wind

sometimes too well. Every winter the Atlantic
gales come blasting across the northern tip of
Scotlands Outer Hebrides. The wind hardly
slows down even after striking land; in the
islands marshy interior, gusts regularly
exceed 160kph. Everyone stays indoors but
the sheep. Tourists arrive in summer, lured
by mild temperatures and unspoiled
countryside; even so, theres rarely a calm
day. The weather here is changeable, says
Nigel Scott, spokesman for the local
government. But the wind is constant. The
brutal climate could finally be Lewiss
salvation. The place has been growing poorer
and more desolate for generations, as young
people seek sunnier prospects elsewhere. But
now the energy industry has discovered the
storm-swept island. The multinationals AMEC
and British Energy are talking about plans to
erect some 300 outsize wind turbines across
a few thousand hectares of moorland. If the
500 million-pound project goes through, the
array will be Europes largest wind farm,
capable of churning out roughly 1 per cent of
Britains total electrical needs and
generating some badly needed jobs and cash
for the people of Lewis.

A) have been looking forward to the

establishment of awind farm on their
B) have been leaving the islandintent on
finding a better way of life elsewhere
C) have realized that the islands most
valuable asset is its climate
D) have been reluctant to leave the island
on a permanent basis
E) feel no sympathy for the old traditions
and ways of life of the island

596. According to the passage, Lewis Island ----.

A) has the climate and conditions
favourable to agriculture
B) suffers more than any other island in
Scotlands Outer Hebrides from Atlantic

594. We understand from the passage that, in

summer, the island of Lewis ----.

C) will undergo many important changes

unless a wind farm is established there

A) attracts visitors as nature there has

remained unspoiled
B) enjoys a warm, wind-free climate

D) may one day be home to Europes largest

wind farm

C) is one of the most attractive of the islands

that make up the Outer Hebrides

E) has an aging population that regards the

windfarm scheme with distrust.

D) has little to offer its inhabitants by way of

a living other than fishing
E) can offer its inhabitants even less in the
way of a livelihood than it can in the

Sayfa 212 / 344


597. If the energy industry carries out the project
described in the passage and sets up 300
wind turbines on Lewis, ----.

598. According to the passage, if the proposed

wind farm is set up on Lewis, ----.

A) maintenance costs due to the gale force

winds could cause financial failure
B) the young people will want to leave their
much loved island

A) this could make the island unattractive to

summer visitors
B) the idea could spread rapidly to
neighbouring islands

C) there will be a shortage of land for the

sheep to graze on

C) this will open up much needed

employment opportunities for the

D) other windswept coastlines throughout

Europe will probably follow suit

D) it will only function efficiently in the

winter months

E) these will provide Britain with roughly of

1 per cent of her total electrical needs

E) the costs will be shared equally by AMEC

and British Energy

Sayfa 213 / 344


599.600.601.602.603. SORULARI

600. One point that is given considerable

emphasis in the passage is ----.

In this century, the wealth and success of

nations will depend like never before on the
ability to produce and use knowledge.
Universities have long been instrumental in
generating knowledge and ideas. But in an
increasingly globalized world, and in the face
of rapid scientific change, they will need to
think about a set of new challenges and how
best to prepare their students for the coming
decades. Universities will need to teach a
new kind of literacy, in which global
awareness will play an important role. They
also need to deal with the dilemmas posed by
the accelerating pace of change brought on
by scientific and technological advances. We
are on the brink of once-in-human-history
progress in combating disease through the
application of modern science. Doctors will
have at their disposal blood tests that will tell
you with substantial predictive power how
long you will live and from what diseases you
are likely to suffer. The Internet and the
application of information technology may
well represent the most profound change in
the way knowledge is disseminated since the
printing press. We are close to understanding
the first second of the history of the cosmos.

A) the need of all students to get

acquainted with foreign cultures and
global issues
B) that the universities have a commitment
to the pursuit of truth for its own sake
C) that the universities are in a position to
further greater global integration
D) the incredible speed with which
knowledge is increasing
E) that universities must stick to the values
that have made them successful in the

601. It is clear from the passage that science and

the application of science ----.
A) will not help to further global awareness
B) is largely confined within the universities
C) has grown so complex that it is beyond
the understanding of all but a very few

599. According to the passage, universities are

under an obligation to ensure that their
students ----.

D) cannot go on advancing at this rate

E) is opening up startling new possibilities

A) have the chance to work alongside

foreign students
B) are equipped to deal with the changing
conditions of the coming decades
C) are introduced to international
perspectives in every area of study
D) are taught not specific facts as much as
broad ways of thinking
E) all have a good grounding in science and

Sayfa 214 / 344


602. The writer of the passage seems convinced
that the current rapid developments in
science and technology ----.

603. The phrase, once-in-humanhistory

progress is saying ----.
A) we cannot expect or, indeed, hope for
such progress ever to happen again

A) will be accompanied by new problems

B) cannot go on much longer
C) will bring more harm than good

B) this is only the first of many spurts of


D) are largely concentrated in the field of


C) this is the first instance of a widespread

application of science

E) are beyond the grasp of most people in

most countries

D) there has never been such progress ever

before and there may not be again
E) this is the highest possible peak of

Sayfa 215 / 344


604.605.606.607.608. SORULARI

604. As one learns from the passage, West Berlin


Today, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, in which the

Soviet Union demanded that Western powers
cut their ties with Berlin, may be the most
forgotten crisis in the annals of the Cold War.
Even most Berliners who lived through the
event remember little about it. Yet this crisis
over Berlin brought America and the Soviet
Union, the two superpowers of the postWorld War II period, close to war. In fact,
since the very end of World War II, Berlin had
been the centrepiece of a struggle between
these two superpowers. It was here that
World War II ended in 1945 when, following
the occupation and defeat of Nazi Germany
by the allied armies of the United States,
Britain, and France from the west, and the
Soviet Union from the east, the city had been
captured and divided into the separate zones
of East and West Berlin. Soon afterwards
Germany had itself split into East and West,
and the border between the two had become
the dividing line (the so-called iron curtain)
between Soviet- controlled Eastern Europe
and free, capitalist Western Europe. Thus,
situated behind this iron curtain and stuck a
hundred miles inside Eastern territory, West
Berlin was claimed, protected and supplied
by the Western powers. In 1948, Stalin
imposed a blockade, cutting West Berlin off
from its Western suppliers. The United States
responded with an airlift, keeping the zone
alive for more than 300 days before Allied
access was restored.

A) received so much American aid during

the Cold War that its people enjoyed a
comfortable life
B) was recognized by the Soviet Union
during the Cold War as a separate
American territory
C) was, during the Cold War, far more
prosperous and secure than East Berlin
D) made an alliance during the Cold War
with the United States against a possible
Soviet invasion
E) was able to survive the Soviet blockade
in 1948 through relief provided by the
United States
605. It is clear from the passage that the fall of
Berlin in 1945 to the Allies and the Soviet
Union ----.

Sayfa 216 / 344

A) resulted from the establishment of the

so-called iron curtain between East
and West Germany
B) was one of a series of political crises, the
most serious of which was the one in
C) followed the division of Germany into
East and West
D) clearly represented the final defeat and
collapse of Nazi Germany
E) completely undermined Nazi Germanys
political and military ambitions to
conquer Europe


606. In the passage, the writer points out that,
paradoxically, ----.

608. As it is clear from the passage, in the

aftermath of World War II, ----.

A) even if America did not want the Soviet

Union to capture Berlin completely, it
acted fast and moved into West Berlin

A) Europe was no longer an undivided

continent, with Eastern Europe falling
under Soviet rule

B) since the Allies and the Soviet Union

fought in World War II against Nazi
Germany, in fact they cooperated in many
respects, including the capture of Berlin

B) the American presence throughout

Europe rapidly increased and was
strengthened to keep the Soviets under

C) although the 1961 Berlin crisis almost led

to a military confrontation between
America and the Soviet Union, for most
residents of Berlin today it has lost its

C) the Eastern European countries willingly

joined the Soviet Union and began to
enjoy great economic prosperity

D) despite their alliance during World War II,

the United States, Britain and France each
had conflicting policies towards Nazi
E) while Berliners experienced many
hardships under the Soviet occupation of
their city, they did not show any
607. The point is made in the passage that,
during the early decades of the Cold War, ---.
A) the United States and its allies were
totally indifferent to the political
implications of the so- called ironcurtain
B) the United States and the Soviet Union
were locked in political conflict over
C) the Soviet Union followed a policy of
peace and friendship towards the United
States and its allies
D) Berliners regarded the Allied and Soviet
occupation of their city as a relief from
the Nazi regime
E) the United States and the Soviet Union
reached an agreement on the question of
how Germany was to be divided

Sayfa 217 / 344

D) the security of Berlin became so urgent

that the western powers took a number
of measures to protect it against an
E) while the Allied armies left Germany, the
Soviet army remained in the country,
continuing its occupation


609.610.611.612.613. SORULARI

610. As can be understood from the passage, the

writer ----.

Narva is a quiet northeastern Estonian town

bathed in sea breezes. Though small, with a
population of just over 72,000, it occupies a
large place in Russian history. It was here in
1700 that, by attacking the Swedes, who
were then in control of much of the Baltic
coast, Russia launched its final campaign in a
centuries-long quest to become a European
power. The battle ended in defeat for the
Russians, but the war did not; by 1721 Russia
had conquered the Baltic territories as far
southwest as Riga, the capital of present-day
Latvia, and had built a new capital, Saint
Petersburg, on the Gulf of Finland. Later in
that century, Russia, through a partition
agreement with Austria and Prussia, gained
control of the rest of the Baltics, and would
retain them until the fall of the Soviet Union
in 1991.

A) points out that Narva is an attractive and

well- known centre for tourism in Estonia
B) describes the hardships which the Baltic
countries endured under the Russians in
the eighteenth century
C) stresses how the Russian expansion in
the Baltics in the 1720s was prevented
by Austria and Prussia
D) draws a contrast between the presentday romantic appearance of Narva and
its historic significance
E) compares Riga with Narva and concludes
that the Latvian capital is historically
more important

611. As one learns from the passage, it was

before 1721 that ----.

609. According to the passage, the Russian

conquest of the Baltics ----.

A) the Russians re-captured Riga from the

Swedes and made it the capital of Latvia

A) forced both Austria and Prussia to give up

their centuries-old claims on the Baltic
territories and sign a treaty
B) was finalized in the eighteenth century
partly through war and partly through a
multi-lateral treaty
C) included only the region between Narva
in northeastern Estonia and Saint
Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland
D) was several times resisted by the Swedes,
whom the Russians were unable to defeat
and drive out of the region
E) involved a very long war with the Swedes
on the one hand, and with Austria and
Prussia on the other

Sayfa 218 / 344

B) Russia reached an agreement with

Austria and Prussia for the partition of
the whole Baltic region
C) Russia became a major European power
which completely dominated the Baltics
D) the Swedes and the Russians agreed on
their respective control of the Baltic
E) the city of Saint Petersburg was founded
by theRussians on the Gulf of Finland


612. It is pointed out in the passage that ----.
A) Russian possession of the Baltic territories
lasted until the late twentieth century

613. It is clear from the passage that Russias

invasion of the Baltics in the early
eighteenth century ----.

B) Prussian control of the Baltic territories

lasted throughout the eighteenth century
and after

A) put at risk the centuries-long good

relations which she had maintained with
other European powers

C) no European power in the eighteenth

century was concerned about the Russian
invasion of the Baltics

B) was a thorough military campaign which

lasted for many decades and failed to
achieve its aims

D) the Swedes and the Russians were

constantly at war with each other for the
possession of the Baltics

C) signified the final stage of her efforts

towards becoming a European power
that had gone on for centuries

E) the Russian conquest of the Baltic

territories has always been a controversial
issue in Russian history

D) increased enormously the importance of

both Narva and Riga as major military
centres in the region
E) so alarmed other European powers that
they immediately made an alliance
among themselves

Sayfa 219 / 344


614.615.616.617.618. SORULARI

614. According to the passage, Helen Dunmores

novel The Siege is mainly the story of ----.

Set in 1941 in Leningrad, Helen Dunmores

novel The Siege opens with deceptively
gentle scenes of Chekhovian melancholy.
After the death of her mother, 23-year-old
Anna Levin, the protagonist, gives up her
artistic studies to look after her 5-year- old
brother and her politically suspect father
Abraham, who, as a writer, has fallen out of
favour with Stalins cultural police. So she
jumps at the chance to make a drawing of the
retired actress Marina Petrovna, with whom
Annas father might once have had a
romantic relationship. But Annas worries
about art and romance are soon swept away
as the Germans besiege her native city. At
this point, Dunmores novel transforms
abruptly as well, shifting from a romantic
narrative into a study of survival under most
extreme hardships. Annas abundant artistic
creativity is put to use providing food and
fuel for her helpless family, and her drawing
skills are called on to sketch a neighbours
starved baby so that the grieving mother
might remember her lost child. Indeed, the
novel presents a striking contrast between
the gentle display of human emotions and
the rude dictates of survival under the most
inhuman circumstances

Sayfa 220 / 344

A) how the children of Leningrad in

particular suffered extreme hardship
when the Germans besieged the city in
B) the famous actress Marina Petrovna,
who was living in retirement when the
Germans besieged Leningrad in 1941
C) the strong armed resistance that the
people of Leningrad put up against the
Germans when the city was besieged
D) how a young artist, Anna Levin, struggled
hard with her family to survive during
the German siege of Leningrad in 1941
E) the romantic relationship between the
actress Marina Petrovna and the writer
Abraham Levin, who was a political


615. It is emphasized in the passage that the
novel ----.

617. It is pointed out in the passage that, when

the German siege of Leningrad began, ----.

A) never loses its romantic tone, even

though some of the scenes described can
be very depressing and upsetting

A) Annas concern about her own artistic

future was totally wiped out
B) Annas father Abrahams love affair with
Marina Petrovna came to an end

B) shows how Helen Dunmore differs from

the Russian writer Chekhov in her
detailed portrayal of characters

C) Anna had already become famous

because of her portrait of the actress
Marina Petrovna

C) is not only a narrative of romantic scenes,

but also the depiction of a cruel reality in
which human survival was almost

D) Stalins cultural police arrested Abraham

because of his subversive ideas
E) the inhabitants made various
arrangements to overcome the serious
shortage of food and fuel in the city

D) primarily focuses on the complexity of

human emotions and tries to
demonstrate this through the depiction of
a wide range of characters
E) is embedded with a number of
inconsistencies as regards style and
characterization, which make Dunmores
literary creativity rather superficial

616. It is clear from the passage that Annas study

of art ----.

618. In the passage, the writer draws attention

to the fact that, in Leningrad under siege,
Anna ----.

A) was supported by her father, who, as a

political writer, often wrote against the
cultural policies of Stalins regime

A) offered care to the mothers who lost

their children because of the terrible
food shortage

B) was interrupted as, following her

mothers death, she had to take care of
her family

B) was especially worried about the fate of

children, most of whom starved to death

C) was carried out under the most

favourable circumstances, and her fame
as a promising young artist soon spread
throughout Leningrad

C) helped many people to put up with the

most extreme hardships of life

D) was a great achievement for her, despite

the fact that her artistic creativity had not
been recognized at first

E) used her artistic capacity not only to

support her family but also to represent
human suffering

E) took so long that, in the end, she gave it

up to join the people of Leningrad in their
defence of the city against the Germans

Sayfa 221 / 344

D) seriously devoted herself to a study of

Chekhovs literary works


619.620.621.622. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

619. As one finds out from the passage,would be

wrong to maintain that ----.

Following World War II, European countries

largely gave up their colonial possessions
and, by the 1950s and 1960s, had already
begun to receive growing numbers of
immigrants from their former colonies. In
many instances, these included the
descendants of the slaves in the colonies,
who had been forced to work. In this respect,
Britain is a case in point. Though in small
numbers, Africans and Indians had come to
Britain long before the tens of thousands
who came as colonial immigrants in the
1960s and thereafter. The first Africans who
came to Britain were probably soldiers during
the Roman possession of that country in
antiquity. In modern times, especially in the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, African
and Indian princes and scholars visited
Britain. Others coming to Britain were in
service positions; for instance, in the
eighteenth century, black African and Indian
young men were fashionable as servants in
the homes of the wealthy. Africans and
Indians also came to Britain as sailors and
traders, and port towns, such as London,
Glasgow, Bristol, Cardiff and Liverpool,
developed small black populations in the
early nineteenth century, some of which
persisted into the twentieth century.
Relations between these populations and the
native white population were varied,
historians citing instances both of hostility
and solidarity

A) many of the immigrants to Britain came

from India and the other colonies
B) Africans arrived in Britain for the first
time in the twentieth century
C) European colonial rule in Africa ended in
the post-World War II period
D) Britain was occupied and ruled by the
E) the domestic staff of the wealthy in
Britain often included Africans and

620. It is stressed in the passage that Britain ----.

Sayfa 222 / 344

A) was the only colonial power in Europe

that objected to the practice of slavery
B) was faced soon after World War II with
an enormous influx of immigrants
C) had already possessed a large
community of Africans under Roman rule
D) began to receive huge numbers of
colonial immigrants from the 1960s
E) always welcomed large numbers of
immigrants from its colonies in Africa
and elsewhere


621. As stated in the passage, many of the
immigrants that arrived in Europe after
World War II ----.

622. It is pointed out in the passage that, in the

past, ----.

A) were actually fleeing from the slave

labour invariably practised in the colonies
B) constituted small minorities that became
the target of white native hatred
C) were the relatives of the former colonial
D) were interested in service positions and,
hence, were mostly employed as servants
E) were in fact the descendants of the slaves
especially in India

A) Africans and Indians preferred Britain to

other European countries for settlement
and employment
B) Britain possessed the largest and most
densely populated colonies throughout
the world
C) the European countries rivalled Britain
both in trade and in the colonization of
D) the European colonial powers, including
Britain, refused to accept immigrants
from their colonies
E) among the early colonial visitors to
Britain were students and members of
the native nobility from Africa and India

Sayfa 223 / 344


623.624.625.626.627. SORULARI

624. One understands from the passage that

NASA ----.

A couple of months ago NASA asked the

scientific community what kinds of research
it should conduct when it returns humans to
the moon. In doing so, NASA wanted
prioritized research objectives for the robotic
orbiters and landers that will be used
primarily for reconnaissance purposes prior
to later explorations by astronauts of the
lunar surface. Recommendations made by
scientists varied greatly, but they can be
summarized. The top priority that scientists
have recommended is the development of
programmes for lunar data analysis. Next is
the exploration of the moons south pole,
which is called the Aitken basin, an impact
scar mostly on the moons back side. Then
comes an instrument network for probing the
interior of the moon, and this is followed by
rock sample returns, scientifically selected
landing sites, and analysis of any icy polar

A) and scientists have conflicting research

objectives about the moon
B) has already developed a multi-purpose
research programme for the moon
C) always consults the scientific community,
but seldom takes its advice into
D) is planning to send robots to the moon
before it sends astronauts
E) has been indifferent to various
recommendations made by scientists

625. As is clear from the passage, NASAs

purpose in consulting scientists is to ----.

623. From the research recommendations

summarized in the passage, it becomes
clear that ----.

A) make sure that its programmes for lunar

data analysis are supported by them

A) there is still a lot that has to be learned

about the moon

B) learn whether the moon has water

deposited as ice under its poles

B) scientists are extensively familiar with the

structure of the moon
C) the exploration of the lunar surface is not
so urgent as understanding the inner
structure of the moon
D) the scientific community does not regard
NASAs objectives about the moon as
E) NASA is determined to make the moon a
new base for space exploration

Sayfa 224 / 344

C) find out about the kind of research which

is primarily important for lunar
D) encourage them to focus their attention
on a full study of the Aitken basin
E) give them the opportunity to discuss
their research results about the moon


626. According to the passage, one of the
recommendations made by the scientific
community concerns ----.

627. It is clearly stated in the passage that

astronauts ----.

A) the scientific specification of the locations

where robots or astronauts can land
B) the problems related to the working of
the robots orbiting the moon or landing
on the surface

A) will use a variety of instruments only to

learn about the interior of the moon
B) will be sent to the moon to investigate
the lunar surface
C) will, in the first place, select a suitable
spot for landing their craft

C) the analysis of the rock samples that will

be taken from the Aitken basin

D) are expected to discover icy deposits

under the south pole

D) the tasks that will be performed by the

astronauts when they explore the moons
south pole

E) have been trained to perform lunar data


E) the question of how NASA can benefit

from the results obtained from lunar

Sayfa 225 / 344


628.629.630.631.632. SORULARI

629. It is pointed out in the passage that the use

of the clock dial ----.

There seems no question but that the clock

dial, which has existed in its present form
since the seventeenth century and in earlier
forms since ancient times, is on its way out.
More and more common are the digital
clocks that mark off the hours, minutes, and
seconds in ever-changing numbers. This
certainly appears to be an advance in
technology. You will no longer have to
interpret the meaning of the big hand on the
eleven and the little hand on the five. Your
digital clock will tell you at once that it is
4:55. And yet there will be a loss in the
conversion of dial to digital, and no one
seems to be worrying about it. Actually, when
something turns, it can turn in just one of
two ways, clockwise or counter-clockwise,
and we all know which is which. Clockwise is
the normal turning direction of the hands of a
clock, and counter-clockwise is the opposite
of that. Since we all stare at clocks (dial
clocks, that is), we have no trouble following
directions or descriptions that include those
words. But if dial clocks disappear, so will the
meaning of those words for anyone who has
never stared at anything but digitals.

A) is no longer practical since one is often

confused about the meaning of the
words clockwise and
B) was most popular in the seventeenth
century but has since lost its importance
C) is still widely used despite the
technological progress in the
manufacture of digital clocks
D) has improved enormously since the
seventeenth century due to advances in
E) has a very long history though at present
it is becoming less and less popular

630. In the passage, the author admits that

digital clocks, compared with dial clocks, ---.
A) have a number of drawbacks which make
their use rather restricted

628. The author maintains that, when dial clocks

go out of use and only digitals are used, ----.

B) can, in the long run, be replaced by

technologically new and more efficient

A) the words clockwise and counterclockwise will cease to carry any


C) are technologically more advanced and

tell time very precisely

B) people will continue to use the words

clockwise and counter-clockwise on a
regular basis
C) it will be quite confusing for everyone to
tell the time right away
D) most people will wonder about the
meanings of the words clockwise and
E) it will certainly be a major technological
change unprecedented in the past

Sayfa 226 / 344

D) do not seem to have much efficiency and

easily break down
E) have ceased to be in widespread use due
to some inexplicable technological


631. The author asserts that people ----.

632. As has been pointed out in the passage, the

word clockwise ----.

A) are not aware of the fact that in antiquity

time was completely disregarded
B) do not seem to be concerned about the
loss that the replacement of dial clocks
by digitals will cause

A) first came into use in the seventeenth

B) is used only in conjunction with the word

C) can also define their position accurately

by using digital clocks

C) can also be used with reference to a

digital clock

D) today have a growing interest in dial

clocks and value them very much

D) signifies the direction in which the hands

of a dial clock move

E) have already stopped using the words

clockwise and counter-clockwise to
indicate directions

E) has no meaning unless it is used with

reference to a dial clock

Sayfa 227 / 344


633.634.635.636.637. SORULARI
When Mozambique and South Africa ended
their internal conflicts in the early 1990s,
they enacted widescale amnesties, and in
both countries the rule of law quickly
improved. In each of them, political leaders
opted to move past the violence and
injustices of the past and to focus on the
tasks of social and political reconstruction. As
part of that reconstruction, each country
became a multiparty democracy in which the
accountability of leaders and other key norms
of the rule of law could finally take root. The
restoration of public security, meanwhile,
allowed the provision of basic services. And
though their criminaljustice systems
remained woefully underfunded, both were
finally able to start providing citizens with
basic protections. While the legal, social and
political improvements in South Africa
between 1994 and 2004 were impressive, in
poorer Mozambique, the improvement was
smaller but still marked.

634. It is pointed out in the passage that,

compared with Mozambique, South Africa
has ----.
A) never been genuinely enthusiastic about
the rule of law in the country and
invariably attempted to undermine it
B) upgraded their system of criminal justice
and, thus, completely eliminated
violence and injustice in society
C) given priority to the cessation of internal
conflicts in the country and the
establishment of various political parties
D) made enormous progress in the social
and political reconstruction of their
E) never been held accountable for the
violence and injustices they caused in the

635. The author points out that, along with the

institution of a multiparty democracy, ----.

633. It is clear from the passage that both South

Africa and Mozambique ----.
A) underwent a very radical process of
social, political and legal transformation
over a decade after the mid-1990s
B) are still extremely obsessed with their
political past and have failed to adapt
themselves to the norms of democracy
C) are noted for their indifference to the rule
of law and have introduced a series of
non-democratic measures
D) have not solved their internal conflicts
fully although they have made their
criminal-justice systems very efficient
through radical reforms

A) both Mozambique and South Africa have

focused on their past and begun to bring
to justice those who are accountable for
the crimes of the past
B) the maintenance of the rule of law in
Mozambique and South Africa has failed
due to a growing rate of political
C) one important change in Mozambique
and South Africa in the late 1990s was
the new political principle that leaders
were to be held accountable for their
D) violence and injustice in Mozambique
have ceased completely while South
Africa still struggles with them

E) have resorted to every conceivable means

in their efforts to restore public security

Sayfa 228 / 344

E) the question of public security has been

of little concern for political leaders since
they have focused their efforts on party


636. It is emphasized in the passage that, in the
postamnesties period, ----.
A) radical political reforms in Mozambique
are the major reason for the impressive
improvements in the countrys economic

637. It is implied in the passage that the

provision of basic services in Mozambique
and South Africa in the preamnesties
period was ----.

B) Mozambique, which is economically

underdeveloped, has experienced some
striking political improvements
C) political improvements in South Africa
became the model for political
improvements in Mozambique

A) a priority for all the political parties

B) far better than it has been in the postamnesties period
C) regarded as an important factor in the
process of democratization
D) out of the question, owing to the
absence of public security

D) Mozambique has excelled South Africa in

the improvement of both its economy
and political institutions
E) Mozambiques political leaders were
concerned not only with political reforms
but also, more importantly, with the
economic well-being of the country

Sayfa 229 / 344

E) unaffected by serious and recurring

economic problems


638.639.640.641.642. SORULARI

638. It is clear from the passage that the myth of

Shambala ----.

No human dream is more universal than the

longingfor a paradise on earth, a place free of
the ravages of time and disease, where the
best in nature flourishes while the worst is
forbidden to enter. By definition, such
magical lands cant be near at hand; they
must be remote and inaccessible
destinations to be reached by pilgrimage or a
heroic journey. Ancient Tibetan Buddhist
texts spoke of just such a kingdom, where
wise kings, blessed with long life spans, await
the day when they will take power over the
world, ushering in a golden age of peace and
justice. This mythical kingdom was called
Shambala, and its location was believed to
be a valley in northern India. Said to be
enclosed by a double ring of snow-capped
mountains, this fabled valley of Shambala
resembled a mandala, which is Buddhisms
circular symbol of the unity of all creation.
Known only to a few European enthusiasts of
Asia in the 19 th century, the myth of
Shambala was popularized in the 20 Th
century by the famous Russian mystic,
Madame Blavatsky, who claimed she
received telepathic messages from the mystic

A) was originally introduced by those

Europeans in the 19 century who were
interested in Buddhism and carried out
extensive studies in India
B) began to be so popular in Europe in the
19 th century that, with Madame
Blavatsky, it turned into a mystical kind
of religion
C) had obviously been very popular
throughout Asia in the 19 th and 20 th
centuries before it was discovered by the
D) had originally been an Indian myth and
was later adopted by Tibetan Buddhists
into their own culture
E) came to be known widely in Europe only
in the last century, thanks to Madame
639. The author claims that a great many people
A) yearn for a distant land of absolute
health, happiness and goodness
B) imagine India as a land of plenty, where
people lead a most prosperous and
peaceful life
C) go on long pilgrimages to very remote
places such as Tibet, where the most
popular religion is Buddhism
D) have a mystical view of life which
enables them to cope with the ravages of
time and disease
E) have a strong desire to make a
pilgrimage to the mythical valley of
Shambala in order to recover from their
sorrows and sufferings

Sayfa 230 / 344


640. According to the passage, ancient Tibetan
Buddhists ----.

642. One learns from the passage that, for

Buddhism, ----.

A) preferred to live in places which were

very remote and not easily accessible for
common people

A) the wise kings of the valley of Shambala

value peace and justice more than any
other thing

B) had a very strong longing for a world in

which Buddhist values and ideas were
shared by all human beings

B) man can never enjoy absolute peace and

justice in the world owing to his

C) were most gifted writers who idealized

life on earth and, in their writings,
encouraged people to strive for peace
and justice

C) the valley of Shambala is a sacred place

for pilgrimage and worship

D) often made long pilgrimages and journeys

to the valley of Shambala in India in order
to have a mystical experience

E) everything created in the universe was

part of one whole, which was
represented by the symbol of mandala

D) a paradise on earth can only be

established in the distant future

E) believed that a time would come when,

under the rule of wise kings, peace and
justice would prevail in the world

641. As one understands from the passage, the

Russian mystic Madame Blavatsky ----.
A) was clearly one of the few Europeans in
the 19 Th century who were seriously
concerned with studies related to Asia
B) developed her telepathic skill through her
study of Buddhism and also by making
innumerable journeys to the valley of
C) constantly dreamed of a paradise on
earth and made great efforts to make
peace and justice dominant in the world
D) helped to spread interest in the mythical
kingdom of Shambala
E) believed that a study of Tibetan Buddhist
texts was indispensable for the
acquisition and exercise of telepathic

Sayfa 231 / 344


643.644.645.646.647. SORULARI

644. According to the passage, it is China, more

than India, that ----.

The late Chinese Prime Minister, Chou-En Lai,

upon being asked whether the French
Revolution had been a good thing in world
history, was reported to have said: It is still
too early to tell. Watching the Western
media analyze the recent emergence of China
as a major investor in Africa and likely to
become a new factor to rival the historical
Euro- American ascendancy in African
politics, one is even more justified in saying
that it is too soon to tell what the outcome
of the Chinese love affair in Africa will be.
Besides China, India is also increasingly
mentioned as a new source of large-scale
investments in Africa. For the moment, the
emergence of the Asian superpowers,
themselves once in the sphere of British
imperialism, as investors and trading partners
in Africa, seems to offer an opportunity of
shaking the marginalisation into which
most African countries have fallen since the
collapse of the Soviet bloc in 1989.

A) has historically resisted British

imperialism in order to safeguard its own
interests in Africa
B) is in the fore front in Africa as a leading
investor and trading partner
C) was extremely pleased with the collapse
of the Soviet bloc in 1989
D) has attached much importance to the
views of the Western media
E) has been most influenced in its ideology
by the French Revolution
645. The author points out that, historically,
Africa ----.

643. It is clear from the passage that, with the

growing economic involvement of China and
India in Africa, ----.
A) the British economic and political
interests in the region can only be
maintained through more investments by
B) the Western superpowers have
apparently lost their political influence in
the region
C) this continent has clearly been gaining in
D) the Euro-American collaboration in the
region will inevitably come to an end
E) regional governments have begun to
introduce radical measures for the
improvement of the economy

Sayfa 232 / 344

A) has always been on good terms with

China, especially since the time of ChouEn Lai
B) has always played a central role in world
politics and economic rivalry
C) was completely colonized by Britain but,
later, came under the Soviet political
D) has always been subject to the European
and American political hegemony
E) has suffered a great deal from British
economic exploitation and political


646. One understands from the passage that the
author ----.,

647. It is indicated in the passage that, although

China and India have become economically
and politically most powerful in Asia, ----.

A) is not yet sure of the possible

consequences of Chinas economic and
political ascendancy in Africa

A) they have failed to make an impact on

African politics

B) is much impressed by the widespread

political improvement in Africa that has
been ushered in by China

B) their influence throughout the world is

confined to Africa
C) they were themselves, in fact, colonized
and exploited by Britain in the past

C) displays a hostile attitude towards the

Euro- American ascendancy in Africa
D) is particularly interested in Chou-En Lais
ideas and policies with regard to Africa

D) they have still to upgrade themselves in

order to be able to contribute to the
improvement of life in most African

E) is very biased in his assessment of the

Chinese and Indian policies concerning
the future of Africa

E) their rivalry in Africa has undermined

their struggle against the Euro-American

Sayfa 233 / 344


648.649.650.651.652 SORULARI PARAGRAFA

649. We learn from the passage that a college

text ----.

Editors have two primary functions which

sometimes overlap: finding/selecting
manuscripts, then polishing them for
publication. Acquisitions editors perform the
first chore.

A) usually has its starting point in a

lecturers notes

The approach they adopt depends on several

factors. The idea for a college text, for
example, usually originates inside the
publishing house; the acquisition editors job
is then to choose a suitable author to
produce the manuscript. In a trade book
division, on the other hand, the acquisitions
editor may be more passive, carefully reading
manuscripts and queries that are mailed in,
then recommending the best of these for
development as a book. In the former case,
the acquisitions editor may be
knowledgeable in a given area (economics,
perhaps, or one of the sciences) while the
second type might be more of a generalist.
Copyeditors, who whip the manuscript into
shape for the press, must possess a superb
background in English and bring to their work
high standards of accuracy and thoroughness
along with a remarkable attention to detail.

B) is always assigned to an author by

C) can only be edited by the original author
D) is harder to edit than a trade book
E) often has its origin in an editors office

650. It is clear from the passage that, the queries

and manuscripts sent to an editors office ---.
A) are meticulously examined with a view
to making books

648. According to the passage, editors have two

primary functions ----.

B) are rarely of any interest to the editorial

C) will almost always result in a publication

A) one of which is to write publicity

announcements about the books which
will be published

D) seldom receive the attention they

E) are of vital importance in the search for a
suitable writer for a given text

B) the most crucial of them to prepare

manuscripts for publication
C) which occasionally merge into each other
D) both of which are related to the selection
of books to be published
E) which few publishers can fulfil

Sayfa 234 / 344


651. We understand from the passage that an
acquisitions editor, working on college texts,
will probably ----.

652. It is obvious from the passage that the work

of a copyeditor ----.
A) is one of the easier ones in the publishing

A) have far better skills and qualifications

than copyeditors

B) hardly differs from that of the

acquisitions editor

B) have started his career in one of the

branches of the media

C) has been constantly underrated

C) have taken courses in marketing and


D) requires an excellent grasp of the English

language and the ability to give precise

D) aim to go on to promote sales

E) have a specialized knowledge of one or
more fields

E) combines specialized knowledge with

communication skills and the ability to
summarize essential points

Sayfa 235 / 344


653. 654. 655. 656. 657. SORULARI

654. One gathers from the passage that, in the

Hellenistic Age, ----.

The major sciences of the Hellenistic Age

were astronomy, mathematics, geography,
medicine, and physics. The most renowned of
the early Hellenistic astronomers was
Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 B.C.),
sometimes called the Hellenistic
Copernicus. His primary accomplishment
was his deduction that the Earth and the
other planets revolve around the Sun. This
view was not accepted by his successors
because it conflicted with the teachings of
Aristotle and also with the Greek conviction
that humanity, and therefore the Earth, must
be at the centre of the universe. Later, in the
second century A.D., Aristarchuss fame was
overshadowed by that of Ptolemy of
Alexandria. Although Ptolemy made few
original discoveries, he systematized the
works of others. His principal writing, The
Almagest, based on the view that all heavenly
bodies revolve around the Earth, was handed
down to medieval Europe as the classic
summary of ancient astronomy

A) Aristotles writings and the works of

other philosophers were edited and
B) astronomy was the science which
received the most attention
C) all astronomers held the same views
about the Sun and the planets
D) astronomy was just one of several
sciences to be studied seriously
E) it was commonly accepted that
Aristarchuss ideas had mainly derived
from Aristotle

655. It is clear from the passage that, with his

view of the universe, Aristarchus ----.

653. According to the passage, it was Ptolemy of

Alexandria who ----.

A) opened the way for the study of

astronomy as a science
B) was only repeating the traditional Greek

A) adequately summarized in his Almagest

Aristarchuss ideas on astronomy

C) did not differ from other Hellenistic


B) was greatly inspired by Aristarchuss

heliocentric view of the universe

D) had much influence on his


C) fundamentally shaped the European

understanding of astronomy for the
Middle Ages

E) made an unprecedented breakthrough in


D) first studied and explained in The

Almagest the movements of all the
E) contributed extensively to the
development of astronomy as a science

Sayfa 236 / 344


656. It is pointed out in the passage that the
Greeks ----.

657. One understands from the passage that

Aristarchuss reputation as an astronomer ---.

A) regarded the Earth as the centre of the


A) can be attributed to Copernicuss study

of his work

B) were extremely influenced by

Aristarchuss ideas
C) were not fully familiar with the teachings
of Aristotle
D) completely ruled out whatever Ptolemy
said about the universe

B) never lost its significance in the Middle

C) began to grow only after the second
century A.D.
D) became widespread through Ptolemys
famous work The Almagest

E) knew how the planets revolved around

the Sun

E) has been acknowledged as correct by

modern Astronomers

Sayfa 237 / 344


658.659.660.661.662. SORULARI

658. As pointed out in the passage, in the late

1980s, ----.

The most significant political change in

eastern Europe during the late 1980s was the
collapse of communism in East Germany and
the unification of East and West Germany.
Although long considered the most
prosperous of the Soviet satellite countries,
East Germany suffered from severe economic
stagnation and environmental degradation.
Waves of East Germans registered their
discontent with worsening conditions by
massive illegal emigration to the West. This
exodus together with evidence of widespread
official corruption led to the resignation of
East Germanys long-time, hard-line premier,
Erich Honecker. His successor, Egon Krenz,
promised reforms, but he was nevertheless
faced with continuing protests and
continuing mass emigration. In the end, on 4
November 1989, the government, in a move
that acknowledged its powerlessness to hold
its citizens captive, opened its border with
Czechoslovakia. This move effectively freed
East Germans to travel to the West. In a
matter of days, the Berlin Wall, which had
been the embodiment of the Cold War, the
Iron Curtain, and the division of East from
West, was demolished by groups of ordinary
citizens. Jubilant crowds from both sides
walked through the gaping holes that now
permitted men, women, and children to take
the few steps that symbolized the return to
freedom and a chance for national unity.

A) Honecker and Krenz were fully

committed to the ultimate unification of
East and West Germany
B) East Germany began to enjoy so much
prosperity that the other Soviet satellite
states became envious of its economic
C) the East German government, already
corrupt and disliked by the people, was
no longer able to prevent mass
emigration to the West
D) Honecker introduced extremely austere
economic measures in order to improve
worsening conditions and get rid of
E) East Germany adopted a policy of
cooperation with West Germany so that
the effects of the Cold War could be

659. It is stressed in the passage that the Berlin

Wall ----.
A) had been built by the East German
government in order to prevent any
access to West Berlin
B) not only divided East and West, but also,
more importantly, symbolized the Cold
War and the Iron Curtain
C) signified both the powerlessness of
Honeckers government and the failure
of his economic policies
D) would have been demolished even if East
Germany had retained communism
E) gave rise to a great many ideological
controversies between East and West

Sayfa 238 / 344


660. According to the passage, with the collapse
of the Berlin Wall, ----.

662. It is made clear in the passage that

Honeckers resignation from the
government ----.

A) the Soviet satellite countries were

exposed to Western ideas
B) East and West Germany signed a treaty of
C) the economic prosperity of East Germany
continued to increase
D) the East Germans took up their fight
against political corruption
E) the East German people were, as it were,
finally freed from captivity

A) led to a serious political crisis in the

country, which was finally resolved by
the intervention of his successor Egon
B) was inevitable because he had failed to
carry out the reforms urgently needed to
improve the economy and the
C) was required by his successor Egon
Krenz, who was far more popular with
the people and took the necessary
precautions to stop illegal emigration
D) was demanded because, without having
consulted his colleagues, he had opened
East Germanys border with

661. It is stated in the passage that East Germany ---.

A) made various attempts to fight corruption
in the government, but failed
B) had continually tried to be re-unified with
West Germany before the fall of the
Berlin Wall
C) had never regarded communism as an
acceptable regime until the 1980s
D) faced extremely severe economic and
environmental problems in the 1980s
E) had a considerable economic and political
influence on other east European

Sayfa 239 / 344

E) took place as a result of widespread

official corruption and the massive illegal
emigration to the West of the people of
East Germany


663.664.665.66.667. SORULARI PARAGRAFA
The causes of World War II were rooted in
the peace settlement at Versailles in 19191920. The peace had created as many
problems as it had solved. The senior Allied
heads of state yielded to demands that
involved annexing German territory and
creating new states out of the eastern
European empires. In doing so, the
peacemakers created fresh bitterness and
conflict. The Versailles treaty and its
champions, such as US President Woodrow
Wilson, proclaimed the principle of selfdetermination for the peoples of eastern and
southern Europe. Yet the new states created
by the treaty crossed ethnic boundaries,
involved political compromises, and
frustrated many of the expectations they had
raised. The unsteady new boundaries would
be redrawn by force in the 1930s. The Allied
powers also kept up the naval blockade
against Germany after the end of World War
I. This forced the new German government to
accept harsh terms that deprived Germany of
its political power in Europe. The blockade
and its consequences created grievances that
made the German people feel angry and
completely humiliated.

664. As pointed out in the passage, the new

states in eastern Europe, created in
accordance with the Versailles treaty, ----.
A) became the source of many problems in
Europe and caused much disillusionment
B) were protected by the Allied powers
against a possible German invasion
C) formed an alliance in order to resist
Germanys territorial demands
D) maintained their independence until the
start of World War II
E) did their best to be on good terms with
Germany and so pursued a pro-German

665. According to the passage, in the face of the

Allied naval blockade, ----.

663. It is argued in the passage that the Versailles

treaty, signed after World War I, ----.
A) went into effect soon after the Allied
naval blockade against Germany had been
B) did not take into consideration Woodrow
Wilsons principle of self-determination
C) enabled Germany to regain its territories
in eastern Europe and become militarily
strong again
D) was a total failure, since it ultimately led
to World War II
E) was accepted with great jubilation by the
German government and people

Sayfa 240 / 344

A) Germany openly refused to reach any

political compromise with the Allied
B) the German government gave up its
demands for the annexation of the east
European countries
C) the newly-created east European
countries soon began to disregard each
others boundaries
D) the German people strongly opposed
Woodrow Wilsons principle of selfdetermination
E) Germany had no other choice but to
agree to the severe conditions dictated
by the Allies


666. It is clear from the passage that, contrary to
Allied expectations, ----.

667. Clearly, the passage ----.

A) the Germans were able to overcome the

grievances caused by the naval blockade
B) the peace deal made at Versailles brought
about new hostilities and conflicts
C) Germanys political power in Europe
became further strengthened by the
Versailles treaty
D) President Wilson was worried about the
political future of the new states in
eastern Europe
E) Germany and the new east European
states soon realized they had much in
common and established good

A) is a comprehensive assessment of the

impact that the Allied naval blockade of
Germany had on the Versailles treaty
B) is a detailed account of how Germany
prepared itself economically and
politically for World War II
C) focuses directly on the problems that
faced the new east European states
created after World War I
D) is a detailed study of the European
importance and consequences of
Woodrow Wilsons principle of selfdetermination
E) summarizes the developments in Europe
in the aftermath of the Versailles treaty

Sayfa 241 / 344


668. 669.670.671.672. SORULARI

668. As one understands from the passage, the

term the Industrial Revolution ----.

The French Revolution transformed the

political and diplomatic landscape of Europe
suddenly and dramatically. The
transformation of industry came more
gradually. By the 1830s or 1840s, however,
writers and social thinkers in Europe were
increasingly aware of unexpected and
extraordinary changes in their economic
world. They began to speak of an industrial
revolution, one that seemed to parallel the
revolution in politics. The term has stayed
with us. The Industrial Revolution spanned
the hundred years after 1780. It represented
the first breakthrough from an agricultural
and overwhelmingly rural economy to one
characterized by large-scale manufacturing,
more capital-intensive enterprises, and
urbanization. It involved new sources of
energy and power, faster transportation,
mechanization, higher productivity, and new
ways of organizing human labour. It triggered
social changes with revolutionary
consequences for the West and its
relationship with the world. Of all these
changes, perhaps the most important one
was to be seen in energy. Over the space of
two or three generations, a society and an
economy that had traditionally drawn on
water, wind, and wood for most of its energy
needs came to depend on steam engines and
coal. In other words, the Industrial Revolution
brought the beginnings of the fossil fuel

A) was only used during the first half of the

nineteenth century and has since been
replaced by new terms, such as the
fossil fuel age
B) was invented after the Industrial
Revolution was completed
C) always signified the process of
urbanization in Europe, which was
closely linked with the migration of rural
people to major cities
D) was first invented by a group of
European social thinkers who recognized
that huge changes were occurring in the
economic world
E) essentially referred to the use of steam
power in industry, but has today lost its
original meaning completely
669. As pointed out in the passage, compared
with the French Revolution, the Industrial
Revolution ----.
A) was so sudden and unexpected that
there emerged a desperate need for new
sources of energy and more workers
B) had no impact at all on the social
changes which took place in Europe in
the late eighteenth and early nineteenth
C) had so much influence on European
politics in the nineteenth century that
governments had to revise their
development plans
D) was primarily concerned with social
welfare and forced many countries in
Europe to introduce new benefits for
E) was a process of industrial, economic,
and social transformation in Europe,
which covered a hundred years
beginning with the late eight enth centur

Sayfa 242 / 344


670. One learns from the passage that, with the
Industrial Revolution, ----.

672. As can be seen clearly, the passage ----.

A) a great deal of improvement was made in

transportation so that goods could be
carried in large quantities all over the
B) the usual energy resources, such as wind,
water, and wood, began to be used far
more efficiently in order to meet growing
energy needs

A) explains how the Industrial Revolution

transformed the landscape of European
politics and relations
B) gives a detailed account of the ways in
which the French Revolution differs from
the Industrial Revolution
C) extensively outlines the role which
various sources of energy equally played
in the Industrial Revolution

C) the traditional rural economy was

replaced by a capital-based economy of
mass production and labour

D) mainly deals with the meaning and the

economic and social consequences of the
Industrial Revolution

D) economic affairs came to dominate

politics and diplomatic relations in Europe
so much that governments adopted
policies for more cooperation with each

E) discusses in depth the political and

economic causes of both the French
Revolution and the Industrial Revolution

E) agriculture in Europe was fully

modernized and, consequently, much
higher productivity was achieved

671. It is clear from the passage that coal-fired

steam power ----.
A) had not been used as a primary source of
energy before the Industrial Revolution
B) was only used as a source of energy for
industry in the 1830s and 1840s
C) quickly lost its importance for industry
after the advantages of fossil fuels
became apparent
D) was not regarded as a feasible source of
energy during the Industrial Revolution
E) played a minimal role in the transport of
goods during the Industrial Revolution

Sayfa 243 / 344


673.674.675.676.677. SORULARI

673. It is suggested in the passage that, in the

period before the Renaissance, ----.

The Renaissance originated in Italy for several

reasons. The most fundamental reason was
that Italy in the later Middle Ages was the
most advanced urban society in all of Europe.
Unlike aristocrats north of the Alps, Italian
aristocrats customarily lived in urban centres
rather than in rural castles and consequently
became fully involved in urban public affairs.
Moreover, since the Italian aristocracy built
its palaces in the cities, the aristocratic class
was less sharply set off from the class of rich
merchants than in other European countries.
Hence, whereas in France or Germany most
aristocrats lived on the income from their
lands while rich town dwellers, called
bourgeois in French, gained their living from
trade, in Italy so many town-dwelling
aristocrats engaged in banking or mercantile
enterprises, and so many rich mercantile
families imitated the manners of the
aristocracy that, by the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, the aristocracy and upper
bourgeoisie were becoming virtually
indistinguishable. For instance, the noted
Florentine family of the Medici, which had
emerged as a family of physicians (as the
name suggests), made its fortune in banking
and commerce, and rose into the aristocracy
in the fifteenth century. Obviously, social
mobility as such brought about a great
demand for education in the skills of reading
and counting necessary to become a
successful merchant, but the richest and
most prominent families sought above all to
find teachers who would impart to their sons
the knowledge and skills necessary in politics
and public life.

A) the aristocrats in Europe were indifferent

to the quality of education offered at
B) the Medici of Florence had been a poor
mercantile family with no skills in politics
C) France and Germany had many more
aristocratic families than Italy
D) European banking was completely
monopolized by the rich town-dwellers
of France
E) no other European country had an urban
society as advanced as that of Italy

674. According to the passage, unlike their

French or German counterparts, ----.

Sayfa 244 / 344

A) medieval Italian aristocrats lived in cities

and mixed with the general public
B) Italian merchants in the Renaissance
period were also engaged in trade north
of the Alps
C) distinguished Italian families wished their
sons to become successful merchants
D) the Medici were actively involved in the
politics and diplomatic relations of their
E) the Italian upper bourgeoisie were
strongly opposed to social mobility


675. It is pointed out in the passage that wealthy
medieval Italian merchant families ----.

677. It is clear from the passage that banking

and trade ----.

A) deliberately avoided any involvement in

the political affairs of their cities

A) contributed a great deal to social

mobility in Italy in the later Middle Ages

B) disliked urban centres and preferred to

live in their castles built in rural areas

B) were far more advanced in France and

Germany than in Italy during the

C) never took an interest in the political

activities of the aristocracy
D) were greatly influenced in their habits and
way of life by urban aristocrats
E) were far more enterprising in trade than
their French and German rivals

C) were major enterprises that medieval

Italian aristocrats chose to ignore
D) first emerged in medieval Italy, but were
more professionally practised north of
the Alps
E) had much impact on the development of
education throughout medieval Europe

676. According to the passage, it was in Italy that

A) what the French called bourgeois had the
monopoly on banking
B) merchants and aristocrats were clearly set
C) banking developed much faster than
D) most aristocrats wanted their sons to
learn only the skills associated with
E) the rise of the Renaissance first took place

Sayfa 245 / 344


678.679.680.681.682. SORULARI
In many primitive communities there is a
taboo on mentioning a mans name except in
certain special circumstances, because his
name is believed to contain within it
something of himself, which would be lost
and wasted if his name were uttered without
first taking special precautions. This belief
about words is widespread. Among the more
primitive and the uneducated, it is universal.
A remarkably matter-offact practical
application of it occurs even in the present
day in the Tibetan prayer-wheel. If, thinks the
Tibetan peasant, a prayer uttered once does
some good, then the same prayer uttered
many times will do more good. Therefore,
since he assumes that the efficacy lies in the
prayer as an entity in itself, he writes it round
the rim of a wheel, and then frugally employs
the water of a mountain stream to turn it all
day long, instead of wastefully employing his
own lungs and lips to say it again and again.

679. As we understand from the passage, an

underlying belief behind the Tibetan
prayer-wheel is that ----.
A) for a prayer to be answered, it must be
repeated many times
B) man can achieve nothing without the
help of stronger powers
C) man is powerless against the forces of
D) human effort can achieve almost
E) the forces of nature must never be

680. The author uses the example of the Tibetan

prayer-wheel to ----.

678. In this passage, the author points out that ---.

A) most societies in the world today are still
very primitive
B) in primitive societies, words are often felt
to embody the idea they express
C) the unsophisticated are no less intelligent
than the sophisticated
D) Tibetan peasants should not be regarded
as primitive
E) the Tibetan peasant does not really
believe that the prayer-wheel can do any

Sayfa 246 / 344

A) show that all religions are fundamentally

B) demonstrate how unrealistic primitive
peoples are
C) illustrate just how powerful words are
felt to be in primitive societies
D) show how inventive primitive peoples
E) show how unique the natives of Tibet are


681. It is clear from the passage that, among
primitive societies, it is generally believed
that a mans name ----.

682. We can conclude from the passage that the

Tibetan peasant ----.
A) is not tolerant of the religious beliefs of

A) should be constantly repeated

B) has a wholesome effect upon his life
C) will bring calamity to those who use it

B) bears no resemblance to other primitive


D) should only be spoken under appropriate


C) never calls any member of his family by


E) is of little importance as it is so rarely


D) is not deeply religious and does not treat

his religion seriously
E) though primitive has a very practical
attitude towards life

Sayfa 247 / 344


683.684.685.686.687. SORULARI

684. It is clear from the passage that, once

Edison had invented the electric lamp, ----.

Thomas Edison began conducting

experiments during his childhood. To start
with, there were hundreds of unsuccessful
experiments but Edison eventually invented
and patented 2,500 items, including the
electric lamp and phonograph. He was
determined to give laughter and light to
people, but, until he actually managed to do
so, most people ridiculed him. Without losing
hope, Edison attempted over 1,000
unsuccessful experiments in his efforts to
make an electric lamp. When people told him
he was wasting his time, energy, and money
for nothing, Edison exclaimed, For nothing!
Every time I make an experiment, I get new
results. Failures are stepping stones to
success. Determined to give people electric
lamps, Edison said hed meet his goal by early
1880. In October, 1879, he created his first
electric lamp, and in so doing, received much
praise. People realized that Edisons
invention was not affected by rain or wind,
remaining constant through bad weather.
Just as he had hoped, Edison provided people
with light and laughter.

683. As we understand from the passage, Edison

conducted many unsuccessful
experimentaltrials, ----.

A) he lost interest in carrying out

B) he admitted that at one point he had
very nearly given up the project
C) he wasnt at all interested in what people
felt about it
D) people were particularly impressed by
the fact that wind and rain had no
damaging effect on it
E) he felt discouraged because he had failed
to meet the goal he had set himself for
the completion of his invention

685. As we understand from the passage, with

the phrase, Failures are stepping stones to
success, Edison meant that ----.
A) one should forget ones failures as soon
as possible
B) one cannot be successful every time

A) most of which were very expensive and

got him into financial difficulties
B) but the list of his patental inventions is a
long one
C) most of which were related to the

C) success and failure are both a matter of

D) there are two kinds of failure: those that
lead to success and those that dont
E) the knowledge and experience that one
gains from failure contributes to success

D) but the people who knew him

encouraged him to keep on trying
E) and on many occasions he felt his
experiments were pointless

Sayfa 248 / 344


686. According to the passage, when Edison was
working on an invention, he ----.

687. It is clear from the passage that, when

Edison was working on the electric lamp, ---.

A) was keen to pass on to others the

knowledge he was accumulating

A) he worked slowly because he was


B) was very secretive about what he was

C) was not discouraged by the possibility of

B) he knew for certain that he would attain

success very quickly

D) avoided friends and detractors alike

C) no one felt that an electric lamp was in

any way desirable

E) felt embarrassed by periods of no


D) he was hindered by rain and bad

weather in general
E) people didnt believe that it was possible
at all

Sayfa 249 / 344


688.689. 690. 691. 692. SORULARI
Questions of education are frequently
discussed as if they bore no relation to the
social system in which and for which the
education is carried on. This is one of the
most common reasons for the
unsatisfactoriness of the answers. It is only
within a particular social system that a
system of education has any meaning. If
education today seems to deteriorate, if it
seems to become more and more chaotic and
meaningless, it is primarily because we have
no settled and satisfactory arrangement of
society, and because we have both vague and
diverse opinions about the kind of society we
want. Education is a subject which cannot be
discussed in a void: our questions raise other
questions, social, economic, financial, and
political. And the bearings are on more
ultimate problems even than these: to know
what we want in education, we must know
what we want in general, we must derive our
theory of education from our philosophy of

689. According to the writer, the present-day

unsatisfactory and ineffectual state of
education ----.
A) can be regarded as a passing phase, and
no action need be taken
B) is a result of the disordered state of
society and the fact that society does not
know what it wants
C) offers no real cause for concern
D) has provoked a great deal of useful
discussion about how it relates to the
social system
E) is receiving a great deal of much-needed

690. The point is made in the passage that each

and every system of education ----.

688. The main point made in the passage is that

education, ----.

A) needs to be tailor-made to fit the specific

social system for which it is designed
B) will inevitably have shortcomings or
C) should be constantly updated

B) is becoming more and more meaningless

D) should be designed on the basis of

educational theory, not on the opinions
of society at large

C) will improve when the political and

economic situation improves

E) has a great deal in common with every

other system of education

A) should be isolated from financial issues

D) must be related to the social and political

background in which it occurs
E) will naturally evolve in accordance with
the process of history

Sayfa 250 / 344


691. In this passage, the author aims to make us
think about not only what we want from
education, but also about ----.

692. The attitude of the author towards

education is ----.
A) negative and disinterested

A) how harmful is the effect it is having on


B) angry and pessimistic

C) critical and constructive

B) how far we are prepared to support it

D) encouraging and hopeful

C) to what extent we have ourselves

benefited from it

E) scornful and destructive

D) whether it really is deteriorating at a great

E) what we want from life

Sayfa 251 / 344


693.694.695.696.697. SORULARI

693. In this passage, the writer asserts that ----.

The distinction between journalism and

literature is quite futile, unless we are
drawing such a violent contrast as that
between Gibbons History and todays paper;
and such a contrast itself is too violent to
have meaning. You cannot, that is, draw any
useful distinction between journalism and
literature merely on a scale of literary values,
as a difference between the well written and
the supremely wellwritten: a second-rate
novel is not journalism, but it certainly is not
literature. The term journalism has
deteriorated, so let us try to recall it to its
more permanent sense. To my thinking, the
most accurate as well as most comprehensive
definition of the term is to be obtained
through considering the type of mind,
concerned with writing what all would
concede to be the best journalism. Theres a
type of mind, and I have a very close
sympathy with it, which can only turn to
writing, or only produce its best writing,
under the pressure of an immediate
occasion; and it is this type of mind which I
propose to treat as the journalists. The
underlying causes may differ: the cause may
be an ardent preoccupation with affairs of
the day, or it may be (as with myself) laziness
requiring an immediate stimulus, or a habit
formed by early necessity of earning small
sums quickly. It is not so much that the
journalist works on different material from
that of other writers, as that he works from a
different, no less and often more honourable,

A) literature is far more valuable than

B) the difference between literature and
journalism bears little relation to literary
C) he has all the qualities of a journalist
D) the best stimulus for a journalist is the
need for money
E) one must be ardently concerned with the
events of each day if one wants to be a
694. The writer prefers to define journalism ----.
A) through a close study of violently
contrasting examples
B) while disregarding literary qualities
C) by looking at the type of mind that
produces good journalism
D) after first drawing up a scale of literary
E) in a way that will help journalism to
recover the respect it formerly enjoyed

695. It is clear from the passage that the writer ---.

A) regards journalism as second-rate
B) is very critical of the motives of the
C) thinks one can best come to an
understanding of journalism by
contrasting it with literature
D) is far more interested in literature than
in journalism
E) feels great respect for good journalism

Sayfa 252 / 344


696. The point is made in the passage that the
journalist does his best writing when ----.

697. According to the passage, what

characterizes the work of the journalist is ---.

A) events in his own life have stimulated him

B) there is no pressure upon him
C) he is closely involved in the affairs of the

A) not the thing he writes about but why he

writes about it
B) the non-literary style of the writing
C) the every-day nature of the material he

D) under an obligation to do so
E) he can choose his own material

D) the desire to stimulate people to action

E) his obsession for accuracy

Sayfa 253 / 344


698.699.700.701.702. SORULARI

698. The passage is about transformative

geniuses ----.

Leonardo da Vinci is a member of a very small

class of transformative geniuses, not
ordinary or common geniuses, who have
contributed abundantly to their fields, but
rather the ones who have created or defined
entire fields. In literature, no one asks, Who
was the greatest writer? Honest debate can
start at Number Two. Shakespeare, the
consensus choice as greatest writer, is a
member of this class of transformative
geniuses. Similarly, Isaac Newton is
recognized as the greatest among scientists
and mathematicians; Ludwig van Beethoven,
and possibly Bach and Mozart, are the
transformative geniuses among composers.
The most recent transformative genius the
world has seen may have been Albert
Einstein, a scientist like Newton and Time
Magazines Man of the Century for the
20th century. In ranking artists, one can start
the debate at Number Three a rank for
which Raphael and Rembrandt are
candidates, or perhaps one of the great
French Impressionists, or the 20th centurys
most famous artist, Picasso. The ranks of
Number One and Number Two, however, are
reserved for Leonardo and Michelangelo,
taken in either order.
These two are far above all other artists.
Michelangelo lived a very long lifetime of
eighty-nine years, and was productive to the
end. Leonardo, on the other hand, lived sixtyseven years, and left behind just a dozen
paintings. And only a half of these are
incontrovertibly one hundred per cent by
him. In contrast, Rembrandt painted
hundreds of paintings, 57 of himself alone;
van Gogh created nine hundred paintings in a
period of nine years. So how can we put
Leonardo at the very pinnacle? The answer is
really quite simple: his dozen or so paintings
include the Number One and the Number
Two most famous paintings in the history of
art The Last Supper and Mona Lisa.

A) as they have affected the world of

literature and science
B) but the author feels that the way the
public opinion ranks them is faulty
C) and the massive changes they have
brought to the world
D) and instances of them are given in
several fields
E) and the times in which they lived and
699. With the sentence, Honest debate can
start at Number Two, the writer is really
saying ----.
A) one cannot expect popular opinion to
judge fairly
B) people dont always give their honest
C) Shakespeare doesnt deserve his position
at the head of the list
D) the relative merits of writers are very
E) there can be no doubt about Number 1;
thats definitely Shakespeares place
700. According to the passage, when it comes to
ranking artists, ----.

Sayfa 254 / 344

A) van Gogh comes very high on the list as a

result of the great number of his
B) at least six artists have a claim to top
C) it is either Leonardo or Michelangelo
who is Number One
D) the third place definitely goes to Raphael
E) 20th-century ones come low on the list


701. We learn from the passage that, althoug

Leonardo left the world only a dozen or so
paintings, ----.

702. It is clear from the passage that

Michelangelo ----.

A) these include the worlds two best-known

B) they are all of remarkably high quality
C) he actually painted a great many more
D) he knew they would keep his name alive
to the end of civilization
E) they rightly earned him the undisputed
position of the worlds Number One artist

Sayfa 255 / 344

A) richly deserves his Number One position

as the best of the artists
B) was a far more productive artist than
C) had a profound influence upon the next
generation of painters
D) was jealous of the fame of Leonardo and
strove to excel him
E) has only been recognized as a great artist
in recent times


703.704.705.706.707. SORULARI
A key feature of globalization has been the
transformation of the world economy,
highlighted by the rapid integration of
markets since 1970. In a series of historic
changes, the international agreements that
had regulated the movement of people,
goods, and money since World War II were
overturned. To begin with, the postwar
economic arrangements sealed by various
treaties steadily eroded in the late 1960s, as
Western industrial nations faced a double
burden of inflation and economic stagnation.
A crucial shift in monetary policy occurred in
1971, when the United States abandoned the
postwar gold standard and allowed the dollar
to range freely. As a result, formal regulations
on currencies, international banking, and
lending among states faded away. They were
replaced with an informal network of
arrangements managed autonomously by
large private lenders, their political friends in
leading Western states, and independent
financial agencies such as the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
The economists and administrators who
dominated these new networks steered away
from the interventionist policies that had
shaped postwar planning and recovery.
Instead, they relied on a broad range of
market-driven models termed

703. It is indicated in the passage that the

economic performance in the postwar
period ----.
A) totally eliminated the economic
stagnation experienced by Western
industrial nations
B) primarily depended on policies
formulated by the International
Monetary Fund
C) was mainly based on policies that
allowed state intervention
D) was so good that leading industrial states
remained indifferent to neoliberalism
E) had a positive impact on the
development of international banking

704. As clearly stressed in the passage, the

world economy ----.
A) underwent a process of radical change
after 1970, with markets quickly
B) has never recovered from the adverse
effects of inflation since World War II
C) is now fully managed only by the
International Monetary Fund and the
World Bank
D) was affected by globalization for only a
relatively short period after 1970
E) is constantly manipulated by the United
States and other leading Western

Sayfa 256 / 344


705. It is clearly pointed out in the passage that
the United States decision in 1971 to give
up the postwar gold standard ----.

707. It is suggested in the passage that

neoliberalism ----.

A) greatly undermined the process of

globalization in the following decades and
has since led the world economy into a
serious crisis
B) has been the primary cause of the chronic
inflation and economic stagnation faced
by the rest of the world
C) was essentially inspired by new economic
models based on free-market policies and
neoliberal practices
D) was extremely important, since it
overturned international currency and
banking regulations
E) was the natural outcome of the wide
range of economic arrangements made in
the postwar period in the West

706. As can be understood from the passage, the

International Monetary Fund and the World
Bank ----.
A) have always been regarded with suspicion
by industrialized Western nations
B) develop policies that give priority to state
intervention in the management of the
C) have always introduced new formal
regulations for currencies and
international banking
D) recruit only those economists who
strongly support interventionist economic
E) are financial bodies that are free from any
intervention by an outside authority

Sayfa 257 / 344

A) signifies the economic policies that have

been practised by the West since World
War II
B) is a term that refers to widely different
models of the market economy
C) has always been disregarded by World
Bank economists and administrators
D) is primarily concerned with the free
movement of people and goods in the
E) has been more dominant in the United
States than in any of the other industrial


708.709.710.711.712. SORULARI

709. It is clear from the passage that Iraqs

invasion of Iran ----.

During the latter part of 1980, Iraq invaded

Iran and hoped to seize its southern oil fields.
Iran counterattacked. The result was a
murderous eightyear conflict marked by the
use of chemical weapons and human waves
of young Iranian radicals fighting the Sovietarmed Iraqis. The war ended with Irans
defeat, but not the collapse of its theocratic
regime. In the short term, their long defence
of Iranian nationalism left the mullahs more
entrenched at home, while abroad they used
their oil revenues to back grass-roots
radicalism in Lebanon and militants
elsewhere who engaged in anti-Western
terrorism. Over the years, the strongest
threats to the Iranian regime ultimately have
come from within, from a new generation of
young students and workers who have
discovered that their prospects for prosperity
and democratic rights have not changed
much since the days of the shah.

A) led to a war, which, in the end, settled

the issue of the southern oil fields
B) was sheer aggression, motivated by an
economic purpose
C) significantly weakened the authority of
the Iranian mullahs
D) was strongly opposed by the Soviet
government of the time
E) provoked Iranian students and workers
into antiregime Demonstrations

710. As can be seen from the passage, the war

between Iran and Iraq ----.

708. According to the passage, the Iranian regime


A) lasted under a decade and caused a

great deal of bloodshed
B) was actually a war of attrition, with no
victory for either side
C) greatly undermined the prosperity of the
Iranian people

A) has always been aware of the need to

grant to the people their democratic

D) made it necessary for the Iranian regime

to use all its oil revenues for weapons

B) was adversely affected by the war with

Iraq and lost much of its power

E) was fought on both sides with weapons

provided by the Soviets

C) has introduced radical economic policies

to increase its oil revenues
D) has failed to gain the unanimous support
of the people in the country
E) wholly relies on young radicals in the
country, who are inspired by nationalism

Sayfa 258 / 344


711. It is stressed in the passage that, with the
money earned from oil exports, Iran ----.

712. According to the passage, some segments

of Iranian society have ultimately become
aware of the fact that ----.

A) financed a series of projects to strengthen

nationalism among young radicals
B) made huge investments to upgrade the
capacity of its southern oil fields
C) re-armed its army and, thus, was able to
resist the Iraqi invasion
D) carried out economic reforms to improve
the living standards of its people
E) sponsored radical political movements in
other Countries

A) the Iran-Iraq war resulted from the

Iranian regimes failure to cooperate
with Iraq
B) the Iranian government is wasting the
countrys oil revenues on unfeasible
C) the new Iranian regime has not met their
economic and political expectations
D) the future of the regime in the country
fundamentally depends on young
E) the power of the mullahs in the country
is not so strong as has generally been

Sayfa 259 / 344


713.714.715.716.717. SORULARI
Until the late thirteenth century, European
maritime commerce had been divided
between a Mediterranean and a North
Atlantic world. Starting around 1270,
however, Italian merchants began to sail
through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the
woolproducing regions of England and the
Netherlands. This was the essential first step
in the extension of Mediterranean commerce
and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The
second step was the discovery by Genoese
sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the
Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries
and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary
Islands and to convert and enslave their
inhabitants began almost immediately. But
an effective conquest of the Canary Islands
did not begin until the fifteenth century,
when it was undertaken by Portugal and
completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn,
became the base from which further
Portuguese voyages down the west coast of
Africa proceeded. They were also the
jumping-off point from which Christopher
Columbus would sail westward across the
Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia.

713. It is clear from the passage that the

European discovery and conquest of the
Canary Islands in the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries ----.

Sayfa 260 / 344

A) actually had no commercial and

maritime significance, but became the
major cause of rivalry between Portugal
and Spain
B) strategically paved the way for further
explorations along coastal West Africa
and across the Atlantic Ocean
C) could have been prevented if the natives
had been politically united to resist
conversion and colonization
D) caused so much excitement across
Europe that especially Italian merchants
were keen to use the islands as their
commercial base
E) had an adverse impact on the
Netherlands maritime trade with
England and other countries in northern


714. As suggested in the passage, in medieval
Europe before 1270, ----.

716. As stated in the passage, the Canary Islands


A) Spanish and Portuguese sailors had

attempted to explore the west coast of
Africa and enslave the natives

A) were more densely populated than the

Azores, which played no part in
transatlantic trade

B) only Italian merchants had had the

monopoly to import wool from England
and the Netherlands

B) had already been Christianized before

they were discovered and colonized
C) were not so important as the Azores in
the increase of trade along the West
African coast

C) some daring attempts had been made to

conquer and colonize the Canaries and
the Azores

D) did not interest Christopher Columbus at

all in his voyages across the Atlantic

D) there had been two major zones for

maritime trade: the Mediterranean and
the North Atlantic

E) were subjected to colonization soon

after they were discovered by the

E) there had been continual efforts

especially by the Portuguese to convert
West African natives to Christianity

715. It is asserted in the passage that, in the late

thirteenth century, ----.
A) Italian merchants were first able to carry
their Mediterranean trade into England
and the Netherlands

717. As can be inferred from the passage,

Christopher Columbus ----.
A) hoped that his westward voyage across
the Atlantic would ultimately take him to

B) the Strait of Gibraltar gained so much

strategic importance that it became a
territorial issue between Spain and
C) the Europeans soon realized that there
was a great deal of profit to be made by
slave trade across the Atlantic
D) both England and the Netherlands
emerged as the only major colonizing
powers in the North Atlantic
E) the Italians absolutely dominated the
trade in the Mediterranean and strongly
opposed other nations attempts to
benefit from it

Sayfa 261 / 344

B) learned much from Genoese sailors

about the locations of the Canaries and
the Azores
C) had taken part earlier in Portuguese
voyages down the west coast of Africa
D) paid little attention to the strategic and
economic importance of the Canary
E) always dreamed of completely
controlling all the maritime commerce
with Asia


718.719.720.721.722. SORULARI

719. It is suggested in the passage that, in their

view of slavery, the Romans ----.

Like nearly all the peoples of the ancient

world, the Romans took slavery for granted.
Nothing in Romes earlier experience had
prepared it, however, for the huge increase
in slave numbers that resulted from its
western and eastern conquests. In 146 B.C.,
fifty-five thousand Carthaginians were
enslaved after thedestruction of their city;
not long before, one hundredand fifty
thousand Greek prisoners of war had met the
same fate. By the end of the second century
B.C., there were a million slaves in Italy alone,
making Roman Italy one of the most slavebased economies known to history. The
majority of these slaves worked as
agricultural labourers on the vast estates of
the Roman aristocracy. Some of these estates
were the result of earlier Roman conquests
within Italy itself. But others were
constructed by aristocrats buying up the land
holdings of thousands of small farmers who
found themselves unable to compete with
the great estate-owners in producing grain
for the market.

A) attached a great deal of importance to

the military value of slaves
B) had largely been inspired by the Greeks
and some eastern peoples
C) were not so sophisticated as the other
peoples of the ancient world
D) began to follow a different policy only
after they had enslaved the
E) did not differ much from other ancient

720. It is implied in the passage that the early

Romans ----.
A) had no notion of slavery and knew
nothing about it
B) were not interested in farming and,
therefore, imported their grain

718. It is pointed out in the passage that, in

ancient Rome, ----.

C) were so opposed to aristocrats that they

protected small farmers against them

A) aristocrats always had the right to

determine grain prices for the market

D) had one political goal: to conquer all the

other peoples east and west

B) most aristocrats preferred small farmers

to slaves as labourers on their farms
C) the production of grain was solely the
responsibility of large numbers of small
D) it was aristocrats that owned huge
amounts of farming lands
E) aristocrats were so hostile to small
farmers that they drove them off their

Sayfa 262 / 344

E) had always been on friendly terms with

all the peoples of the ancient world


721. It is clear from the passage that, when the
Romans began to extend their conquests, ---.

722. As emphasized in the passage, slaves in

ancient Rome ----.
A) were totally of Greek and Carthaginian

A) they were seriously resisted by the

Greeks, who had no fear of them
B) their immediate aim was to conquer and
enslave the Carthaginians
C) it led to an enormous increase in the
number of slaves
D) they depended heavily on slaves for their
military campaigns
E) it greatly pleased the Roman aristocracy,
since they were able to own new estates

Sayfa 263 / 344

B) made up the backbone of the Roman

C) formed what the author calls small
D) were so great in number that aristocrats
were uneasy about them
E) knew farming so well that they produced
grain in huge amounts


723.724.725.726.727 SORULARI PARAGRAFA
The finest example of Byzantine architecture
is the church of Saint Sophia (Holy Wisdom)
in stanbul, constructed by the emperor
Justinian in the sixth century. Evidently, its
structural design was something altogether
new in the history of architecture. The
central feature of the design was the
application of the dome principle to a
building of square shape. The church was
designed in the form of a cross, with a
magnificent dome over its central square.
The main problem for the architects was how
to fit the circumference of the dome to the
square area it was supposed to cover. The
solution was to have four great arches spring
from pillars at the four corners of the square.
The rim of the dome was then made to rest
on the keystones of the arches, with the
curved triangular spaces between the arches
filled with masonry. The result was an
architectural framework of marvellous
strength, which at the same time made
possible a style of imposing grandeur and
delicacy. The dome itself has a diametre of
107 feet and rises to a height of nearly 180
feet from the floor. So many windows are
placed around its rim that the dome appears
to have no support at all but to be suspended
in midair.

723. As emphasized in the passage, the design of

the church of Saint Sophia in stanbul
ensured that ----.
A) it would serve as a model for the design
of new churches in the future
B) Emperor Justinian was greatly pleased by
its structure and grandeur
C) the rim of the dome had to have many
windows to let sunlight in
D) the weight of the dome had to be
reduced by four great pillars
E) architecturally its structure was unique
and entirely unprecedented
724. According to the passage, the harmony of
the dome and the square base on which the
dome rested ----.

Sayfa 264 / 344

A) had been a common feature of Byzantine

architecture before Saint Sophia
B) was made possible by the use of four
great arches
C) was never regarded as a crucial issue in
the construction of Saint Sophia
D) was not adequately taken into
consideration during the design of Saint
E) has always been a major problem
throughout the history of architecture


725. It is claimed in the passage that Byzantine
architecture ----.

727. It is clear that the passage ----.

A) was still in its early stage during the reign

of Emperor Justinian
B) began to improve and further develop
after the construction of Saint Sophia
C) was greatly influenced by the architecture
that preceded the sixth century
D) is best represented and exemplified by
the church of Saint Sophia

A) is a concise description of Saint Sophias

architectural features and overall
B) mainly focuses on the distinctive aspects
of Byzantine architecture in the sixth
C) gives a detailed account of Emperor
Justinians support for the construction
of Saint Sophia
D) discusses how Byzantine architects came
to use the dome as a major structural

E) always made use of masonry in the

construction of buildings with grandeur

E) explains the reasons why Saint Sophia

was designed in the form of a cross

726. As suggested in the passage, the perfect

combination of the dome and the arches in
Saint Sophia ----.
A) seemed to the architects to be precarious
since the dome, with a diametre of 107
feet, was of an immense size and weight
B) was somewhat spoiled by the curved
triangular spaces that could be seen
between the arches
C) gave it not only amazing strength but also
impressive magnificence and gracefulness
D) enabled the architects to design and
construct the whole structure in the form
of a cross
E) gave the architects themselves the
impression that the dome was suspended
in midair, with no support whatsoever

Sayfa 265 / 344


728.729.730.731.732. SORULARI
The 16 century in England is generally known
as the Tudor period, which historically lasted
from 1485 to 1603. Among the famous Tudor
sovereigns were Henry VII, Henry VIII, and
Elizabeth I. In fact, the early years of the
Tudor period were marked by significant
changes in trade and in the arts of war. Henry
VII made commercial treaties with European
countries. Economically, England, which had
always been a sheep-raising country, was by
now manufacturing and exporting significant
amounts of cloth. As lands were enclosed to
permit grazing on a larger scale, people were
driven off the land to the cities, and London
grew into a metropolitan market with
sophisticated commercial institutions. These
changes had an impact on the traditional
feudal social order, which also began to
decline; also, due to the introduction of
cannons and firearms, the feudal system of
warfare became obsolete. Yet, it would be a
mistake to imagine these changes as sudden
and dramatic. In fact, it was a slow and long
process whereby England was transformed
into a modern state.

729. It is pointed out in the passage that the

changes that took place in Tudor England ---.
A) were fundamentally inspired by the
social and economic developments
already being witnessed in Europe
B) had far-reaching effects on social and
economic life
C) were mainly confined to social life and
improved the efficiency of the feudal
social order
D) initially resulted from a revision of the
traditional arts of war that had depended
on the use of cannons and firearms
E) greatly reduced all the political and legal
powers that English sovereigns had
traditionally enjoyed and used

730. One understands from the passage that the

Tudor dynasty in England ----.

728. According to the passage, it was during the

Tudor period that ----.

A) was best represented by Henry VIII, who

followed a policy of friendship with other
B) introduced a number of military reforms
in order to build the strongest army in

A) Englands overseas trade was adversely

affected by ongoing wars in Europe
B) feudalism in England was further
C) Englands exports to European countries
were significantly in decline
D) sheep-raising was introduced into
England, which had large areas of grazing

C) focused its main attention on the

improvement of agriculture in the
D) was represented by powerful sovereigns,
who played a leading role in European
E) came to power in the late fifteenth
century and ruled the country over a

E) London was transformed into a major

trade centre

Sayfa 266 / 344


731. It is clear from the passage that, due to
developments in cloth-making in Tudor
England, ----.

732. On the basis of the passage, one can state

that, during the Tudor period, England ----.
A) earned large amounts of revenue from
its exports

A) most farming lands were turned into

grazing fields for the sheep
B) English merchants began to look for new
markets in order to export more goods
C) rural people gave up farming and
migrated to London in search of

B) took little interest in the affairs of

continental Europe
C) experienced a long process of social and
economic transformation
D) emerged as a major sheep-raising
country in Europe

D) the economic prosperity of the people

increased enormously

E) remained totally indifferent to the

economic and political changes in Europe

E) many cities, including London, competed

with each other for economic prosperity

Sayfa 267 / 344


733.734.735.736.737. SORULARI
In the last third of the 19 century, new
technologies transformed the face of
manufacturing in Europe, leading to new
levels of economic growth and complex
realignments among industry, labour and
national governments. Like Europes first
industrial revolution, which began in the late
18th century and centred on coal, steam and
iron, this second industrial revolution relied
on innovation in three key areas: steel,
electricity, and chemicals. For instance, steel,
which was harder, stronger and more
malleable than iron, had long been used as a
construction material. But until the midnineteenth century, producing steel cheaply
and in large quantities was impossible. That
changed between the 1850s and 1870s, as
new and different processes for refining and
mass-producing alloy steel revolutionized the
metallurgical industry. Although iron did not
disappear overnight, it was soon eclipsed by
soaring steel production. So, steel began to
be used for various purposes. In Britain, for
example, shipbuilders made a quick and
profitable switch to steel construction, and
thus kept their lead in the industry. Germany
and the US, however, dominated the rest of
the steel industry. By 1901, Germany was
producing almost half as much steel as Britain
and was able to build a massive national and
industrial infrastructure.

733. It is stated in the passage that, in the late

nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, ---.
A) the steel industry in Europe surpassed all
the other industries, including those of
electricity and chemicals
B) governments in Britain and Germany
took severe measures to prevent radical
labour movements
C) the US produced so much steel that it
began to manipulate the world steel
D) Britains use of steel in the shipbuilding
industry strengthened its dominant
position in this sector
E) the use of iron and steel as construction
materials was wholly confined to
734. According to the passage, the first
industrial revolution ----.
A) caused so much labour unrest in Europe
that the steel industry did not develop
B) came into being during the later decades
of the eighteenth century
C) originally began in Britain and, then,
spread to Germany and other European
D) led to the manufacture of a wide variety
of goods, ranging from construction
materials to chemicals
E) did not last long, since it did not lead to
the development of new technologies

Sayfa 268 / 344


735. One understands from the passage that,
before the mid-nineteenth century, ----.
A) steel production had been costly and did
not amount to much quantity

737. It is suggested in the passage that, in the

nineteenth century, innovative
developments in the areas of steel,
electricity, and chemicals ----.

B) the second industrial revolution had

spread all over Europe

A) led to a lasting rivalry in shipping

between Germany and Britain

C) Germany and Britain had been in fierce

competition in developing shipbuilding

B) turned Germany into the strongest and

most prosperous country in Europe

D) Germany and the US collaborated against

Britain for research in chemistry
E) the manufacturing industry in Europe had
benefited a great deal from new
736. According to the passage, in the second half
of the nineteenth century, the metallurgical
industry underwent a radical transformation
A) although some countries, like Germany
and the US, were still using obsolete
methods of production
B) due to Germanys lead in the
development of new steel production
C) because Britains shipbuilders had
discovered new ways to build bigger but
less expensive ships
D) when alloy steel began to be refined and
massproduced through the introduction
of innovative processes
E) owing to new discoveries and
technological progress in the fields of
electricity and chemistry

Sayfa 269 / 344

C) brought about the second industrial

D) greatly contributed to the improvement
of Britains infrastructure
E) became the main concern of national
governments in Europe


738.739.740.741.742. SORULARI
In 1764, there was a serious quarrel over
taxation between the British government and
its colonies in America. The British
government continued to think of the
colonists as British subjects. In 1700, there
had been only 200.000 colonists, but by 1770
this number rose to 2.5 million. Obviously,
such large numbers needed to be dealt with
carefully. Some American colonists decided
that it was not lawful for the British
government to tax them without their
agreement. Political opinion in Britain was
divided. Some felt that the tax was fair
because the money would be used to pay for
the defence of the American colonies against
French attack. But several important
politicians agreed with the colonists that
there should be no taxation without
representation. Hence, in 1773, at the port
of Boston, a group of colonists threw a
shipload of tea into the sea rather than pay
tax on it. The event became known as the
Boston Tea Party. The British government
responded by closing the port. But the
colonists then decided to prevent British
goods from entering America until the port
was opened again. The colonists action was
regarded as a rebellion, and the British
government decided to defeat it by force.
Thus, the American War of Independence got
underway. The war lasted from 1775 until
1783. The British government had no respect
for the colonists fighting ability. The result
was a disastrous defeat for the British forces.
At the end of the war, Britain lost all the
American colonies except Canada.

738. It is clear from the passage that, since the

American colonists were not represented in
the British Parliament, ----.
A) some politicians argued that Boston
should be exempted from all kinds of
B) they refused to pay the tax required of
them by the British government
C) it was much easier for them to start a
war of independence against Britain
D) they did not have a standing army and,
therefore, were unable to defeat the
British forces
E) they were not subject to the laws of
Britain and felt free to take action
against Britain
739. It is pointed out in the passage that not
every politician in Britain ----.

Sayfa 270 / 344

A) supported the British governments

decision to tax the American colonists
against their will
B) believed that the French would dare to
invade the American colonies
C) agreed that the Boston Tea Party
jeopardized trade with the colonies
D) was convinced that the British forces in
America were strong enough to defeat
the colonists
E) was of the opinion that the American
colonists would ever dream of


740. It is stated in the passage that, within a
period of almost three quarters of a century,

742. It is stressed in the passage that, for the

British government, ----.
A) the port of Boston was of vital political
importance for relations with the
American colonies

A) Britain and France got into a fierce

competition in order to colonize a very
large part of America
B) Britain lost the war against the American
colonies and had to grant their
C) Canada grew demographically well ahead
of the other American colonies
D) Britains trade with the American colonies
reached a level well above all
E) the population of the American colonies
increased to more than ten times the
original number

741. One understands from the passage that,

because of the tax crisis, ----.
A) the American colonists imposed sanctions
on British goods
B) the port of Boston was closed for over
half a century
C) Britain took urgent precautions in order
to increase its military capacity in America
D) the import of tea into the American
colonies came under the British monopoly
E) France expressed its willingness to aid the
American colonies against Britain

Sayfa 271 / 344

B) the political representation of the

American colonies was fully dependent
on their payment of taxes
C) Frances political aims in America had to
be countered by the colonies themselves
D) the people living in the American
colonies were always considered to be
British subjects
E) a defence agreement with the American
colonies had to be reached urgently
against France


743.744.745.746.747. SORULARI
The Mississippi is one of the worlds great
continental rivers, like the Amazon in South
America, the Congo in Africa, or the Volga in
Europe. Its waters are gathered from twothirds of the US and, together with the
Missouri, which is its chief western branch,
the Mississippi flows some 6.400 kilometres
from its northern sources in the Rocky
Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, which
makes it one of the worlds longest
waterways. The Mississippi has been called
the father of waters. Through all its lower
course, it wanders along, appearing lazy and
harmless. But people who know the river are
not deceived by its benign appearance, for
they have had many bitter struggles with its
floods. They have had to learn that nothing is
to be gained by fighting against the rages of
the mighty stream. To control it, Americans
have had to accept some of the rivers own
terms and to undertake the patient work of
conserving and rebuilding soil, grasslands and
forests, far back where the waters begin to

744. It is pointed out in the passage that,

although in its lower course the Mississippi
looks quiet and harmless, ----.
A) most people believe that it may one day
overflow its banks
B) the people living along it are not aware
of this
C) actually it has caused much devastation
D) people have always been indifferent to
the threats it poses
E) in its upper course it is extremely violent
and Destructive
745. In the passage, attention is drawn to the
fact that the Mississippis waters can best
be controlled ---.
A) if environmental measures are taken
around its northern sources
B) so long as its northern sources are
definitely identified
C) provided that Americans know how to
struggle with them
D) only if the people living along its course
are evacuated

743. It is clear from the passage that the sources

of the Mississippis waters ----.
A) are so limited that the river seldom
causes flooding along its banks
B) are not as many as those of other
continental rivers in the world
C) need to be conserved to protect the river
from environmental pollution
D) are spread over a great part of the US
E) cannot be ascertained, since the Rocky
Mountains have not been explored fully

Sayfa 272 / 344

E) in the same way that the worlds other

big rivers have been controlled


746. One understands from the passage that the
Mississippi ----.

747. It is suggested in the passage that the

American people ----.

A) has far more branches for the gathering

of its waters than the Congo in Africa and
the Volga in Europe
B) differs from the Amazon in South America
and the other continental rivers in the
world largely because its waters are much
C) is far more navigable than the other
continental rivers in the world and,
therefore, becomes a commercially
profitable waterway in the US

A) have in the end learned how to get along

with the Mississippi
B) always boast of having the worlds
longest river in their country
C) have a very strong sense of the
environment and, therefore, conserve
their forests
D) think that, without the Missouri, the
Mississippi would have been just a mere

D) flows so fast throughout its course that,

despite the long distance, it does not take
long for its waters to get to the Gulf of
E) cuts across the US from the Rocky
Mountains in the north to the Gulf of
Mexico in the south

Sayfa 273 / 344

E) regard the Mississippi as the father of

waters because it is fully navigable


748.749.750.751.752. SORULARI
The Copernican revolution began over 500
years ago with the realization that the Earth
was not the centre of the universe, but we
still await its grand finale: the anticipated
discovery of life elsewhere. Where else might
we find life? The vast scale of the universe
makes it virtually certain that there are other
Earthlike settings. In our own solar system,
Marss distance from the Sun makes it
sufficiently Earth-like; so, especially with
increasing evidence for occasional liquid
water, many are looking there for the first
signs of extraterrestrial life. Recently,
however, a new contender has emerged, and
surprisingly it is from the cold outer solar
system: it is Jupiters moon Europa. As one of
the four satellites of Jupiter, discovered by
Galileo in 1610, Europa is now believed to
have water in a liquid state, even though it is
so far from the Sun. Thus, the possibility of
liquid water on Europa has opened the door
to speculation about life on this satellite of

749. According to the passage, the discovery of

Earthlike settings in other parts of the
universe ----.
A) is definitely out of question, since the
universe is extremely vast
B) would no longer make the Earth seem
like the only planet with life on it
C) seems possible, but it would be very
costly and dangerous to attempt it
D) has been an obsession for scientists ever
since the time of Copernicus
E) was what Galileo was primarily
interested in in the early seventeenth

750. It is pointed out in the passage that, in

recent years, ----.
748. One clearly understands from the passage
that, until Copernicus in the sixteenth
century, --- .

A) some scientists have come to regard

Copernicuss contribution to astronomy
as negligible

A) Mars had generally been regarded as the

planet with life on it
B) the search for life elsewhere in the solar
system had been futile
C) it had been commonly believed that the
centre of the universe was the Earth
D) there had been many attempts to
understand the outer solar system

B) scientists have come to understand the

reasons for Galileos discovery of Europa
C) astronomers have focused on an indepth study of the outer solar system
D) there has been much controversy about
the geological features of Mars
E) it has been suggested that Jupiters
moon Europa may have liquid water on it

E) the planets in the solar system had all

been discovered and studied

Sayfa 274 / 344


751. It is stated in the passage that currently
Mars ----.

753.754.755.756.757. SORULARI
In antiquity, prior to the third century B.C.,
physics had been a branch of philosophy. It
was made a separate, experimental science
by Archimedes of Syracuse, who lived
between 287 and 212 B.C.. He not only
discovered the law of floating objects, or
specific gravity, but also formulated with
scientific exactness the principles of the
lever, the pulley, and the screw. Among his
memorable inventions were the compound
pulley and the screw propeller for ships.
Although he has been considered the
greatest technical genius of antiquity, in fact
he preferred to devote himself to pure
scientific research. Tradition relates that he
discovered Archimedes principle, that is,
specific gravity, while pondering possible
theories in his bath; when he reached his
stunning insight, he dashed out naked into
the street crying Eureka! (I have found

A) has been established as the only planet

with a vast amount of water under its
B) is being fully explored because, as a
planet, it is so close to the Earth
C) has been partially studied, and so it still
maintains its mystery as a planet
D) has been the main focus of the scientific
search for extraterrestrial life
E) and Europa provide a great deal of
evidence for a better understanding of
the solar system

752. According to the passage, it is hoped that ---.

A) the amount of liquid water on Mars will
be sufficient for life on the planet

753. As one understands from the passage,

Archimedes was so thrilled by his
unexpected discovery of specific gravity
that ----.

B) in the future only Europa will become

mans new home in the universe
C) one day Earth-like life will be discovered
outside our own planet
D) living beings will be found on one of
Jupiters satellites

A) he immediately announced it to the

public in an unusual fashion
B) he described every detail of it to the
people with scientific exactness
C) the people in the street joined him in the
celebration of his discovery

E) the search for extraterrestrial life in the

universe will never be disrupted

D) most of his contemporaries regarded it

as a perfect example of pure scientific
E) his theory of specific gravity was soon
applied in Shipbuilding

Sayfa 275 / 344


754. According to the passage, until Archimedes,

756. It is pointed out in the passage that

Archimedes inventions ----.

A) there had been some scientific research

on the law of floating objects

A) were not related to the theories that he

had already formulated

B) physics had not been considered to be a

science separate from philosophy

B) have qualified him to be regarded as the

greatest genius of antiquity

C) the use in ships of the screw propeller had

already been known

C) were put into use when, following

several scientific tests, they proved to be
very efficient

D) various theories had been proposed

about floating objects

D) were all based on his theory of specific

gravity, which he had been pondering for
a long time

E) the study of philosophy had been

confined only to physics

E) were described in detail in his writings

755. As it is clear from the passage, Archimedes ---.

757. As clearly pointed out in the passage, like

the principles of the pulley and the screw,
the principle of the lever ----.

A) was so seriously concerned with technical

issues that he often neglected his
scientific research
B) can be described as a man who openly
opposed the study of philosophy
C) was more interested in the theoretical
aspect of science than in its practical uses
D) was particularly indifferent to questions
of navigation and shipbuilding
E) taught the people of Syracuse how to use
the compound pulley most efficiently

A) has been traditionally attributed to

Archimedes, but it had been known to
other physicists in antiquity
B) can also be considered to be one of
Archimedesleast scientific formulations
C) aroused so much interest in the public
that he was rightly proud of his scientific
D) was also defined by Archimedes in
absolutely scientific terms
E) was formulated by Archimedes only after
he carried out a series of complicated

Sayfa 276 / 344


758.759.760.761.762. SORULARI

759. It is pointed out in the passage that the

ancestors of the Romans ----.

The Romans were descended from a cluster

of peoples who had crossed the Alps into
Italy during the second millenium B.C. and
spoke a variety of Indo-European dialects.
Recent archaeological research has pushed
the origins of the city of Rome back to at
least the tenth century B.C., several centuries
earlier than the traditional date 753 B.C.,
which the Romans themselves considered
their citys foundation year. Romes strategic
location along the Tiber River brought it
many different advantages. Trading ships
could navigate the Tiber as far as Rome, but
no farther; the city could thus serve as a port
without being threatened by attack from the
sea. Romes famous hills increased the
defensibility of the site. In other words, as a
city, Rome was situated at a junction across
the Tiber, making it a major land and river

A) believed that the Alps would provide

perfectdefence against invasions from
the North
B) came from the North and settled in Italy
around the tenth century B.C.
C) first looked for a strategic location where
they could safely settle
D) were a sea-going people who were
particularly interested in overseas trade
E) were the peoples who spoke various
dialects of the same language

760. It is stated in the passage that

archaeological evidence obtained so far ----.
758. According to the passage, Rome was
founded at a site along the Tiber, which ----.
A) was vulnerable to attacks from the hills

A) indicates the tenth century B.C. as the

date of the foundation of Rome
B) clearly proves how and when various
Indo- European peoples crossed the Alps
into Italy

B) provided a perfect crossing across the

C) had been a major trading centre even
before the tenth century B.C.

C) shows why the earlier Romans decided

to found their city at a site up the Tiber

D) enabled merchant ships to sail far into the


D) proves conclusively how Rome came to

be a major port for trading ships

E) was most exposed to the dangers from

the sea

E) answers the question of why the original

natives of Italy collaborated with the
Indo-European invaders

Sayfa 277 / 344


761. It is indicated in the passage that the

762. One understands from the passage that the

Tiber in antiquity ----.

A) built strong defences on the hills

surrounding Rome

A) had been used as a waterway for trade

even before Rome was founded on it

B) attributed the foundation of their city to

one specific year

B) was the only river in Italy, on which

trading ships of any size could sail safely

C) maintained their Indo-European identity

for centuries

C) played an important role in the defence

of Rome whenever the city was attacked
from the sea

D) were not a strategically-minded people

and never took security into account
E) benefited from the Tiber only in terms of
its economic advantages.

D) provided a number of crossings whereby

the Romans were able to transport their
forces across it
E) was partially navigable and provided
Rome with an economic advantage

Sayfa 278 / 344


763.764.765.766.767. SORULARI

764. According to the passage, when the trees in

a forest fail to grow properly, ----.

When air pollution, including acid rain, is

combined with other environmental stresses,
such as low winter temperatures, prolonged
droughts, insects, and bacterial, fungal, and
viral diseases, it can cause plants to decline
and die. More than half of the red spruce
trees in the mountains of the northern
United States have died since the mid-1970s.
Other tree species, such as sugar maples, for
example, are also dying. Many still-living
trees are exhibiting symptoms of forest
decline, characterized by a gradual
deterioration and often eventual death. The
general symptoms of forest decline are
reduced vigour and growth, but some plants
exhibit specific symptoms, such as yellowing
of needles in conifers. Air pollutants may or
may not be the primary stress that results in
forest decline, but the presence of air
pollution lowers plant resistance to other
stress factors. When one or more stresses
weaken a tree, then an additional stress may
be enough to cause death.

A) this is directly related to low winter

B) this is mostly the result of a fungal
C) its immediate effect can be detected
right away
D) this can be a symptom of forest decline
E) it is inevitable that bacterial diseases will
emerge Soon

765. It is implied in the passage that the death of

the red spruce in the northeastern United
States ---.
A) is a clear indication of how forest decline
can turn into a major disaster

763. It is suggested in the passage that air

pollutants ----.

B) has been caused primarily by bacterial

and viral diseases in the region
C) was also noticed in the mid-1970s when
the trees showed a great deal of reduced

A) become very destructive for all kinds of

trees when they turn into acid rain
B) have been the primary cause of the
deterioration of various tree species

D) was preceded first by reduced growth

and then a long period of deterioration

C) can cause forest decline when they act

together with other environmental

E) has resulted from the joint effects of air

pollution and environmental factors

D) show their adverse effect on trees most

clearly when there are prolonged
E) are particularly effective on sugar maples
and conifers but not other species

Sayfa 279 / 344


766. It is emphasized in the passage that air
pollution ----.

767. As it is clear from the passage, one of the

symptoms that indicates forest decline is ---

A) weakens the resistance of plants against

environmental stresses

A) the growing number of insects

B) in the northeastern United States has

declined substantially over the years

B) the reduced vigour of trees

C) causes the spread of bacterial, fungal and

viral diseases in the world

D) prolonged droughts

C) lower winter temperatures

E) prevents the detection of symptoms

related to forest decline.

Sayfa 280 / 344

E) the increase of acid rain


768.769.770.771.772. SORULARI
Government planners and social scientists
from many countries are developing a
number of strategies to help us adapt to
global warming. For example, what should
people living in coastal areas do? They can
move inland away from the dangers of storm
surges, although this solution has high
economic costs. An alternative plan, which is
also extremely expensive, is to build dikes to
protect coastal land. The Dutch, who have
been doing this sort of thing for several
hundred years, have offered their technical
expertise to several developing nations
threatened by a rise in sea level. We also
have to adapt to shifting agricultural zones.
Many temperate countries are in the process
of evaluating semitropical crops to determine
the best ones to substitute for traditional
crops if or when the climate warms. Droughtresistant species of trees are being developed
by large lumber companies now, because the
trees planted today will be harvested many
decades later when global warming may
already get much worse

768. It is pointed out in the passage that a large

number of countries with a temperate
climate ----.

Sayfa 281 / 344

A) have already applied to the Dutch

government to help them protect their
coastal areas against a rise in sea level
owing to global warming
B) have urgently developed some costly
strategies in order to protect themselves
from the extreme effects of global
C) are developing new agricultural zones for
semitropical crops, since they are
economically more profitable than
traditional crops
D) are experimenting with semitropical
crops for the replacement of their
traditional crops in case the climate gets
E) are exposed to the dangers of storm
surges and have therefore taken radical
measures to rescue their people in
coastal areas


769. One understands from the passage that the
development of tree species that can resist
droughts ----.

771. It is stated in the passage that, for our

adaptation to global warming, ----.
A) an alternative strategy is that all the
coastal areas in the world have to be
evacuated so that the inhabitants can be
safe from the dangers of storm surges

A) is being carefully studied by government

planners and scientists as an alternative
B) is a precaution that major lumber firms
are taking against global warming

B) many scientists and planners are

involved in a series of activities that are
primarily suitable for temperate

C) has been so costly that governments of

temperate countries have given it up

C) not only the Dutch but also governments

of many countries have devoted a great
deal of hard work to the development of
urgent strategies

D) is indispensable because, due to global

warming, most forests will disappear in a
few decades
E) is important for countries where
agricultural zones have been badly
affected by global warming

D) new agricultural zones suitable for the

growth of semitropical crops and also the
development of drought-resistant trees
are the only suitable strategies
E) state planners and social scientists of
different nationalities are working to
develop various strategies

770. One understands from the passage that the

development of tree species that can resist
droughts ----.

772. It is suggested in the passage that, in

several decades, ----.

A) is being carefully studied by government

planners and scientists as an alternative

A) government planners and social

scientists will see their planning efforts

B) is a precaution that major lumber firms

are taking against global warming

B) most developing countries can

experience a severe decline in their
agricultural production

C) has been so costly that governments of

temperate countries have given it up

C) most coastal areas may be flooded

unless they are protected by dikes

D) is indispensable because, due to global

warming, most forests will disappear in a
few decades

D) the effects of global warming may be

much more adverse

E) is important for countries where

agricultural zones have been badly
affected by global warming

Sayfa 282 / 344

E) lumber companies may go out of

business due to the heavy costs incurred
by the planting of trees


773.774.775.776.777. SORULARI
In England, transportation had improved a
great deal during the years before 1830, but
moving heavy materials, particularly coal,
remained a problem. It is therefore
significant that the first modern railway, built
in 1825 for the transportation of coal, ran
from the Durham coal field of Stockton to
Darlington near the coast. Coal had
traditionally been transported short distances
via tramways, or tracks along which horses
pulled coal carts. The Stockton-to-Darlington
railway was a logical extension of a tramway,
designed to answer the transportation needs
arising from constantly expanding
industrialization. The man primarily
responsible for the design of the first steam
railway was George Stephenson, a selfeducated engineer who had not learned to
read until he was seventeen. The locomotives
on the Stockton- Darlington line travelled at
fifteen miles an hour, the fastest rate at
which machines had yet moved goods
overland. Soon they would move people as
well, transforming transportation in the

774. It is pointed out in the passage that the

primary aim in the contruction of the
Stockton-Darlington railway was to ----.
A) give George Stephenson an opportunity
to demonstrate his engineering skills
B) enable people to travel more
comfortably and cheaply
C) transport more goods overland so that
the costs could be much lower
D) make the transportation of coal more
efficient for the industry
E) get rid of the use of horses in the
transportation of heavy materials

775. According to the passage, much


773. It is emphasized in the passage that George

Stephenson, who designed the first steam

A) was needed for an efficient use of

tramways in the transportation of all
sorts of goods
B) had been achieved in transportation by
1830 in England
C) was not expected in the transportation
of coal when the first railway was built in

A) developed new techniques in order to

increase the speed of locomotives
B) was one of the partners who owned the
Durham coal field of Stockton
C) had been previously involved in the
solution of various other problems
concerning transportation
D) had already distinguished himself by his
achievements as an engineer
E) had not received formal education to
become an Engineer

Sayfa 283 / 344

D) was needed in the construction of

railways for the development of England
E) had been made before Stephenson in the
design of locomotives


776. Attention is drawn in the passage to the fact

that, in the early decades of the nineteenth
century, ----.

777. It is clear from the passage that the steam

railway ----.
A) had been in use in England before
Stephenson introduced new techniques

A) England made great advances in the

design and manufacture of machines

B) remained a local facility and played no

role in the industrialization of England

B) the production of coal in England was

technically much improved
C) Darlington developed into a major port
for Englands export of coal

C) was a solution to meet the

transportation needs of Englands

D) England was in a continuous process of

industrial growth

D) was invented in the first place for travel

between Stockton and Darlington

E) engineering was not yet a profession that

was popular in England

E) had little impact on the transformation

of transportation in nineteenth-century

Sayfa 284 / 344


778.779.780.781.782. SORULARI

778. It is suggested in the passage that the trials

that heroes undergo ----.

The heroic myths and epics of a society teach

its members the appropriate attitudes,
behaviour, and values of that culture. These
myths are of particular interest and value to
us. Not only are they exciting adventure
stories, but in these myths we see ourselves,
drawn larger and grander than we are, yet
with our human weaknesses as well as our
strengths. As for heroes, they are the models
of human behaviour for their society. They
earn lasting fame by performing great deeds
that help their community, and they inspire
others to emulate them. Heroes are forced
by circumstance to make critical choices
where they must balance one set of values
against competing values. They achieve
heroic stature in part from their
accomplishments and in part because they
emerge from their trials as more sensitive
and thoughtful human beings. Yet heroes are
not the same throughout the world. They
come from cultures where individuals may
earn fame in a variety of ways. This permits
them to express their individuality. However,
in spite of their extraordinary abilities, no
hero is perfect. Yet their human weaknesses
are often as instructive as their heroic
qualities. Their imperfections allow ordinary
people to identify with them and to like
them, since everyone has similar
psychological needs and conflicts.

A) are usually the outcome of conflicting

values in society and can therefore be
most painful
B) make up the contents of those myths
and epics which have survived to our
C) can be described in a variety of ways,
although they are mainly related to their
D) have a positive impact on their character
whereby they attain a high moral status
E) enable a society to become aware of its
weaknesses and find ways to get rid of
779. As stressed in the passage, heroic myths
and epics ----.
A) can be understood from various angles
since they are the products of different
B) represent different attitudes that heroes
adopt during the course of their
C) illustrate various sets of values that are
always contrary to each other
D) essentially show why heroes moral
imperfections become the cause of their
E) are morally useful because one learns
from them how to conduct oneself

Sayfa 285 / 344


780. One understands from the passage that
myths ----.

782. As asserted in the passage, we can learn ---.

A) are not as instructive as epics, which in

fact describe heroes that, from a moral
point of view, are absolutely perfect

A) from myths why and how heroes

perform great deeds

B) appeal to very few people because they

are mere fictions that contain nothing but
only adventures
C) are a kind of mirror through which are
reflected not only our virtues but also our
D) are so concerned with human weaknesses
that even ordinary people do not identify
themselves with mythical heroes
E) represent only universal values and
attitudes, as they do not belong to a
specific society or culture
781. It is pointed out in the passage that a heros
fame ----.
A) derives from his achievements that are
for the good of his people
B) does not last long, since he is easily
overcome by his weaknesses
C) is recognized throughout the world
because of his extraordinary abilities
D) encourages ordinary people to identify
themselves with him
E) depends on his ability to accomplish the

Sayfa 286 / 344

B) both from heroes imperfections and

from their heroic qualities
C) from heroes adventures that there are
various ways to understand our
D) the history of a community through a
close study of its heroic past
E) from epics whether every hero earns
lasting fame in the same way


783.784.785.786.787. SORULARI

784. According to the passage, the geography of

the Mycenaean civilization ----.

Our knowledge of the Mycenaean civilization

in Greece is based primarily upon what
archaeologists have been able to discover.
Fortunately, they have located and studied
the ruins of a number of important
Mycenaean sites both in Greece and in Troy,
the site of Homers Ilium in Turkey. The
material available to archaeologists is very
limited, due to the ravages of time, weather,
fire, and theft. The materials that have
survived include objects such as jewelry,
pottery, metal utensils, and various kinds of
weapons. In addition, archaeologists have
found a large number of clay tablets,
inscribed with a language called Linear B,
which they can read. It now becomes clear
that the Mycenaean civilization in full bloom
far surpassed in complexity and wealth many
of the Greek civilizations that followed it. The
Mycenaeans were an aggressive people who
loved fighting, hunting, and athletic contests.
Their land was mountainous and their soil
rocky and dry. Therefore, they took to the
sea and became fearsome raiders of other
communities. In this way they acquired
extraordinary wealth.

A) has caused a great deal of controversy

among archaeologists
B) was defined only after the Linear B clay
tablets were deciphered
C) was unknown to Homer, who was
interested in Troy alone
D) made up only a very small portion of
E) was not limited to Greece only

785. It is clear from the passage that the

Mycenaean civilization ----.
A) was culturally and economically very
complicated and, therefore, little known
B) reached its climax when the Linear B
language was introduced into Greece
C) can best be studied through Homers
descriptions of it
D) was far more advanced and powerful
than many other Greek civilizations

783. As clearly stated in the passage, the

Mycenaean economy ----.

E) did not last long because of the raids

made upon it by other communities

A) is best represented by various objects

discovered by archaeologists
B) can be fully understood from
archaeological excavations
C) depended not so much on agriculture as
on piracy and plunder
D) was so strong that people invested
heavily in jewelry and weapons
E) has been a major concern of investigation
among archaeologists

Sayfa 287 / 344


786. As asserted in the passage, the Mycenaeans

787. As stated in the passage, archaeological

discoveries ----.

A) seem to have been very skilled in the art

of jewelry

A) are the primary source of information on

the Mycenaean civilization

B) were noted for their warlike character

B) have provided us with plenty of evidence

about the Mycenaean arts

C) attacked Troy, which Homer refers to as

D) surpassed all the other Greek peoples in
athletic contests
E) were much advanced in the making of all
kinds of weapons

Sayfa 288 / 344

C) have thrown much light on the structure

of the Linear B language
D) show that Troy was an extremely
prosperous city
E) clearly indicate that the Mycenaeans
were the founders of various Greek cities


788.789.790.791.792. SORULARI

789. According to the passage, compared with

other continents, Europe ----.

The loss of global biodiversity is occurring at

an alarming rate. Since the 1970s, the area of
tropical forests destroyed worldwide exceeds
the land mass of the European Union. Animal
and plant species are disappearing.
Overfishing has depleted stocks around the
world. Poor farming practices have depleted
soils while allowing the invasion of harmful
species. Destruction of wetlands has left lowlying areas extremely vulnerable to storms
and natural disasters. Especially in Europe,
ecosystems have suffered more humaninduced damage than those on any other
continent. Only about 3 per cent of Europes
forests can be classified as undisturbed by
humans, and the continent has lost more
than half of its wetlands. The spread of
urbanization and the over-exploitation of
resources is having an enormous impact on

788. In the passage, attention is drawn to the fact

that a very small percentage of the forests in
Europe ----.

A) is far more advanced in the improvement

of its farming practices
B) owns a far greater area of wetlands and
forests with a wide range of animal
C) is the only continent to have had its
ecosystems most extensively damaged
D) has suffered so much loss in its
biodiversity that its variety of plant
species has declined a great deal
E) has been able to sustain the diversity of
its animal species despite the spread of

790. As clearly stressed in the passage, the

biodiversity in the world ----.

A) seem to have been over-exploited and,

therefore, ecologically damaged

A) has been completely immune from any

kind of human-induced damage

B) have been reserved for animal and plant


B) can only be sustained through the

preservation of forests as well as

C) have been used for urbanization and

D) can be considered to be ecologically
suitable for biodiversity

C) can be preserved intact only if poor

farming practices can be prevented

E) have remained untouched by human


D) is declining so fast that its effects can be

observed in various ways
E) can best be observed in tropical forests,
which also contain large areas of

Sayfa 289 / 344


791. It is clear that the passage ----.
A) is primarily concerned with the overexploitation of resources in the world and
its damaging effects on global biodiversity
B) is a detailed discussion of the range of
measures that need to be taken in order
to sustain the current state of global
C) describes in detail how, due to the spread
of urbanization, the area of the forests in
Europe has been reduced enormously
D) is a full account of the major causes of soil
depletion and puts forward a number of
suggestions for prevention
E) essentially focuses on the causes as well
as the consequences of the loss of
biodiversity in the world in general and in
Europe in particular

Sayfa 290 / 344


793.794.795.796.797. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

793. As clearly pointed out in the passage, while

Marx was studying in Berlin, ----.

The father of modern socialism, Karl Marx

(1818- 1883) was barely known in the early
nineteenth century. His reputation rose later,
after 1848, when a wave of revolutions and
violent confrontation seemed to confirm his
distinctive theory of history and make earlier
socialists emphasis on peaceful
reorganization of industrial society seem
naive. As a child, he grew up in Trier, in the
western section of Germany, in a region and
a family keenly interested in the political
debates and movements of the revolutionary
era. His family was Jewish, but his father had
converted to Protestantism in order to be
able to work as a lawyer. Marx studied law
briefly at the University of Berlin before
turning instead to philosophy and particularly
to the ideas of Hegel. With the so-called
Young Hegelian, a group of rebellious
students who hated the narrow thinking of a
deeply conservative Prussian university
system, Marx appropriated Hegels concepts
for his radical politics. His radicalism made it
impossible for him to get a post in the
university. He became a journalist and, from
1842 to 1843, edited the Rheinische Zeitung
(Rhineland Gazette). The papers criticism of
legal privilege and political repression put it
on a collision course with the Prussian
government, which closed it down and sent
Marx into exile first in Paris, then Brussels,
and eventually London.

A) it was not in law, but in philosophy, that

his interests lay
B) he discovered that Germanys university
system was largely inspired by Hegels
C) the Young Hegelians began to demand
radical reforms in the German university
D) he turned to journalism and constantly
criticized the governments repression of
E) he noticed that there was a great deal of
antisemitism among the Young Hegelians

794. One understands from the passage that,

because Marxs paper opposed the policies
of the Prussian government, ----.
A) he was completely deprived of his legal
B) it faced much political repression before
it was finally closed down
C) he was denied the right to apply for a
post at the University of Berlin
D) he was punished by exile out of Germany
E) it was no longer allowed to publish
political Debates

Sayfa 291 / 344


795. According to the passage, Marxs novel idea
of history ----.

796. It is implied in the passage that, in his

radicalism, Marx was ----.

A) was wholly based on his experiences of

life and politics in Trier where he grew up
B) ruled out the former socialist view that it
was possible to reorganize industrial
society peacefully
C) was most effectively spread through the
newspaper that he edited in 1842 and

A) so much ahead of his contemporaries

that he was often misunderstood by
B) primarily inspired by the debates and
revolutionary movements of earlier
C) never influenced by the revolutions and
violent confrontations of 1848

D) was strongly opposed by the Young

Hegelians who hated radicalism and

D) so inspired by the rebellions of the Young

Hegelians that he actively took part in

E) did not have much impact on the rise and

development of modern socialism

E) originally influenced by his family that

took much interest in radical politics

Sayfa 292 / 344


797. It is clear from the passage that, since Marxs
father was Jewish, ----.

798.799.800.801.802. SORULARI
Oil has provided humanity with many
benefits, including affordable energy to
reduce our workloads and improve our
mobility. Because oil is such an important
and visible part of our daily lives, and
because it is exceptionally open to political
manipulations, it often receives an
enormous amount of attention. This is
especially true whenever its price increases
sharply, and experts immediately get to
work to diagnose the cause and
consequences of the price increase. In fact,
the future of oil is not that much different
from its past: undoubtedly, oil production
and consumption will become cleaner and
more efficient, but prices will continue to be
volatile, and the oil industry will continue to
be blamed for conflicts, corruption, and
pollution. And for all the current talk about
the end of the oil age, it will remain a vital
source of energy as it is now, nearly a
century after the first warnings about
soaring consumption and limited resources.

A) he was allowed to work as a lawyer only

in Trier, but not in any other region of
B) he was constantly harassed and
intimidated by the Prussian government
C) it was impossible for him to practise law
in Germany unless he became a
D) there was much discrimination against
him at the University of Berlin, where he
studied law
E) he and his family preferred to live in Trier,
where there was no political repression at

798. According to the passage, warnings were

first given almost a century ago that ----.
A) there would be a sharp decline in oil
consumption throughout the world as
alternative energy resources became
B) there could be serious disruptions of
global oil supply in the future owing to
political manipulations and conflicts
C) the consequences of soaring prices for oil
would be extremely unbearable unless
new economic measures were put into
D) oil would cease to be a vital source of
energy in the near future because of the
growing rate of pollution
E) oil consumption would continue to
increase enormously and that the
resources for oil were not infinite

Sayfa 293 / 344


799. As suggested in the passage, oil ----.

801. As can be understood from the passage, the

writer does not believe that, ----.

A) was so manipulated politically a century

ago that its production was often
B) has unfortunately lost its economic value
due to the fact that the oil age has come
to an end
C) has been the major cause of political
instability in the world for nearly a

A) in view of limited energy resources, the

amount of oil consumed yearly will have
to be restricted
B) despite volatile oil prices, there will be a
noticeable increase in current oil
C) contrary to ongoing discussions today,
the age of oil has drawn to a close

D) has always been a major source of

affordable energy and had a positive
impact on our lives

D) similar to other industries, the oil

industry is to be blamed for political
manipulations in the world

E) is produced currently in enormous

amounts in order to meet the soaring
global demand for cleaner energy

E) like other sources of energy, oil can be

regarded as a major cause of
environmental pollution

800. In the passage, ----.

A) the writer makes a strong defence of the
oil industry and does not consider it to be
responsible for any wrongdoing
B) the main emphasis has been put on the
indispensable uses of oil for mans
comfort and prosperity
C) there is much concern expressed about
the consequences of current oil
consumption in the world
D) some hope is expressed about the
improvement and increasing efficiency of
global energy resources
E) much attention has been given to the
importance of experts work in diagnosing
the cause of increasing oil prices

Sayfa 294 / 344


802. It is stressed in the passage that the
production of oil ----.



A) is no longer important since much cleaner

energy resources are available today
B) must be absolutely free from any kind of
political manipulation
C) has changed very little in amount and
price over a century
D) has been adversely affected by currently
volatile prices
E) will certainly be carried out in a cleaner
and more efficient manner in the future

Sayfa 295 / 344

Americans tend to think that varieties of

English are more determined by region than
by any other factor, such as age, ethnicity,
gender and social class. The linguist Henry
Smith, for instance, maintained that each
region of American English is highly
distinctive. Scholars who have investigated
the matter have been influenced by the
theory of dialect geography formulated in
the 19th century by European
dialectologists. As a result, investigations
have presumed the idea of long-settled and
stable regions an idea appropriate for
Europe but less suitable to the more recent
and fluid settlement patterns of the US.
Even so, American English dialects are
conventionally treated under four headings:
North, Coastal South, Midland, and West.
The Northern dialect stretches from New
England to New York and was shaped by
migration from the 17th century colonial
settlements. The Coastal Southern dialect
centres on the Atlantic port cities of the
states of Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia,
formed in a time of plantation and ranch
agriculture. The Midland dialect is spoken
between North and South Midlands
according to some dialectologists while
others emphasize its affiliation with its
neighbours and describe it as Lower North
and Upper South. Finally, the Western
dialect is used in the area that covers
California and the Pacific Northwest


803. As it is clearly stated in the passage, there is
an assumption that ----.

805. According to the passage, ----.

A) the Midland dialect cannot be classified

B) the four-way division of American English
is made according to occupational
C) social factors such as ethnicity hardly ever
contribute to the classification of dialects

A) the popular ideas of most Americans on

the subject of dialects are not shared by
mainstream linguists
B) linguists who have carried out research
on American dialects have been
educated in Europe

D) Americans classify dialects according to

regional factors

C) factors such as age, gender, ethnicity,

and social class seldom play a role in
dialectal differences

E) the Coastal Southern dialect is affiliated

with Upper South and Lower North

D) geography has little bearing on dialect

boundaries because of migration

804. It can be inferred from the passage that the

author ----.
A) believes that dialectology as a science has
not fully developed despite scholarly
B) believes in the advantages of the theory
of dialect geography originally developed
for Europe
C) has doubts about the applicability of the
European view of dialects for the US
D) offers the settlement histories as the best
explanation for the emergence of dialects
E) strongly believes in the idea that
American English can best be classified in
terms of regions

Sayfa 296 / 344

E) Henry Smith thinks that the relatively

new and mobile settlement patterns in
the US are a great influence on dialects


806. According to the passage, ----.
A) scholars have a unified theory of dialect
B) European settlement patterns do not
share the same history as those in the US
C) there is a need to compare the various
regions in the US in terms of dialect
D) the critics who assert that social factors
are equally valid are mistaken
E) the Western dialect is no longer in use in
its Native California

Sayfa 297 / 344


807.808.809.810. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

807. As it is clearly stated in the passage, the

disorder dyslexia ----.

To succeed in school, children must master

three skills reading, writing and arithmetic
but not all students readily grasp these basic
skills. Among English-speaking children, an
estimated 2 to 15% have trouble with reading
or spelling, broadly classified as dyslexia.
From 1 to 7% struggle to do math, a disability
known as dyscalculia. Statistics vary but
dyslexia appears to be more common among
English speakers than among speakers of
highly phonetic languages such as Turkish
and Italian. It is believed that at least one
child in most elementary school classes in the
US suffers from dyslexia. Both dyslexia and
dyscalculia defy easy explanation. Neither
disorder is the result of faulty eyesight or
hearing, both of which can also delay
language acquisition but are easily corrected.
Instead, children with dyslexia and
dyscalculia have working sensory organs,
apparently normal sensory and motor
development and, sometimes, above average
intelligence. After more than 15 years of
research, investigators now believe these
conditions frequently involve so-called partial
functional deficits of the senses: In affected
children, the eyes and ears accurately
register sights and sounds, letters, numbers
and spoken syllables, but that information is
misinterpreted as it is processed in the brain.

A) is easily observed in phonetic languages

like Turkish and Italian
B) occurs in people who have dyscalculia
C) is unheard of in the history of US
D) could have something to do with the
type of language children are acquiring
E) has not been documented for highly
phonetic Languages

808. According to the passage, physical

disabilities ---.
A) seem to play no role in the emergence of
dyslexia and dyscalculia
B) are the main causes for childrens
inability to read and calculate
C) are contributing factors responsible for
dyslexia and dyscalculia
D) can delay language acquisition in an
estimated 2 to 15% of children
E) are observed in at least one child in
elementary school classes in the US

Sayfa 298 / 344


809. According to the passage, ----.

810. It is stated in the passage that ----.

A) children with dyslexia and dyscalculia may

have difficulty in speaking their native
B) children with dyslexia and dyscalculia do
not have normal sensory and motor
C) researchers often tend to confuse
dyslexia with dyscalculia
D) people with dyslexia and dyscalculia are
often below average intelligence
E) partial functional deficits could be to
blame for dyslexia and dyscalculia

A) dyslexia and dyscalculia are the least

important issues in the US
B) reading, writing and arithmetic are areas
crucial to academic success
C) if it were not for dyslexia and dyscalculia,
American education would be free of
D) dyslexia and dyscalculia are the learning
disabilities most easily solved by
E) dyscalculia appears to be more
widespread than dyslexia in elementary
school classes

Sayfa 299 / 344


811.812.813.814. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

811. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

The First World War could be called the War

of the Ottoman Succession. It was, in part, a
struggle between Austria and Russia for
domination in the areas in the Balkans once
ruled by the Ottoman Empire. Its first shots
were fired in the former Ottoman city of
Sarajevo. Throughout the summer and
autumn of 1914, as the European powers
were locked in battle, the Ottoman
government hesitated. Finally, at the end of
October, against the wishes of his colleagues,
Enver Pasha decided to attack Russian targets
with the new warships in the Black Sea. His
decision led to war across Europe, the
collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the end
of stability in the Middle East. Initially, the
alliance between the Ottoman Empire and
the Central Powers worked well. In the first
half of the 20th century, Germany was not
the source of horror that it later became.
Britain, France and Russia were the enemies
to be feared and resented. By comparison,
Germany appeared friendly. The Ottoman
government calculated that its alliance with
the Central Powers would restore the glory of
the empire, help it recover some of the
islands lost to Greece in 1913, and perhaps
lead to an extension of territory in Turkishspeaking central Asia

A) Austria and Russias struggle for

domination in the Balkans was largely
ignored by the Ottoman Empire
B) having lost the Balkans, the Ottoman
Empire looked to join forces with central
Asia to attack Russia
C) the Ottoman Empire was looking for
ways to recover its former glory through
its alliance with Germany and Austria
D) the Ottoman Empires decision to ally
itself with Germany was very unpopular
with Austria
E) Enver Pashas decision to enter into war
against Russia was based on his desire to
free the city of Sarajevo
812. According to the passage, ----.
A) most people feared Germany more than
France, Russia and Britain at that time
B) the Central Powers did everything
possible to help the Ottoman Empire
recapture territory in the east
C) the Ottoman government sought
assistance from the Turkish-speaking
peoples of central Asia
D) the Ottoman governments decision to
form an alliance with Germany was
partly based on the hope of regaining
some Greek islands
E) Germany was disliked in Europe for the
role it played in attacking Russian targets

Sayfa 300 / 344


813. According to the passage, Enver Pasha ----.

814. The main focus of the passage is on ----

A) was determined to side with the Central

Powers despite the initial uncertainty of
his colleagues

A) the contribution of the Central Powers to

the Ottoman attempts to remain a major

B) continued to remain neutral in the face of

the challenges he faced

B) the break-up of the Ottoman Empire and

the ineffective efforts to stop it

C) could have avoided the conflict between

Austria and Russia

C) the conditions under which Germany

became the most powerful nation in

D) submitted to the wishes of his colleagues

in sending the warships to attack Russia
E) thought Russia would not fight back if it
was attacked

Sayfa 301 / 344

D) how the European powers wanted to

control weaker peoples and nations
E) the tactics the Ottoman government
used to prevent the war


815.816.817.818 SORULARI PARAGRAFA

815. According to the passage, the Dead Sea ----.

The Dead Sea is a place of mystery: the

lowest surface on earth, the purported sites
of Sodom and Gomorrah, a supposed font of
curative waters and, despite its name, a
treasure trove of unusual microbial life. Yet
its future is anything but a mystery. After
centuries of stability owing to a delicate
equilibrium between freshwater supply from
the Jordan River and evaporation under the
relentless Middle Eastern sun the sea is
now disappearing. Jordanians to the east,
Israelis to the west and Syrians and Lebanese
to the north are pumping so much freshwater
from the river catchment that almost none
reaches the sea. Israel and Jordan are also
siphoning water from the Dead Sea to extract
valuable minerals, hastening the decline.
Thousands of sinkholes have formed in the
receding seas wake, curtailing tourism and
development along the border because no
one can predict where the next gaping hole
will suddenly open, potentially swallowing
buildings, roads or people. Concerned over
losing a valuable natural and cultural
resource, officials from Israel, Jordan and the
Palestinian Authorities have proposed an
enormous conveyor system that would
steadily refill the Dead Sea with water from
the Red Sea to the south. Scientists are
testing how the mixing of the waters might
affect the lakes chemistry and biology.

A) receives a lot of freshwater from

neighbouring rivers
B) still enjoys stability thanks to the
presence of regular water addition and
C) has led to the development of a touristic
site along the borders of Israel and
D) is currently under serious threat of
vanishing completely
E) has become so contaminated that
cleansing it will be impossible
816. The main reason why the Dead Sea is about
to disappear is that ----.

Sayfa 302 / 344

A) the Jordan River has overflowed into the

B) thousands of sinkholes have formed in it
C) its water source is being used up by
tourists looking for miracle cures
D) the microbial life existing in it has
E) the natural balance between its water
gain and loss has been destroyed


817. We understand from the passage that ----.

818. It is stated in the passage that ----.

A) its curative waters are the only incentive

for preserving the Dead Sea
B) it is easy to predict where the next
sinkhole will occur
C) there are many good reasons for bringing
the Dead Sea back to life
D) the sun no longer affects the waters of
the Middle Eastern regions
E) the Palestinian Authority is the sole
official mechanism concerned about the
Dead Sea

A) although its name indicates otherwise,

the Dead Sea actually hosts many living
B) the water transferred from the Red Sea
will restore the Dead Sea to its original
C) despite the fact that Israel and Jordan
are pumping water from the sea, the loss
of water is minimal
D) the Jordan River only exists today
because of the waters from the Dead Sea
E) the gaping holes have had little effect on
the Dead Seas touristic value

Sayfa 303 / 344


819.820.821.822. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

820. Winklebys study is different from other

studies of poverty in that she ----.

For some people, living in an affluent area

can actually be a health hazard. This is the
provocative conclusion of a study of the
death records of more than 8,000 people
living in four major US cities. The ill effects of
being poor or living in economically
disadvantaged areas have been
demonstrated before, but it is unusual to
consider that poor people living in richer
areas may be no better off. Marilyn
Winkleby, a researcher at Stanford University
in California, decided to look into this and
was surprised to find that the death rates in
four Californian cities were actually highest
for poor people living in the richest
neighbourhoods. Her study offers two
possible explanations: Poorer people living in
rich areas may have to pay proportionally
more for housing, intensifying the effect of
poverty; alternatively, their health may suffer
from the stress caused by continually being
reminded that they are at the bottom of the
pile. Another researcher, Richard Wilkinson,
from the University of Nottingham in the UK,
also suspects that stress is largely to blame.
He reviewed more than 150 studies and
concluded that health is generally poorer
when differences in income are larger.

819. The study is referred to as provocative as it ---.

A) studied cities that other studies had

failed to include
B) focussed entirely on the state of
California, ignoring other states
C) compared the death records in both rich
and poor neighbourhoods
D) considered income to be the primary
E) looked at an aspect that had previously
been gnored

821. The common feature of Winkleby and

Wilkinsons studies is that both ----.
A) concluded that stress is a major factor
B) reviewed the death records of poor
C) blamed the inequalities in society for
D) agreed that poverty was more noticeable
in poor areas
E) accepted there were two possible
822. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

A) is based on the use of confidential death


A) California has some of the poorest

people in the US
B) poor people are generally very unhealthy

B) has introduced a new perspective

regarding the problem of poverty

C) suffering from health problems is the

most detrimental effect of poverty

C) blames the rich for some of the worst

aspects of poverty

D) being constantly made aware of your

poverty can be harmful

D) has shown that poverty in the US is far

worse than people had imagined

E) studies on poverty are a new area of


E) puts forward the claim that poor people

create health hazards

Sayfa 304 / 344


823.824.825.826. SORULARI PARAGRAFA
An Australian historian proposed that the key
to understanding Australia was "the tyranny
of distance". Australians were far removed
from their British ancestors, far from the
centres of power in Europe and North
America and far from each other -with the
major cities separated by distances of some
800 km. Time, however, has broken down
that sense of distance. Australians today do
not see London or New York as the centre of
the world. The proximity to Asian economies
like China is an economic strength.
Transportation and communications links
have taken away the sense of remoteness felt
by past generations. However, the
technology that truly promises to end the
tyranny of distance is high-speed broadband,
whose benefits we are still only beginning to
understand though it has already been a
decade since the frenzied dotcom era. That is
why the Australian government is rolling out
the world's most ambitious broadband
project-a national network that will bring
fibre to homes in more than 1,000 cities and
towns covering 93% of residences. Next
generation wireless and satellite technologies
will cover the other 7%. The network will
operate at lightning speeds and involve an
estimated investment of $40 billion through
an independent stateowned enterprise in
partnership with the private sector.

823. As indicated in the passage, the Australian

government's decision to install the world's
most ambitious broadband project .
A) has been unprecedented in Australia's
history of extensive road transportation
B) reflects the mood among the world's
countries that broadband will produce
new benefits
C) is likely to bring Australia closer to
Europe and North America through
enhanced economic ties
D) promises to start a dotcom era that will
transform the benefits of the broadband
E) is based on the idea that this technology
will truly bring an end to "the tyranny of
824. It is clear in the passage that the proposed
national broadband network .
A) will operate at slightly less than lightning
speeds and cost a couple of billion
B) is expected to cover 7% of the cities and
towns across the vast landmass
C) will be considered complete when 93%
of homes and businesses are connected
D) requires about $40 billion worth of
investment to be shared between the
public and private sectors
E) is to be replaced by the next-generation
wireless and satellite technologies

Sayfa 305 / 344


825. As indicated in the passage, to be able to
understand Australia

826. According to the passage, the sense of

remoteness in the Australian context .

A) one needs to know how difficult it is to

live removed from one's ancestors

A) has incidentally brought Australia and

China closer through the established
economic ties, which were once

B) an Australian historian proposed a key

plan years ago
C) Australians have had to live in cities that
are separated by great distances
D) the centres of power in Europe and North
America have had to benefit
E) the challenges brought about by great
distances in Australia have to be

B) affected the past generations so much so

that Australians began to think of China
as the centre of their world
C) has remained the same despite the
passage of time and the great advances
which took place in communications
D) has changed considerably owing to the
ease of transportation and the
development of communication links
E) is still being felt by new generations, as
was the case with the past generations,
who originally came from Europe

Sayfa 306 / 344


827.828.829.830. SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Not long after the Euro came into being in
January 1999, Germany was mocked as being
the sick man of Europe, its economic fortunes
in sharp contrast to the fast-growing
countries at the geographical borders of the
new currency zone. More than a decade on,
however, the tables have turned. Even as the
peripheral economies of Spain, Greece and
Ireland continue to struggle, 2012 will be the
year in which Germany puts a firm stamp on
the Euro zone. This will be felt in three
related spheres: in Germany's newfound
economic strength, in its preference for, and
insistence on greater honesty in public
finances and in its growing influence on the
European Central Bank. Europe's economy is
set to slow in 2012 as governments address
their increasing budget deficits. Germany will
enjoy faster gross domestic product growth
than the average in the richer parts of the
currency zone (whose membership keeps on
increasing). Germany is less burdened by
household debt and has a smaller budget
deficit than almost all its peers - and so has
less need to raise taxes or curb public
spending. The country is also better placed to
benefit from the boom in emerging markets.

828. According to the passage, shortly after the

Euro was accepted as the currency in
Europe .

827. As indicated in the passage, Germany's

influence .
A) will be as equally effective as that of
Spain, Greece and Ireland
B) will be felt strongly across the countries in
the Euro zone
C) will be mocked by the peripheral
economies of Europe
D) on the European Central Bank will be
challenged by Ireland, Spain and Greece
E) is set to be limited to the principle of
honesty in public financing

Sayfa 307 / 344

A) Germany's economic fortunes appeared

to be among the worst in Europe
B) the fast-growing countries of Europe
agreed to provide financial aid to
C) countries at the geographical borders
were sceptical of the benefits of the Euro
D) Germany's prospects for growth were
much better than the fast-growing
E) Germany was officially declared in the
European Council as the sick man of


829. It can be inferred from the passage that .
830. As indicated in the passage, .
A) average gross domestic product growth in
the richer countries will be greater than in
B) the policies of the European Central Bank
have been influential in creating new jobs
in Europe

A) Germany's level of public spending is

sustainable due to exports to emerging
B) an increase in Euro zone membership is
likely to improve the German economy

C) the slow-down in the European

economies will soon end with the
recovery in Germany

C) Germany's current tax system is

sufficient and the government has
money to spend

D) Germany has been performing much

better than anticipated and has good

D) emerging markets will eventually assist

Germany to curb public spending

E) increasing Euro zone membership might

make it more difficult to manage financial

Sayfa 308 / 344

E) its smaller budget deficit is enough to

make Germany a good trading partner


831.832.833.834. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

In 1993, Frances Rauscher and her team
published a scientific paper that changed the
world. She had taken a number of students
and randomly divided them into three
groups. One group listened to Mozart's
Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, the second
group heard a standard relaxation tape, and
the third sat in silence. Everyone then
completed a standard test of spatial
intelligence. Those who had listened to
Mozart scored far higher than those in the
other two groups. Journalists reported the
findings, with some exaggerating the results,
declaring just a few minutes of Mozart led to
a substantial, long-term increase in
intelligence. The idea spread, some reporting
that even babies became brighter after
listening to Mozart. But when other scientists
tried to replicate Rauscher's results, they
concluded that the effect, if it existed, was
much smaller than was first thought. For
instance, Glenn Schellenberg had children
learn keyboard skills, have voice training,
take drama classes or, as a control, do
nothing. Clear IQ improvements were
observed in children who were taught
keyboard skills or given voice lessons,
whereas those given drama lessons were no
different from the control group. It seems
that the focused attention and memorization
required in certain tasks, not just listening to
Mozart, helps children's self-discipline and

831. In the passage, in view of the results of

Glenn Schellenberg's experiment, if
children get taught keyboard skills and
voice skills .
A) they are likely to perform better in their
drama lessons at school
B) they may experience an improvement in
their intelligence
C) their self-discipline and thinking will
suffer greatly
D) their need for musical training and
practice will be met
E) they will require more focused attention
and memorization

832. As explained in the passage, listening to

Mozart .

Sayfa 309 / 344

A) was a favourite activity of journalists in

order to overcome their work stress
B) and sitting in silence equally contributed
to a substantial increase in intelligence
C) was as effective as the relaxation tape in
the test of spatial intelligence
D) made babies so bright that mothers
began to play Mozart music to their
E) appeared to improve intelligence but this
finding was not supported by other


833. As stated in the passage, some journalists'
reports of the findings of Rauscher and her
team's experiment .

834. It can be understood from the passage that

in 1993 Frances Rauscher and her team

A) indicated the journalists' love for Mozart's

Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major
B) were inaccurate as the study was not
conducted on babies

A) changed the world of music with a

scientific paper, the findings of which are
still accepted by most academics
B) used Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major in
their experiment to prove Mozart was a
unique composer

C) were exaggerated so much so that

journalists thought they were the most
D) were accurate in revealing the true
purpose of the experiment

C) managed to produce a standard

relaxation tape for the use of the general
public to increase their spatial

E) were influenced by the view that listening

to Mozart helped journalists perform

D) worked with journalists who were

interested in promoting Mozart's Sonata
for Two Pianos in D Major
E) published a paper that stimulated an
unprecedented interest in the use of
music for intelligence enhancement

Sayfa 310 / 344


835.836.837.838. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

835. It can be understood from the passage that

during the 1800s .

The idea that American Indians could have

built something resembling a city was so
foreign to European settlers that when they
encountered the Cahokia Mounds in Illinois
in Midwest America, they thought they must
have been the work of a foreign civilization:
either the Phoenicians or the Vikings. Even
today the idea of an Indian city runs so
contrary to American notions of Indian life
that no Anglo-Saxon American can absorb it.
The first person to write an account of the
Cahokia Mounds, the earliest and finest city
built by Indians, was Henry Brackenbridge in
1811. When he reported his discovery,
likening it to Egyptian pyramids, newspapers
widely ignored it. He complained of this to his
friend, former president Thomas Jefferson,
and the word of "Cahokia" did eventually get
around. Unfortunately, most Americans were
not very interested. The United States was
trying to get the Indians out of the way, not
appreciate their history. The Indian Removal
Act of 1830 which ordered the relocation of
eastern Indians to lands west of the
Mississippi was based on the assumption that
Indians were nomadic savages with no ability
to make good use of land. Evidence of an
ancient city, close to the size of Washington,
D.C. at that time, would have spoiled the
story line.

A) the general tendency in American society

towards the historic cities built by the
Indians was one of acceptance
B) eastern American Indians were forced to
relocate to places to the east of the
Mississippi River
C) most Americans including journalists and
presidents were not interested in hearing
anything positive regarding American
D) American Indians were unable to make
good use of the land as they were
nomads and considered to be savages
E) most Americans, journalists as well as
presidents saw American Indians as an
obstacle to urban land development

836. It can be inferred from the passage that, if

news of the discovery of a big Indian city
had spread throughout America .
A) the newspapers would have been eager
to publicize the beauty of the Cahokia
B) journalists across America would have
wanted to interview the discoverer,
Henry Brackenbridge
C) ordinary people would have had
difficulty endorsing the Indian Removal
Act of 1830
D) the government may not have been able
to remove the Indians from their land so
E) most Americans would have respected
the American Indians for their civilized

Sayfa 311 / 344


837. It can be inferred from the passage that .
A) there were times in the history of America
that European settlers noticed and
protected the Cahokia Mounds

838. In the passage, the fact that the

descendants of the European settlers
cannot come to terms with the
accomplishments of the American Indians
shows that .

B) Americans have continually failed to

appreciate the American Indians' capacity
to build something worthy of praise
C) American presidents as well as
newspapers were fearful of a discovery of
an American Indian city
D) European settlers and their descendents
tended to interpret the past great works
of civilization in America as belonging to
the Indians
E) Americans generally worked hard, both
socially and politically to protect the
history and welfare of the American

A) they have had a fixed, predetermined

and prejudiced attitude towards the
American Indians
B) the Anglo-Saxon approach to the Indians
is complex and unbiased in nature
C) people living in Midwestern America
think in a way that resembles those of
D) no civilization other than the Phoenicians
and the Vikings could construct big cities
like Cahokia
E) the way the American Indians had lived
for centuries has little to offer to
European Americans

Sayfa 312 / 344


839.840.841.842. SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Women seem to be particularly vulnerable to
depression during their reproductive years:
Rates of the disorder are highest in females
between the ages of 25 and 45. New data
indicate that the incidence of depression in
females rises after giving birth. In 2007
Patricia Dietz reported that 10.4% of 4,398
mothers had been depressed in the nine
months following childbirth compared with
8.7% in the nine months before pregnancy
and 6.9% during pregnancy. More than half
of the women with post natal depression had
also been depressed during or before
pregnancy suggesting that a previous
occurrence of depression may be the biggest
risk factor for acquiring the illness post
partum depression. But the hormonal
changes that occur in a new mother's body
are also thought to contribute to postpartum
depression. During pregnancy, a woman
experiences a surge in blood levels of
oestrogen and progesterone. Then, in the
first 48 hours after childbirth, the amount of
these two hormones falls suddenly, almost
back to normal levels. This chemical
instability could contribute to depression. Of
course, hormonal flux does not fully explain
postpartum depression. After all, this
biochemical fluctuation occurs in all new
mothers and yet only a relatively small
proportion of them become depressed

839. It is understood from the passage that one

of the causes of postpartum depression
could be .
A) the hormonal changes that are similar to
those in the absence of pregnancy
B) the sudden decrease in the amount of
oestrogen and progesterone following
C) the chemical stability in the blood levels
during the first 48 hours after childbirth
D) a biochemical fluctuation taking place
before pregnancy begins
E) that some mothers are not
psychologically ready to care for a baby


According to the study by Patricia Dietz,

A) the level of depression among women

was particularly high in 2007
B) the incidence of depression in females
rises just before giving birth
C) the highest level of depression is seen
during pregnancy
D) the majority of the women had all
suffered from depression
E) women are depressed most in the nine
months following childbirth

Sayfa 313 / 344


841. As pointed out in the passage, besides
biological factors, another factor suggested
for the emergence of postpartum
depression is .

842. It can be inferred from the passage that .

A) postpartum depression is seen in women
who give birth to more than one child
B) the most important factor in explaining
postpartum depression is the
vulnerability of women when pregnant

A) chemical instability after pregnancy

B) a surge and flux in blood levels
C) a previous experience of depression

C) Patricia Dietz has failed to determine the

causes of depression despite her
extensive studies

D) a 50-fold drop of oestrogen and

E) hormonal changes in the mother's body

D) pregnant women appear to be more

vulnerable to depression than men
whose wives are pregnant
E) factors other than chemical instability
can also be responsible for postpartum
depression among women in their
reproductive years

Sayfa 314 / 344


843.844.845.846. SORULARI PARAGRAFA


843. According to the passage, the earliest form

of exchanging goods ----.

For hundreds of thousands of years, human

civilizations tended to barter for goods,
trading shells and precious stones for food
and other important commodities. For the
first evidence of money as currency, we need
to go back 5,000 years to where modern-day
Iraq now sits, to find the shekel. Though this
was the first form of currency, it was not
money as we know and understand it today.
It actually represented a certain weight of
barley, a kind of plant, equivalent to gold or
silver. Eventually, the shekel became a coin
currency in its own right. In much the same
way, Britains currency is called the pound,
because it was originally equivalent to a
pound of silver. The ancient Greeks and
Romans used gold and silver coins as
currency, with the Latin denarius ultimately
giving birth to dinar in various countries
including Jordan and Algeria, and providing
the d that served as an abbreviation for the
British penny before decimalization in 1971.
It also gives us the word for money in Spanish
and Portuguese dinero and dinhero. The
first ever banknotes were issued in 7thcentury China, though it took another 1,000
years before the idea of paper money was
adopted in Europe, by Swedens Stockholms
Banco in 1661.

A) did not involve any form of currency

B) was confined to trading precious shells
and stones
C) led to the development of commodities
D) first appeared in some parts of the
Middle East
E) paved the way for people to become

844. As it is clearly stated in the passage, the

shekel ----.
A) was transformed into Britains
contemporary pound
B) was equivalent to the idea of money as
we accept it today
C) was invented 5,000 years ago in what is
now Iraq
D) first came to be used in place of silver
E) precedes the use of shells and stones for

Sayfa 315 / 344


845. According to the passage, the introduction
of banknotes ----.

846. One can understand from the passage that ---.

A) immediately stopped the use of gold as


A) the amount of time needed to develop

currencies was a lot longer than

B) in China was welcomed by Europeans

C) came long before the circulation of gold
and silver coins
D) into Europe took about a thousand years

B) the development of currency as a means

of exchanging goods and services owes a
lot to many nations of the world
C) were it not for the European countries,
todays exchange methods could not
have developed

E) gave rise to the development of the

banking system in Europe

D) the Iraqi and Chinese contribution to the

currency development is relatively less
E) every nation today conceptualizes
currency matters differently and thus
uses different terms to name currency

Sayfa 316 / 344


847.848.849.850. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

847. It is understood from the passage that the

meteorite found in Morocco ----.

British scientists have begun studying a rare

meteorite to reveal more about the history of
Mars. The rock, named Tissint after the
Moroccan area where it crashed in July 2011,
was recovered from the ground just five
months later not enough time to be too
contaminated. The Tissint sample is
probably the most important meteorite to
have landed on the Earth in the last 100
years, says Dr. Caroline Smith, curator of
meteorites at the Natural History Museum in
London. An analysis of the rock revealed its
Martian origin. It would have been removed
from Mars when an asteroid struck the
planet, staying in space as debris before
being attracted by the Earths gravity. Of the
41,000 officially recognized meteorites, 61
come from Mars and the Tissint rock is only
the fifth that was witnessed falling. Dr. Tony
Irving of Washington University, who
performed some initial analysis on the
sample, does not think there is much chance
of finding fossilized life within it. But the
British team could reveal whether minerals
have been affected by water or contain
elements such as carbon. Smith says Were
not looking for microbes, but were looking
for the chemical and environmental
signatures to indicate whether Mars, at some
point in its past, may have provided a
suitable environment for life to exist.

A) was part of a larger meteorite that

crashed into the Earth
B) is the first meteorite from Mars to be
seen on the Earth
C) was recovered after remaining buried for
almost 100 years
D) was too contaminated to be of any real
use to scientists
E) is a very rare kind, which can be valuable
to Scientists

848. It is pointed out in the passage that ----.

A) Tissint was one of the meteorites that
were actually seen while falling
B) the Natural History Museum took
possession of the meteorite as soon as it
landed on the Earth
C) other meteorites that preceded Tissint
were quite similar to it in size
D) there is some doubt as to where the
meteorite came from
E) the meteorite is one of the 41,000 that
originated from Mars

Sayfa 317 / 344


849. According to the passage, scientists ----.

850. For scientists to come up with accurate

findings, a meteorite ----.

A) believe there may well be fossils in the


A) is to be one of the 41,000 known


B) are examining the meteorite to reveal

whether microbes could survive in it
C) are investigating the rock to find out
whether Mars was once able to support
D) claim that Tissint gives clues about the
meteorites expected to hit the Earth
E) have unfortunately failed to identify the
origin of Tissint

Sayfa 318 / 344

B) has to be made sure that it come from a

specific planet
C) should contain plenty of living organisms
D) needs to remain intact for a sufficient
amount of time
E) is required to have basic minerals in its
internal Structure


851.852.853.854. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

851. The authors attitude towards computer

games is ----.

While playing computer games is sometimes

seen as a solitary pursuit, a study at Brigham
Young University shows that it actually
enhances social connections. Studying the
effect of multiplayer online games on
marriages, researchers found that in the 76%
of the cases where the couple played
together, games actually aided the
relationship. In other words, couples that
gamed together stayed together. Games may
have other effects on us too. The famous
psychologist, Philip Zimbardo, recently spoke
out on the subject. In his 1971 Stanford
Prison Experiment, in which volunteers were
randomly assigned the roles of prisoner or
guard, he showed that human behaviour is
heavily influenced by environmental and
social pressures. More recently, Zimbardo
even suggested that exposing children to
morally ambiguous situations in games could
be useful in helping them develop their own
moral compass. One possibility is to explore
virtual worlds through computer games that
could enable people to experience and
understand concepts that they would
otherwise find difficult to imagine. Games
about society, populated by real people and
open to all, could help test how different
cultural backgrounds could be brought
together in peace.

A) satirizing
B) disrespectful
C) favouring
D) pessimistic
E) tolerant

852. It is stated in the passage that computer

games ----.

Sayfa 319 / 344

A) enhance the feeling of loneliness if they

involve more than one player all the time
B) provide opportunities for people to meet
unaccustomed ideas and worlds
C) lead to role conflicts among those who
come from different cultural
D) contributes little to strengthening the
relationships of married couples
E) may include harmful features that trigger
aggressive behaviour among children


853. According to the passage, Zimbardo believes
that ----.

854. One can infer from the passage that ----.

A) computer games may actually help young

people make more conscious decisions on
moral issues
B) his experiment refutes the findings of the
study conducted at Brigham Young
C) having children face ambiguous situations
in computer games can cause
psychological problems
D) computer games populated by real
people may not present the actual state
of a society
E) environmental pressures are greater on
those who play computer games

Sayfa 320 / 344

A) computer games are destructive to the

relationships of younger people
B) the risks associated with playing
computer games outweigh the benefits
C) we have reached the limits of what can
be achieved with computer games
D) computer games are capable of bringing
in several unexpected benefits
E) social pressures force people to avoid
playing computer games


855.856.857.858. SORULARI PARAGRAFA
Although many community newspapers are
justifiably proud of their hard-hitting local
editorials, perhaps half of all community
papers carry no editorials at all. Publishers
who refuse to editorialize often claim that
editorial harassing is resented in small
communities. Others are fearful of alienating
readers and advertisers. Still others say they
do not have enough time to develop
polished, well-researched editorials on a
regular basis. Many publishers are leaders in
the commercial and political lives of their
towns, and are so much a part of the local
power structure that their editorials would
not be persuasive anyway. Those who
editorialize assert that editorials and opinion
columns give identity to their newspapers
and leadership to their communities. Indeed,
some of the most inspired writing the US has
produced the Crisis essays of Tom Paine,
the Federalist Papers explaining and
defending the Constitution, the stirring
commentary of William Allen White of Kansas
first saw the light of day as editorial or
column material in a community newspaper.
Courageous hometown editors regularly win
Pulitzer Prizes and other professional
honours for crusading editorials on local

855. It is stated in the passage that some

community newspapers prefer not to have
editorials because ----.
A) they think that they can increase their
prices without editorials
B) publishers are afraid they could lose
readers and advertisers
C) they believe that the communities are
too large to be affected by editorials
D) editorials increase the cost of publishing
the newspapers
E) it is difficult for publishers to find people
who can write polished, well-researched

856. According to the passage, by having

editorials in their community newspapers,
publishers ----.
A) wish to reach larger numbers of readers
B) attempt to gain greater prestige in their
C) try to draw the attention of political
figures in the local community
D) tend to spread their political views
through their newspapers
E) aim to give a particular quality to their

Sayfa 321 / 344


857. The author of the passage ----.

858. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

A) inclines not to agree with certain


A) there could be times when supposedly

unimportant editorial could have
widespread influence over a nation

B) is himself an editor of a community

C) believes politics should play little role in
D) provides a balanced view on the inclusion
of editorials
E) underestimates the advantages of

B) some famous essays were in fact

distorted forms of the editorials
published in the community newspapers
C) there is ample evidence that community
newspapers were much more influential
in the past
D) publishers have felt all along the political
pressure to include editorials to promote
community issues
E) abusing editorials to promote advertising
in community newspapers backfired

Sayfa 322 / 344


859.860.861.862. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

859. It is clearly stated in the passage that for

Amabile, ----.

Innovation is not a synonym for invention

an invention has to be taken to the market to
be regarded as innovation. Innovation must
change the way people do something. In an
essay on creativity, Teresa Amabile and
others describe innovation as the successful
implementation of creative ideas within an
organization. Creativity, which includes
invention, is only the starting point for
innovation, which is a necessary but not
sufficient condition for it. As Amabile implies,
the business of innovation needs to be
managed all the way from the creative
inspiration through to a launchable product
or service. Innovation is not restricted to
products and services. It might be internal to
the business, in the form of new and more
effective organizational structures or
processes. It could be a new way of
marketing or distribution, like online grocery
deliveries. By todays thinking, innovation can
also be in the form of a significant
improvement to an existing commodity.
When you build a better product, not
necessarily a revolutionary one, the whole
world will want to buy it. A lot of small types
of innovation like this are more akin to
continuous improvement, which makes up
85-90% of the average corporate
development portfolio.

A) for a company to be managed

successfully, it requires new ways of
organizing the workforce and processes
B) innovation has to be carefully monitored
from the starting point to the end
product for a company to be profitable
C) the scope of innovation is so broad that
its application can involve a wide range
of goods and processes
D) placing restrictions on the range of the
uses of innovation for certain products
and services may damage the inventive
E) a creative inspiration that is adequately
turned into a marketable product or
service is a sign of the companys future

860. According to the passage, ----.

A) small innovations fail to account for a
great portion of a companys turnover
B) corporate development portfolios owe
their improvement to creating only
revolutionary products
C) a new marketing or distribution strategy
like online shopping can hardly be an
example of innovation
D) an innovation can both be an
improvement in a product and a
completely new product
E) the survival of a business is closely tied
to its flexibility to adjust to online

Sayfa 323 / 344


861. It can be understood from the passage that
the author ----.

862. One can conclude from the passage that ---.

A) informs the reader of the consequences

when a corporate suffers from a lack of
activity, invention and innovation
B) sets out to clear up the misunderstanding
between some terms and to point out the
importance of small advances
C) successfully explains why commercial
organizations have to come to a correct
interpretation of manufacturing
D) warns that if the current state of
production processes prevails, the desire
to innovate may be lost
E) criticizes the existing management
practices, which will eventually disregard
lots of small innovations

Sayfa 324 / 344

A) terms like invention, innovation and

creativity need to be clearly defined and
described before they can be applied
B) so long as companies and inventors
interpret the concept of innovation
rightly, they would eventually make huge
C) innovation not only eases the practical
difficulties of life but also comprises a
considerable amount of revenues
D) the idea of innovation is so complex that
it can hardly be applied to simple
procedures like online shopping
E) for many a person, for a new product to
be innovative, it does not have to involve
a creative input


863.864.865.866. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

863. The author is of the opinion that ----.

Deception gains a slight edge over deception

detection when the interactions are few in
number and are among strangers. If you
spend enough time with the people you
interact with, they may leak their true intent
through their behaviour. However, when
interactions are anonymous or infrequent,
behavioural cues cannot be read against a
background of known behaviour, so more
general attributes must be used. Because of
the negative consequences of being
detected, people are expected to be nervous
when lying. In response to concern over
appearing nervous, people may exert control,
trying to suppress behaviour, with possible
side effects detectable by the listener such as
a planned, rehearsed impression. Lying is also
cognitively demanding. You must suppress
the truth and construct a falsehood that is
plausible, then tell it in a convincing way and
remember the story. Cognitive load appears
to play the biggest role. When lies are not
well-rehearsed, people have to think too
hard, and this causes several effects,
including overcontrol that leads to blinking
and fidgeting less and using fewer hand
gestures, longer pauses and higher-pitched
voices. Of course, if self-deception is
involved, you are less likely to give off the
normal cues of lying that others might

A) anyone can become a good liar as long as

a rehearsal process is involved
B) lying makes people feel relaxed if they
know the lie will not be detected
C) people show fewer signs of lying if they
believe the lies themselves
D) lies are impossible to detect unless you
know a person well
E) lying is an almost effortless process for
many people

864. According to the passage, deception

becomes easier than detecting deception
when ----.

Sayfa 325 / 344

A) people involved do not know each other

B) the person telling lies shows signs of
C) the listener is cognitively challenged by
the discussion
D) people in a conversation do not have
common attributes
E) the listener has a general view about the
people they are interacting with


865. According to the passage, ----.

866. The authors main purpose is to ----.

A) deceiving people with whom you have

problematic relationships requires more

A) give practical advice to people who are

required to detect deception as part of
their occupations

B) the possible negative results of being

caught do not bother people

B) describe the nature, manifestations and

mental aspects of deception

C) establishing control over behaviours has

side effects that cannot be detected by
man or machine

C) present conflicting views on deception,

deception detection and self-deception

D) lying involves a lot of mental processing

leading to observable side effects
E) deception requires memorizing a very
detailed and elaborate lie

D) inform readers about the possible

consequences of lying if the lie is not
planned in advance
E) present the challenges of deception as
well as the ways to overcome these

Sayfa 326 / 344


867.868.869.870. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

867. It is understood from the passage that

reflexes ---.

A behavioural pattern is considered to be

innate when it is essential for survival and
already present at birth, as it is
predetermined by the genetic make-up of the
organism. A reflex is the simplest form of an
innate behaviour. It is a programmed
reaction to an outside stimulus that is carried
out unconsciously. For example, the eyelids
close automatically as soon as a draft of air
stimulates the surface of the eye and the
pupils of a cat will contract as soon as it looks
into bright light. These are reflexes that an
organism does not have to learn; they are
referred to as unconditioned reflexes. An
unconditioned reflex is always an
unconscious response, and therefore it is
impossible to suppress it at will. Such a reflex
always requires a stimulus that triggers a
certain behaviour. Many unconditioned
reflexes exist in order to protect the
organism, for example coughing, nausea, or
the draw back reflex of the body part that
touches a hot object. Anatomically, a reflex is
based on a chain of stimulus and reaction,
which is referred to as a reflex arc. A wellknown example is the knee jerk or patellar
reflex in humans, which is triggered by a light
hit to the patellar tendon in the knee. The
knee jerk reflex is often used in medicine to
test the function of the spinal cord and
associated nerves. The real purpose of this
reflex is to protect humans from injury when

A) can cause damage to an organism if they

are not strictly controlled
B) represent series of behaviours present
only in human-like organisms
C) are passed on through an organisms
genetic structure
D) are learned by an organism as it struggles
to survive
E) are difficult to differentiate from
voluntary Movements

868. It is clearly stated in the passage that ----.

Sayfa 327 / 344

A) there is no conscious control over

unconditioned reflexes
B) it is useful to suppress certain
unconditioned reflexes such as nausea
C) unconditioned reflexes are learned
responses to certain stimuli
D) the purpose of some unconditioned
reflexes is unknown
E) unconditioned reflexes are activated
even when there is no stimulus present


869. We can understand from the passage that
unconditioned reflexes are behaviours that ---.

870. According to the passage, the knee jerk

reflex is ----.

A) can frequently be observed in animals but

rarely in humans
B) display great complexity in both humans
and animals
C) help an organism to protect itself against
outside dangers
D) are limited to organs such as the eye and
the legs
E) can vary substantially among individuals
in some circumstances

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A) necessary to protect an organism from a

hot object
B) a very rare reaction to a physical
C) useless in terms of helping a person to
D) used to assess certain anatomic
E) a reaction that indicates a severe spinal
cord injury


871.872.873.874. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

871. It is directly stated in the passage that ----.

Relatively few people enjoy the opportunity

to travel to other countries. By far the most
common form of travel is that by residents of
a country within that country. International
travel, although given high priority by
segments of the populations of industrialized
nations, is still a minority activity. As a very
rough guide, we estimate that expenditure
worldwide on domestic tourism may be
worth up to ten times that amount on
international tourism. Ironically, there are
relatively few countries that collect domestic
travel and tourism statistics, while much
more information is available on
international tourism. Why is this? First of all,
international travel involves, by definition,
the crossing of a frontier. It is therefore
easier to observe and monitor. Domestic
tourism involves movement internally and is
therefore more difficult to research.
Countries that only make use of registration
forms at hotels miss out on all aspects of
domestic tourism that involve staying in
other accommodation establishments or with
friends or relatives. A number of countries do
not even try to measure domestic tourism
due to its very nature. For example, in many
developing countries, very little domestic
movement involves staying in paid
accommodation, and so it does not compete
with demand from international visitors

A) according to statistics, people spend

much of their income on international
B) spending on international tourism is
about one tenth of the amount spent on
domestic tourism
C) the measurement of domestic tourism
demand covers similar areas to that of
international demand
D) domestic and national travel surveys are
based on knowledge of the resident
E) many countries promote themselves
strongly to their own residents as holiday

872. According to the passage, the primary

challenge of measuring domestic tourism is
that ----.
A) there is competition among countries to
attract tourists
B) most people travelling within their own
countries cannot afford to stay in hotels
C) people do not necessarily stay in hotels
when travelling in their own countries
D) the numbers involved are insignificant to
track accurately
E) expenditure statistics are very difficult to
collect from suppliers of tourism services

Sayfa 329 / 344


873. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

874. We can understand from the passage that ---.

A) international tourism statistics are not

always based on reliable data
B) if there were no border crossings,
international tourism statistics would be
less comprehensive

A) people from developed countries prefer

to travel to developing countries
B) some developing countries think it is too
costly to measure domestic tourism

C) surveys given to foreign tourists are a

useful way of collecting information on
international tourism

C) only developed countries have the

necessary resources to measure
domestic tourism efficiently

D) domestic tourism in developing countries

will continue to increase

D) it is not worthwhile to produce statistics

on domestic tourism in some countries

E) developing countries are beginning to

place more importance on domestic

E) international tourism is becoming a high

priority for people in developing

Sayfa 330 / 344


875.876.877.878. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

875. According to the passage, the Clinton

administration ----.

During the 1990s, the country that was

viewed by American leaders and many others
in the West as the most important challenge
for a transition to democracy was Russia. The
Clinton administration emphasized that one
of its high priorities in foreign policy was the
success of the movement to democracy and a
market economy in the states of the former
Soviet Union, in particular Russia. A senior
official asserted that helping the Russian
people to build a free society and market
economy is the greatest strategic challenge
of our time, and that Russia was the single
most important foreign policy priority of the
Clinton administration. Russia was by far the
largest of the former republics of the Soviet
Union in both population and land area. In
addition, its geographical location gave it
influence on issues in several regions in which
the US was interested, and it had greater
strategic military capability than any other
country except the US. On a deeper level,
Russia represented what remained of the
former geopolitical and ideological rival of
the US. If the state that had been the core of
the superpower which was considered to be
the main adversary of the US and of
democracy could, within a relatively short
time, be changed into an ideological soul
mate of the US, the symbolic implications
would be profound.

A) considered Russias transition to

democracy and a market economy very
B) was convinced that Russias attempts at
democratization and developing a
market economy would ultimately fail
C) thought that the institutionalization of
democracy would be welcomed by the
D) realized that Russias distinctive
historical background and geographical
boundaries limited the success of future
E) warned the Russian leaders against
moving away from the traditional market

876. It is clearly stated in the passage that in the

last decade of the 20th century, ----.
A) a market economy model was
successfully adopted by the emerging
states of the former Soviet Union
B) American and European leaders were
disappointed by Russias reluctance to
adopt democracy
C) US and European leaders were expecting
a comfortable transition to democracy in
D) the authoritarian regimes were replaced
in the states of the former Soviet Union
E) the US interest in Russia partly stemmed
from Russias strategic geographical

Sayfa 331 / 344


877. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

878. It is implied in the passage that ----.

A) a free society and market economy could

reverse the socio-economic problems in
the former Soviet states

A) a free society and market economy

developed in Russia without much

B) the newly-emerging states of the former

Soviet Union were forced to adopt
democracy to compete with the US

B) Russia wanted to achieve

democratization without the guidance of
the West

C) a democratic Russia with a strategic

military capability could pose threats to
American interests

C) Russias transition to democracy would

please the US

D) the US was not in a position to ignore the

political developments taking place in its
former adversary
E) the greatest strategic challenge for the US
was to contain the extensive influence of
Russia in Central Asia

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D) the Clinton administration negatively

influenced Russias democratization
E) Russia is no longer considered an
important force in geographical terms


879.880.881.882.SORULARI PARAGRAFA

879. It can be inferred from the passage that the

destruction of species ----.

Species diversity provides the foundation for

individual ecosystems and thus is the
prerequisite for the functioning of the
biosphere. It is an immeasurable source of
food and medicinal products, and an
irreplaceable resource as a gene pool. Due to
the increasing destruction and pollution of
natural habitats, over-fishing and hunting,
humans are destroying the biological
multitude of life, and with that, the basis of
their own well-being. The public is concerned
when a well-known species like the tiger,
whale, or mountain gorilla becomes
endangered; however, the majority of other
cases are hardly ever noticed by the public.
Apart from the decline of species diversity
within habitats, loss of genetic diversity
within individual species has also been
observed. The destruction of individual
populations leads to a reduction in genetic
regeneration capacity within a species. For
instance, selective deforestation reduces the
quality of the genetic material of affected
tree species, since only strong, healthy trees
are logged and the weaker ones are left
behind. Humankinds intentional or
unintentional introduction of exotic animal
and plant species to new habitats plays an
important role as well. These so-called
neozic species can become a threat to local
species and lead to their complete extinction.
For instance, the flightless Kiwi bird in New
Zealand is threatened with extinction by
introduced rats and feral cats.

A) is a process that can lead to disaster for

mankinds future prospects
B) can help man search for better living
C) is a part of the natural cycle of life and
death on Earth
D) is a necessity in terms of the well-being
of the planet and mankind
E) has been exaggerated and a more
balanced view needs to be taken

880. It is stated in the passage that ----.

Sayfa 333 / 344

A) biological diversity is a luxury when

people are in need of food and medical
B) hunting and fishing, unlike other
environmentally harmful activities, are
necessary for human survival
C) most cases of biological destruction
remain unknown to the public
D) the public should be more concerned
about the possible loss of species like the
E) biological diversity is more important for
some individual ecosystems than others


881. One can understand from the passage that
biological destruction ----.

882. As it is clearly stated in the passage, the

Kiwi bird ----.

A) affects those who make the wilderness a

basis for their livelihoods

A) was introduced into New Zealand along

with animals such as rats and feral cats

B) comes about mostly from natural

catastrophes rather than human activity

B) has become a symbol for conservation

throughout New Zealand

C) is most common in temperate areas such

as New Zealand, which includes many

C) has never been able to adapt to the

harsh environment of New Zealand

D) helps local species to reproduce and


D) is under threat because of other animals

that were introduced into its habitat
E) is a prime example of what is called a
neozic Species

E) impacts the capacity of a species to

produce genetically healthy offspring

Sayfa 334 / 344


883.884.885.886. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

883. According to the passage, history textbooks


History is one of the few school subjects

commonly mandated in education systems
throughout the world. Furthermore, the use
of history textbooks to support student
learning is an almost universally accepted
practice. However, the widespread
international presence of the humble history
textbook should not disguise its ideological
and cultural potency. Indeed, essential to
understanding the power and importance of
history textbooks is to appreciate that in any
given culture they typically exist as the
keepers of ideas, values and knowledge. No
matter how neutral history textbooks may
appear, they are ideologically important,
because they often seek to inject the youth
with a shared set of values, national ethos
and an incontrovertible sense of political
orthodoxy. Textbooks stand as cultural
artefacts that embody a range of issues
associated with ideology, politics and values
which in themselves function at a variety of
different levels of power, status and
influence. Embedded in history textbooks are
narratives and stories that nation states
choose to tell about themselves and their
relations with other nations. Typically, they
represent a core of cultural knowledge which
future generations are expected both to
assimilate and support.

A) are now being rewritten with a more

international and universal outlook to
rectify past misunderstandings between
B) are not appropriate for teaching history
because they are always ideologically
C) should be written in a neutral and
unbiased way so that future generations
can have a healthy understanding of
D) not only have educational, but also
ideological functions, serving to transmit
a nation states values
E) consist of baseless stories and narratives
rather than historical facts that are more
important for a nation states survival
884. It is stated in the passage that ----.
A) some countries have been more
successful in producing more neutral and
less ideological history textbooks than
B) in many nations, debates over the
content and format of history textbooks
continue to generate considerable
political conflict
C) nations attempt to provide future
generations with particular values that
will ensure the continuation of existing
D) history textbooks have become more
politicized after the emergence of nation
states to preserve national identity
E) many educational systems throughout
the world include history in their
curriculum to enhance political literacy

Sayfa 335 / 344


885. According to the passage, regardless of how
impartially they are written, history
textbooks ----.

886. It can be inferred from the passage that the

author ----.
A) is in favour of using history textbooks to
inform people about international

A) need to teach both the past and the

B) serve a purpose other than intended
C) are the best options for cultural

B) sets out to emphasize the use of history

textbooks to instil national values in the
young generation

D) affect ideologically the youth more than


C) is of the opinion that textbooks on

history are easy to write

E) can never be completely objective and


D) believes in the necessity of locally

produced history textbooks to bring
about world peace
E) is trying to persuade the reader of the
importance of understanding history

Sayfa 336 / 344


887.888.889.890. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

887. It is understood from the passage that ----.

Farmers in many countries utilize antibiotics

in two key ways: at full strength to treat
animals that are sick and in low doses to
fatten meat-producing livestock or to prevent
veterinary illnesses. Although even the
proper use of antibiotics can inadvertently
lead to the spread of drug resistant bacteria,
the habit of using a low dose is a formula for
disaster: the treatment provides just enough
antibiotic to kill some but not all bacteria.
The germs that survive are typically those
that happen to bear genetic mutations for
resisting the antibiotic. They then reproduce
and exchange genes with other microbial
resisters. As bacteria are found literally
everywhere, resistant strains produced in
animals eventually find their way into people
as well. You could not design a better system
for guaranteeing the spread of antibiotic
resistance. To cease the spread, Denmark
enforced tighter rules on the use of
antibiotics in the raising of poultry and other
farm animals. The lesson is that improving
animal husbandry making sure that pens,
stalls and cages are properly cleaned and
giving animals more room or time to mature
offsets the initial negative impact of limiting
antibiotic use.

A) farmers mainly prefer using antibiotics as

a preventive measure for diseases
B) antibiotics are merely useful in treating
the contagious diseases of farm animals
C) continuous and heavy doses of
antibiotics are crucial for poultry
D) antibiotics are so far the only effective
method to fatten up meat-producing
E) poultry prices are affected by the spread
of contagious diseases

888. It is implied in the passage that ----.

A) widespread use of antibiotics is intended
to eliminate the chances of a possible
B) using a low dose antibiotic compared to
a heavy dose is highly recommended for
C) human beings should test the efficacy of
using antibiotics on other animals before
using them on poultry
D) increased antibiotic resistance in human
beings is due to the consumption of
animal products with antibiotic content
E) antibiotic resistance in poultry animals
has led scientists to find alternative
solutions to fight off these bacteria

Sayfa 337 / 344


889. According to the passage, ----.

890. It is stated in the passage that antibiotics ---.

A) the spread of bacterial infections in

poultry may not be avoided by improving
physical conditions
B) the weight of the poultry mainly depends
upon the environment they are brought
up in

A) are crucial as they change the genetic

mutations of poultry
B) form the basis for microbial resistance of
genes in animals
C) are effective in restricting resistant
strains of bacteria in poultry

C) strict regulations in Denmark are

employed to minimize the effects of
antibiotic use on both poultry and people

D) are employed to prevent a possible

disease spread from farm animals to
human beings

D) the maturation period of poultry in

Denmark is determined by the size of the

E) may produce drug resistant bacteria,

irrespective of how carefully they are

E) the productivity of poultry can best be

analyzed through the amount of the
antibiotic used on the animal

Sayfa 338 / 344


891.892.893.894. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

891. It is clearly stated in the passage that the

Marshall Plan ----.

The Marshall Plan was not a simple program

for transferring massive sums of money to
struggling countries, but an explicit and
eventually successful attempt to
reindustrialize Europe. say Erik Reinert and
Ha-Joon Chang. It follows that if Africa really
wants economic prosperity, it should study
and draw valuable lessons from the Marshall
Plans dark twin: the Morgenthau Plan
implemented in Germany in 1945. Reinert
tells the story best: When it was clear that
the Allies would win the Second World War,
the question of what to do with Germany,
which in three decades had precipitated two
World Wars, reared its head. Henry
Morgenthau Jr, the US secretary of the
treasury, formulated a plan to keep Germany
from ever again threatening world peace.
Germany, he argued, had to be entirely
deindustrialized and turned into an
agricultural nation. All industrial equipment
was to be destroyed, and the mines were to
be flooded. This program was approved by
the Allies and was immediately implemented
when Germany capitulated in 1945.
However, it soon became clear that the
Morgenthau Plan was causing serious
economic problems in Germany:
deindustrialization caused agricultural
productivity to plummet. This was indeed an
interesting experiment. The mechanisms of
synergy between industry and agriculture
worked in reverse: killing the industry
reduced the productivity of the agricultural

A) was redesigned as the Morgenthau Plan

to be applied in Germany
B) was very comprehensive in its scope to
develop Europe
C) was a program of investment from which
the Allies expected to benefit directly
D) was ill-formed for its objectives
according to Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon
E) turned out to be a failed attempt to
industrialize various European nations

892. According to the passage, Germany ----.

Sayfa 339 / 344

A) had to be stripped of its power to start

B) was unable to continue its industrial
development during World War II
C) needed industrial equipment and
American finance to rebuild the country
D) found the Morgenthau Plan problematic
as its economy declined
E) was allowed to industrialize despite its
agricultural potential


893. It is implied in the passage that ----.

894. The main concern of the author is to ----.

A) Americas vision for post-war Europe was

in essence misguided

A) supply a brief summary of imperial

nations domination of others

B) a country has no choice but to prioritize

one sector over another in order to

B) blame Americas programs for

Germanys agricultural productivity

C) todays Africa and post-war Germany

have a lot in common
D) Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang were right
in their predictions about the Marshall
E) plans made by policy makers may yield
unexpected outcomes

Sayfa 340 / 344

C) learn from the failings and achievements

of some economic policies
D) describe ways of industrializing through
agriculture in order to stop wars
E) accuse the African leaders of failing to
understand how Germany prospered


895.896.897.898. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

895. The author starts the passage with an

example from industry in order to ----.

Imagine an industry that runs out of raw

materials. Companies go bankrupt, workers
are laid off, families suffer and associated
organizations are thrown into turmoil.
Eventually, governments are forced to take
drastic action. Welcome to global banking,
recently brought to its knees by the
interruption of its lifeblood the flow of
cash. In this case, we seem to have been
fortunate. In the nick of time, governments
released reserves in order to start cash
circulating again. But what if the reserves had
not been there? What are we going to do
when our supplies of vital materials such as
fish, tropical hardwoods, metals like indium
and fresh water dry up? We live on a planet
with finite resources that is no surprise to
anyone so why do we have an economic
system in which all that matters is growth
more growth means using more resources.
When the human population was counted in
millions and resources were sparse, people
could simply move to new pastures.
However, with 9 billion people expected
around 2050, moving on is not an option. As
politicians reconstruct the global economy,
they should take heed. If we are to leave any
kind of planet to our children, we need an
economic system that lets us live within our

A) explain why raw materials are used in

B) present the conditions of the workers
who are currently employed
C) indicate the possible consequences of
global industrialization
D) emphasize the importance of raw
E) describe the impact of the banking
system on ndustry

896. According to the passage, the global

banking crisis was resolved because
governments ----

Sayfa 341 / 344

A) cooperated closely with the industry

B) sold off large supplies of cash
C) involved the necessary organizations
D) bought new supplies of vital materials
E) acted quickly to find a solution


897. The main point made in the passage is that ---.

898. It is pointed out in the passage that in the

past ----.

A) industries need to look carefully at the

raw materials used

A) an economic system of growth was easy

to establish

B) the economic system currently in place

must be rethought

B) resources were more valuable than they

are today

C) population explosion is one of the

greatest threats to mankind as it requires
more planning

C) it was easy for people to find new


D) all governments should have a

responsibility to help out in times of crisis
E) the global banking system can throw the
world into turmoil

Sayfa 342 / 344

D) industry was far less dependent on raw

E) it was rare for businesses to actually fail


899.900.901.902. SORULARI PARAGRAFA

899. It is clearly stated in the passage that the

support given by certain drugs ----.

Many athletes credit drugs with improving

their performance, but some of them may
want to thank their brain instead. Mounting
evidence suggests that the boost from
human growth hormone (HGH), an
increasingly popular doping drug, might be
caused by the placebo effect. In a new
double-blind trial funded by the World AntiDoping Agency, in which neither researchers
nor participants knew who was receiving
HGH and who was taking a placebo, the
researchers asked participants to guess
whether or not they were on the real drug.
Then they examined the results of the group
who guessed that they were getting HGH
when, in fact, they had received a placebo.
That group improved at four fitness tests
measuring strength, endurance, power and
sprint capacity. The study participants who
guessed correctly that they were taking a
placebo did not improve, according to
preliminary results presented at the Society
for Endocrinology meeting in June 2011. The
finding really shows the power of the mind
said Ken Ho, an endocrinologist at the Garvan
Institute in Sydney, Australia, who led the
study. She maintains that many athletes are
reaping the benefits of the placebo effect,
without knowing whether what they are
taking is beneficial or not.

A) is largely accepted for its positive

contribution to performance
B) has been proven by many studies around
the world
C) has led authorities to take the necessary
measures against these drugs
D) has been openly disputed by most of the
E) results in the improved performances of
all the athletes who take them

900. According to the results of the study funded

by the World Anti-Doping Agency, ----.

Sayfa 343 / 344

A) the study participants were all aware

they were given a placebo
B) those who knew that they were given
real drugs failed to show improvement in
fitness tests
C) the athletes who did not know they were
given a placebo did well on fitness tests
D) the preliminary findings showed the
increased popularity of drugs
E) the effects of HGH are incompatible with
those found in other studies


901. It is understood from the passage that the
placebo effect ----.

902. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.

A) is highly esteemed among those who are

interested in athletics
B) can play a significant role in improving the
performances of athletes
C) has been monitored in the participating
groups that consist of people taking
doping drugs

A) external interventions may have negative

impacts on ones performance
B) every athlete should be involved in a
study to increase his or her performance
C) success lies in the power of ones mind
no matter which treatment he or she is
exposed to

D) was also tested in other branches of

sports where competition exists

D) the World Anti-Doping Agency should be

much more careful about the use of
drugs in sports

E) was very high in the studies where

participants were informed in advance

E) much more research should be done on

the placebo effect among athletes

Sayfa 344 / 344