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# Current Transformers

Manager Training

## X Reduce power system current to lower value for

measurement.
X Insulate secondary circuits from the primary.
X Permit the use of standard current ratings for secondary
equipment.

REMEMBER :
The relay performance DEPENDS on the C.T which
drives it !

IEC

IEC 185:1987

CTs

IEC 44-6:1992

CTs

IEC 186:1987

VTs

BS 7625

VTs

BS 7626

CTs

BS 7628

CT+VT

BS 3938:1973

CTs

BS 3941:1975

VTs

AMERICAN

ANSI C51.13.1978

CSA CAN3-C13-M83

AUSTRALIAN

AS 1675-1986

CTs

EUROPEAN

BRITISH

Polarity

Is
P2

P1
Ip

S1

S2

S1 S2 Externally
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Flick Test

P1
Is

Ip

S1
+

## REV kick on removal of

Battery (6V) + to P1
AVO +ve lead to S1

S2

P2

Basic Theory

## Basic Theory (1)

IS
IP

1 Primary Turn
N Secondary Turns

IP = N x IS

IS
IP

ES

## For IS to flow through R there must be some potential ES = the E.M.F.

ES = IS x R
ES is produced by an alternating flux in the core.
ES d
dt
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NP
IP
NS
IS

EK
ZCT

ZB

VO/P
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## > Current Transformers January 2004

ISZB = EK - ISZCT
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Basic Formulae

## Circuit Voltage Required :

ES = IS (ZB + ZCT + ZL) Volts
where :IS

ZB

ZCT

ZL

Require EK > ES

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## With evenly distributed winding the leakage

reactance is very low and usually ignored.
Thus ZCT ~ RCT

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## Knee-Point Voltage Definition

+10% Vk
Vk
+50% Iek

Iek
Exciting Current (Ie)
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Ip

ZCT
Is

P1
Ip/N

Ie

S1
N

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Ze

Vt

Es

Ie

## = Secondary excitation current

Is

= Secondary current

= C.T. ratio

## Es = Secondary excitation voltage

(r+jx)
ZCT = C.T. secondary winding
impedance in ohms (r+jx)
Ze = Secondary excitation
impedance in ohms (r+jx)

## Vt = Secondary terminal voltage

across the C.T. terminals

## > Current Transformers January 2004

Zb

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Phasor Diagram

Ip/N
Ie
Ie

Is
Es

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Ep

Im
Ic

Ep =
Es =

Primary voltage
Secondary voltage

Im =
Ie =

Magnetising current
Excitation current

=
Ic =

Flux
Iron losses (hysteresis &
eddy currents)

Ip =
Is =

Primary current
Secondary current

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Saturation

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E=
100V

100A

100A

1A

1A
100/1

100/1

1 ohm

100
ohm

E=
1V

100A

1A

1A
100/1

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E=?

100A
E

10
ohm

E=
10V

100/1

1000
ohm

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+V

0V

-V

Time

## Assume :- Zero residual flux

Switch on at point A
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+V

0V

-V

Time

## Assume :- Zero residual flux

Switch on at point C
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+V

0V

-V

Time

## Assume :- Zero residual flux

Switch on at point B
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+V
Mag Core
Saturation
0V
Mag Core
Saturation
-V

Time
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## Steady State Saturation (6)

+V

Prospective
Output Voltage

Mag Core
Saturation

0V
Mag Core
Saturation

-V

+V
Output lost due to
saturation

0V
Actual Output
Voltage

-V
Time
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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Transient Saturation
v = VM sin (wt + )
L1

R1
Z1

i1

v = VM sin (wt + )
i1 = +

VM
V
sin (wt + - ) = M sin ( - ) . e
Z1
Z1

=

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-R1t / L1

-R1t / L1

TRANSIENT

where : -

Z1 =

R12 + w 2L12

= tan-1

wL1
R1

V
1 = M
Z1

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## Transient Saturation : Resistive Burden

Required Flux
SAT

FLUX
Actual Flux
Mag Current

Primary Current
Secondary Current
CURRENT
0

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10

20 30

40 50

60 70

80

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CT Types

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## Two basic groups of C.T.

X

Measurement C.T.s

X

Protection C.T.s

## Operation over wide range of currents

Note : They have DIFFERENT characteristics

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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Measuring C.T.s
Measuring C.T.s
X Require good accuracy up to
approx 120% rated current.
X Require low saturation level to
protect instruments, thus use
nickel iron alloy core with low
exciting current and knee
point at low flux density.

B
Protection C.T.

Protection C.T.s
X Accuracy not as important as
above.
X Require accuracy up to many
times rated current, thus use
grain orientated silicon steel
with high saturation flux
density.
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Measuring C.T.

H
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## Current Transformer Ratings (1)

Rated Burden
X Value of burden upon which accuracy claims are based
X Usually expressed in VA
X Preferred values :2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 VA

## Continuous Rated Current

X Usually rated primary current

## Short Time Rated Current

X Usually specified for 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 secs
X No harmful effects
X Usually specified with the secondary shorted

## Rated Secondary Current

X Commonly 1, 2 or 5 Amps
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## Current Transformer Ratings (2)

Rated Dynamic Current
Ratio of :IPEAK : IRATED
(IPEAK = Maximum current C.T. can withstand without
suffering any damage).
Accuracy Limit Factor - A.L.F.
(or Saturation Factor)
Ratio of :IPRIMARY : IRATED
up to which the C.T. rated accuracy is maintained.
e.g. 200 / 1A C.T. with an A.L.F. = 5 will maintain its
accuracy for IPRIMARY < 5 x 200 = 1000 Amps
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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Choice of Ratio
Clearly, the primary rating
IP normal current in the circuit
if thermal (continuous) rating is not to be exceeded.
Secondary rating is usually 1 or 5 Amps (0.5 and 2 Amp are
also used).
If secondary wiring route length is greater than 30 metres 1 Amp secondaries are preferable.
A practical maximum ratio is 3000 / 1.
If larger primary ratings are required (e.g. for large
generators), can use 20 Amp secondary together with
interposing C.T.
e.g. 5000 / 20 - 20 / 1
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## Current Transformer Designation

Class P
Specified in terms of :i) Rated burden
ii) Class (5P or 10P)
iii) Accuracy limit factor (A.L.F.)
Example :15 VA 10P 20
To convert VA and A.L.F. into useful volts
Vuseful VA x ALF
IN

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BS 3938
Classes :-

5P, 10P. X

(Rated VA)

(Class)

(ALF)

## Multiple of rated current (IN) up to which declared

accuracy will be maintained with rated burden
connected.
5P or 10P.
Value of burden in VA on which accuracy claims
are based.
(Preferred values :- 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 VA)
ZB = rated burden in ohms
= Rated VA
IN2
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Interposing CT

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Interposing CT

LINE
CT

NP

NS

ZB

ZCT

= ZCT + ZB x NP2
NS2
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NEG.

5A

1A

0.5

R
500/5

0.1

1VA @ 1A
1.0

0.4

## Seen by main ct :- 0.1 + (1)2 (2 x 0.5 + 0.4 + 1) = 0.196

(5)
Burden on main ct :- I2R = 25 x 0.196 = 4.9VA
Burden on a main ct of required ratio :0.5

R
500/1

1.0

## Total connected burden = 2 x 0.5 + 1 = 2

Connected VA = I2R = 2
The I/P ct consumption was about 3VA.
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## Current Transformer Designation

Class X
Specified in terms of :-

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i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

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## Choice of Current Transformer

X Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays

Class P Specification
A.L.F. = 5 usually sufficient
For high settings (5 - 15 times C.T rating)
A.L.F. = relay setting

## Generally Class 10P

Class 5P where grading is critical
Note : A.L.F. X V.A < 150
X Differential Protection

Class X Specification
Protection relies on balanced C.T output
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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Selection Example

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## Burden on Current Transformers

1. Overcurrent : RCT + RL + Rr

RCT

RCT

RCT
RCT
RL
Rr

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RCT

IF

RCT

IF
RL

RL

Rr

Rr

RL

Rr

RL
Rr

IF

IF

RL

Rr

RL

Rr

RL

Rr

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Assume values :

If max
C.T

=
=

7226 A
1000 / 5 A
7.5 VA 10P 20

RCT =
Rr
=
RL =

0.26
0.02
0.15

## Check to see if VK is large enough :

Required voltage = VS = IF (RCT + Rr + RL)
= 7226 x 5 (0.26 + 0.02 + 0.15) = 36.13 x 0.43 = 15.54 Volts
1000
Current transformer VK approximates to :VK VA x ALF + RCT x IN x ALF
In
= 7.5 x 20 + 0.26 x 5 x 20 = 56 Volts
5
VK > VS therefore C.T VK is adequate
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## Earth Fault Relay VK Check

Assume values : As per overcurrent.
Note

## For earth fault applications require to be able to pass

10 x relay setting.

VK = 56 Volts

## Total load connected = 2RL + RCT + 2Rr

= 2 x 0.15 + 0.26 + 2 x 0.02

= 56 = 93.33A
0.6

=
=

30% IN
1.5A

## Therefore C.T can provide > 60 x setting

C.T VK is adequate
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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Voltage Transformers

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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Voltage Transformers

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## Must operate in the linear region to prevent

accuracy problems - Do not over specify VT

## Must be capable of driving the burden, specified by

relay manufacturer

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## Typical Working Points on a B-H Curve

Flux Density
B

Saturation

1.6

Tesla 1.0

0.5

Power Transformers

V.T.s

## Protection C.T. (at full load)

H
1000

2000

3000
Magnetising Force
AT/m

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## Two main basic types are available:

X Electromechanical VT`s

## Similar to a power transformer

May not be economical above 132kV
X Capacitor VT`s (CVT)

## Used at high voltages

Main difference is that CVT has a
capacitor divider on the front end.

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NP / NS
= Kn

LP

RP
IP

EP = ES

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IS

Ie
LM

VP

LS

RS

IM

Re

VS

ZB

(burden)

IC

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C1
L
T

VP
C2

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ZB
VC2

Vi

VS

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Ferro-resonance

## X The exciting impedance of auxiliary transformer T and the

capacitance of the potential divider form a resonant circuit.
X May oscillate at a sub normal frequency
X Resonant frequency close to one-third value of system
frequency
X Manifests itself as a rise in output voltage, r.m.s. value
being 25 to 50 per cent above normal value
X Use resistive burden to dampen the effect

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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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VT Earthing

X Primary Earthing

## Earth at neutral point

Required for phase-ground measurement at relay
X Secondary Earthing

## Required for safety

Earth at neutral point
No relevance for protection operation

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VT Construction

5 Limb

## Used when zero sequence measurement is

required (primary must also be earthed)

## Used when zero sequence measurement is

required (primary must also be earthed)

3 Limb

required

## V Connected (Open Delta)

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No yellow phase
Cost effective
Two phase-phase voltages
No ground fault measurement

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VT Connections

Broken Delta
A

da

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V Connected
a

dn

## > Current Transformers January 2004

c n

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VT Construction - Residual

## X Used to detect earthfault

X Useful where current operated protection cannot be
used
X Connect all secondary windings in series
X Sometimes referred to as `Broken Delta`
X Residual Voltage is 3 times zero sequence voltage
X VT must be 5 Limb or 3 single phase units
X Primary winding must be earthed

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## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Voltage Factors Vf

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## Earthfaults cause displacement of system neutral,

particularly in the case of unearthed or impedance
earthed systems.

## > Current Transformers January 2004

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Protection of VTs

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Use MCB

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