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Mathematical Methods of Physics

Vector Analysis:
Divergence theorem,







Special Functions:
Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions, associated Legendre functions and spherical
harmonics spherical Bessel functions, Neumann functions.
Boundary Value Problem:
Boundary value problem in physics, the Sturm-Liouville problem.
Greens Function:
Definition, Greens functions for the Strum-Liouville operator Greens functions in
Functions of Complex Variable:
Complex functions, analyticity, Cauchy-Riemann equations, multivalued functions,
Cauchys integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, the residue theorem and its
Fourier Series and Transforms:
Fourier series and its complex form, applications of Fourier series, representations of
a function, properties of Fourier transforms, Fourier integral theorem, Fourier sine
and cosine transforms, applications of Fourier transforms, Laplace transform.
Tensor Analysis:
Cartesian tensors, coordinate transformation, covariant and contravariant tensor,
tensor algebra, metric tensor.

Reference Books
1. Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering, F. Riley, M. P. Hobson and S. J. Bence,
Cambridge University Press, (1997).
2. Mathematical Physics by E. Butkov, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, (1968).
3. Mathematical Methods for Physicists by G. Arfken and H. J. Weber, Academic Press, (1995).
4. Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists by L.A. Pipes and L.R. Harvill, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, (1970).
Mathematics of Classical and Quantum Physics Volume II, By F.W. Byron Jr. and R.W Fuller
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, (1970).
6. Complex Variable by M. R. Spiegel, Schaum Publishing Company, (1970).

Classical Mechanics
Lagrangian Formalism:
Brief survey of Newtonian mechanics of a single and system of particles, constraints,
D. Alemberts principle, Lagranges equation and its application, calculus of variation
and Hamiltons principle, derivation of Lagranges equation from Hamiltons principle,
contact transformations.
Central Force Problem:
Two-body central force problem and its reduction to the equivalent one body problem,
the equation of motion and solution for one body problem laboratory and centre of
mass co-ordinate systems and their mutual transformation, Rutherford scattering
Hamiltonian Formalism:
Legendre transformation and Hamilton equation of motion, cyclic co-ordinates,
conservation theorems and physical significance of the Hamiltonian for simple cases.
Canonical Transformations:
The canonical transformations and their examples, the Lagranges and the Poissons
brackets, integrals of motion, Poissons theorems.
Hamilton-Jacobi theory:
Hamilton-Jacobi theory, connections with canonical transformation, action-angle
Reference Books

Classical Mechanics, by H. Goldstein, Addison-Wesley, Reading, (1950).

Mechanics, by L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Pergamon, Oxford (1960).
Classical Mechanics, by J. W. Leech, Methuen and Co. Ltd.,(1958)
Classical Mechanics, by V. D. Barger and M. G. Olsson, McGraw-Hill, (1995)
Analytical Mechanics, by L. N. Hand and J. D. Finch Cambridge University Press, (1998)

Quantum Mechanics
Breakdown of Classical Concepts and Old Quantum Theory:
Particle aspects of radiation and Plancks hypothesis, wave aspects of matter and de
Broglies hypothesis, discrete levels and Bohrs hypothesis.
Formulation of Quantum Mechanics:
Mathematical preliminaries, quantum mechanical wavefunction, Hilbert space,
observables and operators, operator equations, the eigenvalue equation,
commutation relations, expectation value, postulates of quantum mechanics,
correspondence principle, complimentarity principle, Schrodinger equation and
discrete energy levels, state functions and overlap integral, uncertainty principle.
One Dimensional Systems:
The potential step, reflection and transmission coefficients, potential well and bound
states, potential barrier, tunneling, tunneling through thin films, alpha decay, onedimensional models of molecules and delta function potential, Kronig-Penny model,
harmonic oscillator, raising and lowering operators.
Angular Momentum:
Angular momentum operator, z-component, total angular momentum; eigenvalves,
eigenfunctions and vector diagram, parity.
Central Potential:
Motion in a central potential, the hydrogen atom, energy spectrum, quantum
numbers and degeneracies.
Spin and Statistics:
The Zeeman effect, matrix operators, spin statistics and exclusion principle, Paulis
two components formalism, identical particles, fermions and bosons, symmetry and
antisymmetry of wavefunctions.
Approximation Methods in Quantum Mechanics:
Time independent perturbation theory, simple applications, damped linear harmonic
oscillator, hydrogen like atoms in magnetic field, time dependent perturbation theory,
transition probability, emission and absorption of radiation, WKB approximation and
its applications, variational method and its applications.
Formal Theory of Quantum Systems:
Hilbert space, operators and state vectors, bras and kets, orthonormality, Dirac deltafunction, completeness, expectation value, degeneracy, compatible and incompatible
observables, discrete and continuous spectra generalized uncertainty relation,
harmaonic oscillator, ladder operators, Schrodingers equation of motion,
Heisenbergs equations of motion, constants of motion, parity, conservation laws and
Reference Books

Introductory Quantum Mechanics by R. L. Lieboff` Holden-Day, San Francisco (1980)

Qunatum Mechanics Vol I,II by C.Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu, F. Laloe, Wiley (1977).
Quantum Physics by S. Gasiorowicz, Wiley (1996).
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics by Dicke, Wittke, Addison-Wesley (1974).
Quantum Mechanics by Sokoev, Ternou, Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1996).
Quantum Mechanics by J. L. Powell and B. Crasemann, Addison-Wesley, (1961).

Solid State Physics-I

Crystal Structure:
Periodic arrays of atoms, fundamental types of lattices, index system for crystal
planes, simple crystal structures, direct imaging of atomic structure, non-ideal crystal
Reciprocal Lattice:
Diffraction of waves by crystals, scattered wave amplitude, Brillouin zones, Fourier
analysis of the basis, quasi crystals.
Crystal Binding and Elastic Constants:
Crystals of inert gases, ionic crystals, covalent crystals, metals, hydrogen bonds,
analysis of elastic strains, elastic compliance and stiffness constants, elastic waves in
cubic crystals.
Crystal Vibrations: Phonons I:
Vibrations of crystals with monatomic basis, two atoms per primitive basis,
quantization of elastic waves, phonon momentum, inelastic scattering by phonons.
Thermal Properties: Phonons II:
Phonon, heat capacity, anharmonic
electronic heat capacity.





Noncrystalline Solids:
Diffraction pattern, glasses, amorphous ferromagnets and semiconductors, low
energy excitations in amorphous solids, fiber optics.
Point Defects:
Lattice vacancies, diffusion, color centers.
Shear strength of single crystals, dislocations, strength of alloys, dislocations and
crystal growth, hardness of materials.
Reference Books

Introduction to Solid State Physics by C. Kittle, 7th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1996)
Solid State Physics by Neil W. Ashcroft, N. David Mermin, CBS Publishing Asia Ltd. (1987).
Solid State Physics by J. S. Blakemore, Cambridge University Press, (1991).

The Semiconductor Diode:
The junction diode, the diode voltage-current equation, Zener diode, light-emitting
diodes, capacitance effects in the pn diode.
The Diode as Rectifier and Switch:
The ideal diode model, the half-wave rectifier circuit, the full-wave rectifier circuit, the
bridge rectifier circuit, measurement of the ripple in the rectifier circuit, the capacitor
filter, the filter; -r filter, regulated power supply.
Models for Circuit:
The black box concept; active one-port models: the voltage-source circuit; active
one-port models, the current-source circuit: the two-port network, the h-parameter
equivalent circuit, power in decibels.
Junction Transistor as Amplifier:
The junction transistor, the volt-ampere curves of a transistor, the current
amplification factors, relations between the amplification factors, the load line and Q
point, the basic transistor amplifiers, simplification of the equivalent C-E circuit, the
transconductance, g, the common-emitter amplifier, conversion of the h
parameters, the common-collector amplifier, performance of the C-C amplifier,
comparison of amplifier performance.
DC Bias for the Transistor:
Choice of the quiescent point, variation of the Q point: fixed transistor bias, the
four-resistor bias circuit, design of a fixed-bias circuit, design of the bias-stabilized
C-E amplifier, voltage feedback bias, design of voltage-feedback bias circuit, bias for
the emitter follower, design of the emitter follower circuit.
The Field Effect Transistor:
The junction field-effect transistor; the MOS field-effect transistor, the load line for
the FET, obtaining bias for the FET, the FET as an amplifier.
Frequency Response of RC Amplifiers:
Cascaded amplifier, the amplifier passband, the frequency plot, low-frequency
response, the low-frequency limit, the unbypassed emitter resistor, high-frequency
equivalent circuits and the Miller effect, high-frequency response, the frequency limit
of the transistor, the common-base connection at high frequencies, bandwidth of
cascaded amplifiers.
Negative Feedback in Amplifiers:
The black box with feedback, stabilization of gain by negative feedback, bandwidth
improvement with negative feedback, reduction of nonlinear distortion, control of
amplifier output and input resistances, a current series-feedback circuit, voltage shutfeedback circuit, voltage feedback with the FET.
Integrated Amplifiers:
The integrated amplifier, the differential
transistor, introduction to operation amplifier.

amplifier, the



Power Amplifiers:
Classification of power amplifier, power relations in the class a amplifier, voltage
limitations, determination of output distortion, the push-pull circuit and glass B
operation, performance of a class B push-pull amplifier, output circuits without
transformers, phase inverters for push-pull input.
Oscillator feedback principles, the Hartley and Colpitts oscillators, practical transistor
oscillators, crystal control of frequency, resistance-capacitance feedback oscillator.
Waves Shaping and Switching Circuits:
Diode clipper, diode clamper, differentiator, integrator. Multivibrators, the bistable
multivibrator, the one-shot or monostable multivibrator and astable multivibrator.
Digital Circuits:
Binary numbers, Binary codes, Logic switches and gates, Logic Circuits.
Reference Books
1. Electronic Circuits and Systems by J.D. Ryder/Charles M. Thomson, (1976).
2. Electronics devices and Circuits by Millman and Halkies (1978).
3. Electronics Devices by Thomos L. Floyd, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, (1996).
4. Electronic Principles by Albert P. Malvino, Glencoe McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1993).
5. Digital Fundamentals by Thomas L. Floyd, Prentice-Hall International Inc. Englewood Cliffs,
6. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Boylestad and Nashhelsky, 7th Edition A. Published by
Prentice-Hall, (1997).
7. Electronic Devices and Circuits, by Theodre F. Bogart, Jr. 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle
River, NJ (USA) 1997.

Physics Lab I (General and Modern Physics)


The candidate must perform at least eight experiments from the list given below.

50% weightage must be given to viva-voce about apparatus, theory of experiments

and estimation of errors.
Measurement of wavelengths of sodium light, difference of wave lengths and
thickness of thin film e.g. mica using Michelson interferometer.
2. The study of spectra using Fabry-Perot interferometers.
3. The determination of Cauchys constants using spectrometer.
4. To study some aspects of Ferromagnetism by drawing B. H. curve.
5. Measurement of speed of light using laser source rotating mirror method.
6. To study Zeeman effect.
7. To determine e/m of an electron using a fine beam tube.
8. To study Hall effect in an n-type/p-type semiconductor or a metal.
9. To measure the critical potential of mercury by Frank-Hertz method.
10. To measure Plancks constant by studying photoelectric effect.
11. To measure work function of a metal and verification of Richardsons equation.
12. Determination of dielectric constant of liquid and solid.
13. To determine the characteristic of G. M. tube and measure the range and
maximum energy of particles.
14. Measurement of half-life of a radioactive source.
15. Characteristics of G.M. counter and study of fluctuations in random process.
16. To determine charge of an electron by Millikans oil drop method.

Physics Lab II (Electronics)


The candidate must perform at least EIGHT experiments from the list given below.

50% weightage must be given to viva-voce about apparatus, theory of experiments

and estimation of errors.
1. To construct a power supply and study the rectified wave form (measurement of
peak value), ripple factor and regulation (without regulator).
2. To construct a voltage-regulated power supply with Zener diode.
3. To construct a single stage CE transistor voltage amplifier and study gain, input
impedance, output impedance, half power points by sine/square wave testing and
effect of bias on the output and measurement of distortion.
To construct a source follower FET voltage amplifier and study gain, input
impedance, output impedance, half power points by sine/square wave testing.
5. To construct an R-C oscillator and compare it with a standard frequency.
6. To construct a Hartley or Colpitts oscillator and measure its frequency.
To construct and study the wave forms at the base and collector of the
transistors of a free running a multivibrator.
To construct and study of the height, duration and time period of the output
pulses in a monostable and bistable multivibrators with reference to the input Trigger.
9. To construct from discrete components OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR exclusive OR
Circuits and verify their truth tables.
10. Study of wave shaping circuits of diode, integrators and differentiators.
11. To construct the operational amplifier (741) by using discrete components and
study its frequency response.