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the wifi-signal

The name 'Wi-Fi'[edit]


The term Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999,[16] was coin
ed by brand-consulting firm Interbrand Corporation. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired
Interbrand to determine a name that was "a little catchier than 'IEEE 802.11b D
irect Sequence'".[17][18][19] Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alli
ance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", also stated that Inter
brand invented Wi-Fi as a play on words with hi-fi, and also created the Wi-Fi l
ogo.
The Wi-Fi Alliance used the "nonsense" advertising slogan "The Standard for Wire
less Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was invented, leading to th
e misconception that Wi-Fi was an abbreviation of "Wireless Fidelity".[17][20][2
1] The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interope
rability.[20]
Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are u
sually described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mo
bile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G or LTE.
The name is often written as WiFi or Wifi, but these are not approved by the WiFi Alliance.The name 'Wi-Fi'[edit]
The term Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999,[16] was coin
ed by brand-consulting firm Interbrand Corporation. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired
Interbrand to determine a name that was "a little catchier than 'IEEE 802.11b D
irect Sequence'".[17][18][19] Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alli
ance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", also stated that Inter
brand invented Wi-Fi as a play on words with hi-fi, and also created the Wi-Fi l
ogo.
The Wi-Fi Alliance used the "nonsense" advertising slogan "The Standard for Wire
less Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was invented, leading to th
e misconception that Wi-Fi was an abbreviation of "Wireless Fidelity".[17][20][2
1] The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interope
rability.[20]
Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are u
sually described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mo
bile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G or LTE.
The name is often written as WiFi or Wifi, but these are not approved by the WiFi Alliance.Wi-Fi is less secure than wired connections, such as Ethernet, preci
sely because an intruder does not need a physical connection. Web pages that use
TLS are secure, but unencrypted internet access can easily be detected by intru
ders. Because of this, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies. The ea
rly encryption WEP proved easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) we
re added later. An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup
(WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed an attacker to recover the router's passw
ord.[2] The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certification pro
gram to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks.Wi-Fi is less secure t
han wired connections, such as Ethernet, precisely because an intruder does not
need a physical connection. Web pages that use TLS are secure, but unencrypted i
nternet access can easily be detected by intruders. Because of this, Wi-Fi has a
dopted various encryption technologies. The early encryption WEP proved easy to
break. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later. An optional featur
e added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that all
owed an attacker to recover the router's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Alliance has sin
ce updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly certified
devices resist attacks.Many devices can use Wi-Fi, e.g. personal computers, vid

eo-game consoles, smartphones, digital cameras, tablet computers and digital aud
io players. These can connect to a network resource such as the Internet via a w
ireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of a
bout 20 meters (66 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage
can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large
as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.
1674
The Third Anglo-Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westminst
er, with England regaining New York, and the Netherlands taking Suriname.
1811 Peninsular War: An outnumbered French force under douard Mortier routed and
nearly destroyed the Spanish at the Battle of the Gebora near Badajoz, Spain.
1942 World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 906
6, authorizing the forcible relocation of over 112,000 Japanese Americans and Ja
panese people residing in the United States to internment camps (Manzanar War Re
location Center pictured).
1986 The first module of the Soviet space station Mir was launched, establishing
the first long-term research station in space.
2006 A methane explosion in a coal mine in Nueva Rosita, Mexico, trapped and kil
led 65 miners
Even after Doukas's overthrow by Nikephoros III Botaneiates (r. 1078 81), Bryennio
s continued his revolt, threatening Constantinople. After failed negotiations, B
otaneiates sent the young general Alexios Komnenos to confront him. The two armi
es clashed at Kalavrye on the Halmyros river. Komnenos, whose army was considera
bly smaller and far less experienced, tried but failed to ambush Bryennios's arm
y, which in turn fell into disorder after its own Pecheneg allies attacked its c
amp. Reinforced by Turkish mercenaries, Alexios lured the troops of Bryennios in
to another ambush through a feigned retreat. The rebel army broke, and Bryennios
himself was captured. This is one of the few battles that was described in deta
il by Byzantine sources.
The Battle of Kalavrye was fought in 1078 between the Byzantine imperial forces
of general (and future emperor) Alexios Komnenos (pictured) and a force led by t
he rebellious governor of Dyrrhachium, Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder. Bryennios
had rebelled against Michael VII Doukas (reigned 1071 78) and had won over the al
legiance of the Byzantine army's regular regiments in the Balkans.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is a local area wireless computer networking technology that allow
s electronic devices to connect to the network, mainly using the 2.4 gigahertz (
12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands.
The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network" (WLAN) pro
duct based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.
11 standards.[1] However, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synon
ym for "WLAN" since most modern WLANs are based on these standards. "Wi-Fi" is a
trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The "Wi-Fi Certified" trademark can only be us
ed by Wi-Fi products that successfully complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability
certification testing.Wi-Fi is less secure than wired connections, such as Ether
net, precisely because an intruder does not need a physical connection. Web page
s that use TLS are secure, but unencrypted internet access can easily be detecte
d by intruders. Because of this, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologi
es. The early encryption WEP proved easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA
, WPA2) were added later. An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protec
ted Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed an attacker to recover the rout
er's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certifi
cation program to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks.Wi-Fi is les
s secure than wired connections, such as Ethernet, precisely because an intruder
does not need a physical connection. Web pages that use TLS are secure, but une
ncrypted internet access can easily be detected by intruders. Because of this, W
i-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies. The early encryption WEP prove

d easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later. An optio
nal feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious fla
w that allowed an attacker to recover the router's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Allian
ce has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly
certified devices resist attacks.Many devices can use Wi-Fi, e.g. personal comp
uters, video-game consoles, smartphones, digital cameras, tablet computers and d
igital audio players. These can connect to a network resource such as the Intern
et via a wireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a
range of about 20 meters (66 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot
coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or
as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping acces
s points.
1674
The Third Anglo-Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westminst
er, with England regaining New York, and the Netherlands taking Suriname.
1811 Peninsular War: An outnumbered French force under douard Mortier routed and
nearly destroyed the Spanish at the Battle of the Gebora near Badajoz, Spain.
1942 World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 906
6, authorizing the forcible relocation of over 112,000 Japanese Americans and Ja
panese people residing in the United States to internment camps (Manzanar War Re
location Center pictured).
1986 The first module of the Soviet space station Mir was launched, establishing
the first long-term research station in space.
2006 A methane explosion in a coal mine in Nueva Rosita, Mexico, trapped and kil
led 65 miners
Even after Doukas's overthrow by Nikephoros III Botaneiates (r. 1078 81), Bryennio
s continued his revolt, threatening Constantinople. After failed negotiations, B
otaneiates sent the young general Alexios Komnenos to confront him. The two armi
es clashed at Kalavrye on the Halmyros river. Komnenos, whose army was considera
bly smaller and far less experienced, tried but failed to ambush Bryennios's arm
y, which in turn fell into disorder after its own Pecheneg allies attacked its c
amp. Reinforced by Turkish mercenaries, Alexios lured the troops of Bryennios in
to another ambush through a feigned retreat. The rebel army broke, and Bryennios
himself was captured. This is one of the few battles that was described in deta
il by Byzantine sources.
The Battle of Kalavrye was fought in 1078 between the Byzantine imperial forces
of general (and future emperor) Alexios Komnenos (pictured) and a force led by t
he rebellious governor of Dyrrhachium, Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder. Bryennios
had rebelled against Michael VII Doukas (reigned 1071 78) and had won over the al
legiance of the Byzantine army's regular regiments in the Balkans.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is a local area wireless computer networking technology that allow
s electronic devices to connect to the network, mainly using the 2.4 gigahertz (
12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands.
The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network" (WLAN) pro
duct based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.
11 standards.[1] However, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synon
ym for "WLAN" since most modern WLANs are based on these standards. "Wi-Fi" is a
trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The "Wi-Fi Certified" trademark can only be us
ed by Wi-Fi products that successfully complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability
certification testing.Wi-Fi is less secure than wired connections, such as Ether
net, precisely because an intruder does not need a physical connection. Web page
s that use TLS are secure, but unencrypted internet access can easily be detecte
d by intruders. Because of this, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologi
es. The early encryption WEP proved easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA
, WPA2) were added later. An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protec
ted Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed an attacker to recover the rout

er's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certifi
cation program to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks.Wi-Fi is les
s secure than wired connections, such as Ethernet, precisely because an intruder
does not need a physical connection. Web pages that use TLS are secure, but une
ncrypted internet access can easily be detected by intruders. Because of this, W
i-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies. The early encryption WEP prove
d easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later. An optio
nal feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious fla
w that allowed an attacker to recover the router's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Allian
ce has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly
certified devices resist attacks.Many devices can use Wi-Fi, e.g. personal comp
uters, video-game consoles, smartphones, digital cameras, tablet computers and d
igital audio players. These can connect to a network resource such as the Intern
et via a wireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a
range of about 20 meters (66 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot
coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or
as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping acces
s points.
1674
The Third Anglo-Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westminst
er, with England regaining New York, and the Netherlands taking Suriname.
1811 Peninsular War: An outnumbered French force under douard Mortier routed and
nearly destroyed the Spanish at the Battle of the Gebora near Badajoz, Spain.
1942 World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 906
6, authorizing the forcible relocation of over 112,000 Japanese Americans and Ja
panese people residing in the United States to internment camps (Manzanar War Re
location Center pictured).
1986 The first module of the Soviet space station Mir was launched, establishing
the first long-term research station in space.
2006 A methane explosion in a coal mine in Nueva Rosita, Mexico, trapped and kil
led 65 miners
Even after Doukas's overthrow by Nikephoros III Botaneiates (r. 1078 81), Bryennio
s continued his revolt, threatening Constantinople. After failed negotiations, B
otaneiates sent the young general Alexios Komnenos to confront him. The two armi
es clashed at Kalavrye on the Halmyros river. Komnenos, whose army was considera
bly smaller and far less experienced, tried but failed to ambush Bryennios's arm
y, which in turn fell into disorder after its own Pecheneg allies attacked its c
amp. Reinforced by Turkish mercenaries, Alexios lured the troops of Bryennios in
to another ambush through a feigned retreat. The rebel army broke, and Bryennios
himself was captured. This is one of the few battles that was described in deta
il by Byzantine sources.
The Battle of Kalavrye was fought in 1078 between the Byzantine imperial forces
of general (and future emperor) Alexios Komnenos (pictured) and a force led by t
he rebellious governor of Dyrrhachium, Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder. Bryennios
had rebelled against Michael VII Doukas (reigned 1071 78) and had won over the al
legiance of the Byzantine army's regular regiments in the Balkans.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is a local area wireless computer networking technology that allow
s electronic devices to connect to the network, mainly using the 2.4 gigahertz (
12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands.
The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network" (WLAN) pro
duct based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.
11 standards.[1] However, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synon
ym for "WLAN" since most modern WLANs are based on these standards. "Wi-Fi" is a
trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The "Wi-Fi Certified" trademark can only be us
ed by Wi-Fi products that successfully complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability
certification testing.Wi-Fi is less secure than wired connections, such as Ether

net, precisely because an intruder does not need a physical connection. Web page
s that use TLS are secure, but unencrypted internet access can easily be detecte
d by intruders. Because of this, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologi
es. The early encryption WEP proved easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA
, WPA2) were added later. An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protec
ted Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed an attacker to recover the rout
er's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certifi
cation program to ensure all newly certified devices resist attacks.Wi-Fi is les
s secure than wired connections, such as Ethernet, precisely because an intruder
does not need a physical connection. Web pages that use TLS are secure, but une
ncrypted internet access can easily be detected by intruders. Because of this, W
i-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies. The early encryption WEP prove
d easy to break. Higher quality protocols (WPA, WPA2) were added later. An optio
nal feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious fla
w that allowed an attacker to recover the router's password.[2] The Wi-Fi Allian
ce has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly
certified devices resist attacks.Many devices can use Wi-Fi, e.g. personal comp
uters, video-game consoles, smartphones, digital cameras, tablet computers and d
igital audio players. These can connect to a network resource such as the Intern
et via a wireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a
range of about 20 meters (66 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot
coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or
as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping acces
s points.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westminst
1674
er, with England regaining New York, and the Netherlands taking Suriname.
1811 Peninsular War: An outnumbered French force under douard Mortier routed and
nearly destroyed the Spanish at the Battle of the Gebora near Badajoz, Spain.
1942 World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 906
6, authorizing the forcible relocation of over 112,000 Japanese Americans and Ja
panese people residing in the United States to internment camps (Manzanar War Re
location Center pictured).
1986 The first module of the Soviet space station Mir was launched, establishing
the first long-term research station in space.
2006 A methane explosion in a coal mine in Nueva Rosita, Mexico, trapped and kil
led 65 miners
Even after Doukas's overthrow by Nikephoros III Botaneiates (r. 1078 81), Bryennio
s continued his revolt, threatening Constantinople. After failed negotiations, B
otaneiates sent the young general Alexios Komnenos to confront him. The two armi
es clashed at Kalavrye on the Halmyros river. Komnenos, whose army was considera
bly smaller and far less experienced, tried but failed to ambush Bryennios's arm
y, which in turn fell into disorder after its own Pecheneg allies attacked its c
amp. Reinforced by Turkish mercenaries, Alexios lured the troops of Bryennios in
to another ambush through a feigned retreat. The rebel army broke, and Bryennios
himself was captured. This is one of the few battles that was described in deta
il by Byzantine sources.
The Battle of Kalavrye was fought in 1078 between the Byzantine imperial forces
of general (and future emperor) Alexios Komnenos (pictured) and a force led by t
he rebellious governor of Dyrrhachium, Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder. Bryennios
had rebelled against Michael VII Doukas (reigned 1071 78) and had won over the al
legiance of the Byzantine army's regular regiments in the Balkans.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is a local area wireless computer networking technology that allow
s electronic devices to connect to the network, mainly using the 2.4 gigahertz (
12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands.
The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network" (WLAN) pro

duct based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.
11 standards.[1] However, the term "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synon
ym for "WLAN" since most modern WLANs are based on these standards. "Wi-Fi" is a
trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The "Wi-Fi Certified" trademark can only be us
ed by Wi-Fi products that successfully complete Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability
certification testing.