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Climate

Summit
2015
What+Who

Climate Change occurs when long-term weather patterns are altered, usually through
human activity. Global Warming is a measurement of Climate Change, and is the rise
in the average annual temperature. ("What is Climate Change" by the David Suzuki
Foundation). This all happens because over time, we've increased the amount of
greenhouse gasses in our atmosphere, making it harder for the sun's rays to escape.

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Impacts
+Progress

Climate Change will impact individuals, Canada, and the world in many dierent
ways, including through food and agriculture, medicine and disease, and
demographics.

1. Food

Depending on
where farmers
are located,
some will see
larger yields,
while others' will
be significantly
smaller.
According to
predictions
covering the
next several
decades, all
crops in
California (corn,
wheat, rice,
cotton) will drop
by up to 30 percent (National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory
Committee). Food prices will also increase because of the need for water and energy,
which will also see a rise in price.

2. Energy

Energy demand will continue to increase over the next several decades, causing even
more emissions to leak into the atmosphere.

3. Weather

Rainfall is expected to drop as much as 40 percent in some places, even though it is


a key ingredient in energy creation, will cause strain on energy generation systems.
Government analysts also call for increased flooding in costal areas (National Climate
Assessment and Development Advisory Committee).

An increased population will mean a need for more water, which will strain Earth's
finite supply. Watersheds like the Rockies will experience supply issues as the runo
which supplies water to them runs out.

4. Transportation

Taking a look back at Hurricane Sandy in 2012, we can expect national transportation
systems (specifically buses, rail, and subway) to take a hit. Engineers are worrying
that increasing demands on aging infrastructure could create unreliable routes for the
transportation of food, fuel, and people.

5. Medical

The amount of people with asthma and allergies will continue to rise since Climate
Change is expected to increase the atmospheric ozone levels, which often leads to
reduced lung capability and failure.

6. Demographics

Cities have been an attractive place to live for decades, but natural disasters could
change this. As more people move to urban centers, more people will be impacted
by hurricanes, floods, and more. Emergency systems will need to be developed and
enhanced, like New York City's early evacuation plans, which saved thousands of
lives from Hurricane Sandy.

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(Un-cited information from "6 Ways Climate Change Will Aect You" by NatGeo).

Why are the Paris Climate talks vital?


Scientists have known about Global Warming for years, but the world has decided to
not take any action about this until now. We have historically signed acts into the
legislature, but failed to meet the requirements or quietly gotten rid of them. There
has always been individuals who are willing to make a change in their lives to slow
the impact Greenhouse Gases will have, but haven't had the full force of the world
behind them.

Initiatives like the Kyoto Protocol were based on the idea that developing nations
should be able to build their economies to the standard that developed nations have.
But massive international trade growth messed it up, and it allowed nations like China
to grow rapidly while manufacturing goods for developed countries, allowing
companies to move their emissions oshore ("Paris Climate Talks Begin; Five
Reasons Why They Are So Important" by Weather Underground).

How has unchecked exploitation of fossil-fuel resources impacted the


environment?
Some of the costs of using fossil fuels are obvious, like labor and and material. But
much of the cost of producing this type of energy isn't included on your energy bill or
paid for by the companies that produce or provide energy, like human health issues,
environmental degradation, and acid rain and water pollution. Because it is
impossible to put a cost on these, they have always stayed o the energy pricing
system, and out of the eye of the public.

1. Air Pollution

Canada
22

United States

Germany

(Co2 Emissions Per Person;


Canada 34 million, Germany 82
million, United States 309 million).

There are several pollutants


produced by fossil fuel
combustion: carbon monoxide,
11
nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides,
and hydrocarbons. These
5.5
contribute to air pollution and
combine in the atmosphere to
0
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 form tropospheric ozone, which is
the major ingredient in smog.
Exposure to carbon monoxide causes headaches and increases stress on people
with heart disease.

16.5

Sulphur oxides are produced by two-thirds of the nation's sulphur dioxide emissions,
and alongside nitrogen oxide, is a major part of what makes acid rain.

Tropospheric ozone, or smog, can cause shortness of breath and permanent lung
damage, and will reduce crop yields.

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2. Water and Land Pollution

Production and transportation of oil can cause water and land pollution. Oil spills
leave waterways and surrounding shores uninhabitable for years, and result in a loss
of animal and plant life.

3. Thermal Pollution

While burning fossil fuels, energy in the form of heat is produced. Because of the
inecient process, most of the heat is released into the atmosphere or the water
which is used as a coolant.

How have these changes impacted the well-being of Canadians?


Above-average temperatures will make Canada ideal for diseases like the West Nile
virus and for organisms like rodents and bats. Deadly plants have also began to
migrate northward. A tropical fungus invaded Vancouver Island in 2002, killing 1 and
injuring 52 others. Air pollution will also increase, and it is already killing 21,000
Canadians each year ("Health Impacts" by the David Suzuki Foundation).

How does climate change impact political policy?


While climate science is filled with approximations and estimates, but politics
requires a simply yes/no answer. Some people argue that the human impact will be
great and needs to be "controlled," while others suggest that the human impact is
minor ("Global Warming - When Politics and Science Collide" by Answers in
Genesis).

How do these policies impact business/the economy?

1. Property and Infrastructure

Rises in sea level, flooding, and droughts will create a requirement for extensive
repairs of houses, transportation systems, and power lines (See "Impacts+Progress").

2. Decrease in Productivity

Disruptions in day-to-day lives will create disruptions, resulting in lost work which will
harm virtually all functions in society. (See "Air Pollution").

3. Migration and Security

Global Warming will increase the amount of migrants due to rising temperatures and
pollution. Mass relocations could lead to civil unrest and a need for more police
ocers and possible military intervention.

(Un-cited information from "Global Warming Eects on the Economy" by the Union of
Concerned Scientists).

How does business impact the nature of work in Canada?

Both indoor and outdoor workers, like emergency responders, healthcare workers,
transportation workers, and farmers will be impacted by Climate Change. Workers
could be impacted by conditions that the general public can chose to avoid. Farmers
will be deeply impacted because of the increased use of pesticides and warmer
temperatures ("Climate Change and Occupational Safety and Health" by the CDC).

How does climate change impact the daily life/habits of Canadians?

See "How have these changes impacted the well-being of Canadians?" and "How
has unchecked exploitation of fossil-fuel resources impacted the environment?".

What creates resistance to change?

There are many dierent reasons someone might resist change, and although it is
impossible to understand them all, recognizing these issues will raise awareness to
address concerns.

1. Misunderstanding and Fear

If people don't understand the need for change, they won't. One common reason for
resistance is fear of the unknown, and people will only take steps to help if they feel
that the risks of doing nothing are greater than those of doing something.

2. Living in the Dark Ages

When you ask someone do act in a new way, you could be facing someone who is
hard-wired to do something only one way, which they believe is superior.

3. Change to the Status Quo

People who feel that they could be worse o than before are unlikely to give their
support. Similarly if people feel like the change might be in favor of a group who they
don't like (Think: Discrimination Against Minority Groups) you will be faced with anger
and resentment.

(All other information from "Top 12 Reasons Why People Resist Change" by
Meliorate).