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Current Transformers

Sreenatha Rao R.S.N.V


Manager Training

Current Transformer Function

X Reduce power system current to lower value for


measurement.
X Insulate secondary circuits from the primary.
X Permit the use of standard current ratings for secondary
equipment.

REMEMBER :
The relay performance DEPENDS on the C.T which
drives it !

> Current Transformers January 2004

Instrument Transformer Standards


IEC

IEC 185:1987

CTs

IEC 44-6:1992

CTs

IEC 186:1987

VTs

BS 7625

VTs

BS 7626

CTs

BS 7628

CT+VT

BS 3938:1973

CTs

BS 3941:1975

VTs

AMERICAN

ANSI C51.13.1978

CTs and VTs

CANADIAN

CSA CAN3-C13-M83

CTs and VTs

AUSTRALIAN

AS 1675-1986

CTs

EUROPEAN

BRITISH

> Current Transformers January 2004

Polarity

Is
P2

P1
Ip

S1

S2

Inst. Current directions :P1 P2


S1 S2 Externally
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> Current Transformers January 2004

Flick Test

P1
Is

Ip

FWD kick on application,

S1
+

REV kick on removal of


test lead.

Battery (6V) + to P1
AVO +ve lead to S1

S2

P2

> Current Transformers January 2004

Basic Theory

> Current Transformers January 2004

Basic Theory (1)


IS
IP

1 Primary Turn
N Secondary Turns

For an ideal transformer :PRIMARY AMPERE TURNS = SECONDARY AMPERE TURNS


IP = N x IS

> Current Transformers January 2004

Basic Theory (2)


IS
IP

ES

For IS to flow through R there must be some potential ES = the E.M.F.


ES = IS x R
ES is produced by an alternating flux in the core.
ES d
dt
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> Current Transformers January 2004

Basic Theory (3)


NP
IP
NS
IS

EK
ZCT

ZB

VO/P
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ISZB = EK - ISZCT
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Basic Formulae

Circuit Voltage Required :


ES = IS (ZB + ZCT + ZL) Volts
where :IS

Secondary Current of C.T. (Amperes)

ZB

Connected External Burden (Ohms)

ZCT

C.T Winding Impedance (Ohms)

ZL

Lead Loop Resistance (Ohms)

Require EK > ES

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Low Reactance Design

With evenly distributed winding the leakage


reactance is very low and usually ignored.
Thus ZCT ~ RCT

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Exciting Voltage (VS)

Knee-Point Voltage Definition

+10% Vk
Vk
+50% Iek

Iek
Exciting Current (Ie)
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C.T. Equivalent Circuit


Ip

ZCT
Is

P1
Ip/N

Ie

S1
N

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Ze

Vt

Es

Ip = Primary rating of C.T.

Ie

= Secondary excitation current

Is

= Secondary current

= C.T. ratio

Zb = Burden of relays in ohms

Es = Secondary excitation voltage

(r+jx)
ZCT = C.T. secondary winding
impedance in ohms (r+jx)
Ze = Secondary excitation
impedance in ohms (r+jx)

Vt = Secondary terminal voltage


across the C.T. terminals

> Current Transformers January 2004

Zb

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Phasor Diagram

Ip/N
Ie
Ie

Is
Es

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Ep

Im
Ic

Ep =
Es =

Primary voltage
Secondary voltage

Im =
Ie =

Magnetising current
Excitation current

=
Ic =

Flux
Iron losses (hysteresis &
eddy currents)

Ip =
Is =

Primary current
Secondary current

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Saturation

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Steady State Saturation (1)

E=
100V

100A

100A

1A

1A
100/1

100/1

1 ohm

100
ohm

E=
1V

100A

1A

1A
100/1

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E=?

100A
E

10
ohm

E=
10V

> Current Transformers January 2004

100/1

1000
ohm

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Steady State Saturation (2)

+V

0V

-V

Time

Assume :- Zero residual flux


Switch on at point A
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Steady State Saturation (3)


+V

0V

-V

Time

Assume :- Zero residual flux


Switch on at point C
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Steady State Saturation (4)


+V

0V

-V

Time

Assume :- Zero residual flux


Switch on at point B
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Steady State Saturation (5)

+V
Mag Core
Saturation
0V
Mag Core
Saturation
-V

Time
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Steady State Saturation (6)


+V

Prospective
Output Voltage

Mag Core
Saturation

0V
Mag Core
Saturation

-V

+V
Output lost due to
steady state
saturation

0V
Actual Output
Voltage

-V
Time
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Transient Saturation
v = VM sin (wt + )
L1

R1
Z1

i1

v = VM sin (wt + )
i1 = +

VM
V
sin (wt + - ) = M sin ( - ) . e
Z1
Z1

= + 1 sin (wt + - ) - 1 sin ( - ) . e


=

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STEADY STATE

> Current Transformers January 2004

-R1t / L1

-R1t / L1

TRANSIENT

where : -

Z1 =

R12 + w 2L12

= tan-1

wL1
R1

V
1 = M
Z1

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Transient Saturation : Resistive Burden

Required Flux
SAT

FLUX
Actual Flux
Mag Current

Primary Current
Secondary Current
CURRENT
0

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10

20 30

40 50

60 70

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80

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CT Types

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Current Transformer Function

Two basic groups of C.T.


X

Measurement C.T.s

Limits well defined


X

Protection C.T.s

Operation over wide range of currents


Note : They have DIFFERENT characteristics

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Measuring C.T.s
Measuring C.T.s
X Require good accuracy up to
approx 120% rated current.
X Require low saturation level to
protect instruments, thus use
nickel iron alloy core with low
exciting current and knee
point at low flux density.

B
Protection C.T.

Protection C.T.s
X Accuracy not as important as
above.
X Require accuracy up to many
times rated current, thus use
grain orientated silicon steel
with high saturation flux
density.
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> Current Transformers January 2004

Measuring C.T.

H
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Current Transformer Ratings

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Current Transformer Ratings (1)


Rated Burden
X Value of burden upon which accuracy claims are based
X Usually expressed in VA
X Preferred values :2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 VA

Continuous Rated Current


X Usually rated primary current

Short Time Rated Current


X Usually specified for 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 secs
X No harmful effects
X Usually specified with the secondary shorted

Rated Secondary Current


X Commonly 1, 2 or 5 Amps
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Current Transformer Ratings (2)


Rated Dynamic Current
Ratio of :IPEAK : IRATED
(IPEAK = Maximum current C.T. can withstand without
suffering any damage).
Accuracy Limit Factor - A.L.F.
(or Saturation Factor)
Ratio of :IPRIMARY : IRATED
up to which the C.T. rated accuracy is maintained.
e.g. 200 / 1A C.T. with an A.L.F. = 5 will maintain its
accuracy for IPRIMARY < 5 x 200 = 1000 Amps
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Choice of Ratio
Clearly, the primary rating
IP normal current in the circuit
if thermal (continuous) rating is not to be exceeded.
Secondary rating is usually 1 or 5 Amps (0.5 and 2 Amp are
also used).
If secondary wiring route length is greater than 30 metres 1 Amp secondaries are preferable.
A practical maximum ratio is 3000 / 1.
If larger primary ratings are required (e.g. for large
generators), can use 20 Amp secondary together with
interposing C.T.
e.g. 5000 / 20 - 20 / 1
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Current Transformer Designation

Class P
Specified in terms of :i) Rated burden
ii) Class (5P or 10P)
iii) Accuracy limit factor (A.L.F.)
Example :15 VA 10P 20
To convert VA and A.L.F. into useful volts
Vuseful VA x ALF
IN

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BS 3938
Classes :-

5P, 10P. X

Designation (Classes 5P, 10P)


(Rated VA)

(Class)

(ALF)

Multiple of rated current (IN) up to which declared


accuracy will be maintained with rated burden
connected.
5P or 10P.
Value of burden in VA on which accuracy claims
are based.
(Preferred values :- 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 VA)
ZB = rated burden in ohms
= Rated VA
IN2
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Interposing CT

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Interposing CT

LINE
CT

NP

NS

ZB

ZCT

Burden presented to line CT


= ZCT + ZB x NP2
NS2
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NEG.

5A

1A

0.5

R
500/5

0.1

1VA @ 1A
1.0

0.4

Seen by main ct :- 0.1 + (1)2 (2 x 0.5 + 0.4 + 1) = 0.196


(5)
Burden on main ct :- I2R = 25 x 0.196 = 4.9VA
Burden on a main ct of required ratio :0.5

R
500/1

1.0

Total connected burden = 2 x 0.5 + 1 = 2


Connected VA = I2R = 2
The I/P ct consumption was about 3VA.
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Current Transformer Designation

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Current Transformer Designation


Class X
Specified in terms of :-

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i)

Rated Primary Current

ii)

Turns Ratio (max. error = 0.25%)

iii)

Knee Point Voltage

iv)

Mag Current (at specified voltage)

v)

Secondary Resistance (at 75C)

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Choice of Current Transformer


X Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays

Class P Specification
A.L.F. = 5 usually sufficient
For high settings (5 - 15 times C.T rating)
A.L.F. = relay setting

X IDMT Overcurrent Relays

Generally Class 10P


Class 5P where grading is critical
Note : A.L.F. X V.A < 150
X Differential Protection

Class X Specification
Protection relies on balanced C.T output
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Selection Example

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Burden on Current Transformers

1. Overcurrent : RCT + RL + Rr

2. Earth : RCT + 2RL + 2Rr

RCT

RCT

RCT
RCT
RL
Rr

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RCT

IF

RCT

IF
RL

RL

Rr

> Current Transformers January 2004

Rr

RL

Rr

RL
Rr

IF

IF

RL

Rr

RL

Rr

RL

Rr

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Overcurrent Relay VK Check


Assume values :

If max
C.T

=
=

7226 A
1000 / 5 A
7.5 VA 10P 20

RCT =
Rr
=
RL =

0.26
0.02
0.15

Check to see if VK is large enough :


Required voltage = VS = IF (RCT + Rr + RL)
= 7226 x 5 (0.26 + 0.02 + 0.15) = 36.13 x 0.43 = 15.54 Volts
1000
Current transformer VK approximates to :VK VA x ALF + RCT x IN x ALF
In
= 7.5 x 20 + 0.26 x 5 x 20 = 56 Volts
5
VK > VS therefore C.T VK is adequate
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Earth Fault Relay VK Check


Assume values : As per overcurrent.
Note

For earth fault applications require to be able to pass


10 x relay setting.

Check to see if VK is large enough :

VK = 56 Volts

Total load connected = 2RL + RCT + 2Rr


= 2 x 0.15 + 0.26 + 2 x 0.02

Maximum secondary current


= 56 = 93.33A
0.6

Typical earth fault setting

=
=

30% IN
1.5A

Therefore C.T can provide > 60 x setting


C.T VK is adequate
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Voltage Transformers

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Voltage Transformers

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Provides isolation from high voltages

Must operate in the linear region to prevent


accuracy problems - Do not over specify VT

Must be capable of driving the burden, specified by


relay manufacturer

Protection class VT will suffice

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Typical Working Points on a B-H Curve


Flux Density
B

Saturation

1.6

Tesla 1.0

0.5

Power Transformers

V.T.s

Protection C.T. (at full load)


H
1000

2000

3000
Magnetising Force
AT/m

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Types of Voltage Transformers

Two main basic types are available:


X Electromechanical VT`s

Similar to a power transformer


May not be economical above 132kV
X Capacitor VT`s (CVT)

Used at high voltages


Main difference is that CVT has a
capacitor divider on the front end.

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Electromagnetic Voltage Transformer

NP / NS
= Kn

LP

RP
IP

EP = ES

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> Current Transformers January 2004

IS

Ie
LM

VP

LS

RS

IM

Re

VS

ZB

(burden)

IC

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Basic Circuit of a Capacitor V.T.

C1
L
T

VP
C2

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> Current Transformers January 2004

ZB
VC2

Vi

VS

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Ferro-resonance

X The exciting impedance of auxiliary transformer T and the


capacitance of the potential divider form a resonant circuit.
X May oscillate at a sub normal frequency
X Resonant frequency close to one-third value of system
frequency
X Manifests itself as a rise in output voltage, r.m.s. value
being 25 to 50 per cent above normal value
X Use resistive burden to dampen the effect

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VT Earthing

X Primary Earthing

Earth at neutral point


Required for phase-ground measurement at relay
X Secondary Earthing

Required for safety


Earth at neutral point
No relevance for protection operation

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VT Construction

5 Limb

Used when zero sequence measurement is


required (primary must also be earthed)

Three Single Phase

Used when zero sequence measurement is


required (primary must also be earthed)

3 Limb

Used where no zero sequence measurement is


required

V Connected (Open Delta)

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No yellow phase
Cost effective
Two phase-phase voltages
No ground fault measurement

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VT Connections

Broken Delta
A

da

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V Connected
a

dn

> Current Transformers January 2004

c n

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VT Construction - Residual

X Used to detect earthfault


X Useful where current operated protection cannot be
used
X Connect all secondary windings in series
X Sometimes referred to as `Broken Delta`
X Residual Voltage is 3 times zero sequence voltage
X VT must be 5 Limb or 3 single phase units
X Primary winding must be earthed

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Voltage Factors Vf

X Vf is the upper limit of operating voltage.

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Important for correct relay operation.

Earthfaults cause displacement of system neutral,


particularly in the case of unearthed or impedance
earthed systems.

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Protection of VTs

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H.R.C. Fuses on primary side

Fuses may not have sufficient interrupting capability

Use MCB

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