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cfdesign

user’s guide

Finite Element Fluid Flow


and Heat Transfer Solver

Version 7.0

Copyright (C) Blue Ridge Numerics, Inc. 1992-2004


Copyright

The CFdesign product is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by Blue
Ridge Numerics, Incorporated.

Copyright (c) 1992-2004 Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated. All Rights


Reserved.

The distribution and sale of CFdesign is intended for the use of the original
purchaser only and for use only on the computer system specified at the time
of the sale. CFdesign may be used only under the provisions of the accompa-
nying license agreement.

The CFdesign User’s Guide may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced,


translated or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form in
whole or part without prior written consent from Blue Ridge Numerics,
Incorporated. Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated makes no warranty that
CFdesign is free from errors or defects and assumes no liability for the pro-
gram. Blue Ridge Numerics, Incorporated disclaims any express warranty or
fitness for any intended use or purpose. You are legally accountable for any
violation of the License Agreement or of copyright or trademark. You have
no rights to alter the software or printed materials.

The development of CFdesign is ongoing. The program is constantly being


modified and checked and any known errors should be reported to Blue
Ridge Numerics, Incorporated.

Information in this document is for information purposes only and is subject


to change without notice. The contents of this manual do not construe a com-
mitment by BRNI.

Portions of this software and related documentation are derived from and are
copyrighted by Symmetrix and Ceetron.

All brand and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Table of Contents

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1


1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.3 Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.4 Product Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.5 Starting CFdesign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.6 The Basic Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.7 CFdesign Client-Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
1.8 CFdesign File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
1.9 Compatibility with CFdesign 6.0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
1.10 Converting from I-DEAS-Based 5.0 to 7.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
1.11 Contact Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

CHAPTER 2 The User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2 The Basics of the User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.3 Tool Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.4 Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
2.5 Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2.6 Entity Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
2.7 Blanking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
2.8 Feature Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
2.9 Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
2.10 Task Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
2.11 Additional Parameters (Flags File) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27

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CHAPTER 3 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.2 What is Flow Geometry? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.3 Pro/Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.4 Parasolid and Acis Based CAD Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.5 Outlets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3.6 Lost List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.7 Suppressed Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.8 Third Party Mesh Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

CHAPTER 4 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.2 Physical Boundary Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.3 Application of Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.4 Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16

CHAPTER 5 Mesh Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2 Meshing Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.3 Application of Mesh Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
5.4 Generating the Mesh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14

CHAPTER 6 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


6.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2 The Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.3 Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
6.4 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15

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6.5 Resistances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17


6.6 Internal Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26
6.7 Centrifugal Pump/Blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-30
6.8 Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-34
6.9 Rotating Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-37
6.10 Moving Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-42
6.11 Graphical Indications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46
6.12 Feature Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-46

CHAPTER 7 Analysis Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2 Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.3 Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.4 Optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4

CHAPTER 8 Analyze and Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2 Analyze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14

CHAPTER 9 Viewing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1


9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.2 Results-Specific Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
9.3 Feature Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
9.4 Color Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
9.5 Cutting Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
9.6 Iso Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17

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9.7 Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18


9.8 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22
9.9 Dynamic Images: Design Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
9.10 Design Review Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28

CHAPTER 10 Results to FEA Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1


10.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.3 FEA Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3

CHAPTER 11 Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1


11.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.2 Definitions and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.3 Assembling a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.4 Managing Analyses in a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
11.5 Viewing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8

CHAPTER 12 Analysis Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1


12.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2 Incompressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.3 Basic Heat Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.4 Porous Media Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
12.5 Multiple Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
12.6 Boundary Layer Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
12.7 Periodic Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
12.8 Transient Flows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
12.9 Height of Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17

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12.10 Moist/Humid Flows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18


12.11 Steam/Water Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
12.12 Radiation Heat Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
12.13 Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-25
12.14 Joule Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-28
12.15 Motion Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-30
12.16 Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-44

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vi CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 1 Getting Started

1.1 Introduction

Congratulations and thank you for choosing CFdesign as your fluid flow design tool!

CFdesign 7.0 represents a major step forward for all engineers responsible for products that
incorporate fluid flow and heat transfer. CFdesign is a design tool, and incorporates many fea-
tures that make flow analysis a valuable and practical part of the product design process.

CFdesign has been developed from day one for multi-faceted product development teams
using MCAD tools such as Pro/Engineer, Autodesk Inventor, Solid Edge, Unigraphics, Solid
Works, and many others. Powered by proprietary numerical techniques and leading-edge com-
putational methods, CFdesign features a true associative relationship with components and
assemblies, and automatically applies the optimal mesh required for accurate fluid and thermal
simulations.

1.2 Overview

Starting in the CAD system of your choice, the component or assembly model you build is all
CFdesign needs to deliver a reliable fluid flow and heat transfer simulation. A direct link to the
major geometry engines eliminates the need for IGES, STEP, or STL. Make a change to the
model in your CAD system, and the change will be a part of the CFdesign analysis.

The intuitive user interface in CFdesign makes setting up the simulation very easy. Using engi-
neering language, the user simply applies the material and operating conditions that are
needed.

CFdesign solves the mathematical equations which represent heat and momentum transfer in a
moving fluid. The finite element method is used to discretize the flow domain, thereby trans-

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forming the governing partial differential equations into a set of algebraic equations whose
solution represent an approximation to the exact (and most often unattainable) analytical solu-
tion. The numerical formulation is derived from the SIMPLER solution scheme introduced by
Patanker1. More detail is available in the Technical Reference.

Results are displayed at every step of the calculation. The user can interact with the model, and
view intermediate results using cutting planes, iso surfaces, xy plots, and particle traces.

Because CFdesign is a design tool, it is very important that results from multiple analyses be
viewed, compared, and contrasted easily. The Design Review Center makes it easy to get a true
apples-to-apples comparison between all of the analyses in your project.

Sharing results with other members of the design supply chain is easy using the Dynamic
Image, a part of the Design Communication Center. Using our free plug in, interactive images
can be viewed in PowerPoint, Word, and Internet Explorer. The person viewing a Dynamic
Image can pan, zoom, and rotate the model, to see your results from every angle.

In many design situations, running many “what if” scenarios is the key to the optimal design.
Because of time constraints, a single license often just won’t get the job done. With the Fast
Track Option, our on-demand licensing plan, engineering groups can temporarily ramp up
their analysis capability in order to get the job done quickly. Unlike an ASP or “main frame”
scheme, this system allows engineering groups to utilize in-house computer resources without
having to send out proprietary data over the internet.

The interaction between a solid body in motion and the surrounding fluid is a key aspect to the
design of many mechanical devices. The CFdesign Motion Module brings this capability to the
world of product design as a key element of Upfront CFD. Through simulation, this Module
allows understanding the interaction between fluids and moving solids to be integral to the
product design process.

The flow analysis is often just the beginning in many analysis-design projects. Results from
CFdesign can be applied as structural boundary conditions for subsequent analysis with many
popular FEA packages. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic- induced pressures as well as temper-

1. Patankar, S.V., Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing,
New York, 1980

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atures can be interpolated directly onto the FEA mesh. This very powerful capability com-
pletes the “analysis circle,” and is a major integrating factor of CFdesign into the Design
Supply Chain.

Getting Started
1.3 Documentation

There are three books that make up the CFdesign documentation. They are:

Book Description
User’s Guide The fundamentals. Discusses geometry requirements, the user
interface, and analysis techniques
Examples Guide Tutorial models in a step-by-step format. Most facets of using
CFdesign are covered.
Technical Reference Verification models and underlying theory

This book, the User’s Guide, contains the following chapters:

Chapter Description
Chapter 1: Introduction Introductory information
Chapter 2: User Interface3 The CFdesign User Interface is described.
Chapter 3: Geometry Discusses required geometry, some things to avoid, and “inver-
sion” techniques to obtain the flow volume
Chapter 4: Loads Boundary Conditions and Initial Conditions
Chapter 5: Mesh Sizes Mesh sizes and guidelines
Chapter 6: Materials Assigning and creating materials
Chapter 7: Analysis Options Flow parameters
Chapter 8: Analyze and Review Running the analysis, the Fast Track option, and assessing con-
vergence
Chapter 9: Viewing Results Post processing tools
Chapter 10: Results to FEA How to map CFdesign results as loads for FEA analyses
Loads

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Chapter Description
Chapter 11: Projects Using projects for setting up analyses and for post-processing
(DRC)
Chapter 12: Analysis Guidelines Application-specific information

1.4 Product Configurations

CFdesign Solver comes in three different functionality configurations: Basic, Advanced, and
Motion.

Additional Advanced
Basic Solver Features Features Motion Features
Incompressible and Subsonic Full Compressible Rotating machinery
Compressible
Laminar flow Scalar models Linearly translating solids
(general scalar, steam/water,
moist air, volume filling)
Turbulent flow (three models) Transient
Heat Transfer Radiation
(conduction and convection)
Steady State Joule Heating

1.5 Starting CFdesign

Direct launchers for Pro/Engineer, Inventor, Solid Edge, and Solid Works are included in the
CFdesign 7.0 installation. Additionally, a new analysis can be created from a Parasolid or Acis

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file by launching CFdesign from the Desktop or Start Menu. The details of how to use each
launcher are discussed in the following table:
Pro/Engineer Hit Applications_Mechanica. From the Mechanica menu, click

Getting Started
CFdesign
Autodesk Inventor Hit Tools_InventorCFdesign_Launch CFdesign
Solid Edge Click the CFdesign icon in the Solid Edge Toolbar:

Solid Works Click the CFdesign icon in the Solid Works Toolbar:

Parasolid (.x_t) or Start CFdesign from the Desktop using the CFdesign
Acis (.sat) file shortcut icon:

1.5.1 New Analysis

A new analysis is always created from geometry.

When CFdesign is launched from a CAD system, the following dialog will prompt for an anal-
ysis name:

The analysis name can (and often should) be different from the CAD part or assembly name.
The reason is to allow multiple analyses based on the same CAD model to co-exist in the same
directory and not overwrite each other, even though the geometry has changed from one analy-
sis to the next.

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When CFdesign is launched from the Desktop to create a new analysis from an exist-
ing Parasolid or Acis file, hit the New icon in the CFdesign Toolbar:

and the following dialog will come up:

Make sure the Analysis bullet is selected. Select the desired geometry file (its name will appear
in the File Name field after it is picked), and enter an analysis name in the Analysis Name
field. Hit OK.

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1.5.2 Existing Analysis

Existing analyses are opened using the Open icon in the toolbar:

Getting Started
The file extension for an existing analysis is “.cfd”. Make sure the Analysis bullet is selected
near the bottom of the dialog box.

The only time it is required to open an existing analysis from the CAD system is if the geome-
try is from Pro/Engineer, AND you intend to construct a new mesh. Otherwise, always open
existing analyses by starting CFdesign from the Desktop or Start menu, hitting the Open icon,
and selecting the desired “.cfd” file. Note: if an existing analysis is launched from the CAD
system and run, a new mesh will be generated, even if the mesh definition is not changed.

1.5.3 Projects

A project is a collection of analyses--in the same way an assembly is a collection of parts in


most CAD tools. Projects have two primary functions: to facilitate model set up for similar
analyses and to facilitate post-processing of similar analyses. Both functions are described in
Chapter 11 of this Guide.

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Getting Started

Note: An analysis is ALWAYS created from geometry--when CFdesign is launched from a


CAD tool, an analysis is always either created or opened. It is NOT possible to go from a CAD
system (or a Parasolid or Acis file) directly to a project.

A project can, however, be created or opened from within an open analysis (thereby making
the analysis a member of the project):

(3) Project

(1) CAD (2) Analysis

The opposite is also possible: an existing analysis can be imported into a project.

Analysis

Project

Additionally, a project can be created or opened outside of an analysis by starting CFdesign


and hitting the New or Open icon, respectively, and selecting Project.

1.6 The Basic Process

This section briefly summarizes the process of setting up, running, and visualizing results with
CFdesign. Starting CFdesign from various CAD systems with the direct launchers and from
the Desktop is discussed in a prior section. After the analysis is named, the following general
steps must be taken:
1. On the Feature Tree, set the Analysis Length Units system.
2. Using the Loads Task Dialog, apply boundary conditions and, if
required, initial conditions.
3. In the Mesh Task Dialog, apply mesh sizes to volumes, and if required
for local refinement, to surfaces and edges.

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Getting Started

4. Switch to the Materials Task Dialog, and apply materials to all parts in
the model. If necessary, create custom materials and add them to the Materi-
als Database.
5. Using the Options Task Dialog, select the physical model(s) to be used

Getting Started
within the analysis.
6. In the Analyze Task Dialog, input the number of iterations to run and
the Results Save Interval. Hit GO to start the analysis.
7. During the analysis, switch to the Results task dialog to view the results
as they are calculated. Use the Convergence Monitor to keep an eye on the
solution progress.
8. When the analysis is finished, use the Review task dialog to assess the
final convergence and to ensure that the solution is converged.
9. Switch to the Results task dialog to view the results.
10. Optional: add this analysis to a new or existing project. Return to the
CAD system and modify the geometry. Launch back into CFdesign, and cre-
ate a new analysis. Place this analysis into the project. Transfer the settings
from the first analysis to this one, and run it.

While this may seem like a lot of steps, the User Interface is set-up to guide the user through
each, in the proper order. A separate icon controls each task dialog, and these icons are
arranged vertically on the side of the User Interface. By simply starting at the top-most icon
and working down, each task is performed easily and logically.

1.7 CFdesign Client-Server

1.7.1 Introduction

CFdesign is built upon a client-server model. The user interacts with CFdesign through the
Interface Client (CFdesign.exe). When the command to start the analysis is given, a signal is
sent to the Server (CFdserv7.exe) indicating that the analysis needs to begin. The Server in turn
sends a signal to the Solver (cfdcalc.exe). This last step initiates the transfer of the model data
from the Interface to the Solver and then instructs the Solver to commence with the calcula-
tion. While the analysis is running, the visual results are transferred from the Solver back to the

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Interface to provide for the Run-Time Results Display. When the analysis is complete, the
Server directs the Solver to send the final results back to the Interface.

On a stand-alone installation, this entire process is transparent to the user. After hitting Go, the
analysis runs, the analysis data files are kept in the user’s working directory as the communica-
tion between the Server and the Interface and Solver clients is managed automatically.

1.7.2 Fast Track

This client-server model allows CFdesign users to run analyses on a remote (networked) com-
puter. This kind of implementation is called Fast Track. The analysis model is constructed and
meshed on the local computer (using the CFdesign Interface), but the actual calculation occurs
on a remote computer. In this situation, the Server directs the Interface to put the analysis
model files physically on the remote Solver computer for the calculation. When completed, the
Server moves the files back to the Interface (User’s) computer.

1.7.3 Server Manager

For most installations, the Server is configured automatically during the installation process.
However, there is a dialog that controls the operation of the Server. Located in the installation
directory, this dialog is launched by clicking on servman.exe, and is shown:

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The Installation Directory is the CFdesign load point. The Analyze Directory, by default, is
a sub-directory within the CFdesign installation but can be any writable directory on the local
machine. This is where temporary files are written during the analysis. The Install button reg-
isters the Server as a Windows service. This causes the Server to start automatically every time

Getting Started
the machine is started. The Installation and Analyze Directory fields are set during the installa-
tion. They can be changed manually, if necessary. Additionally, the Server is started for the
first time during the Installation.

If the Server must be stopped (such as when installing an update to the Server), open this dia-
log, and click the Stop button. Be sure to start the service again after the new file is in place.

1.7.4 File Server Installation

1.7.4.1 Introduction:

CFdesign can be installed such that the installation files reside on a file server machine, and the
User Interface and Solver run on users’ local machines. The server process called CFD Server
7 runs locally and manages the communication between the User Interface and the Solver (this
is true for a single node installation as well). In this type of configuration, however, the service
(running on the local machine) must run under an account that has read-only access on the file
server machine. Otherwise, the service will not have the necessary privileges to send com-
mands to the executable residing on the file server.

As part of every analysis, temporary files are written to an “analyze” directory located on the
user’s machine. Additionally, a small program (the Server Manager) that configures and man-
ages the server process must also be installed on each user’s computer. A separate installation
program (CFdesign70_Remote_Installation.exe) is included on the installation CD that installs
these items, and must be run on each user’s machine. This is very quick, and installs the Server
Manager, creates a local Analyze directory, and creates the necessary environment variables.

1.7.4.2 Installation:

After installing the software on the file server, as described above, create a user account for the
service. This account should have read-write privileges in general, but can have read-only
access on the file server. Additionally, this account needs the “Log On As A Service” privilege.

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On each user’s machine, as administrator, run the CFdesign70_Remote_Installation.exe


found on the Installation CD. This will prompt for:
• The name of the file server machine: this is the file server computer
where the CFdesign software is installed.
• The name of the exported directory on the file server: this is the name of
the shared CFdesign installation directory.
• The account name and password of the service account.
• A directory on the local machine where the analyze directory and the
Server Manager are to be installed.

The Server Manager can be configured manually, if necessary. Use a UNC path (\\com-
puter\cfdesign70) for the Installation directory instead of a mapped drive (m:\cfdesign70).
When the Install button is pressed on the Server Manager, a prompt will appear asking for the
login name and password of the service account.

1.8 CFdesign File Types

There are four files that are saved for each CFdesign analysis:

Extension Description
cfd File that contains the entire analysis. All settings, results, and analysis parameters are
stored in this file. Parasolid and Acis based geometries are included in this file.
st Status file. Contains error messages, if a problem occurs. Lists residual values.
sum Summary file. Contains quantitative information about the analysis.
smh Summary history file. This contains all of the summary files from all re-starts.
res.s# Results file. Binary file containing raw results data from iteration #. This file does not
have to be in the working directory to view results, but is required to continue an anal-
ysis.

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Some additional files of interest:

Extension Description
pjt Project file. This lists the analyses in a project.

Getting Started
mdb Material database file. Can be modified and placed in a location of choice. Use
File_Preferences to indicate default location.
vtf Dynamic image file
vus View settings file

1.9 Compatibility with CFdesign 6.0

Converting your existing CFdesign 6.0 analyses to CFdesign 7.0 is very easy. Start CFdesign
7.0, and open your v6.0 analysis (“.cfd” file) into v7.0. The model will be converted to the new
file system, and you will be able to continue running your analyses.

CFdesign 6.0 analyses that are based on Pro/E geometry should be migrated to v7.0 in the
same manner: open the 6.0 cfd file directly in CFdesign 7.0. Do not go through Pro/E to con-
vert an existing v6 analysis into v7.

1.10 Converting from I-DEAS-Based 5.0 to 7.0

We have added an upgrade path for those users that have CFdesign 5.0 analyses that were
meshed in I-DEAS: Start CFdesign 7.0, and hit the Open icon. Change the File Type filter to
“.ctl”. Open the 5.0 ctl file. This will convert your I-DEAS-based 5.0 analysis into 7.0.

The purpose of this is only to convert the results into 7.0 format for archival purposes. It is not
possible to continue running the analysis in 7.0 after converting from 5.0.

Other CFdesign 5.0 analyses need to be first converted into CFdesign 6.0 before migrating to
v7.

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1.11 Contact Information

To contact us for support or to log a software enhancement request:

Target Number or Address


Phone Number 434.977.2764 (Support = Option 3)
Fax Number 434.977.2714
Support e-mail support@cfdesign.com
Password Request password@cfdesign.com
Sales e-mail info@cfdesign.com
web site http://www.cfdesign.com
ftp site ftp://ftp.cfdesign.com

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CHAPTE R 2 The User Interface

2.1 Introduction

This chapter describes how to use the CFdesign 7.0 User Interface without going into the tech-
nical specifics of the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis process. (This is discussed in later
chapters.) Details about customization, the tool buttons, the feature tree and dialog regions as
well as entity selection and groups are covered in this chapter.

2.2 The Basics of the User Interface

Menu
Region
File Tool Bar Display Tool Bar
Feature
Tree

Vertical
Tool Bar

Task Dialog
Region

Status Graphics
Bar Region

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The model is shown in the Graphics Region. The background color can be changed using the
Background Color tool button (described in the next section).

The File Tool Bar at the top controls file manipulation activities--Creating, Opening, and Sav-
ing files. The Display Tool Bar controls the display of the interface and the model. The Vertical
Tool Bar controls which task dialog shows in the Task Dialog Region. The Feature Tree lists
the applied parameters, and can be used to modify applied conditions (loads and mesh sizes).
Additionally, it is used to control the display of individual parts and materials in the model, and
to control the display of results quantities.

The Menu Region contains some commands for file manipulation and for setting user prefer-
ences. The main Help menu is also in the Menu Region. The Task Dialog Region contains the
main commands for setting up the analysis.

The default arrangement of the interface is shown in the above graphic. The display and loca-
tion of the Horizontal Tool Bar, the Feature Tree, and the Task Dialog Region is customizable.
To hide any of the entities, single click on the top bar of the Task Dialog Region (or left side of
the tool bars):

Windows
2000

Windows
XP

To resume a hidden object, click on the double lines under the Menu region:

Each of these items can be undocked (moved to a different location) by dragging on the double
lines with the left mouse button. If the object is released near an edge of the graphics window,

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it will become docked (will not block a displayed model). If an object is released away from an
edge, then that object will become separate, and will have its own title bar. It can be moved to
any desired location, and can occlude the graphics window.

An object can also be hidden by clicking the “X” in the upper right corner. To resume a closed
object, right click anywhere on another object (Feature Tree, Task Dialog Region, or Tool
Bars), and a menu will appear:

User Interface
Check the desired object to open it again. Additionally, an object can be hidden by unchecking
it on the list.

2.3 Tool Buttons

This section describes the tool buttons on the File and Display Tool Bars. Some additional but-
tons appear when in Results Display mode, and are discussed in Chapter 9.

Transparent Image Reset View Background Color


Outline Image Coordinate Axis
Shaded Image Perspective View
Wireframe Nav

New Previous View


Open Center of Rotation Zoom
Put to Project Save Dynamic Image Incremental Rotation
Save Analysis Save Image Z-Clip

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Left: New. This icon is used to create a new analysis or project.


Right: Open. This icon is used to open an existing analysis or project.
Put the current analysis into a project. This is displayed when an analy-
sis is open, and when pressed, the user is prompted to enter a new project
name or to select an existing project.
Bring an analysis into the current project. This is displayed only when
a project is open, and when pressed, the user is prompted to select an
analysis to add to the project.
Save the current project. This is displayed only when a project is open.
Hitting this icon saves the project and all analyses within the project.
(Note: analyses are saved automatically when the software is exited.)
Save the current analysis. When only an analysis is open, this saves the
analysis. When a project is open, this saves only the current analysis.
(Note: analyses are saved automatically when the software is exited.)
Save image. This saves a bitmap, gif, or tif image of the current contents
of the Graphics Region.

Save Dynamic Image. This saves a “.vtf” file, which is an image that
can be viewed in the free viewer distributed with CFdesign. It can also
be viewed in PowerPoint, Word, or Internet Explorer if the free plug-in
is installed (details in Chapter 9). Unlike a “traditional” image, this
image is navigable--it can be panned, rotated, and zoomed.
Shaded Image. The model is shown filled.

Outline Image. The model is shown as an outline.

Transparent Image. The model is shown transparent.

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Center of Rotation. This icon launches the following dialog: Use the

slider bars to adjust the center of rotation of the model. While this com-
mand is active, a sphere is drawn on the model, graphically indicating
the center of rotation.
Reset View. The model is returned to its default orientation.

User Interface
Z-Clip. This icon launches the following dialog:

Use the slider bars to clip into the model. Parts of the model that are
between the plane and the user are made invisible. The following is an
example of a clipping plane:

For some models with close parallel surfaces, reducing the Mesh Factor
increases the visual clarity of the clipped display.

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Standard Views and Incremental Rotation. This icon launches the fol-
lowing dialog:

The Standard View buttons orient the model using the Cartesian coordi-
nate system. The slider bars rotate the model in discrete increments
about the screen axes (positive x is to the right, positive y is up, and pos-
itive z is out of the screen), not the model axes.
Left: Zoom. After clicking this icon, hold down the left mouse button
and drag a box around the region to zoom. Release the button when fin-
ished dragging. The icon must be clicked again to zoom again.
Right: Previous View. Returns the model to the previous orientation and
zoom.
Wireframe Navigation. When enabled (pressed in), the model will nav-
igate in outline mode. When disabled, the model display does not change
when navigated.
Perspective View Toggle. When enabled, model is shown in Perspective
View.

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Coordinate Axis Toggle. When enabled, the model coordinate axis and
the axis bounding box are shown.

bounding box axis

model coordinate axis

User Interface
Note: Several functions in the Results task as well as Monitor Points use
model coordinates. These coordinates are referenced from the model
coordinate axis, which is positioned at the model origin.
Background Color Selection. This dialog allows the background color
as well the color scheme to be modified: the colors can be varied from
top to bottom, toward the corners, in a radial pattern, or as a constant. A
full color palette assists in color selection.

2.4 Menu Commands

The CFdesign user interface does not rely heavily on menus. This section describes the items
found in the two menus: File and Help.

2.4.1 File

_New, _Open

These menu items serve the same function as the New and Open tool buttons.

_Preferences

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This is a way to set preferred defaults and to customize the interface. The Preferences dialog is
shown:

Modifiable Parameter Description


Dialog Placement Sets the default location of the Dialog Region. Select the left
or right side of the interface. If the Feature Tree is positioned
on the same side, then the Top and Bottom bullets become
active, allowing placement near the top or bottom of the inter-
face.
Feature Tree Placement Sets the default location of the Feature Tree. Select the left or
right side of the interface. If the Dialog Region is positioned
on the same side, then the Top and Bottom bullets become
active, allowing placement near the top or bottom of the inter-
face.
Material database This sets which materials database CFdesign reads. (The
default material database is the one included in the CFdesign
installation folder.) If your organization uses custom materials,
this option allows use of a centrally located materials database.
Background Color The two default choices are black and white. Use the Back-
ground color icon to further customize the background color.
Startup Length Units The choices are the standard length units systems: meters, cm,
mm, feet, inch-BTU/s, and inch-Watt.

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Modifiable Parameter Description


Perspective view Choose to enable perspective view or disable it.
Navigate as wireframe Choose to navigate in outline mode or in the current display
mode.
Navigation Mode Choose mode 1 or mode 2. These modes are described in the
next section (Navigation).
Preserve Blanking when Change “Yes” causes blanking to not reset when the selection mode is
Selection Mode changed.
Blank Edges when Blank Volumes “Yes” causes edges to blank when the associated volume is
blanked. This is especially useful for very complex geome-
tries.
Show Coordinate Axes “Yes” displays the coordinate axes by default.

User Interface
All settings are invoked as soon as OK is hit. The exception is the Startup Length Units, which
is applied only when an analysis is created

_Save Analysis, _Save Project

These items perform the same function as the Save Analysis and Save Project tool buttons.

_Save Analysis As

Saves a copy of the current analysis to a new name and/or location.

Output_Support

Outputs a version of the cfd file that contains just the settings and the geometry, but no mesh or
results. This is a very small file, and is suitable for e-mailing to our CFdesign Technical Sup-
port Engineers. Such a file has an “_s” appended to its name.

Output_Results Share

A “.cfd” file containing the settings and results, but not the mesh. This is useful for sharing
your entire results set with someone else in the organization because it is significantly smaller
than the original cfd file. If the user opens such a file, they will be able to view results, but not

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run. Hitting Analyze_Go will result in the mesh being generated, and the solution starting back
at iteration 0. Results Share files have an “_r” appended to the original analysis name.

Output_Archive

An Archive file contains the settings, mesh, and only the last saved results set. This is useful
for analyses in which numerous results or time steps were saved during the run, but only the
last set needs to be saved. Also, the last results file (jobname.res.s# or jobname.res.t#) is saved.
An “_a” file can be continued simply by hitting Analyze_Go. This file is most suitable for
archival purposes IF intermediate result sets or time steps are not required.

_Exit

Closes the CFdesign User Interface. If the analysis is not running, it will be automatically
saved. If an analysis is running, the Exit command shuts down only the Interface--the analysis
will continue to run.

2.4.2 Help

_About

Shows the build number of the current installation. You may be asked for this by a CFdesign
Technical Support Engineer.

_Licensing

This item brings up a dialog that shows the current license status. This is a very useful tool for
troubleshooting license problems. The dialog indicates which license server the software is
looking to for a license. It also indicates the number of Interface and Solver licenses available.

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2.5 Navigation

There are two mouse navigation modes. The default is mode 1:

Navigation Mode 1 Navigation Mode 2

Ctrl + Left Mouse Button = zoom Left Mouse Button = zoom

Ctrl + Middle Mouse Button = rotate Middle Mouse Button = rotate

Ctrl + Right Mouse Button= pan Right Mouse Button = pan

Left Mouse Button = select/deselect (when in a Cntl + Left Mouse Button = select/deselect

User Interface
command) (when in a command)

2.6 Entity Selection

The selection mode (on the Loads and Mesh dialogs) controls which type of entity is select-
able: volume, surface, or edge.

Selection Mode
Selection Basis

The Selection Mode can be changed on the Loads and Mesh dialogs, but on Materials, it is set
to only Volumes or Surfaces (3D or 2D models, respectively).

The Selection Basis allows for associative selection and the selection of groups. Associativity
is based on geometry, and provides a quick way to select multiple entities that are related to the
Selection Basis type (surfaces owned by a volume, for example). Entities of the type shown in
the Selection Basis menu will highlight as the mouse is moved over them. When picked, all of
the items of the current selection mode that are associated with the picked item will be
selected. Groups will be discussed later in this chapter.

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The Selection Basis modes for each selectable entity are:

Selectable Entity Selection Basis


Volume Direct -- Volumes are highlighted and are selected
By Material -- All volumes that have the same material are highlighted
and selected together.
Surface Direct -- Surfaces are highlighted and are selected
By Volume -- Volumes are highlighted, and all surfaces touching a picked
volume are selected.
Edge Direct -- Edges are highlighted and are selected
By Surface -- Surfaces are highlighted, and all edges touching a picked
surface are selected.
By Volume -- Volumes are highlighted, and all edges touching a picked
volume are selected.

The four buttons adjacent to the Selection Basis drop menu simplify selection and deselection
of multiple entities:

Select All available entities


Select Previously selected entities
Deselect highlighted
(in the Selection List) entity Deselect All selected entities

When the mouse hovers over an entity, it turns green. When an entity is selected, it turns red.
When the mouse hovers over an already selected entity, it turns yellow.

To deselect an entity, simply click on it again, or highlight it in the Selection List and hit the
Deselect button.

To be selectable, an entity must not be occluded by another entity. If there is an entity blocking
the line of sight to the desired entity, use the right mouse button to blank its display (see the
next section).

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When an item is selected, its label is shown in the Selection List. Multiple selected items can

be highlighted in the list using the Windows “standard” selection methods--hold down the con-
trol key while clicking on items to select multiple items; hold down the shift key while clicking

User Interface
on items to select a range.

2.7 Blanking

An entity can be blanked by right clicking the mouse on it. Only entities of the type in the cur-
rent selection mode will be blanked. To redisplay all blanked entities, right click the mouse
somewhere off of the model. Shown is a model with some surfaces blanked. Note how the sur-
face underneath is now visible, and therefore pickable.

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Blanking entities is very useful when applying boundary conditions and mesh sizes to allow
easy access to objects in the background.

2.8 Feature Tree

The Feature Tree has several functions that assist in setting up and running a CFdesign analy-
sis. Some of the branches allow certain analysis settings to be made. Other branches list exist-

ing settings, and allow them to be modified easily. Most of the branches will be described with
their relative chapters (the Boundary Conditions and Initial Conditions branches will be dis-
cussed in the Loads chapter, for example). This section describes the branches that are specific
to the Feature Tree, and are not associated with a Dialog Task.

2.8.1 Units

When an analysis is created, the default units system will be meters (unless the default was
changed using File_Preferences).

For Pro/Engineer geometries, changing the units system only changes the analysis length unit-
-it DOES NOT convert any dimensions in the model.

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For geometries originating in other CAD systems that are Parasolid or Acis based, the Units
branch works slightly differently. Because most CAD systems output geometry in meters (con-
verted from the working units system), CFdesign will set the analysis units to meters, when it
reads in the geometry file. Unless the geometry was originally built in meters, the model will
have different dimensions in CFdesign than in the CAD system. To convert the units system,
simply select (left click on) the desired units system from the Length Units branch of the
Feature Tree.

To make this process easier, it is recommended that you set the default units system in
File_Preferences to the working units system in your CAD system. When geometry is read
into CFdesign for a new analysis, the analysis units system will automatically be set, and the
length dimensions of the model will be the same as in the CAD system (they will be automati-
cally converted from meters to the default units system during the import).

User Interface
When reading in a geometry file and the dimensions are correct but the unit system is not,
change just the units system (without changing any model dimensions) by right clicking on the
desired unit system, and selecting Change Length Unit Only. This is applicable if the CAD
system does not convert the units to meters when exporting geometry. Autodesk Inventor
behaves this way.

2.8.2 Coordinate Systems

For three dimensional analyses, there are two available coordinate systems: Cartesian (XYZ)
and cylindrical (RTZ). Cartesian is used for most analyses, and is the default. The cylindri-
cal system is useful for geometries oriented about the Z axis in which velocity boundary condi-
tions are radial and/or tangential.

For two dimensional analyses, the choices are Cartesian, Cylindrical, and Axisymmetric about
the X and Axisymmetric about the Y.

A two dimensional Cartesian geometry is always assumed to have a unit depth.

An axisymmetric geometry is a three dimensional geometry that is uniform in the tangential


direction. Because of this uniformity, a single slice through the geometry can be simulated as a
two dimensional model. The nice thing about axisymmetric modelling is that a two dimen-
sional analysis can give correct results for a three dimensional model. An example of axisym-
metric geometry is a straight pipe.

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It is recommended that axisymmetric geometries be constructed in the first quadrant. Geome-


tries that are axisymmetric about the x-axis cannot cross the x-axis because the x-axis is the
center-line. Likewise, geometries that are axisymmetric about the y-axis cannot cross the y-
axis. A unit radian depth is always assumed for axisymmetric geometries.

2.8.3 Parts

Every part in the CAD model will be listed as a branch in the Parts section. The main function
of this branch is to set individual part view parameters.

Left click on a part to highlight its display.

Right click on a part to bring up a menu with the following items: Outline and Transparent.

In Analyze (during the run), Review, and Results modes, the Parts branch is not displayed in
the Feature Tree. Individual part display attributes are set using the Materials branch.

2.9 Groups

2.9.1 Introduction

Geometric entities such as volumes, surfaces, or edges can be grouped based on part name,
material, common mesh size or boundary condition. Groups of entities can then be selected
with a button click to add additional settings. Groups of surfaces can also be selected for
assessing wall results (post processing).

A Group is a homogeneous collection of entities: volumes, surfaces, or edges. A group cannot


contain a combination of entities (such as a mixture of volumes and surfaces, for example).

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2.9.2 Creating Groups

Create a group by right clicking on the main


Group branch in the feature tree, and select
“Create Group”

A dialog will come up prompting for a group


name.

Groups can be created on the fly if desired.


This can occur when entities are added to

User Interface
groups, and will be described in the next sec-
tion.

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2.9.3 Adding Entities (and Creating Groups on the Fly)

2.9.3.1 Adding Parts from the Feature Tree

1. Parts can be added to groups by right


clicking on part ids listed in the Parts branch
of the feature tree.

(Note that multiple selection of entities in the


tree using shift key-Windows standard multi-
ple picking is supported.)

2. After selecting the desired parts, right


click, and select “Add to Group.”
3. A menu will come up listing available
groups. Select the desired group from the list.
4. To create a group on the fly, select “Cre-
ate Group.” The Create Group dialog will
prompt for a name. After entering the name,
the selected parts are added to the group.

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2.9.3.2 Adding Parts by Name

1. Parts can also be added to an existing


group by right clicking on a group name, and
selecting Add by Name.
2. Use a regular expression to type in part of
the name that is common to the parts to be
added to the group. (Be sure to check the Reg-
ular Expression box.)

For example, to add multiple parts with the


word “chip” in their name, enter “*chip*”, and

User Interface
all parts that have the word chip somewhere in
their name will be added to the group.

2.9.3.3 Adding Entities with Applied Conditions

Any volume, surface, or edge that has an


applied mesh size or boundary condition can
be added to a group:
1. Right click on an entity with an applied
condition in the feature tree, and select “Add
to Group”.
2. All entities with the same applied setting
can be added to a group by right clicking on an
applied condition under an entity in the fea-
ture tree, and select “Add by Value to
Group.”

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2.9.3.4 Adding Multiple Entities From The Selection List

When applying loads, mesh sizes, or materials,


the currently selected entities can be added to a
group by right clicking in the Selection window,
and selecting Add to Group.

2.9.4 Removing Entities from Groups

Right click on an entity (or entities) under the


Group branch, and select Delete. This will
remove the item(s) from the group.

2.9.5 Deleting Groups

Delete an individual group by right clicking on it


in the Group branch of the feature tree.

Delete all groups by right clicking on the top


level Groups branch of the tree, and selecting
Delete All.

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2.9.6 Displaying Grouped Entities

To show only the contents of a group, right click


on the group label (under the Groups branch),
and select Display Group Only.

To re-display the rest of the model, right click in


the graphics window, off of the model.

2.9.7 Using Groups

User Interface
On the Loads, Mesh, and Materials dialogs,
groups are listed in the Selection Basis
menu. Only groups containing the type of
entity of the current selection type are
listed.
When a group is selected, the entities are
added to the Selection List.
Individual items can be deselected or addi-
tional items added.

Groups of surfaces can be selected for use with a Wall Results calculation. The group must
have existed during the last run (if it did not exist, simply run 0 iterations prior to examining
wall results). To access a group of surfaces, right click in the Wall Results dialog Selection list,
and select the appropriate group. The surfaces in the group will be added to the Selection list,
and wall results on those surfaces will be reported.

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The User Interface

2.10 Task Dialogs

The Task Dialogs shown in the Task Dialog Region are activated by clicking on one of the tool
buttons in the vertical tool bar. A good sequence to follow when setting up an analysis is to
work vertically through the tool buttons.

Loads
Mesh Sizes
Materials
Options
Analyze
Review
Results
Load Transfer

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The User Interface

Below is a brief description of each task. The following chapters go into much more detail
about the use and application of each of these dialogs.

Loads
Boundary conditions and initial conditions are
applied with the Loads Command Dialog.
Items such as velocity, pressure, and temperature are
applied to the surfaces of a model (to edges in 2D mod-
els).
Volumetric heat generation and total heat generation are
applied to volumes (to surfaces in 2D models).
Select the units for each boundary and initial condition
type.

User Interface
Transient (time-dependent) boundary conditions are also
applied and defined in the Loads task.

Mesh Sizes
A mesh has to be constructed which divides the
entire geometry into small pieces, or elements.
Each element has four nodes, one at each corner. The
finite element equations are then solved at each node in
the model.
This dialog allows the user to specify the element size in
the length unit of the model. A great deal of flexibility
and control over the mesh size is available in that mesh
sizes can be applied to volumes, surfaces, and edges.
The Mesh Enhancement parameters are adjusted by hit-
ting the Mesh Enhancement button.

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The User Interface

Materials
The physical material of each part is assigned
with this dialog. A materials database including fluids
and solids is included with the software, and the entries
are selected from the Name drop menu.
Materials can be modified and added to the materials
database by clicking on the Create/Edit Material button.
This dialog is also used to define and assign distributed
resistances, internal fans, and check valves.

Options
The physics to be solved in an analysis are set in
the Options dialog. The defaults are good for many analy-
ses--flow, incompressible, no heat transfer--but are easily
changed if necessary.
The Turbulence button allows the user to change the tur-
bulence model.
The Scalars button allows the user to enable one of the
scalar models (general scalar, steam, and humidity.)

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The User Interface

Analyze
After the analysis is set up, use this dialog to start
the calculation.
Set the Analysis Mode to Steady State (the default) or
Transient. The Results and Summary Output Intervals are
also set.
The Analysis Computer is chosen here. This is for the Fast
Track Option--the ability to run the analysis on a com-
puter different from the one used to build the geometry
and set-up the analysis.
The analysis can always be stopped by hitting the Stop

User Interface
button (which replaces the Go button during the analysis).
Solution under-relaxation controls are accessible with the
Convergence Control button.
Select additional output quantities from the Result Quan-
tities dialog.

Review
This dialog contains numerous functions. Before
the analysis, it is used to set up Monitor Points (points in
space on which convergence can be monitored).
After the analysis the Summary and Status files are acces-
sible from the Notes tab. These files contain information
about the results as well as the analysis.
The Results tab lists all saved results (and time) steps, and
provides a way to include them in an animation.
The Animate tab animates the results sets made active in
the Results tab.

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The User Interface

Results
The Results dialog contains a great deal of post-
processing functionality.
The Cutting Plane, a 2D slice through the model on which
color results and/or vectors are shown, is the primary tool,
and is the basis for particle traces, XY plots, and bulk data
output.
The Iso Surface is a surface of constant value, and is a great
way of visualizing flow and temperature distributions.
Flow-induced forces, convection coefficients, tempera-
tures, and pressures on walls are calculated using the Wall
tab.
Settings for cutting plane and vector display are set with
the Settings tab.

Transfer
This dialog makes it easy to convert CFdesign
flow results (pressures and temperatures) to boundary con-
ditions in several FEA structural codes.
Ansys, Nastran, Abaqus, Mechanica, Cosmos, and
FEMAP, and I-DEAS are supported.

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The User Interface

2.11 Additional Parameters (Flags File)

There are some additional parameters that control output of optional files as well as provide
additional control to the way geometry is handled. These parameters are located in a file called
cfdesign_flags.txt, located by default in the CFdesign installation directory. An environment
variable called CFDESIGNTEMP must point to the location of this file. This file can be moved
to a different location, but the environment variable must be updated to point to the new loca-
tion.

The variables in the flags file, their parameters, and their meanings are shown:
unv_mesh_flag A A = 0: off; Outputs an I-DEAS universal file containing

User Interface
A = 1: on just the mesh. (jobname_mesh.unv). Mesh
Enhancement must be turned off.
(off by default)
nodal_out_flag A A = 0: off; Outputs a csv file (jobname_nodal.csv) that
A = 1: on lists results for every node in the analysis
model.
(off by default)
tecplot_flag A A = 0: off; Outputs a Tecplot-compatible file (job-
A = 1: on name.tec) of the results field.

(off by default)
fieldview_flag A A = 0: off; Outputs a Fieldview-compatible file (job-
A = 1: on name.fld) of the results field.

(off by default)
femap_out_flag A A = 0: off; Outputs a Femap-compatible file (job-
A = 1: on name.fmp) of the results field.

(off by default)
protool fillvoids A A = 0: off; Controls automatic creation of core volume
A = 1: on for Pro/E geometries. (See chapter 3 for more
details.)
(ON by default)

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The User Interface

2-28 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 3 Geometry

3.1 Introduction

CFdesign has very strong ties to most of the CAD tools used in industry today. By using the
same geometry engines found in these CAD systems, CFdesign reads the native model without
the need for Step or IGES translations. Parametric changes to the geometry are read directly
into CFdesign, and model settings from similar analyses are automatically applied to the mod-
ified geometry.

This functionality allows two things to occur very easily: The first is that multiple design alter-
natives can be analyzed very easily--without having to go to great lengths to fix IGES or Step
translations for each “what if” scenario. The second is that corporate PLM/PDM initiatives are
supported--geometry manipulation occurs ONLY in the CAD system, where it can be tracked
and archived. When geometry is manipulated in a third party system (such as many of the other
CFD tools), changes often get lost, or simply have to be re-created in the CAD system--thereby
doubling the work. With CFdesign, such issues are not a problem.

This chapter describes the type of CAD geometry needed to successfully run a flow analysis.
Guidelines for what is needed, techniques for how to obtain it, and troubleshooting tips are pre-
sented. Guidelines specific to Pro/Engineer and to Parasolid/Acis based CAD systems are dis-
cussed.

3.2 What is Flow Geometry?

Geometry used for a typical fluid flow analysis is often different than that used in a structural
analysis. There are two broad classifications of flow geometry: internal and external. Examples
of internal flows include pipe flow, valve flow, and flow in electronic enclosures. Examples of
external flows, also called submerged flows, include flow over a car, an airplane wing, or a
missile.

CFdesign User’s Guide 3-1


Geometry

For internal flows, a flow “core” must be created from the existing surrounding geometry. The
outer walls of the volume are omitted (unless they are to be used as part of a heat transfer cal-
culation) and the interior volume of the pipe is modeled.

In contrast, in a structural analysis the walls of the pipe would be meshed and the interior
would be omitted from the calculation domain:

Another description of the interior volume is this: a pipe is filled with water and the water is
allowed to freeze. Now, imagine that the pipe walls are removed, and all that remained was the
solid volume of ice. This volume is where the fluid exists, and is the geometry that would be
created and meshed for a CFD analysis of flow through that pipe.

For external flows, it is customary to “invert” the geometry, meaning that the object will be
made stationary and the flow will be blown over it at the equal and opposite speed of the

3-2 CFdesign User’s Guide


Geometry

object. To implement this as analysis geometry, two pieces of geometry are needed: the object
itself (missile, car, bullet, etc.) and a large calculation domain in which the object is positioned:

Geometry
The shape of the domain is usually not very critical, and can be a circle, semi-circle, rectangle,
sphere, or box. Because the flow all around the object is being modeled, it is a good idea to
make the computational domain substantially larger than the object itself. More detail about
the relative size of the calculation domain will be discussed in Chapter 12 of this Guide.

CFdesign User’s Guide 3-3


Geometry

3.3 Pro/Engineer

This section discusses geometry considerations specific to Pro/Engineer.

3.3.1 Automatic Flow Core Creation in Pro/E

Many models constructed in Pro/E consist of just the physical solids (the pipe wall, for exam-
ple). In earlier versions of CFdesign, it was necessary to manually create the flow volume in
Pro/E. To reduce the amount of time and effort needed to prepare a Pro/E geometry for analy-
sis, CFdesign 7.0 has the ability to convert a fully enclosed void into a meshable volume.

3.3.1.1 Applying Void Filling

In the following example, the pipe wall and two internal parts were created in Pro/Engineer:

3-4 CFdesign User’s Guide


Geometry

To prepare this for a flow analysis, simply add a cap to both ends of the pipe:

The Pro/E geometry shown above consists of five parts: the pipe wall, the two internal compo-
nents, and the two end caps. In this example, the caps are constructed using the inner diameter
of the pipe wall, and extruded into the pipe. Alternatively, the caps could have been extruded
out of the pipe, or have been built using the outer diameter of the pipe wall.

When brought into CFdesign 7.0, the internal volume is automatically created:

Geometry

The two internal parts are automatically cut from the newly created flow volume.

CFdesign User’s Guide 3-5


Geometry

This feature is available for both Pro/E 2001 and Pro/E Wildfire.

3.3.1.2 Invoking Void Filling

Pro/E Void Filling is enabled by default. To deactivate it, make the following entry in your
cfdesign_flags.txt file. A value of 1 activates fill voids, a value of 0 disables it:

PROTOOL FILLVOIDS 0

The cfdesign_flags.txt file can be placed anywhere on your local computer. Be sure to set an
environment variable called CFDESIGNTEMP to point to the location of your flags file. Its
default location is in the CFdesign installation directory.

3.3.1.3 Guidelines

Components built in Pro/E must not interfere, so care must still be taken to eliminate part inter-
ferences from the Pro/E model.

There are a few guidelines that should be observed or the automatic void creation will not
work:
• Parts that are inside of the void must not protrude through the outer wall
of the geometry. If this occurs, the void filling will fail. This is shown:

Part must not protrude


through end cap

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Geometry

• End caps must not extend beyond the geometry surrounding an opening.
In this pipe example, the cap must not extend beyond the outer diameter
of the pipe. An example that will fail is shown:

End cap extends beyond outer


edge of geometry.

This will NOT produce a flow


volume.

3.3.2 Volume and Surface Regions

There are situations in two and three dimensional geometry where it is advantageous to divide
a surface or volume into smaller areas. This is especially useful for boundary condition place-
ment, and sometimes for greater control over mesh density. In Pro/E, create a surface region to
divide a surface into smaller surfaces or a volume region to divide a volume into smaller vol-
umes. CFdesign will read in these divisions, and allow boundary conditions and mesh defini-

Geometry
tions on the new surfaces and edges.

CFdesign User’s Guide 3-7


Geometry

An example in Pro/E is shown:

The procedure to create a surface region follows (volume region creation is similar):
1. Click on Applications_Mechanica.
2. On the Mechanica menu, select Structure.
3. Select Model_Features_Surf Region_Create. At this point, click either
Sketch to sketch the region, or Select if datum curves already exist which
define the region. Click Done.
4. If Sketch was selected, you will be prompted to select a sketch plane and to
orient it.
5. You will then be in Sketch mode. Draw and dimension the region.
6. After completing the section, you will be asked to select the surface(s) to be
split. Do so, then hit Done Sel and Done.

When CFdesign is started, you will see the region as another surface.

3.3.3 Two Dimensional Geometry

Often two dimensional geometry is useful for simulating axisymmetric geometry or for a sim-
ply “first crack” at an analysis. To create a two dimensional feature, do the following:

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Geometry

1. Click Feature_Create_Surface_Flat.
2. Position the drawing (the XY plane is the recommended orientation).
3. If the geometry is an axisymmetric model, be sure to position it relative to
the x or y axis properly. If the geometry is axisymmetric about the x axis, it
cannot cross the x axis. If it is axisymmetric about the y axis, it cannot cross
the y axis. We recommend that axisymmetric geometry be constructed in the
first quadrant of the coordinate axis.
4. Proceed into CFdesign exactly as you would for a three dimensional model.

3.3.4 Interferences

When working with assemblies, it is very important in Pro/Engineer geometries that no parts
interfere (take up the same volume). If two or more parts do interfere, the mesher will fail.

Very often there are parts that are physically inside other parts. Care must be taken to ensure
that internal parts are first cut out of surrounding parts, and that they do not interfere. On the
screen it may appear that the model is correct simply by placing a solid inside another (that’s
what one would do physically!), but in Pro/E, it is necessary to first cut out internal solids from
the surrounding air. Once that is done, the internal part and the surrounding parts do not inter-
fere.

Shown is an example of two parts that interfere

Geometry
To check for interference in Pro/E, do the following:
1. From the Pro/E main menu, click Analysis_Model Analysis.
2. Select Global Interference from the Type menu.
3. Hit the Compute button.

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Geometry

Any parts that interfere will be highlighted. To fix an interference, it may be necessary to move
one or more parts, cut one part from another (see Section 3.3.2), or to delete parts. Every model
is different, so the solution will be dependent on the goal of the analysis. Shown are a couple of
examples of fixed geometry:

3.3.5 Accuracy

When working with assemblies, it is recommended that all the parts in the assembly (and the
assembly itself) have the same absolute accuracy. In many cases, it might not matter, but if you
try to launch into CFdesign, and both Pro/E and CFdesign crash, you should adjust the accura-
cies of the parts and assemblies in your model.

By default, absolute accuracy is not enabled in Pro/E. To turn it on, a configuration setting
called enable_absolute_accuracy needs to be set. To do this:
1. From the Pro/E main menu, click on Utilities_Preferences.
2. Click on the Find button, and search for the keyword “accuracy”. Select
enable_absolute_accuracy, and change the value to Yes.

To set the absolute accuracy for the parts and assembly, first find out what the absolute accu-
racy is for the smallest part, then change the absolute accuracy of the other parts to that of the
smallest:
1. Open the part, and click on Setup_Accuracy (from the Part or assembly
menu).

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Geometry

2. Pro/E will prompt for a relative accuracy, so click the ESC key, and select
Absolute Accuracy.
3. Select Absolute, and Enter Value, and enter the value for absolute accuracy.
4. Click the Check mark, and the part will regenerate.

Modifying the part and assembly accuracy to absolute is not always necessary, but if there are
parts with very small features and larger parts in the same assembly, it can be very useful for
preventing crashes.

Also, if automatic void filling is enabled but fails to create the internal volume (assuming that
the guidelines in the void filling section of this chapter are followed), it may be necessary to
modify the accuracy on the parts and assembly to be absolute. If the void filling still fails,
using a smaller accuracy value might correct the problem.

When using simulation volume regions (particularly in Wildfire), if they do not appear as a
separate volume from the surrounding part (in CFdesign), then setting the accuracy to absolute
(and then using a smaller value if necessary) will often cause the volume region to be consid-
ered as a separate part.

3.3.6 When Pro/E Must be Running

For a new analysis, CFdesign MUST be launched from Pro/E. When you do this, you will see

Geometry
that Pro/E minimizes, and is in a “sleep” state. You will also notice that when you hit the GO
button on the Analyze window in CFdesign, Pro/E comes back, but is working. The mesh is
actually being generated by CFdesign by reading the part geometry from the Pro/E database. It
is accessing the part and assembly information in the same way that Pro/Mesh accesses it. For
this reason, CFdesign must be launched from Pro/E when the goal is to generate a mesh.

Once CFdesign returns, the analysis proceeds automatically. Pro/E returns to a “sleep” state,
and cannot be accessed. To access Pro/E, do one of the following:
1. Set the number of iterations to 0, so that after meshing and pre-processing,
the analysis does not proceed. Exit out of CFdesign, and then exit out of Pro/
E. Start CFdesign from the Desktop, open the analysis, and run it.
2. While the analysis is running shut down the CFdesign interface. (The analy-
sis will continue to run.) After the interface is shutdown, Pro/E can be
accessed or shut down as required.

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Geometry

If a mesh exists, and if the goal is to do anything (modify boundary conditions, materials, run
more iterations, view results, etc.) other than generate a new mesh, CFdesign can be started
from the Desktop or Start Menu. Open the “.cfd” file.

3.3.7 Split Surfaces in Pro/E

When a three dimensional part is divided by another part into multiple volumes, the result will
be “split surfaces.” The problem with split surfaces is that they are considered by the Pro/E
model to be a single surface (even though there are disconnected). When a boundary condition
is applied to one of these surfaces, it may be lost or will jump to the other surface when the
analysis is saved. An example is shown:
Original part, divided by an
Original part additional part.

Two surfaces, but considered


to be the same by Pro/E. Settings
applied to one surface may be lost or
“jump” to the other.

An easy fix is to add a protrusion or cut feature to one of the volumes so that the surfaces are
unique. This will prevent conditions from jumping or being lost.

3.4 Parasolid and Acis Based CAD Systems

This section discusses geometry issues that are specific to the Parasolid and Acis-based CAD
systems. Such systems include Inventor (Acis), Solid Edge (Parasolid), Unigraphics (Para-
solid), Solid Works (Parasolid), and CAD-Key (Acis).

3-12 CFdesign User’s Guide


Geometry

3.4.1 The Internal Core

The internal flow core will be created by CFdesign provided that the internal volume is com-
pletely enclosed. This means that when the open ends of an internal flow geometry are capped
with either a surface or volume and then read into CFdesign, the internal core will be generated
automatically. This is illustrated below:

Step 1: Pipe geometry--only the physical solids exist (pipe wall and poppet):

Step 2: Pipe geometry with newly-created volumes at the ends (pipe wall, poppet, and two end

Geometry
caps). The end caps were created by extruding the inner-radius curves of the pipe. This extends
the flow volume slightly, but they can be omitted from the meshing if necessary.

CFdesign User’s Guide 3-13


Geometry

Note: For Acis geometries, it is recommended that the end caps be larger than the ends. The
following graphic shows this:

Step 3: Geometry read by CFdesign--the flow core has been created automatically, and is
shown as the highlighted volume. Notice that there are now five volumes listed in the Materi-
als branch of the Feature Tree--the pipe wall, the poppet, the two end caps, and the flow vol-
ume.

If there are objects inside of the flow volume (like a poppet for example), they will automati-
cally be embedded into the flow volume. This means that it is not necessary to cut out sub-
merged objects from their surrounding geometry.

For Solid Works-based analyses, if a geometric change is made to an existing analysis model
such that the topology of an internal core volume is changed, the volume settings (volume
mesh size and material definition) will be lost from that core volume. Such a change would be
the addition or removal of a part or features of a part that are inside the void. The reason for
this is that core volumes are not created in the CAD tool, they are created by CFdesign when
the geometry is read in. Because of this, there is no direct geometric link between the core vol-
ume and the original CAD model. Settings on geometric entities created in the CAD tool will
be preserved for most topological changes, however.

If it is not necessary (or desirable) to mesh various solids in a model (the pipe wall and poppet,
for example), then a no-mesh condition can be applied to them during the mesh definition step.
(This is covered in more detail in the Meshing chapter--Chapter 5). In the preceding example,
because the flow volume was created based on the solid geometry, the poppet is cut out from
the flow volume, and fluid will not pass through this region even if the poppet is not meshed.

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Geometry

3.4.2 Submerged Objects and External Flows

Many analysis models have physical solids that are submerged in the flow. Such objects are
often involved in a heat transfer analysis, and may carry a heat load. The method for dealing
with submerged objects is very simple: Place them in the desired location within the surround-
ing volume. It is not necessary to remove interferences or to cut an internal part from the sur-
rounding volume. CFdesign will do this automatically. The following graphics illustrate this.

Step 1: An empty box representing the air in an electronics box.

Step 2: Components are simply placed inside the box in the appropriate locations.

Geometry

Step 3: As the model is read into CFdesign, the components are automatically cut from the air
to remove all geometric interferences. Proper connectivity between all contacting parts is auto-
matically ensured.

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Geometry

In our example, the air volume in the CAD system was only a box. As CFdesign read the
geometry, voids for the internal components were cut into the air. This is why the internal
curves highlight when the air volume is selected.

This applies to both internal flows with submerged objects (examples include valves with pop-
pets and electronic packages), and for external flows simulating the flow over a moving object.
To include the obstruction as a meshable volume in the analysis model, simply place it in the
surrounding volume at the desired location.

3.4.3 Two Dimensional Geometry

Often two dimensional geometry is useful for simulating axisymmetric geometry or for simply
an initial attempt at an analysis. A Parasolid or Acis surface in the XY plane is necessary for
such an analysis.

Axisymmetric geometries must be constructed relative to the x or y axis properly. If the geom-
etry is axisymmetric about the x axis, it cannot cross the x axis. If it is axisymmetric about the
y axis, it cannot cross the y axis. We recommend that axisymmetric geometry be constructed in
the first quadrant of the coordinate axis.

3.4.4 Part Names

Part names assigned in Parasolid- and Acis-based CAD tools will now appear in the CFdesign
7.0 feature tree. Only part names are listed in the Parts branch of the feature tree; assemblies
are not listed.

From Solid Works, the naming convention of a part is based on the parent assembly and any
parts that surround that part. For example, a part called small-chip is a member of a sub-
assembly called left-board_asm. This part is also surrounded by a part called test-box. The
part name in the feature tree would then be:

TEST-BOX_U_SMALL-CHIP-4@LEFT-BOARD_ASM

The “U” indicates that the part SMALL-CHIP is surrounded by the part TEST-BOX.

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Geometry

If a part is used multiple times in an assembly, an instance number will be attached to the part
name. In the example above, this part was the fourth instance of the part SMALL-CHIP.

If the geometry was not launched from Solid Works, the part names will be a combination of
the CAD part name and any part that completely surrounds it. The name of the part listed
above would be:

TEST-BOX_U_SMALL-CHIP^4

In some cases, the actual part name (without the surrounding part or assembly) will be listed in
the feature tree. This is typically because the part is surrounded by an automatically-created
flow volume.

Note that internal core parts that are created by CFdesign will be assigned the generic name
“volume”. This is because such parts were not created in the native CAD tool, and hence did
not have a name. Also, the name of internal core parts will not be used within the names of
other parts they completely surround.

3.5 Outlets

More information about boundary conditions will be supplied in the Loads chapter (Chapter

Geometry
4), but it is worth pointing out some important geometric considerations regarding outlets.
CFdesign assumes that flow is normal to the outlet and that there are no gradients in the normal
direction.

For this reason, it is important to create flow outlets away from sudden turns or contractions. If
the outlet is too close, the flow cannot reach a fully developed state, which is the condition
assumed by CFdesign. Also, if the outlet is too close to an expansion area, reversed flow could
result (flow re-entering).

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Geometry

This may cause convergence difficulties:

NO YES

3.6 Lost List

When changes are made to a geometry (often as the next design alternative), a new analysis is
created and added to a project containing previous analyses of similar geometry. The settings
(boundary conditions, mesh sizes, materials, options) can be read from an existing analysis and
applied to a new analysis with a simple command on the feature tree. (See the Projects chapter,
Chapter 11, for more details.)

If the geometric change was parametric in nature (dimensional change), then settings will be
applied to the new geometry. If the change was topological in nature (added or deleted geomet-
ric features), then some settings may not be applied automatically, and will have to be applied
manually. An example is if a part with an assigned heat generation load was removed from the
model. The heat generation boundary condition would be lost from the model.

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Geometry

In this case and for the case in which an analysis is re-opened after geometric changes, any set-
tings that are lost are now listed in a small dialog. The user can reassociate these settings to the
model by selecting the geometric entity and then the setting from the list.

If settings are lost (either because a topological change eliminated some geometry or because
the topology was changed too much), a “Show Lost” button will appear on the appropriate dia-
log (based on the type of settings that were lost):

The Show Lost button will only appear on a dialog if settings of the dialog type are lost.

When the Show Lost button is hit, a window will come up listing the lost settings:

Geometry
The number to the right of the setting indicates how many instances of the condition were lost.
Lost conditions can be applied to as many entities as desired, however.

For lost mesh sizes, the type of entity the condition was applied to (volume, surface, or edge)
will be indicated in the list.

To reassign a lost setting, first select the entity (or entities) in the model. Select the desired set-
ting from the list of lost settings. Hit Apply on the task dialog.

All lost lists will be cleared from the analysis when the analysis is saved.

CFdesign User’s Guide 3-19


Geometry

3.7 Suppressed Components

Components that are suppressed when starting the CFdesign analysis will not be read by CFde-
sign.

3.8 Third Party Mesh Import

This feature allows the import of a mesh generated in a tool other than CFdesign. Meshes in
the I-DEAS “.unv” format and the Nastran “.nas” and “.dat” formats can be read in by clicking
File_New, and changing the File Type to CAD Mesh Files.

The model will come into CFdesign and appear as it did in the meshing tool. Separate parts in
an assembly must be meshed with unique material ID’s in the third party meshing tool. Other-
wise, parts will not be differentiated from one another.

In CFdesign, set up of the model is standard, with the exception that the Mesh task dialog is
not available. Mesh Enhancement is allowed, however. When the analysis is started, the mesh-
ing step will be omitted.

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CHAPTE R 4 Loads

4.1 Introduction

This chapter describes both the physical significance of loads as well as how to the correctly
assign them in the CFdesign user interface. Loads can be classified into two categories: bound-
ary conditions and initial conditions. The former can be a known velocity or flow rate at an
inlet, a specified temperature, or a heat flux, for example. Boundary conditions are enforced
through the entire course of an analysis. Initial conditions, however, are often applied to larger
regions of a geometry, but are only enforced at the beginning of an analysis. Initial conditions
are often the starting point for a transient analysis.

4.2 Physical Boundary Types

This section describes the different kinds of physical boundaries without focusing on how they
are assigned in the CFdesign interface. Items as inlets, outlets, walls, and slip conditions are
discussed.

4.2.1 Inlets
• Inlets are most often defined with either non-zero velocity components or a gage
static pressure, or...
• An inlet can be a fan. The inlet flow rate will vary with the pressure drop through
the device, or...
• Volumetric flow rate can be assigned as an inlet condition, or...
• Total Pressure can be used at the inlet of supersonic flow models if that is the
only quantity known.
• For heat transfer analyses, specify the temperature at all inlets.

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Loads

• For subsonic conditions at the inlet, specify velocity OR pressure, not both.
• For supersonic inlet conditions, specify both the velocity and the static pressure.
This is necessary only if the inlet is nearly sonic or faster.
• For compressible flow analyses that include heat transfer, specify a total temper-
ature as well as a velocity and pressure.
• When using a general scalar, specify the scalar at all inlets, even if the value is
zero.
• To include swirl (an out of plane velocity component) in a 2D axisymmetric anal-
ysis, specify the third component of velocity (usually the z-component).
• It is not necessary to specify turbulence quantities at any inlet. The inlet turbu-
lence intensity used to calculate the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dis-
sipation is set in the Turbulence menu launched from the Options dialog.

4.2.2 Outlets
• The recommended (and most convenient) outlet condition is a gage static pres-
sure with a value of 0. If this condition is used at an outlet, then no other conditions
should be applied to that outlet.
• If the outlet velocity or volumetric flow rate is known, then either of these condi-
tions can be applied to the outlet. If this is done, then a pressure must be specified at
the inlet.
• An external fan boundary condition pulling flow from the model can be applied
to an outlet.
• If the outlet flow is supersonic, the Unknown boundary condition is often the rec-
ommended condition. Unknown is a “natural” condition meaning that such an outlet
is simply open, and no other conditions (velocity or pressure) are enforced.
• Outlet conditions should be positioned far enough downstream from sudden turns
or contractions to allow the flow to reach a fully developed state, which is the condi-
tion assumed by CFdesign. Furthermore, if the outlet is too close to a sudden expan-

4-2 CFdesign User’s Guide


Loads

sion, flow will come back in through the outlet. This may cause convergence
difficulties:

NO YES

4.2.3 Slip/Symmetry Walls


• This condition allows fluid to flow along a wall (as opposed to stopping at the
wall as in a non-slip condition). The fluid is prevented from flowing through the wall,
however.
• This boundary condition can be used with a very low viscosity to simulate Euler
or inviscid flow.
• Slip walls are also useful for defining a symmetry plane. The symmetry region
does not have to be parallel to a coordinate axis.
• For axisymmetric analyses, the symmetry condition along the axis is automati-
cally set, and does not need to be applied manually.

4.2.4 Unknown Inlet/Outlet


• This is a “natural” condition meaning that boundary is open, but no other con-
straints are applied. Loads

• This is most used for supersonic outlets where the outlet pressure or velocity is
not known, and applying either condition would result in shock waves or expansion
waves at the outlet.

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Loads

4.2.5 Walls
• AutoWall sets wall conditions automatically on all surfaces that are not defined
as inlets, outlets, symmetry, slip, or unknown.
• It is not necessary to set a zero velocity (no-flow) condition at any fluid/solid
interface.
• Wall turbulence conditions are set automatically by CFdesign.
• For heat transfer calculations, walls with no specified thermal boundary condi-
tions will be considered perfectly insulated.

4.2.6 Periodic Boundaries


• Periodic boundary conditions (cyclic symmetry) enable users to model a single
passage of an axial or centrifugal turbomachine or of a non-rotating device with
repeating features (passages).
• Periodic boundaries are always applied in pairs; the two members of a periodic
pair have identical flow distributions. The two members of a periodic pair must be
geometrically similar.
• Periodic pairs are used at the inlet and outlets of repeating devices:

Periodic Pair 1

Periodic Pair 2

• Periodic boundary conditions are a convenient way to include the effect of multi-
ple repeating features in a simplified model. Because of the repeating geometry, the
flow upstream and downstream of a device will be the same for each passage.

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Loads

4.2.7 Joule Heating Conditions


• Joule heating is the generation of heat by passing an electric current through a
metal. Also known as resistance heating, this feature allows the user to simulate
stove-top burner elements as well as electrical resistance heaters.
• User-supplied inputs include current, voltage, and the resistivity of the metal (a
material property).

4.2.8 Heat Transfer Boundary Types


• A temperature condition constrains the applied region to that temperature
throughout the entire analysis. It can also constrain the temperature of incoming flow.
• Heat flux is a surface condition that imposes a given amount of heat directly to
the applied surface.
• Film coefficient (convection) is another surface condition that uses an applied
convection coefficient and a surrounding temperature. This is most often used to sim-
ulate a cooling effect.
• Surface radiation is a surface condition that applies heat to a surface by use of a
specified emissivity and a surrounding temperature. This is sort of a “radiation film
coefficient” in that it exposes a surface to a given heat load using a source tempera-
ture and a surface condition.
• Heat generation is a volume condition that applies an amount of heat to a geo-
metric volume. This is most often used to simulate the presence of heat-dissipating
components in electronics assemblies.

4.3 Application of Boundary Conditions

The Loads dialog is broken into two tabbed sections: Boundary Conditions and Initial Condi-
tions. Boundary conditions are the most commonly used, and define the condition at a location
on the model throughout the entire analysis. Initial conditions, conversely, only enforce a con- Loads
dition at the beginning of the analysis, and are mostly used for transient (time-dependent) anal-
yses.

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Loads

Shown is the Boundary Condition tab, and instructions for its use:

1. Set the Selection Mode, and select


only the Surfaces or Volumes to which the
intended boundary condition will be
applied. (Chapter 2 contains more infor-
mation about entity selection.)
Step 1

2. In the Boundary Condition Group,


select the Type of boundary condition, the
Units, and choose between Steady State Step 2
and Transient (time varying).

3. Most of the Boundary Condition Step 3


types have certain parameters you will
need to select. For example, the direction
of a velocity condition is set either Nor-
mal to the selected surface or by specify-
ing Components. Also, enter the
necessary value(s). Step 4

4. Hit the Apply button to finish setting


the condition.

5. Other commands: The Delete button


will remove the boundary condition of the
type shown in the Type drop menu from
the selected entity or entities. The Delete
All button removes all boundary condi-
tions from the model.

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Loads

4.3.1 Surface Boundary Condition Details

Velocity

A normal velocity component is applied to an inlet (or outlet) surface by selecting the Normal
bullet. (This is only available when planar surfaces are selected.) An arrow will be drawn on
the surface to indicate the direction of flow. To reverse the flow, click the Reverse Direction
button. Enter the velocity magnitude in the Magnitude field, and hit Apply.

To apply velocity components, select the Components bullet, and check the desired compo-
nent(s). Enter the velocity values in the appropriate boxes, and hit Apply. Note: If the analysis
coordinate system is Cartesian, then the Vx, Vy, and Vz components will be directed in the glo-
bal X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. If the analysis coordinate system is cylindrical, then
the Vx, Vy, and Vz components will be directed in the R, theta, and Z directions, respectively.

Rotational Velocity

This condition applies a rotating velocity to a wall. It is applied by specifying a point on the
axis of rotation, the direction of the axis of rotation, and the Rotational Velocity. This condi-
tion is used for simulating a rotating object in a surrounding flow. An example is the rotating
disks in a computer hard drive. This condition does not induce flow caused by rotation (as in a
pump impeller), and is not a turbo-machinery condition.

Volume Flow Rate

A volume flow rate is applied to an inlet (or an outlet, if the applied direction is out of the
model). This condition can only be applied planar entities. When applying flow rate to multiple
openings at the same time, the flow direction (in or out of the model) must be the same.

Pressure

Choose between Gage or Absolute. Gage is a relative pressure, and Absolute is the sum of the
gage and the reference pressure (set in Materials). Also select either Static or Total. (Total is Loads
the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure, and should only be used for compress-
ible analyses. It should not be used for incompressible analyses.)

The recommended pressure condition for most analyses is Gage, Static.

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Loads

Temperature

Select either Static or Total. Static is the recommended temperature for most analyses. Total
temperature should only be used as an inlet for compressible analyses with heat transfer.

Enter the value and hit Apply.

Slip/Symmetry

Hit the Apply button to set a slip condition on selected surfaces. There is no value associated
with the slip condition.

Unknown

Hit the Apply button to set an unknown condition on selected surfaces. There is no value asso-
ciated with the unknown condition.

Scalar

This is a unitless quantity ranging between 0 and 1 that represents the concentration of the
tracking (scalar) quantity.

Humidity

This is a unitless quantity ranging between 0 and 1 that represents relative humidity (1 corre-
sponds to a humidity level of 100%).

Steam Quality

This is a unitless quantity ranging between 0 and 1 that represents the steam quality (1 corre-
sponds to a quality of 100%--pure steam).

Heat Flux

Select the desired units, and enter a heat value divided by area. For example, if the heat input is
10W, and the area is 5 sq. inches, then the applied value will be 10W/5 sq. inches = 2 W/sq.
inch.

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Loads

Heat flux can be applied to outer walls, to solid-solid interfaces, and to fluid-solid interfaces.

Total Heat Flux


This is a heat flux condition that is applied directly without having to divide by the surface
area. This is very important because it allows the user to make parametric changes that might
change the area, and not have to worry about recalculating the heat flux boundary condition.
To use, select the surface or surfaces, select the units, enter the value of the heat (not divided
by area) in the Total Heat Flux field, and hit Apply.

Total heat flux can be applied to outer walls, to solid-solid interfaces, and to fluid-solid inter-
faces.

Film Coefficient

Select the desired units, and enter a film coefficient (convection coefficient). Also, enter the
reference temperature in the desired units.

Radiation

This condition simulates a radiative heat transfer between the selected surface(s) and some
source outside of the model. The surface emissivity and the background temperature are the
necessary inputs.

External Fan

Click the Table button to enter the points of the known fan curve. Click Insert Row to add rows

Loads

between defined rows. Click the Plot button to view the plot--to check your work. The Import

CFdesign User’s Guide 4-9


Loads

button imports a comma separated variable (CSV) file, and the Save button saves the curve
information to a CSV file. To enter a fan that pulls flow (at an outlet), enter all flow rate and
pressure values as negative.

Current

Used only to define a Joule heating analysis, apply the current to one end of the solid through
which Joule heating is occurring. The current condition to apply is a total current, not a current
density.

Voltage

Another condition used only for a Joule heating analysis. Apply a voltage to the other end of
the heated solid. A value of 0 Volts is often used. Alternatively, a voltage difference can be
applied to the solid: a higher voltage on one side and a lower voltage on the other. In this case,
omit the applied current condition.

Periodic

The periodic boundary condition values are the Pair ID and the Side ID. Use the same Pair ID
for both members of a pair, and use different Side IDs for each member of a pair. On the inlet
periodic pair, for example, use a Pair ID of 1 on both sides, and assign one side a Side ID of 1
and the other a Side ID of 2. On the outlet, assign a pair ID of 2 to both members of the pair,
but use a Side ID of 1 for one side and a Side ID of 2 for the other. Do not use the same pair ID
for surfaces that are not periodic with one another.

4.3.2 Volume Boundary Condition Details

Volumetric Heat Generation

This is a volume-based boundary condition, and is available if the selection mode is set to Vol-
ume. The applied condition is the amount of heat divided by the volume of the part.

Total Heat Generation

This is a volume-based boundary condition, and is available if the selection mode is set to Vol-
ume. The applied condition is the amount of heat on the part, and is not divided by the volume.

4-10 CFdesign User’s Guide


Loads

Temperature Dependent Heat Generation

This allows the heat generation to vary with temperature. Physically, such a condition is a ther-
mostat, and allows for the simulation of a heating device that shuts off (or greatly de-powers)
once a target temperature is reached. Temperature-dependent heat generation is available for
both volumetric and total heat generation boundary conditions. It also allows for the simulation
of industrial processes that operate within a narrow temperature band, and will adjust the heat
input to maintain the target temperature.

1. After selecting Heat Generation (or


Total Heat Generation), select the Units.
2. Check the Temperature Dependent Step 1
box.
3. Set the units of temperature.
Step 2
4. Select the variation type: Piecewise
Linear, Polynomial, and Inverse Polyno- Step 3
mial are the available methods. Step 4
Step 5
5. Click the Define button to bring up the
table to enter heat generation and tempera-
ture data.

Note: Heat Generation cannot vary with


temperature and time simultaneously.

Loads

CFdesign User’s Guide 4-11


Loads

4.3.3 Transient Conditions


To make a boundary condition vary with time:
1. Click the Transient bullet,
2. Select the time variation method, Step 1
3. Hit the Define button to set up the varia-
tion.
There are seven variational methods, each
described below: Step 3

Step 2

The Ramp-Step function combines a linear


ramp function with a flat step function.
Refer to the sketch below for the parameter
meanings. The T# values are the times that
inflections occur. The F# values are the min
and max of the variables. One cycle of this
function goes from T4 to T4.
The ramp step function should be specified
such that the maximum value (F1) occurs first
at time T1. At time T2, the value starts to ramp
down. At time T3, the function hits its mini-
mum value (F2). At time T4, the value starts
to ramp up.

4-12 CFdesign User’s Guide


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The Periodic type of boundary condition is


exponential in time. The Functional Form is
shown in the dialog.
Note that the function can be decaying in time
by entering negative values for the “B1” or
“B2” parameters. Also, only one set of values
is required, either “A1”, “B1” and “C1” or
“A2”, “B2” and “C2”. The default for all the
parameters is zero.

The Harmonic type of boundary condition is


similar to the Periodic except that the variable
is a function of sine and cosine functions. As
in Periodic, only one set of values need to be
specified: either the cos or the sin values. Note
that the cos and sin functions do change sign,
so negative values of the variable can result if
improper parameters are entered on this dia-
log.

The Polynomial and Inverse Polynomial


variational methods rely on a table of data
points. A curve is fitted to the data using the
specified order. Care should be taken with
higher order functions: Such polynomials
contain inflection points which may cause the
data to change sign.
To check the curve fit of the polynomial or
Loads
inverse polynomial, click the “Plot” button.

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Loads

The Power Law function raises time to an


exponent value.

The Piecewise Linear function type connects


the inputted data points with linear segments,
and interpolates between them.
To make a function repeat for all time, check
the Repeating box.

4.3.4 Graphical Indications

Unlike most other analysis packages that use vectors or some number of symbols to indicate
the presence of a boundary condition, CFdesign uses colored stripes to mark boundary condi-

4-14 CFdesign User’s Guide


Loads

tions. The colors are defined in a legend that appears in the top left corner of the Graphics Win-
dow. Shown is an example:

In this case, a white stripe on the inlet face means that a Velocity Normal is applied. The yel-
low stripe on the outlet means that a pressure is applied. The green stripes along the outer sur-
faces mean that a film coefficient is applied.

There is no need to memorize the meaning of the colors because they are always defined in the
legend. This legend only shows boundary condition types that have been applied to the current
model.

Loads

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Loads

4.3.5 Feature Tree

All applied boundary conditions are listed on the feature tree:

These listings are very helpful for checking, editing, and deleting loads. To highlight an entity
with an applied condition, left click your mouse on an entity ID--it will appear green in the
Graphics window. To edit an applied condition, right click it, and select Edit. Likewise, to
delete an applied condition, right click it and select Delete.

To delete all applied condition, right click on the top-level Boundary Conditions branch, and
select Delete All.

4.4 Initial Conditions

Unlike boundary conditions, initial conditions are only enforced at the beginning of an analy-
sis. They are primarily used for transient analyses, but sometimes they are useful for steady
state analyses (temperature, in particular).

It is generally not recommended to apply a velocity initial condition to a steady-state flow


analysis. Studies have shown that the best initial velocity for most steady-state flow calcula-
tions is the default of 0.

Shown is the Initial Condition dialog (accessible by selecting the Initial tab at the top of the
Loads dialog) and instructions for its use:

4-16 CFdesign User’s Guide


Loads

1. Set the Selection Mode, and select only


the Surfaces or Volumes to which the
intended initial condition will be applied.
(Chapter 2 contains more information about
entity selection.)

Step 1
2. In the Initial Condition Group, select
the Type of initial condition and the Units.

3. Most of the initial condition types have


Step 2
certain parameters you will need to select.
For example, the temperature can be either
Static or Total. Also, enter the value.

Step 3
4. Hit the Apply button to finish setting
the condition.

Step 4
5. Other commands: The Delete button
will remove the boundary condition of the
type shown in the Type drop menu from the
selected entity or entities. The Delete All
button removes all boundary conditions
from the model.

There are six quantities that can be applied as initial conditions: Velocity, Pressure, Tempera-
ture, Scalar, Humidity, and Steam Quality. An additional initial condition, Height of Fluid, can
be applied only to volumes. Applying a Height of Fluid condition marks a region as containing
fluid, and activates the Height of Fluid function in the Solver. See Chapter 12 for more details
about Height of Fluid analyses. Details for the other quantities are described in the preceding Loads
Boundary Condition sections.

This Re-Initialize check box allows the user to reset a result quantity in all or part of an analy-
sis model. This box is accessible only after the analysis has been run at least once.

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Loads

Normally, initial conditions only take effect on a model when the analysis is first started (either
from iteration 0 or from time 0). When the Re-initialize box is checked, however, all of the
applied initial conditions will take effect again. This allows the user to discard a result quantity
on an analysis while preserving other results fields. It also allows the user to apply an initial
condition to all or part of the model mid-run--even though some iterations have already been
completed.

An example of the use of this feature is if a flow solution is run to completion, and then the
user realizes that an initial temperature condition is necessary for the subsequent transient ther-
mal portion of the analysis. To accomplish this, simply apply the desired temperature initial
condition, check the Re-initialize box, and run the thermal portion of the analysis. The initial
condition will be applied to the model, and the analysis will proceed.

The Re-initialize check box will be cleared automatically after the analysis is started. This is to
prevent unwanted re-initialization in subsequent re-starts of the analysis.

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CHAPTE R 5 Mesh Sizes

5.1 Introduction

Prior to running a CFdesign analysis, the geometry has to be broken up into small, manageable
pieces called elements. The corner of each element is called a node, and it is at each node that
a calculation is performed. All together these elements and nodes comprise the mesh (also
known as the finite element mesh).

In three dimensional models, each element is a tetrahedral: a four sided, triangular-faced ele-
ment. In two dimensional models, each element is a triangle. Both are shown:

Constructing these elements into the geometry is done automatically by the software, so that
step does not require any work on the part of the user. What the user needs to do, however, is
tell the software what element size(s) to use, and where to use them. There is a lot of flexibility
to this, and the following sections help to define what sort of mesh size is required and how to
apply it.

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Mesh Sizes

5.2 Meshing Fundamentals

5.2.1 The Principle Guidelines

Leaning how to create a “good” mesh definition can sometimes be the most intimidating part
of the analysis process. It does not need to be. There are two fundamental rules that should
always be considered when defining the mesh on any model.

The first rule is that the geometric shapes must be adequately defined. It is very important
that the mesh sizes that you define on a model be such that none of the geometric features are
mis-represented. An example is the mesh definition on a round tube. Too few elements (too
large an element size) and that round tube will be approximated as a square duct:

The other principle guideline is that elements need to be concentrated where flow gradi-
ents occur. Where there is a lot of fluid movement, there needs to be more elements. Where
there is little fluid activity (all the fluid moving in one direction, for example), the mesh can be
a little more coarse.

5.2.2 Basic Strategy

To ensure that a mesh definition is fine enough without being so fine that computational
resources are wasted, the following steps are recommended when performing any CFD analy-
sis:
• First, determine if there are any symmetries, and divide the geometry in the CAD
system as appropriate. Look for geometric symmetries, but be sure that the flow will
be symmetric as well.
• Determine if the analysis can be modeled as a 2D or an axisymmetric geometry.
A 2D approximation may be a good place to start, especially if you are unsure of how
to solve a particular type of flow problem.

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Mesh Sizes

• Examine the geometry, identifying probable high and low gradient regions for all
solution variables (u, v, w, P, T, k and ε ).
• Identify solid material zones and fluid zones and keep them as separate geometric
entities or parts.

Mesh Sizes
• If there are areas with small, repeating geometric details (such as perforated
plates or baffles), try using distributed resistances to model these zones, instead of
meshing the detail.
• Assign mesh sizes to all volumes in the model, and then apply finer sizes to sur-
faces and edges where necessary in order to capture strong flow gradients or to repre-
sent complicated geometric features.
• Perform an analysis on a “coarse” mesh (no more than 25,000 nodes) to qualita-
tively assess the flow features present and identify meshing needs in high gradient
regions without a severe time penalty.
• Looking at the results on the coarse mesh, refine the mesh in the high gradient
regions.
• To ensure that the final solution is not “mesh-dependent,” compare the two solu-
tions from the coarse and fine meshes. If they are substantially different, then it is a
good idea to construct a mesh that has at least 10% fewer nodes than the fine mesh,
obtain a solution and compare. The idea is to have two meshes that vary in number of
nodes by 10% or more and that give the same solution. This solution is then said to be
“mesh-independent”.

In any finite element analysis, more elements are required in areas where spatial gradients of
the solution variables are high. In CFD, an additional physical phenomenon called velocity-
pressure coupling must also be accurately represented on the mesh to ensure continuity of fluid
mass over the entire solution domain. This distinction elicits the following two requirements:
• Many more elements must occupy the domain than in a typical structural analy-
sis.
• Transitions in element size must be relatively smooth so that the area or volume
of adjacent elements does not vary substantially.

In attempting to satisfy these criteria, engineers sometimes construct very large CFD finite ele-
ment models, particularly when the geometry is complex. Typical 2D fluid flow analyses will
require anywhere from 1,000 to 25,000 nodes; 3D analyses often range from 15,000 to

CFdesign User’s Guide 5-3


Mesh Sizes

1,000,000 nodes! These ranges are exceeded in some applications. With computing hardware
evolving so rapidly, expect to see these numbers continue to climb.

5.2.3 Locations of Mesh Refinement

This section contains information about where you should pay close attention to your mesh
definitions. The underlying theme of this discussion is that the mesh should be fine enough to
capture gradients and changes in the flow. Gradients may be due to geometric features, bound-
ary conditions, or distributed resistance areas.

Solid Boundaries

Spatial gradients for velocity, pressure, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipa-
tion will generally be highest near a solid boundary, typically a containment wall or the surface
of an immersed body. This is particularly true if the flow is constrained by a tight clearance,
forced to turn around a sharp corner or suddenly brought to rest at a stagnation point. Accord-
ingly, mesh density must be greatest in these regions.

When analyzing turbulent flow, the element size adjacent to a solid boundary is particularly
important for accurate prediction of shear stress. This ultimately affects the calculation of pres-
sure drop across the solution domain. The k- ε and RNG turbulence models in CFdesign com-
pute a non-dimensional distance from the wall, y+, at all nodes adjacent to a solid boundary.
This value is useful in determining whether the elements adjacent to solid boundaries are suffi-
ciently sized.

The y+ values may be viewed as a results quantity. In general, they should be kept within the
range 35<y+<350. It is impractical and unnecessary for all y+ values to be within this range,
but it is a good general guideline. This range is most critical for flows that experience a great
deal of pressure drop due to shear. Examples of such situations are the flow through long pipes
and flow over aerodynamic bodies. In flows where form drag dominates the pressure drop, the
y+ criteria is not nearly as important. The use of Boundary Mesh Enhancement and Bound-
ary Mesh Adaptation is strongly recommended to ensure that the mesh is fine enough near all
walls of the domain.

See Section 5.3.4 for more information about Mesh Enhancement, and to learn how CFdesign
automatically takes care of the considerations discussed above.

5-4 CFdesign User’s Guide


Mesh Sizes

Inlet/Outlet Passages

In general, elements should be concentrated at inlet openings to allow solution gradients to


develop. In some situations (compressible flows, for example), the regions near outlets should
also have a fine mesh. If the outlet has been placed far enough out from the solution domain,

Mesh Sizes
no refinement is necessary. The goal is that the outlet should not strongly affect the solution.

Thermal Boundaries

Similar to the inlet passages, elements should be concentrated near walls with thermal bound-
ary conditions. Usually near these boundaries, the heat transfer rate (which is the temperature
gradient) is the highest. You should also try to concentrate nodes at the edges of these bound-
aries so the discontinuity in heat transfer can be captured accurately.

Sudden Change in Boundary Conditions

The area surrounding the separation point between two boundary condition types must have a
refined mesh to adequately resolve the discontinuity. An example is the point at the intersec-
tion of an insulated wall and a specified heat flux boundary in a convection analysis.

Near Distributed Resistances/Porous Media Elements

Because of the extra pressure drop across distributed resistance/porous media elements, you
should refine the mesh in and around these regions to resolve the velocity and pressure gradi-
ents.

Rotating Regions

It is good practice to concentrate the mesh on rotating regions and solids enclosed within a
rotating region. The flow gradients are typically quite high within rotating regions, and the
geometric shapes are often very intricate.

Moving Solids

The fluid region surrounding a moving solid (and in the intended path of the solid) are areas in
which the mesh should be focused. The fluid gradients that occur as a result of a moving solid
can be quite severe, and the mesh must be fine enough to capture them.

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Mesh Sizes

5.3 Application of Mesh Sizes

Shown is the Mesh Size dialog, and instructions for its use:

1. Set the Selection Mode, and select


only the Surfaces or Volumes to which
the intended mesh size will be applied. Step 1

(Chapter 2 contains more information


about entity selection.)

(Note: it is always good practice to assign


volume sizes to ALL volumes in the model.
Use surface and edge sizes to refine the
Step 2
mesh as necessary.)

2. Enter the Element Size (in the


length units of the analysis).

3. Hit the Apply button.

4. Other commands: The Delete but-


ton will remove the mesh size on the
Step 3
selected entity or entities. The Delete
All button removes all mesh sizes from
the model.

Note: when an element size of 0 is applied to a volume (surface in a 2D model), that entity will
not be meshed, and will not appear in the analysis.

Note: The steps for applying mesh sizes on surfaces is the same as for volumes.

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Mesh Sizes

Edge Size Application


1. To apply edge sizes, first select
Edge from the selection type, and select

Mesh Sizes
the edges in your model.

Step 1
2. Select to enter an Element Size or
the Number Of Elements.

3. If the Number of Elements is Step 2


entered, then elements can be biased
(clustered) along the edge. Be sure to
enter a Bias Factor (a value greater than Step 3
1.0). When biasing, elements can be
concentrated at the Start, End, in the
Middle, or at Both Ends of the edge.
4. Hit Apply.

Step 4

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Mesh Sizes

5.3.1 Graphical Indications

Once a mesh size is applied, reference points appear along all the edges of the part. These
points indicate nodal locations, once the mesh is generated. (They do not appear when any task

other than Mesh Sizes is active.)

To turn off the display of mesh reference points, right click on the Mesh Size branch of the
Feature Tree, and uncheck Show Sizes.

Reference points for each selection mode will appear independently. For example, if a certain
size is applied to the volumes of a model, there will be corresponding reference points on all
the curves of those volumes. If a smaller size is then applied to some of the surfaces, then when
in Surface Selection mode, only the reference points for those surface definitions will appear.
Likewise, if some other size is applied to some of the edges, then when in Edge Selection
mode, only the reference points for those edge definitions will appear.

Note that it is possible to have an edge with three different sets of reference points: one set
from a size applied to the volume, another due to a size on a surface, and finally a size applied
directly to the edge. The visible reference points are those that correspond to the current selec-
tion mode.

5-8 CFdesign User’s Guide


Mesh Sizes

5.3.2 Which Size Wins?

Because an edge can have so many different element sizes, it is critical to know which size will
actually be used by the mesher:

Mesh Sizes
The smallest size on an entity will be used by the mesher.

Example 1

A model consists of a volume with some internal surfaces. A size of 1 is applied to the volume,
and a size of 0.5 is applied to the internal surfaces:

The result will be that the elements throughout the volume will be 1, and will transition to 0.5
at the internal surfaces: The smaller size wins.

Example 2

On the same model, a size of 1 is applied to the volume, but this time a size of 2 is applied to
the internal surfaces.

CFdesign User’s Guide 5-9


Mesh Sizes

The result will be that the size of 2 is ignored, and the smaller element size set on the volume is
generated throughout the model, including the internal surfaces. Again, the smaller size wins.

Example 3

On the same model, a size of 1 is set on the volume. A size of 0.5 is set on the internal surfaces,
and a size of 0.25 is set on some of the internal edges (on one of the internal surfaces).

The result will be the element size of 1 throughout the volume, with a transition to 0.5 to the
surfaces, and a transition to 0.25 to the edges. The smaller size wins.

5-10 CFdesign User’s Guide


Mesh Sizes

Example 4

On the same model, a size of 1 is set on the volume. A size of 2 is set on the internal surfaces,
and a size of 0.25 is set on some of the internal edges.

Mesh Sizes
The result is that the size of 2 is ignored, and the mesh transitions from 1 to 0.25 at the internal
edges. The smaller size wins.

5.3.3 Feature Tree

All applied mesh sizes are listed on the feature tree:

CFdesign User’s Guide 5-11


Mesh Sizes

These listings are very helpful for checking, editing, and deleting mesh sizes. To highlight an
entity with an applied condition, left click your mouse on it--it will appear green in the Graph-
ics window. To edit an applied condition, right click it, and select Edit. To delete an applied
condition, right click it and select Delete.

To delete all applied mesh sizes, right click on the top-level Mesh Size branch, and select
Delete All. To disable the visibility of mesh reference points, right click on the Mesh Size
branch and un-check Show Sizes.

5.3.4 Mesh Enhancement

Mesh Enhancement is a great feature that considerably simplifies the mesh definition process.
Mesh Enhancement automatically constructs layers of prismatic elements (extruded triangles)
along all walls and all fluid-solid interfaces in the model, based on the tetrahedral mesh that
you define. These additional elements serve two primary purposes:

The first is that elements are concentrated in the boundary layer region, where high velocity,
pressure, and turbulence gradients most often occur.

The second benefit is that enough nodes are automatically placed in all gaps (area between
walls) in the model. Recall that the two principal guidelines were to define the shapes and to
allow/account for flow activity. Adequately meshing all of the small gaps and crevices in a
complicated geometry is not an issue the user must be concerned with, thanks to Mesh
Enhancement.

The graphic on the left shows a mesh without Mesh Enhancement, and the graphic on the right
shows the enhanced mesh:

5-12 CFdesign User’s Guide


Mesh Sizes

Mesh Enhancement parameters are controlled with the Mesh Enhancement dialog, launched
from the Mesh Enhancement button on the Meshing dialog:

Mesh Sizes
The default settings are appropriate for the vast majority of analysis models. An explanation of
the settings follows:

Number of Element Layers

As mentioned, three layers is satisfactory for most analyses. However, when working with tur-
bulent flows that are in the lower Reynolds number range (less than 10,000), it may be neces-
sary to reduce the number of layers to one. The reason is that the generation of three layers
creates nodes that are too close to the wall, resulting in y+ values that are too low due to the
low overall Reynolds numbers.

Boundary Layer Thickness Factor

The Boundary Layer Thickness Factor controls the total height of the inflation layer relative to
the original near-wall elements. A value of 0.45 allows the total height of the inflation layer to
be one half the size of the original elements. A value of 0.2, for example, allows the total
height of the inflation layer to be one fifth the size of the original elements. This is shown in
the following graphic:

Factor = 0.45 Factor = 0.2

CFdesign User’s Guide 5-13


Mesh Sizes

If an error occurs during model processing due to Mesh Enhancement, it can often be fixed by
adjusting the Boundary Layer Thickness Factor. Try 0.4 and successively smaller values until
it does work.

Boundary Mesh Adaptive Scheme

This feature works in conjunction with Boundary Mesh Enhancement, and is useful for high
speed aerodynamic flows where the distance between the near-wall node and the wall-node is
critical for accuracy. To use this, click on both Enhance Boundary Mesh On Input, and
Automatic Layer Adaptation. A minimum of three Enhancement layers is required.

This feature is ideal for external flows such as vehicle aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. It is
not so useful for slower speed internal flows. The way it works is that starting at iteration 37
(after the flow has had a chance to become established), the y+ values throughout the domain
are inspected. The near wall node positions are then moved closer or away from the walls in
order to make the y+ value fall within the optimum range for turbulent flow. The near-wall
nodal positions are adjusted with every successive iteration. There is only a slight time penalty
for this adjustment scheme.

If you have run an inflated mesh analysis but did not activate Boundary Mesh Adaptation at the
beginning, it can be turned on any time during the analysis. If Adaptation is activated mid-run,
be sure to run the analysis for at least another 50 iterations.

5.4 Generating the Mesh

The dialog discussed in this chapter is used only for mesh size definition on the geometry. The
generation of the mesh is part of the analysis, and is not a separate step. When the GO button
on the Analyze dialog is hit, CFdesign will construct the mesh according to the element sizes
prescribed using this dialog. If a mesh already exists (and you are simply continuing the analy-
sis), then a new mesh will not be created.

To view the mesh prior to running the analysis, simply set the number of iterations to 0, and hit
GO. After the mesh is generated, the Solver will stop, and the mesh can be examined carefully.

5-14 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 6 Materials

6.1 Introduction

Materials are physical substances, and are key to the CFdesign analysis. There are eight dis-
tinct material types available in an analysis: fluids, solids, internal fans, centrifugal fans, resis-
tances, check valves, rotating regions, and moving solids. Each material type will be discussed
in this chapter.

The work flow for assigning materials is very similar to the other model set-up tasks (Loads
and Mesh Definition): pick a part (volumes for three dimensional models and surfaces for two
dimensional models), make selections on the dialog, and hit Apply. Visual indication is given
by coloring parts by material (a legend defines the color-material correspondence). Also
assigned materials are listed on the feature tree for additional reference.

The Material Editor makes creating and editing materials very convenient. Numerous property
variations are available, allowing for great flexibility when creating materials.

As part of the installed CFdesign package, the Material Database includes several variations of
air, water, and numerous solid materials. Additional materials can be added to the database at
the push of a button. The materials database file can be placed anywhere in a company’s net-
work to allow easy standardization for all CFdesign users to company-specific materials.

6.2 The Basics

6.2.1 Assigning Materials

Shown is the Materials dialog, and instructions for how to apply materials:

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-1


Materials

1. Select the parts to which the


intended material will be applied.
(Chapter 2 contains more information
about entity selection.) Step 1

2. Select the type of material from


the Type pull-down menu. Select the
specific material from the Name pull-
down menu. Step 2

3. If the desired material does not


Step 3
exist, create a new material by hitting
the Create/Edit Material button, and
use the Material Editor to enter the
necessary properties. Step 4

4. If a new material was created or


modified, save it to the Material Data-
base (optional). Step 5

5. For several material types (resis-


tance, fans, etc.), assign the through- Step 6

flow (and cross flow) direction(s).

6. Hit Apply to apply the material.

7. Note: Care should be taken to


avoid placing two different fluids in
direct contact. Different fluids can
exist in the same analysis if they are
separated by a solid.

6-2 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.2.2 Creating Materials

Shown is the Material Editor dialog for Fluids. This section briefly describes how the Material
Editor works. More detail for each of the material types is given in the following sections:

Step 1
Step 2

Step 3

Step 5

Materials
Step 4

Step 6

Step 7

1. The Type is set on the main Materials dialog. To create or edit a fluid, select
Fluid as the type. To create or edit a solid, select Solid as the type, etc.
2. Assign a name to the material. The names of the default database materials
cannot be used for new materials. To modify a default database material,
save it to a new name. Note: Spaces are not permitted in material names.
3. Select a similar material from the Read From drop menu. This is a conve-
nient starting-point for creating new materials.
4. Click the button of the property that is to be defined.
5. Select the Variation Method from the Input Region, and enter the appropriate
Values and units for the selected property. Hit the Apply button.
6. Modify the Reference Properties, if necessary. If these parameters are modi-
fied, care should be taken to modify them for all fluids in a model.
7. When all properties are defined, hit the OK button. This will make the new
material available for only the current analysis.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-3


Materials

6.2.3 The Materials Database


• To store a new material to the Materials Database, click the Save button in the
Database group on the Materials dialog.
• Materials that are not saved to the database will have a “*” prepended to their
names. They will be saved in the cfd file, but will not be available for other analyses
unless they are saved to the Materials Database.
• If a material saved to the database is edited (remember that the default (installed)
materials cannot be edited), a “*” will appear before the name, indicating that the
material is different from the one in the database. When the Save button is hit, a
prompt will ask for confirmation that you want to save the edited material.
• When an existing analysis containing a material not stored in the Material Data-
base is opened, the word “local” will be appended to the material name. This material
will exist in the analysis, and can be used. Hit the Save button to add it to the Materi-
als Database (and the word “local” will disappear the next time the analysis is
opened).
• If an analysis is opened that contains a material that has the same name as a data-
base material, but has different properties, the name of the analysis will be appended
to the material name to prevent the two different materials from conflicting.
• The default location of the Materials Database is in the CFdesign installation
folder. If this location is not appropriate (for sharing with multiple users, for exam-
ple), then the database can be placed elsewhere on the network. Use File_Preferences
to indicate the location of the database file. This setting will be saved, and will not
have to be altered every time the software is used.

6-4 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.3 Fluids

6.3.1 Installed Database Materials

Several variations of air and water are included with the software. As mentioned, these materi-
als cannot be edited, but each can be selected as the “Read From” material when creating a
similar new material.

Material Description
Air or Water Constant The properties do not change
Air Buoyancy Density changes with temperature. A buoyancy property should
be selected when solving for natural convection--where the den-

Materials
H2O Buoyancy
sity of the fluid changes with the temperature.
Air Not STP A Not STP property should be used when temperature and/or
H2O Not STP pressure are far from standard conditions.

Air Moist Useful for humidity (moist air) calculations. These properties are
only of the gas, not the gas/liquid mixture. (The liquid properties
are determined using the steam tables.) If a new material is cre-
ated based on moist air, pay special attention to the gas constant,
the reference properties, and the specific heat.
H2O Steam/Liquid Useful for analyses of steam/water mixtures. Change the Refer-
ence Pressure if your operating conditions are at a different pres-
sure.
Steam Buoyancy Sets the properties of steam, but only allows density to vary with
equation of state, not the steam tables. No other properties vary.
Steam Constant Sets the properties of steam, but does not allow for any property
variation. This is useful if the temperature and pressure variations
are small.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-5


Materials

6.3.2 Fluid Properties

The Material Editor is used to create materials different from those supplied with the software.
There are six basic properties that are needed to define a fluid. Most of these properties can be
made to vary with temperature, pressure or scalar, in several different ways. The following
table lists the six properties and the available variational methods.

Property Variational Methods


Density: Constant, Equation of State, Polynomial, Inverse
the amount of mass per volume Polynomial, Arrhenius, Steam Table, Piecewise
Linear, and Moist Gas
Viscosity: Constant, Sutherland, Power Law, Polynomial,
dynamic (absolute) viscosity is used Inverse Polynomial, Non-Newtonian Power Law,
Hershel-Buckley, Carreau, Arrhenius, Piecewise
Linear, and Steam Table, First Order Polynomial,
Second Order Polynomial
Conductivity: Constant, Sutherland, Power Law, Polynomial,
the thermal conductivity Inverse Polynomial, Arrhenius, Steam Table, Piece-
wise Linear
Specific Heat Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Arrhe-
nius, Steam Table, Piecewise Linear
Cp/Cv (gamma, the ratio of specific Constant
heats) -- useful only for compressible
gas analyses
Emissivity -- useful for radiation Constant, Piece-wise Linear variation with temper-
analyses. The emissivity specified on ature (useful for spectral radiation analyses.)
a fluid is assigned to contacting See Chapter 12 for more details on Spectral radia-
walls. tion.

6-6 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.3.3 Fluid Property Variations

The variation methods listed in the preceding section are described here:

Constant
Enter the value and units as appropriate.

Materials
Power Law

α T n
------ ≈ ⎛ -----⎞
αo ⎝ T o⎠

enter a Reference Value (of the property) =


αo ,
the Power Law Exponent = n
and a Reference Temperature (in the Ref-
erence Properties group).
(Note: The Reference Temperature is only
used at start up to calculate an initial refer-
ence density. The field value of temperature
is used during the calculation to determine
density.)

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-7


Materials

Equation of State

P
. ρ = ---------
Ru T
Enter P = Reference Pressure,
R = Gas Constant,
and T = Reference Temperature.
The Reference Temperature is only used
at start up to calculate an initial reference
density. The field value of temperature is
used during the calculation to determine
density.
The Reference Pressure is used both to
calculate an initial reference density and
also throughout the calculation to deter-
mine the absolute pressure. See the Techni-
cal Reference Guide for more information.
For adiabatic compressible analyses, the
static temperature used to calculate density
is determined from both the local stagna-
tion and dynamic temperatures. See the
Technical Reference for a discussion of
Adiabatic Compressible Flow.

6-8 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

Arrhenius
–E
-------
α RT
------- = e
α
o
Enter a property Reference Value = α o
and the Activation Energy = E.

Materials
Sutherland
T 1.5 T o + S
α- ⎛ ----
----- ≈ -⎞ ---------------
α o ⎝ T o⎠ T+S

Enter a property Reference Value = α o ,


the Sutherland constant=S
and a Reference Temperature in the Ref-
erence group)

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-9


Materials

Non-Newtonian Power Law

µ
----- = γ p
µo
Enter the Viscosity Coefficient = µ o
and the Power Law Exponent = p
(an exponent of 0 describes a Newtonian
fluid).
Note that the viscosity coefficient is the
viscosity reference value.
If a viscosity cutoff is not applicable, sim-
ply enter values for the Viscosity Coeffi-
cient and the Power Law exponent and
leave the Cutoff Strain rate at the default.
Make the Cutoff Viscosity = the Viscosity
Coefficient.
To model a non-Newtonian fluid with a
constant viscosity that starts to vary at a
given strain rate, input this viscosity and
the strain rate in the Cutoff Viscosity and
Cutoff Strain Rate fields, respectively.

µ- p
---- = kγ
µo
Enter the constant k in the Viscosity Coef
(k) field.

Note: Non-Newtonian fluids are often described in terms of a power law index, n. The quantity
to be entered here, the power law exponent, is related to the power law index as p = n-1. (A
power law index of 1 describes a Newtonian fluid.

6-10 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

Herschel-Buckley (viscosity varia-


tion)

p
µ = µ o + Kγ
Enter the Zero-Strain Value = µ o ,
the Exponent = p,
and the Coefficient = K.
Often the power law index, n, is known.
The relationship between the Exponent, p,
and the power law index is p = n-1.

Materials
Carreau (viscosity variation)

(n – 1)
----------------
µ – µ∞ 2
- = [ 1 + ( λγ ) 2 ]
-----------------
µo – µ∞

Enter the Zero Strain Viscosity = µ o ,


the Infinite Strain Viscosity = µ ∞ ,
the Time Constant = λ ,
and the Power Law Index = n.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-11


Materials

First Order Polynomial (viscosity)


B
µ = Aγ exp ( CT )
Enter the Viscosity factor = A,
the Shear factor = B,
and the Temperature factor = C.

γ = shear rate calculated during the analysis


T = temperature calculated during the anal-
ysis

Second Order Polynomial (viscosity)


ln( µ )=A1 + A2log( γ ) + A3T + A4[ln( γ )]2 +
A5[ln( γ )]T + A6T2
The constants A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6
are constants that define the material.
γ = shear rate calculated during the analysis
T = temperature calculated during the analy-
sis

6-12 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

Polynomial and Inverse Polynomial


Data points are required for a polynomial
or inverse polynomial property variation.
Density, conductivity, and specific heat
can vary with temperature, pressure, or
scalar.
Viscosity can vary with temperature, pres-
sure, scalar, or strain rate.
Each data point is entered on a separate
line. To insert a data point between two
existing lines, click on the point after the

Materials
desired new point and click on the Insert
button. All the subsequent data points will
be pushed down one row.
The range of values should encompass the
range of the independent variable (tem-
perature, pressure, or scalar) of your anal-
ysis. CFdesign will automatically clip the
property value if it exceeds the upper or
lower values of the independent variable.
The polynomial order is specified in the
Order field. The order should be less
than the number of data points to get a
good fit. It is always a good idea to plot
the property values to ensure they follow
the expected trends using the Plot button.
Polynomial orders greater than 3 are gen-
erally not useful because of unexpected
inflection points.
Data in “.csv” format can be imported
using the Import button. Data is saved to a
“.csv” file using the Save button.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-13


Materials

Piecewise Linear
The Piece Wise Linear variation uses a lin-
ear interpolation between entered data
points. Data points are entered into the
table in the same manner as polynomial and
inverse polynomial data (see above).
Density, specific heat, and conductivity can
be varied with temperature, pressure, or
scalar.
Viscosity can vary with temperature, pres-
sure, scalar, and strain rate.
The choice of independent variable is made
using the drop menu (showing Temperature
in the above example).
Use the Plot button to check the data.
Data in “.csv” format can be imported
using the Import button. Data is saved to a
“.csv” file using the Save button.

6.3.4 Reference Properties

The Reference Temperature is only used at start up to calculate an initial reference density.
The field value of temperature is used during the calculation to determine density.

The Reference Pressure is used both to calculate an initial reference density and also through-
out the calculation to determine the absolute pressure. See the Technical Reference Guide for
more information.

For adiabatic compressible analyses, the static temperature used to calculate density is deter-
mined from both the local stagnation and dynamic temperatures. See the Technical Reference
for a discussion of Adiabatic Compressible Flow.

6-14 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.4 Solids

6.4.1 Installed Database Materials

Several solid materials are included with the software. As mentioned, these materials cannot be
edited, but each can be the “Read From” material when creating a similar new material.

Material Description
Aluminum Constant The properties do not change
Copper Variable Conductivity varies with temperature
Glass Constant The properties do not change

Materials
Iron Constant The properties do not change
PCB 12 Layer X, Y, Effective conductivities are used to represent the layers of a
or Z printed circuit board. The direction is the component normal to
the board--the conductivity is considerably less than the other two
(in plane) components
PCB Plastic for Lam- The constant properties of printed circuit board plastic
inate Constant
Steel Variable Conductivity varies with temperature

6.4.2 Solid Properties

The Material Editor is used to create additional materials not supplied with the software. There
are four basic properties that are necessary to define a solid for use with CFdesign. Most of

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-15


Materials

these properties can vary with temperature, pressure or scalar, in several different variational
methods; these properties and methods are listed in the following table:

Property Variational Methods


Conductivity -- the same value for Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piece-
thermal conductivity can be used for wise Linear.
all three directions, or each compo- Y and Z directions also have: Same as X-Dir.
nent can be different.
Density -- only needed for transient Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piece-
analyses. wise Linear.
Specific Heat -- only needed for tran- Constant, Polynomial, Inverse Polynomial, Piece-
sient analyses. wise Linear
Emissivity -- useful for radiation Constant, Piece-wise Linear variation with temper-
analyses. The emissivity specified on ature (useful for spectral radiation analyses.)
a solid “wins” over the value
assigned to contacting fluid.
Resistivity -- only needed for Joule The resistance per area multiplied by the length of
heating analyses. the device. A value for resistivity is required for any
solid that is heated by the Joule effect.

The relationship between resistivity and resistance


is:
r×L
R = -----------
A
• R = resistance (ohms)
• r = resistivity (ohms-length unit)
• L = length of the device
• A = cross sectional area

These variational methods are described in the Fluid Property Variation section, 6.3.3.

6-16 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.5 Resistances

In some analyses, the actual flow geometry may contain a large number of holes or obstruc-
tions. For example, baffles are used in many electronics packages, and often have hundreds of
holes through which the air must pass. To model each and every hole would be tedious, expen-
sive and unnecessary.

The alternative is to simulate the presence of such holes or obstructions with a distributed
resistance region. In this method, the mesh elements in this region are assigned a resistance
parameter usually using either the free area ratio (proportion of free to total area) or a loss coef-
ficient based on the known pressure drop. This resistance simulates the effect of the obstruc-
tions without using an inordinate number of elements. Other examples of porous media include
radiators, vents, screens, filters and packed beds.

Materials

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-17


Materials

6.5.1 Assigning Resistances


1. Select the part or parts, choose
Resistance as the Type, and select the
Material Name as discussed in Steps 1
through 4 on Page 6-2.

Step 1
(If the material does not exist, see the
following section for how to create
resistance materials.)

2. Select the flow direction through


the resistance. Select the two directions
normal to the flow direction. See below
for further detail.

3. Hit Apply to apply the material.

Step 2

Step 3

There are three different methods of assigning the flow direction through a resistance region:
aligned with a Cartesian direction, not aligned with a Cartesian direction, through a cylindri-
cally shaped region.

Note: distributed resistance regions should not contact an external boundary condition. Like-
wise, it is not recommended to apply boundary conditions to any surface of a distributed resis-
tance material. Doing so may cause convergence difficulties and will affect the flow rate
reported in the summary file. If a distributed resistance contacts an external boundary, it is

6-18 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

good practice to add an extension onto the region (so that the boundary condition is not applied
directly to it).

6.5.1.1 Aligned with Cartesian

Use one of the Cartesian directions (Global X, Global Y, or Global Z) if the flow direction
through the resistance region is aligned with a Cartesian direction. Select the remaining direc-
tions for the other two directions.

6.5.1.2 Not Aligned with Cartesian

Use Pick on Surface to indicate the flow direction through the resistance region by selecting a
surface normal to the direction of flow. After selecting it, hit OK on the Device Flow Direction

Materials
dialog.

The flow will be normal to the


selected surface.

y
Select either of these surfaces
as normal to Flow Direction x

A very high resistance will automatically be applied to flow in the two normal directions.
(Note: If the direction of flow is in one of the Cartesian directions, then either Pick on Surface
or the appropriate Cartesian direction is acceptable.)

6.5.1.3 Cylindrically Shaped Region

Use Radial for the Flow Direction to simulate a cylindrically-shaped resistance. The other two
directions will automatically be set to Axial and Tangential. A prompt will come up to select a

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-19


Materials

surface normal to the axial direction. The code requires this for correct calculation of the orien-
tation of the material object.
Surface normal to
axial direction

Flow enters axially, but


must pass through radial Resistance Region
resistance region (annulus)

Flow Inlet

Another application for the Radial flow direction resistance is for a bank of resistive cylinders
over which the flow must pass. In this case, the flow direction is again Radial, and an axial
direction (select a surface normal to the axis of the cylinder) must be selected:

6-20 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.5.2 Creating and Editing Resistances

No resistance materials are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to


create at least one before using a resistance. The Material Editor for resistances is shown:

Step 4
Step 2

Step5

Step 3

Materials
Step 6

Step 7

The Variation Method and Value for each component is entered separately, but it is recom-
mended that the same variation be used for all three components.

Creating Resistance Materials is similar to creating fluid and solid materials:


1. The Type must be set to Resistance (this is set on the Main Materials dialog).
2. Enter a material name. Note: spaces are not permitted in material names.
3. Hit the button of the component to define (Properties group).
4. Select the Variation Method.
5. Enter the Value(s).
6. Hit the Apply button.
7. Hit OK when all information is entered.

A Resistance material definition does not reference specific Cartesian components. Instead, the
values are saved as the Through-Flow, and the two Normal Components. The specific Carte-
sian orientation of the material is specified when a resistance material is applied to a part.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-21


Materials

A thermal conductivity should also be assigned to a resistance material. This can be different
from the surrounding fluid, and is important for heat transfer analyses in which the material
will play a thermal role.

No other fluid property information is required to define a resistance. The Solver automatically
applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the resistance. For this rea-
son it is very important that a resistance region only contact one fluid material type. If, for
example, a resistance contacts air on one side and water on the other, an error will result, and
the analysis will not run.

6.5.3 Resistance Variational Methods

There are five different resistance variational methods:


1. Constant Loss Coefficients
2. Free Area Ratio
3. Friction Factor
4. Pressure-Flow Rate Curve
5. Permeability Coefficient (Darcy equation)

1. Constant Loss Coefficients:

Losses through a media can be expressed in terms of an additional pressure gradient:


2
∂p u
------- = K i ρ -----i -
∂x i 2
where Ki is the loss coefficient in the global i coordinate direction. Each global coordinate
direction can have its own unique loss coefficient.

Loss coefficients in CFdesign are expressed without units, and are independent of the length
of the resistance in the model. The equation describing these losses is written in terms of a
pressure drop instead of a pressure gradient:
u2
∆p = ζ i ρ ----i-
2

6-22 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

Values for ζ can be found in many fluids texts and the hydraulic resistance reference, Hand-
book of Hydraulic Resistance, 3rd Edition by I.E. Idelchik, published by CRC Press, 1994
(ISBN 0-8493-9908-4).

Alternatively, this is a good method to use if measured data for pressure drop versus flow rate
is available. Use the equation for Delta P shown above: substitute in the known values of pres-
sure and velocity to determine a ζ value. Enter this value for the Through-Flow K.

To input a loss coefficient, select the desired direction and choose Constant as the Variation
Method. Enter the appropriate value of ζ (as described above) in the Through-Flow K Value
field.

Often the normal direction coefficients will be 50-100 times larger than the through flow loss
value. This simulates a flow straightener.

Materials
The Permeability field has been added to the Constant resistance method as well as the Friction
Factor method. This gives the user the ability to implement a resistance in the form:
2
P 1 – P 2 = αµV + βρV

Where α is the permeability used in the viscous term, and β is the loss coefficient used in the
inertial term. The value of permeability, α , entered for one component is automatically
applied to the other components.

To enter a constant resistance or a friction factor without the contribution of a permeability,


simply leave the Permeability value 0. Likewise to apply a permeability value without a con-
stant loss coefficient or friction factor, change the Variation Method to Permeability, and enter
the appropriate value of permeability.

2. Free Area Ratio

An easy way to represent a perforated plate or a baffle that has a known open (free) area is to
use a free area ratio.

The free area ratio is the ratio of the open area to the total area of an obstruction:
A open
f = ------------
-
A total

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-23


Materials

To input a free area ratio, select the desired direction and choose Free Area Ratio as the Vari-
ation Method. Enter the appropriate ratio in the Value field. A value of 1 indicates that the
region is completely open, and the flow will encounter low resistance. The two normal direc-
tions are typically closed, so use a value of 0 to indicated a completely closed--high resistance
condition.

3. Friction Factor

The friction factor method can be used to simulate a long length of tube or pipe. In this
method, the excess pressure drop is written as:
2
∂p f u
------- = ------- Lρ -----i -
∂x i DH 2
where f is the friction factor and DH is the hydraulic diameter. On the Material Editor, select
the desired direction, and choose Friction Factor as the Variation Method:

Enter the Hydraulic Diameter and the simulated Pipe Length (as well as the desired units).
–b
Select the friction factor calculation method: Moody or the equation f = aRe , where Re is
the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter of the pipe.

In the Moody method, the Moody formula is used to calculate the friction factor. The obstruc-
tion Roughness height must be entered in the correct length units.

In the equation method, enter the coefficients a and b, as shown in the equation above.

6-24 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

4. Head Capacity Curve

A head capacity table controls the flow rate based on the calculated pressure drop.

To input a head capacity curve, select the desired direction and choose Head Capacity Curve
as the Variation Method. Enter the pressure and flow rate values in the following table:

Materials
Click the Insert button to create a new line between two existing lines. Use the Import button to
bring in data in Excel “.csv” format. Save a table of data to a “.csv” file using the Save button.

5. Darcy Equation

A permeability can be input using the Darcy equation. Unlike loss coefficients which have dif-
ferent resistance values in the three directions, a permeability provides a constant resistance in
all directions. An example is a packed bed of stones.

∂p
------- = Cµu i
∂x i
where C is the permeability coefficient, µ is the viscosity (of the surrounding fluid) and ui is
the velocity in the global i coordinate direction.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-25


Materials

To use this model, enter a value for C. The units of C are 1/length2.

6.6 Internal Fans

Internal fans simulate an axial momentum source within the interior of the geometry. Fans can
have a constant flow rate, or the flow rate can vary with a head-capacity curve so that the fan
operating point depends on the pressure drop through the device.

6-26 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.6.1 Assigning Axial Fans


1. Select the part or parts, choose the
Internal Fan/Pump as the Type, and
select the Material Name as discussed
in Steps 1 through 4 on Page 6-2.

(If the material does not exist, see the


following section for how to create fan Step 1
materials.)

2. Select the Flow Direction of the


fan by selecting either a Cartesian

Materials
direction or by selecting Pick on Sur-
face.

If Pick on Surface is selected, you will


be prompted to pick a planar surface on
the fan part that is normal to the flow
direction.
Use the Reverse button to change the Step 2
flow direction if necessary.

3. Hit Apply to apply the material. Step 3

Note: internal axial fans should not be placed on an external boundary. Likewise, it is not good
practice to apply boundary conditions to any surface of an internal fan material. Doing so may
cause convergence difficulties and will affect the flow rate reported in the summary file. If an
internal fan contacts an external boundary, it is better to either create an extension onto the fan
inlet (so that the boundary condition is not applied directly to the fan) or simply use an external
fan boundary condition instead of an internal fan material.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-27


Materials

6.6.2 Creating and Editing Axial Fans and Pumps

No internal fans are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at
least one before using a fan. The Material Editor for internal fans is shown:

Step 4

Step 2
Step 5

Step 3

Step 6

Step 7

Creating Fan Materials is similar to creating fluid and solid materials:


1. The Type must be set to Internal Fan/Pump (this is set on the Main Materials
dialog).
2. Enter a material name. Note: spaces are not permitted in material names.
3. Hit the button of the Property to define.
4. Select the Variation Method.
5. Enter the appropriate Value(s).
6. Hit the Apply button.
7. Hit OK when all information is entered.

A Fan material definition does not reference specific Cartesian components. Instead, the
Through-Flow-Rate is entered. The specific Cartesian orientation of the fan is specified when a
fan material is applied to a part.

6-28 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

No other fluid property information is required to define an internal fan. The Solver automati-
cally applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the fan. For this rea-
son it is very important that a fan part contact only one fluid material type. If, for example, a
fan contacts air on one side and water on the other, an error will result, and the analysis will not
run.

There are two ways to input flow rate: as a constant value or as a head-capacity (PQ) curve:

Constant
Enter the Flow Rate Value and appropri-
ate units.

Materials
:

Fan Curve
Enter the Flow Rate and Pressure into the
table. This information often comes from
fan manufacturer data.
Data in “.csv” format can be imported
using the Import button. Data is saved to a
“.csv” file using the Save button.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-29


Materials

The rotational speed is an optional parameter, and can only be entered as a constant value.

6.7 Centrifugal Pump/Blower

A complement to the axial fan device, this is a material type that changes the flow direction
from axial to radial. The user specifies a flow rate (constant or a fan curve) as well as an
optional rotational speed.

This device models the flow through the impeller of a centrifugal device, so the volute geome-
try is required. Flow can also be made to enter radially/tangentially and exit axially (as in a
radial in-flow turbine).

6-30 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.7.1 Assigning Centrifugal Pumps and Blowers

1. Select the part or parts, choose the Cen-


trifugal Pump/Blower as the type, and select
the Material Name.

(If the material does not exist, see the follow-


ing section for how to create the material.)
Step 1

2. Select the Axis of Rotation by clicking


the Axis of Rotation button. This will bring up
a dialog prompting for a surface that is normal
to the axis of rotation. Select the surface, and

Materials
reverse the direction if necessary, using the
right hand rule convention.
3. Select the inlet surface or surfaces by
clicking on the Inlet button. This will bring up
a dialog prompting you to select the inlet sur-
face(s). After selecting the surface(s), hit OK
on the Inlet Face Selection dialog. Step 2
4. Select the outlet surface or surfaces by Step 3
clicking on the Outlet button. This will bring Step 4
up a dialog prompting you to select the inlet
surface(s). After selecting the surface(s), hit Step 5
OK on the Outlet Face Selection dialog
5. Hit Apply to apply the material.

For a pump or blower-type device, the inlet is typically the axial surface. Care should be taken
when constructing the geometry that the inlet surface does not touch the outlet surface.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-31


Materials

This is shown

Surrounding Centrifugal Blower


Flow Volume

Inlet Surface Outlet Surfaces

Alternatively, the device may be an annulus, like a squirrel cage. In this case, the inlet would
be the interior annular surfaces, and the outlet would be the exterior cylindrical surfaces (as
shown above).

6.7.2 Creating and Editing Centrifugal Pumps and Blowers

No centrifugal pumps are included in the installed materials, so it is necessary to create at least
one before using a pump. The Material Editor for centrifugal pumps is shown:

Step 4
Step 2

Step 5

Step 3

Step 6

Step 7

6-32 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

1. The type must be set to Centrifugal Pump/Blower (this is set on the main
Materials dialog).
2. Enter a material Name. (Note: no spaces.)
3. Hit the button of the Property to define.
4. Select the Variation Method.
5. Enter the appropriate Values.
6. Hit the Apply button.
7. Hit OK when all information is entered.

The Flow Rate and the Rotational Speed are necessary inputs. The specific direction of flow
and rotational direction are not part of the material definition. These settings are entered on the
Material task dialog, making them particular to the assigned geometry.

Materials
No other fluid property information is required to define a centrifugal pump. The Solver auto-
matically applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the pump. For
this reason, it is very important that a pump contact only one fluid material type.

There are two ways to input flow rate: as a constant value or as a head-capacity (PQ) curve.

6.7.2.1 Constant

Enter the Flow Rate Value and the appro-


priate units.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-33


Materials

6.7.2.2 Fan Curve

Enter the Flow Rate and Pressure Head


data into the table. This information often
comes from fan manufacturer data. Data in
“.csv” format can be imported using the
Import button. Data is saved to a “.csv” file
using the Save button.

6.8 Check Valves

Check valves shut when the flow rate reaches a user-specified minimum value, and are often
used to prevent back flow. Check valves can be represented using a resistance parameter,
reducing the need to model the geometry.

6-34 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.8.1 Assigning Check Valves


1. Select the part or parts, choose the
Check Valve as the Type, and select the
Material Name as discussed in Steps 1
through 4 on Page 6-2.

(If the material does not exist, see the


Step 1
following section for how to create the
material.)

2. Select the Flow Direction of the


check valve by selecting either a Carte-

Materials
sian direction or by selecting Pick on
Surface.

If Pick on Surface is selected, you will


be prompted to pick a planar surface on
the part. This surface will be normal to
Step 2
the flow direction.
Use the Reverse button to change the
flow direction. Step 3

3. Hit Apply to apply the material.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-35


Materials

6.8.2 Creating and Editing Check Valves

No check valves are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create at
least one before assigning one. The Material Editor for check valves is shown:

Creating Check Valve Materials is similar to creating fluid and solid materials:
1. The Type must be set to Check Valve (this is set on the Main Materials dia-
log).
2. Enter a material name. Note: spaces are not permitted in material names.
3. Hit the button of the Property to define.
4. Select the Variation Method.
5. Enter the appropriate Value(s).
6. Hit the Apply button.
7. Hit OK when all information is entered.

A Check Valve material definition does not reference specific Cartesian components. Instead,
the flow direction is specified when a check valve material is applied to a part.

No other fluid property information is required to define a check valve. The Solver automati-
cally applies the fluid property information from the surrounding fluid to the check valve mate-
rial. For this reason it is very important that a check valve material contact only one fluid
material type. If, for example, a check valve contacts air on one side and water on the other, an
error will result, and the analysis will not run.

6-36 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

Two parameters are required to define a check valve: the Full Open K Factor and the Cutoff
Flow Rate.

The Full Open K factor is used to simulate the fact that even a wide open valve causes loss to
the flow. This value can be very small, but it is not recommended to use a value of 0.

The Cutoff flow rate is the flow rate at which the valve begins to close.

6.9 Rotating Regions

Part of the CFdesign Motion Module, the Rotating Region allows for the analysis of rotating
machinery such as pumps, turbines, and mixers. The rotating region is an “envelope” that sur-

Materials
rounds a spinning device. Throughout the analysis, the rotating region rotates about its center-
line, and any solids within the region will rotate as well.

There are numerous ways to define the rotation using a rotating region. Such methods include
a user-defined rotational speed, a driving torque, and a fluid-driven approach that spins
because of the hydrodynamic (or aerodynamic) forces imparted by the flow.

Please consult Chapter 12 of this Guide for more information about Rotating Machinery analy-
ses.

6.9.1 Assigning a Rotating Region

A new material type has been added to the Material Task Dialog: Rotating Region. When
defining a rotating region, select this type from the Type drop down of the Material Task dia-

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-37


Materials

log. To create or edit a Rotating Region, hit the Create/Edit Material button to bring up the
Material Editor.

1. Select the part or parts. Choose Rotat-


ing Region as the Type, and select the
Material name.

(If the material does not exist, create one


using the Create/Edit button.)
Step 1

2. Choose the Axis of Rotation by


selecting either a Cartesian direction or by
selecting a surface that is normal to the
rotational axis (Pick on Surface).

If Pick on Surface is selected, you will be


prompted to pick a planar surface on the
rotating region part that is normal to the
axis of rotation.
Step 2
Use the Reverse button to change the axis
direction if necessary. The Right Hand
Rule Convention is used.
Step 3

3. Hit Apply to apply the material to the


part.

The center of rotation will be calculated automatically based on the geometry of the rotating
region. For this reason, it is important that the rotating region and the solid (or cut-out) rotor
have the same center.

6-38 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

Note: Solids embedded in a rotating region should be assigned a solid material. CFdesign will
rotate such a solid because it is embedded in a rotating region.

6.9.2 Creating and Editing Rotating Regions

No rotating region materials are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary
to create at least one before designating a part as a rotating region. The Material Editor for
rotating regions is shown:

Step 5
Step 2

Materials
Step 6

Step 3

Step 4

Step 8 Step 7

Creating a rotating region is similar to creating fluid and solid materials:


1. The Type must be set to Rotating Region on the Main Materials dialog.
2. Enter a material name. Note: spaces are not permitted in material names.
3. Select the Analysis type: Known Rotational Speed, Known Driving Torque,
or Free Spinning.
4. Hit the button of the Property to define (if more than one is required).
5. Select the Variation Method.
6. Enter the appropriate Values.
7. Hit the Apply button.
8. Hit OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-39


Materials

The parameters that define a Rotating Region are based on the type of analysis to be run. There
are three different scenarios: Known Rotational Speed, Known Driving Torque, and Free Spin-
ning. The type is selected from the drop menu as described in Step 3, above.

6.9.2.1 Known Rotational Speed

Enter the rotational speed of the rotor in either


radians per second or RPM.
A variable rotational speed can be entered by
changing the Variation Method to Table, and
entering data points for rotational speed vs.
time.

6-40 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.9.2.2 Known Driving Torque

This method is useful for modeling a device


that is rotated by a known driving torque
(such as from a motor). Torque can be entered
as a constant value or as varying with time or
RPM using a piece-wise linear data table.
(The direction of applied torque is set as the
rotational direction on the main Material Task
dialog.)
If there is a resistive torque acting on the
device, subtract that from the Known Torque
value. For example, if the known motor

Materials
torque is 100 N-m, and the resistive torque is
5 N-m, then apply a value of 95 N-m.

In addition to torque, enter the inertia of the


rotating device. This is commonly the rota-
tional inertia of the rotor and shaft and any-
thing that is connected to the shaft (such as a
motor or flywheel if the rotating device is a
turbine). An easy way to determine an
approximate inertia is to multiply the com-
bined mass of the rotor, shaft, and shafted
accessories by the average radius squared.
This approach is reasonable if the intent of the
analysis is to run the device to a steady state
condition.
If the intent of the analysis is to obtain a
detailed time history of the rotational speed,
then a more precise value of inertia is neces-
sary.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-41


Materials

6.9.2.3 Free Spinning

In this case, the rotor starts with no rotational


speed, and will “spin up” based on the applied fluid
loading. Specify the inertia of the mechanical com-
ponents and the rotor. The steady rotational speed
will occur when the net hydraulic torque is zero.
If the device is free spinning, but a known resistive
torque exists:
1. Set the Analysis Type to Known Driving
Torque,
2. Apply the resistive torque as a negative value.
This will cause the device to spin up due to the sur-
rounding flow, and will find a steady rotational
speed when the net hydraulic torque is zero.

6.10 Moving Solids

In addition to the usual solid material properties, a CFdesign moving solid is defined by a
range of motion. A moving solid will translate within and through a fluid region, forcing the
surrounding fluid to react. Moving solids are part of the Motion Module, and examples include
a piston moving in a cylinder, a hydraulic ram oscillating within a chamber, or even objects on
a conveyor belt, moving through a curing process.

In CFdesign 7.0, moving solids can only move in a linear path. Also, the motion is defined
solely by user input. Moving solids will not react to flow-induced forces. More advanced
motion capability such as curvilinear motion and flow-induced motion will be introduced in
future versions of CFdesign.

Please consult Chapter 12 of this Guide for more information about Linearly translating analy-
ses.

6-42 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.10.1 Assigning Moving Solid Materials

1. Select the part or parts, choose Mov-


ing Solid as the Type, and either select the
material name or create a new moving solid
material.
2. Select the Direction Of Travel of the
solid by selecting either a Cartesian direc-
Step 1
tion or by selecting Pick On Surface.

If Pick on Surface is selected, you will be


prompted to pick a planar surface on the
object that is normal to the direction of

Materials
travel.

Use the reverse button to change the initial


direction of motion if necessary.

3. Hit Apply to apply the Material. Step 2

Step 3

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-43


Materials

6.10.2 Creating and Editing Moving Solids

No moving solids are included in the installed Materials Database, so it is necessary to create
at least one before using a moving solid. The Material Editor for moving solids is shown:

Step 5
Step 2
Step 6

Step 3

Step 4

Step 7

Step 8

Creating a moving solid is similar to creating fluid and solid materials:


1. The Type must be set to Moving Solid on the Main Materials dialog.
2. Enter a material name. Note: spaces are not permitted in material names.
3. Assign a solid material type from the Solid drop menu. If the moving solid is
to have properties different from a material in the database, you should cre-
ate a new solid material first.
4. At this point, we are only allowing definition of linear motion, so the Dis-
tance button is the default. (In the future, we will add a “Rotation” button to
describe rotational motion.)
5. Select the Variation Method.
6. Enter the appropriate Values.
7. Hit the Apply button.
8. Hit OK when all information is entered to close the dialog.

6-44 CFdesign User’s Guide


Materials

6.10.2.1 Constant Velocity

This is used to prescribe a periodic (reciprocating) motion.

The Half Period Time is the time it takes the


object to move from the start position to the end
of the stroke.

The Distance is the length of the stroke.


Start End

Materials
Distance

6.10.2.2 Table

A table of displacement vs. time can be used to describe a more general motion:

The Displacement is relative to the as-built


location in the CAD model.
To start the motion from a location different
from the as-built location, enter a displacement
for time 0.
Checking the Cyclical box defines the motion
by repeating only forward passes through the
displacement table.
Checking the Reciprocating box defines the
motion by alternating forward and reverse
passes through the displacement table.

CFdesign User’s Guide 6-45


Materials

6.11 Graphical Indications

Parts are colored by their applied materials. The legend in the upper left corner defines the
color for each material. All parts with the same material are colored the same.

6.12 Feature Tree

All applied materials are listed on the feature tree. These listings are for informational and for
view attribute control only. All material definition is controlled through the task dialog:

These listings are very helpful for checking materials and for changing the visibility of materi-
als. To highlight all parts of a material, left click on the material name branch--the parts will
highlight in the Graphics window. To change the appearance of materials and parts, right click
on either a material or a part branch; the part can be displayed in Outline mode or as Transpar-
ent. In the Results task, further visibility choices are available on the Materials branch and sub-
branches of the feature tree.

6-46 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 7 Analysis Options

7.1 Introduction

The Options dialog is used to set basic conditions and parameters of the analysis.

The default settings define an incompressible, turbulent flow analysis, with no heat transfer.
The parameters are all engineering in nature (no numerical stuff here!), and are discussed in
this chapter.

CFdesign User’s Guide 7-1


Options

7.2 Flow

If flow is turned On, the pressure and momentum equations for the fluid motion will be solved.
Turn flow Off for conduction-only heat transfer analyses.

Note: For forced convection analyses, the flow and heat transfer calculations can be run sepa-
rately (although it is not required). After the flow analysis finishes, turn flow to Off, and turn
Heat Transfer On (discussed below). For natural convection analyses, flow and heat transfer
must be run concurrently.

Incompressible

Characterizes any flow for which the maximum Mach number is less than 0.3.

Subsonic Compressible

Subsonic compressible flows are flows that are compressible but contain no shocks.

In particular, the fluid velocity must be low enough so that heat generation due to viscous
shearing work on the fluid is negligible. Typically, a Mach number of 0.7-0.8 is the maximum
for which this is true.

If there is heat transfer, the static Temperature equation is solved. This equation neglects vis-
cous dissipation and pressure work effects. If there is no heat transfer, the total temperature is
held constant and the static temperature is determined from:
2
V
T = T + ---------
0 static 2c
P
Be sure to enter a value for Total Temperature for subsonic compressible flows without heat
transfer. This constant value of total temperature will be used in the equation shown above.

Additionally, be sure to define a material in which density varies with Equation of State (see
the Materials chapter, Chapter 6, for more information).

7-2 CFdesign User’s Guide


Options

Compressible

Compressible flows are flows that have a Mach number greater than 0.8 with or without heat
transfer and shocks.

If there is heat transfer, the total Temperature equation is solved. This equation includes terms
for viscous dissipation and pressure work. The static temperature is determined from the equa-
tion shown above.

For compressible flows without heat transfer, enter a value for Total Temperature.

Additionally, the density of the fluid must vary with Equation of State (see the Materials chap-
ter for more information).

If water is chosen as the material and compressible is selected, then the water hammer problem
will be solved.

7.3 Heat Transfer

The default setting of Off considers the calculation to be adiabatic, and will not solve for any
heat transfer effects.

Options
When Heat Transfer is turned On, the calculation will include conduction, radiation, forced
convection, mixed convection, and natural convection. (For internal radiation, also select
Radiation from the Radiation group.) If Joule heating boundary conditions (current and/or
voltage) are applied, heat transfer must be enabled to solve for Joule heating.

Radiation

Turn Radiation On to include surface-to-surface radiation effects in a heat transfer analysis.


Radiation is typically most relevant when the field temperatures are very high. The radiation
model is a non-participating model, meaning that radiation occurs between the walls and the
fluid medium (the air) is not directly affected by the radiation. When radiation is activated, the
start-up processing of the analysis will generally take longer due to the view factor calculation.

CFdesign User’s Guide 7-3


Options

Be sure to set the emissivity of the walls and solids (in the Materials dialog). Emissivity set as
a fluid property is automatically applied to all contacting wall surfaces. Because the radiation
model is non-participating, emissivity values set on fluid materials are not relevant to the flu-
ids. Emissivity set on a solid material overrides any specified value on the contacting fluid.

Radiation is not available for symmetric geometries.

Gravitational Vector

Use the Gravity Vector for buoyancy driven flows (natural convection). (You should NOT
specify a gravity vector for forced convection flows.) Because most natural convection analy-
ses occur on Earth, all that is required to set up gravity is to make sure the Earth box is
checked (it is by default) and to indicate the direction of gravity in your model with a unit vec-
tor. For example, if your model is constructed such that “down” is in the negative Y direction,
then the unit vector for gravity should be:

X = 0; Y = -1; Z = 0

For buoyancy driven flows on other planets (or where the gravity is different from that on
Earth), uncheck the Earth box, and enter the magnitude (in the analysis units) and the direction
of the gravity vector.

Note: be sure to choose a buoyancy material or set the density to vary with equation of
state on the Material Dialog

7.4 Optional

There are two additional sets of controls on the Options dialog: Turbulence and Scalars. Both
of these controls are accessed by clicking their respective buttons on the Options Dialog.

7-4 CFdesign User’s Guide


Options

7.4.1 Turbulence

The Turbulence dialog is used to toggle turbulence on and off, to select the turbulence model
and to modify the default values for the turbulence model parameters.

If Laminar is selected, then the flow will be solved as laminar. If Turbulent is selected (the
default) then the analysis will be solved as turbulent. Most engineering flows are turbulent,
however. If there is some uncertainty about which setting to use, then first try laminar. If the
flow should be solved as turbulent, the calculation will typically diverge within the first ten to
fifteen iterations.

Turb Model

Options
Three turbulence models are available:
• The constant eddy viscosity model is slightly less rigorous than the other two
models (except for electronic cooling analyses), but more numerically stable. This is a
good choice for lower speed turbulent flows and some buoyancy flows. This is also
useful if one of the other two models caused divergence.
• k-epsilon, the default turbulence model, is typically more accurate than the con-
stant eddy viscosity, but more computational intensive and slightly less robust. It is
not as resource intensive as the RNG model, but still gives good results.
• The RNG turbulence model is more computational intensive, but sometimes
slightly more accurate than the k-epsilon model, particularly for separated flows. This
model works best for predicting the reattachment point for separated flows, particu-
larly for flow over a backward-facing step. When using the RNG model, it is often

CFdesign User’s Guide 7-5


Options

recommended to start with the k-epsilon model and after this model is fairly well con-
verged, enable the RNG model.

Auto Startup

Auto Startup controls the Automatic Turbulent Start-Up (ATSU) algorithm.

This algorithm goes through a number of steps to obtain turbulent flow solutions. The algo-
rithm starts by running 10 iterations using a constant eddy viscosity model, so the k and epsi-
lon equations are not solved. With this solution as an initial guess, the two-equation turbulence
model is started. At iteration 10, a spike in the convergence monitoring data will appear for the
k and epsilon equations. Other steps are then taken to gradually arrive at the converged result.
These steps may involve spikes in the convergence monitoring data at iterations 10, 20 and 50.
After 50 iterations, the ATSU is turned off automatically.

If Lock On is selected, the ATSU stays on during the entire analysis until the user manually
clicks it off. If there are convergence difficulties after iteration 50 (divergence within 10 itera-
tions), then you should enable Lock On. If the ATSU is turned on, you should run at least 200
iterations to ensure convergence of the turbulent flow solution.

If Extend is selected, an extended version of the ATSU is activated. This method is useful for
difficult analyses, particularly compressible analyses. The minimum number of iterations that
should be run with this algorithm is 400.

Turb/Laminar Ratio

The Turb/Laminar Ratio is the ratio of the effective (turbulent) viscosity to the laminar value.
This is used to estimate the effective viscosity at the beginning of the turbulent flow analysis.
In most turbulent flow analyses, the effective viscosity is 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than
the laminar value. The default value is generally suitable for most flows.

For some flows, it is helpful to increase the Turb/Lam Ratio to 1000 or even 10,000. Such
flows typically involve a small, high speed jet shooting into a large plenum. Such flows are
typically momentum-driven, and benefit from a larger turbulent viscosity at the beginning of
the calculation.

Additionally, this affects the value of viscosity when the constant-eddy viscosity turbulence
model is used.

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Options

Turbulence Intensity

The Turbulence Intensity Factor controls the amount of turbulent kinetic energy in the inlet
stream. Its default value is 0.05 and should rarely exceed 0.5. The expression used to calculate
1 2 2 2 2
turbulent kinetic energy at the inlet, k in , is: k in = --- I ( u + v + w )
2
where I is the Intensity Factor and u, v and w are velocity components.

Roughness

The Roughness is the average height (in current length units) of the scale or roughness from
the wall. This value is applied to all wall surfaces. A default of zero indicates that the walls are
smooth.

7.4.2 Scalars

The Scalars dialog controls the calculation of the scalar quantity:

Options
The default is No Scalar meaning that the scalar calculation is not part of the analysis.

The transport of a general scalar variable will be modeled when General Scalar is selected.
This scalar might be the salinity in a seawater fluid flow analysis, a mixture fraction in a multi-
species analyses or some marker.

If Humidity is selected, the gas is assumed to be moist. The specified scalar values are taken to
be relative humidity values. Both the relative humidity and the condensed water can be post-

CFdesign User’s Guide 7-7


Options

processed. Note that the condensation of a moist gas can be modeled by CFdesign, but the
evaporation of water into a gas stream cannot. Heat transfer must be turned On. For this type
of analysis, the energy equation is written in terms of enthalpy. The Enthalpy scalar can also be
visualized. If the relative humidity is dependent upon the pressure, you should also enable
Subsonic Compressible. Remember to enter the correct properties for the gas (only the gas,
not the moist mixture) on the Materials Dialog

If Steam Quality is selected, the fluid is assumed to be an homogeneous mixture of water and
steam. The scalar is the steam quality (0 if no steam, 1 if all steam). Properties are calculated
using the steam tables. Heat transfer must be turned On. For this type of flow, the energy equa-
tion is written in terms of enthalpy. Enthalpy can also be post-processed.

7-8 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 8 Analyze and Review

8.1 Introduction

At this point, the model should be set up and ready to run. The Analyze dialog contains con-
trols to run the analysis, and also launches the Convergence Monitor. The Convergence Moni-
tor allows an easy way to monitor the performance of the calculation. The Fast Track Option is
also discussed.

After the analysis is finished, the Review dialog is the place to go for information about the
calculation. The Review dialog provides access to the Status and Summary files, and provides
tools to organize saved results sets and time steps for animation.

Prior to the analysis, use the Review task dialog to set up monitor points. During the analysis,
convergence data will be plotted for monitor points, and allow the user to track the flow and
thermal behavior at exact locations throughout the model.

8.2 Analyze

This dialog contains the commands to start and stop the calculation. The analysis mode can be
set to steady state (the default) or transient. The Results and Summary Output Intervals are set
on this dialog. The analysis computer is also set here. This is for the Fast Track Option--the
ability to run the analysis on a computer different from the one used to build the analysis. The
analysis can always be stopped by hitting the Stop button (which replaces the Go button during
a calculation.)

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8.2.1 The Analyze Dialog

1. Select either Steady State or Tran- Step 1


sient
2. If Transient, set the transient
parameters (time step size, etc.) Step 2
3. Set the Results and/or Summary
Output intervals
4. Select the Analysis Computer (the
Step 3
local computer is the default).
5. If continuing an analysis, select
the iteration or time step to Continue
From. Step 4
6. Enter the number of Iterations to Step 5
Run. Step 6
Step 8

7. Optional: apply Convergence


Controls and/or active additional Out-
put Quantities.
8. Hit GO to start the analysis.

Step 7

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8.2.2 Analyze Mode: Steady State or Transient

The default selection, Steady State, causes the analysis to be independent of time. Switching
to Transient causes the analysis to be time-dependent. It is possible to switch between the two
modes during an analysis. Transient boundary conditions are set up on the Loads dialog. Note
that all Motion analyses (rotating machinery and moving solids) are run as transient.

8.2.3 Transient Parameters

Three parameters are necessary for transient analysis: Time Step Size, Stop Time, and Num-
ber of Inner Iterations.

Time Step Size

The Time Step Size is always in seconds. If a negative value is entered, CFdesign will auto-
matically calculate a time step size according to standard linear stability theory (e.g., CFL
limit). Note that this time step size will probably be much smaller than really necessary, but it
will give you a lower limit for this value.

The time step size is automatically determined for rotating machinery analyses such that the
machine rotates three degrees per time step. A smaller time step is recommended for devices
that have many blades because three degrees might not be a fine enough resolution between
each blade.

The time step is also automatically calculated for moving solids analyses such that there are ten
time steps per half period. Again, depending on the physics of the flow or the complexity of the
geometry, a smaller time step may be required. More information about Motion Analyses is
presented in Chapter 12 of this guide.

Analyze and Review


Stop Time

The Stop Time is the time the analysis will terminate. The unit of time is always seconds. If a
negative value is entered, CFdesign will terminate the analysis after the specified number of
time steps have been completed. This is the default method.

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Note: Specify either Time Step Size OR Stop Time; do not specify both. The default (and rec-
ommended) way is to set a Time Step Size, and set the stop time to -1.

Number of Inner Iterations

This controls the number of inner iterations for each time step during a transient analysis.

Because CFdesign uses an implicit method to discretize the transient terms in the governing
equations, the calculation has to be iterated at each time step. This transient inner iteration is
similar to a global steady state iteration. The governing equations are solved at each inner iter-
ation as they are at each global iteration in a steady state analysis. The difference is that far
fewer inner iterations are needed in a transient time-step because the transient equations are
much more numerically stable.

Typically, 10-20 inner iterations per time step are sufficient for a transient analysis. If the con-
vergence monitor indicates that this is not enough (the convergence plot does not flatten), this
number can be increased. If the convergence monitor shows that this is too many inner itera-
tions (curves are flat for several iterations), you can decrease this number.

For Motion analyses, we recommend only one inner iteration per time step. This has been
found to work very well for a wide variety of Motion analyses.

8.2.4 Save Intervals

Sets how often the results and summary information are stored to the disk.

When the Results Output Interval is set to the default value of 0, results are saved only when
the analysis stops (either completing the specified number of iterations or because the Stop
button was pressed). For complicated analyses, it is recommended to set a non-zero Results
Output Interval. (Be careful that your Results Output Interval is not so small as to exceed your
hard-drive capacity.)

These saved results sets/time steps can be used for continuing the analysis from an earlier
result set if there is a problem--in effect returning to an earlier saved state of the analysis with-
out having to run it out again from the beginning. Results from saved result sets or time steps
can also be animated.

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Analyze and Review

The intermediate summary information is available in the summary file (<jobname>.sum).


Summary information from intermediate iterations is appended to the summary history file
(<jobname>.smh). This information is useful for tracking the progress of an analysis.

8.2.5 Analyze!

Analysis Computer, the Server Monitor, and the Fast Track Option

CFdesign 7.0 is built upon a client/server architecture. This enables an analysis to be built on
one machine, the User Interface Computer, and run on another machine, the Analysis Com-
puter.

For a single-seat installation, the default setting shown in the Analysis Computer drop menu
is “localhost.” This means that analyses will run locally without requiring any additional steps.
During the analysis, CFdesign can be shut down and the analysis will continue to run. (Check
the Task Manager.) When the CFdesign interface is started again and that analysis opened,
either the current status of the analysis will show, or it will be completed and the final results
will be available.

Note: Care should be taken to NOT shut down CFdesign until after the first iteration is com-
pleted.

Building upon these concepts, CFdesign 7.0 features the Fast Track Option.

The Fast Track Option is a way to run analyses on remote computers (on your network). It is a
way to temporarily ramp up analysis capability by using (often under-utilized) in-house com-
puter resources. This is not an ASP model nor is it distributed computing. Alternatively, it is an
innovative way to run multiple analyses on multiple computers. Temporary Solver licenses can
be leased for a few weeks or a few months at a time. (Consult your Account Manager for

Analyze and Review


details.) With these licenses, you can perform numerous analyses simultaneously, offering a
great way to explore all those “what if” scenarios that are critical to a successful design effort.

The analyses are set up locally (on the Interface Computer), but assigned to run on the machine
chosen in the Analysis Computer drop menu. Every machine on the network that is set up as

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Analyze and Review

an Analysis Computer will be listed here. The Server Monitor, accessible by hitting the
Server Monitor tab, lists all available Analysis computers and their status:

Detailed set-up instructions are provided in Fast-Track.pdf, found in your CFdesign installa-
tion folder. To summarize the set up of an analysis computer: install the CFdesign software
(select the Solver-only option) and configure the licensing. Ensure that the process called
cfdserv7.exe is running (if not, click on the file called servman.exe to start it).

On the Interface computer, the host-name of each available Analysis Computer must be added
to the server.cfg file found in the CFdesign installation folder. This will cause each Analysis
Computer to be listed in the Server Monitor on the Interface Computer.

To run an analysis on an eligible Analysis Computer, select its name from the Analysis Com-
puter drop menu (on the Interface machine), and hit GO. The model data will transmit to the
waiting Analysis Computer, and the analysis will proceed. As the analysis runs, results will be
sent back to the interface machine (where the model was built), for viewing with the Results
tools. During the analysis, the model can be closed and CFdesign shut down on the local (Inter-
face) machine.

Care should be taken to NOT shut down CFdesign on the Interface machine until after
the first iteration is completed.

Later, when the analysis is opened on the Interface machine, the current progress or the fin-
ished results will automatically be sent from the Analysis machine.

Continue From

The default entry in the Continue From drop menu is the last saved iteration or time step.
When GO is hit, the analysis will continue from the value shown in this drop menu.

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Analyze and Review

If a previous iteration or time step is chosen, then all subsequent saved iterations or time steps
will be deleted from the analysis (after a prompt is displayed confirming that this is OK).

Changes made to the mesh definitions, boundary conditions, or materials will be automatically
incorporated into the analysis. If a mesh size is changed, but the Continue From menu is not
reset to 0, a new mesh will be generated, the current results will be interpolated onto this new
mesh, and the analysis iteration count will be reset to 0. Note: all intermediate saved results
files (and time steps) will be deleted. The analysis will then proceed with the saved results
mapped to the new mesh.

Note: for existing analyses originally launched from Pro/Engineer but opened subsequently
from the Desktop, the Mesh Size task-dialog will not be available. Furthermore, if the existing
mesh sizes are deleted (through the Feature Tree), the Analyze dialog will be grayed out. This
is because the analysis MUST be opened from Pro/Engineer to generate a new mesh.

Iterations (or Time Steps) to Run

This is the number of additional iterations or time steps to be run once GO is hit.

Starting and Stopping

Hitting the GO button starts the analysis. Once the analysis is started, it changes to the STOP
button. Hitting the STOP button will stop the analysis at the end of the current iteration.

For a new analysis, the mesh will be generated prior to any iterations being solved. For analy-
ses started from Pro/Engineer, meshing occurs in the Pro/E interface--causing CFdesign to
minimize and Pro/E to come up. All status messages will appear in the List region of the Pro/E
interface. After the mesh is generated, Pro/E will minimize and CFdesign will come back up
and the analysis will proceed. During the analysis, Pro/E will remain in a minimized state, and
can not be accessed. To shut down Pro/E (to free up more memory), shut down the CFdesign

Analyze and Review


interface--the analysis will continue to run--and then shut down Pro/E. CFdesign can then be
started again, and the running analysis opened. The analysis will continue to run even when the
CFdesign interface is shut down.

For Acis and Parasolid based CAD systems, the CFdesign interface does not minimize during
the meshing, and status messages are listed in the Information field of the Analyze dialog.

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Analyze and Review

To just generate the mesh and not run any iterations (this is sometimes useful to inspect the
mesh prior to running a large analysis) set the number of iterations to 0, and hit GO. The mesh
will generate, but the analysis will not proceed. The mesh can be inspected using the Results
dialog. (Note: it is not necessary to assign boundary conditions, materials, or set up any analy-
sis options if the goal is just to generate the mesh. Obviously these tasks must be completed
prior to running the analysis.)

8.2.6 Analysis Queue (Batch Mode)

The Analysis Queue in CFdesign allows the user to run multiple analyses in series, in much the
same way as a batch process can be made to automate a succession of events. Instead of rely-
ing on a DOS batch file, however, the analysis queue requires no special steps, and is managed
through the user interface.

To add analyses to the queue, simply hit the Go button on the Analyze dialog. The first analysis
will start to run immediately. Close the CFdesign interface (the analysis will continue to run).
Open a subsequent analysis, and hit Analyze_Go to add it to the Queue. When Go is hit, the
analysis will not run immediately. Instead, it will be added to the queue, and the word
“Queued” will appear in the Status bar in the lower left corner of the Interface. Queued analy-
ses will be run in the order that they were submitted.

It is highly recommended that you generate the mesh for each analysis prior to launching the
first analysis for solving. To do this, simply run each analysis 0 iterations. This will generate
the mesh and helps to locate any errors in the set up prior to running the analyses.

Analyses in the queue will be listed in the Server Monitor tab of the Analyze task dialog. When
an analysis is completed, it will be removed from the list.

At any time while an analysis is running, it can be opened in the CFdesign interface and the
current state of the solution will be loaded for display.

To remove an analysis from the queue, open it in the CFdesign interface. A message in the Sta-
tus bar will indicate that the analysis is in the queue. To remove it, simply hit the Stop button
on the Analyze dialog. That analysis will then be removed from the queue and will be removed
from the list in the Server Monitor.

If an analysis diverges or stops because of errors, the next analysis in the queue will start.

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Analyze and Review

When the analysis is completed, open it in the CFdesign interface. When you exit the interface,
be sure to save the analysis when prompted.

8.2.7 Convergence / Output Tools

Convergence Controls applies under-relaxation to the solution variables, and is typically used
if problems are occurring with the calculation.

Result Quantities enable output of additional results quantities to the Results task dialog.

Convergence Control

The Convergence Control dialog controls the solution progression rate so that the chance of
divergence is minimized. Values are adjusted by moving the slider bar toward “Slower” or
“Faster” between 0 and 0.5 (or in some cases, 1.0). Note that if you specify 0, the degree of
freedom will not be allowed to progress with the solution at all.

The default values are the best settings for most analyses. However, solution difficulties can

Analyze and Review


often be resolved by reducing the progression rate for pressure to 0.1-0.3. This is generally the
most effective way to minimize solution difficulties, particularly if they occur in the early iter-
ations of a calculation. Reducing the rate on the velocity components, in conjunction with pres-
sure, to 0.1-0.3 may be necessary in some cases.

The progression rate on variables and properties can be adjusted only for those quantities that
are changing in the analysis. For example, the temperature rate can only be adjusted if Heat

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Analyze and Review

Transfer is turned On on the Options dialog. Likewise, the progression rate on the Density,
Specific heat (Cp), and Conductivity properties can only be adjusted if these properties are
variable, as set in the Material Editor.

The progression rate is applied to the solution in the following manner:

φ = rφ new + ( 1 – r )φ old

where r is the control parameter, φ is the dependent variable, the new subscript refers to the
latest solution and the subscript old refers to the previous solution. Values greater than 0.5
(default) are not used for most solution variables.

For compressible analyses, an additional method of control is also available: Pressure Control
and Temperature Control. (Temperature Control is available for incompressible analyses as
well.) A value between 1e-3 and 1e-6 can be selected for these parameters. They are necessary
for compressible analyses because the numerical conditioning for such analyses can often be
poor. For most compressible analyses, a value of 1e-3 is adequate for pressure (and tempera-
ture if Heat Transfer is enabled in the Options dialog). However, if convergence difficulties
persist, it may be necessary to reduce the value.

The value set for Pressure and Temperature control is a sort of pseudo-transient relaxation that
is implemented in the solution in the following manner:
⎛ ∫
ρ i N dΩ ⎞
⎜ A + -----------------------
-⎟ φ +
ρ i N dΩ ∫ old
⎜ i, i ∆t
⎝ inertia⎠
⎟ i ∑ A φ
i, j j = F + ------------------------ φ
i ∆t
inertia
i
j≠i

This sort of solution control is most often referred to as “inertial relaxation.”

The “Advanced” button on the Convergence Control dialog allows the user to select the advec-
tion scheme of the analysis. The default, “ADV 1” is recommended for most analyses. The
second scheme, ADV 2, is recommended for some Motion analyses (and is required to enable
Mesh Enhancement). We have found that ADV 2 is also very useful for analyses that are pres-
sure driven (a pressure drop, not a specified velocity, drives the flow).

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Analyze and Review

Result Quantities

This dialog lists the results quantities that are available for viewing after the analysis is com-
pleted.

The default quantities are the most widely used, but additional quantities are available if
needed.

After running the analysis, to output additional quantities, select them from this list, set the
number of iterations to 0, and hit GO. These additional quantities will be available for viewing
on the Results dialog.

Analyze and Review


By default, the film coefficient result quantity is calculated based on heat transfer results (ther-
mal residual). However, sometimes it is advantageous to obtain film coefficient data based on
the flow solution. This is accomplished by using an empirical correlation. The dialog is

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Analyze and Review

accessed by clicking the Options button on the Optional Post-Processor Output dialog. The
dialog is shown:

This dialog allows the film coefficient to be calculated in two ways.

The first uses the energy equation solution in the fluid and calculates the residual heat going to
the walls.
a b
The second uses an empirical formulation of the form: Nu = cRe Pr

Nu is the Nusselt number, Re is the local Reynolds number, and Pr is the Prandtl number. The
flow solution is used to calculate the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Use either the default val-
ues for a, b, and c, or select new values. Note that the definition of Reynolds number and Nus-
selt number requires a length constant. If you are unsure what to use for these length scales, use
the default of 1.

Note: Vorticity is the measure of the spin (angular speed) of a fluid particle. The mathematical
definition of vorticity is the curl of the velocity vector. Another way to look at it is that vortic-
ity is twice the angular rotation (omega). Since omega is a measure of the net angular rotation,
vorticity is a measure of the local spin of the fluid particle. (If omega, the angular velocity, = 0,
then the flow is irrotational and the vorticity is zero.)

8.2.8 Information

In this window on the Analyze dialog, status messages are written out during the generation of
the mesh and model pre-processing. Every pre-analysis calculation performed on the model is
listed here. A small summary of the model is also presented, and lists the number of inlets and
outlets, number of nodes and elements, and the units systems. If an error occurred during pro-

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Analyze and Review

cessing, it will be stated here. Also be sure to check the Status window found in the Review
dialog, Notes tab for error messages.

8.2.9 Convergence Monitor

While the analysis is running the Convergence Monitor is displayed below the Graphics win-
dow:
Data

Quantity

More detail will be presented in the Review section of this chapter, but a brief description of
this dialog follows:

Each line is a plot of the summary value of a degree of freedom. The x-axis is the number of
iterations, and the y-axis is the value of the quantity. Each curve has its own y-axis scale,
which is displayed by selecting a degree of freedom from the Quantity drop menu.

Summary plots of Monitor Points are plotted by selecting a monitor point from the Data drop
menu. (Monitor points will be described in detail in the Review section of this chapter.)

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The Table tab shows the data values that are plotted.

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8.3 Review

The Review dialog contains tools to help assess convergence throughout the entire calculation
domain as well as at individual monitor points. The Summary and Status files are accessed
through the Review dialog (Notes tab), and contain information about the completed analysis
as well as any errors that may have occurred. A set of controls can be found in the Review dia-
log that allows for animation of all or some of multiple saved results sets or time steps.

Operation of the Review Dialog is not as sequential as some of the other functions. Alterna-
tively, there are several useful tools available to help assess and understand analysis results.

8.3.1 Convergence Monitor

After the analysis is finished, the Convergence Monitor is displayed by clicking the View
Conv. Monitor button:

The primary criteria for determining convergence is that each degree of freedom is not chang-
ing with subsequent iterations. The curves shown in the Convergence Monitor are plots of the
average value of each degree of freedom throughout the entire calculation domain.

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A very helpful way to look at this data is to examine each degree of freedom individually.
Select a degree of freedom from the Quantity drop menu (it says “All” by default). The maxi-
mum and minimum values of the quantity will be shown on the Y-axis of the plot:

Adjust the displayed range of iterations by changing the Start and/or End iteration values.
After changing a value, hit the keyboard Enter to implement the change. This is especially
helpful for removing the first 50 or so iterations from the convergence plot. Before iteration 50,
the quantities are typically changing too much to be considered when assessing convergence.

By default the average value of each degree of freedom is plotted. To view the maximum and
minimum values, select Min. or Max. from the menu at the right side of the dialog.

The Table tab (shown just above the Start and End fields) shows a table of the plotted data.
When an individual degree of freedom is selected, the table shows only values for that quan-
tity.

8.3.2 Monitor Points

Analyze and Review


Monitor points are available in two forms: Runtime and Post. Runtime points track conver-
gence (of the basic degrees of freedom) at a user-specified point for every iteration of the anal-
ysis. For this reason, Run-Time points must be selected prior to running iterations.

Post Monitor points are used to create XY plots of any output quantity at any location in the
model for the saved time steps or iterations. These locations can be chosen after the analysis,
but only results data for saved iterations or time steps can be plotted. (Recall that the Results
Output Interval on the Analyze dialog can be used to save results sets during the analysis.)

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Runtime Monitor Points.

1. On the Monitor Points tab of the


Review dialog task, make sure the Run-
time Monitor tab is chosen (at the bottom
of the dialog). Step 2

2. Key in the X, Y, and Z coordinates


Step 3
and an ID for the point.
3. Hit the Add button to finish the point
definition.
4. Points and their locations will be dis-
played in the List Region.
Step 4
5. Plot the point graphically by hitting
the Show Points button.

Note: A maximum of fifty points can be


monitored

Step 5
Step 1

Monitor points can not be chosen while the solver is running, and must be created prior to run-
ning iterations. Convergence data at monitor points created after iterations have been run will
be of subsequent iterations as the analysis is continued--not from previous iterations.

Likewise, if a point is removed and the analysis is continued, then no subsequent data will be
available for the removed point.

When a completed analysis is started over from the beginning, all monitor point data for the
previous analysis will be removed.

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Convergence data for each monitor point is plotted in the Convergence Monitor in the same
manner as the global convergence data. Select a specific monitor point from the drop menu on
the right side of the Convergence Monitor:

Post Monitor Points

Post monitor points can be created after the analysis is finished, but are only plotted for saved
results sets or time steps (recall that the Results Save interval is set on the Analyze task dialog).

1. On the Monitor Points tab of the


Review dialog task, make sure the Post
Monitor tab is chosen (at the bottom of
the dialog). Step 2

2. Key in the X, Y, and Z coordinates Step 3


and an ID number.
3. Hit the Add button to finish the point.
4. Points and their locations will be dis-
played in the List Region.
5. Plot the saved results at a point by
first selecting it from the list and then hit- Step 4
ting the View Plot button.

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Step 5 Step 1

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Note: Select the desired results sets to plot using the Review_Results tab. Only the results sets
added to the Active group will be plotted.

When the View Plot button is hit, an XY plot of the data will be presented. A drop menu on the
plot window lists all the saved output quantities for the analysis, and any of these can be plot-
ted against iteration number.

8.3.3 Notes

The Notes tab provides access to the Status and Summary files--two good sources of informa-
tion about an analysis:

8.3.3.1 Status File

The status file contains descriptions of any errors that occurred during the analysis. If a mes-
sage saying “Errors occurred, Review Status File” appears in the Analyze Dialog Information
field, this is where you should go to view the error.

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Additionally, this file contains the messages displayed during startup (the initial calculations)
as well as the residuals for each degree of freedom for each iteration.

By default, the status and summary files are written out to the working directory as separate
text files. However, if they are deleted or if the cfd file is moved without either file, the status
and summary data are still accessible through the Review dialog. To create a separate text file
for either file, click the Save button on the bottom of the dialog frame.

8.3.3.2 Summary File

This file contains tabulated minimum, maximum, and average nodal values for selected vari-
ables. It also contains global summary calculations such as mass flow through inlet and outlet
passages, bulk pressures and temperatures, Reynolds number, wall heat transfer, a global

Analyze and Review


energy balance and the fluid forces. Additionally, analysis times and the amount of RAM used
in the analysis are shown.

<jobname>.sum is a simple text file that can be viewed in any text editor.

The calculation units as well as the units for every variable are included in the file. When
working in the inch-lb-s and inch-Watt-K units systems, the mass flow rate will be given in
both the consistent units as well as in lbm/s.

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Energy Balance

Fluid Energy Balance:


• Energy Out - Energy In: The difference in energy in the fluid from the outlet to
the inlet.
• Heat transfer from wall to fluid: This is how much energy the fluid picked up
from heat transfer boundary conditions on the walls.
• Heat transfer due to sources in fluid: This is how much energy the fluid picked up
from heat sources (volumetric and total) in the fluid.

Solid Energy Balance information:


• Heat transfer from exterior to solid: This is how much energy is transferred to (or
from) the solids to (or from) an exterior boundary. If all solids in the model are com-
pletely contained within the domain and do not contact an exterior boundary, there
will be no heat transfer from the exterior to the solid.
• Heat transfer due to sources in solid: This is how much heat is generated due to
heat sources (volumetric or nodal) in the solid.
• Heat Transfer from fluid to solid: This is how much heat transfer occurs from the
solid to the fluid. If the solid is at the same temperature as the fluid (because of no
sources in the solid, etc.), there will be no heat transfer from the solid to the fluid, and
this number will be zero or extremely close.

Inlets/Outlets

Recall that for book-keeping purposes, any specified velocity boundary condition is labeled an
“inlet,” and any specified pressure boundary condition is labeled an “outlet.”

For a pressure-driven flow, with a pressure at the inlet and a pressure at the outlet, the sum-
mary file will report that there are zero inlets, and two outlets. The physical inlet will have a
positive mass flow rate however, and the physical outlet will have a negative mass flow
rate. Also note that the “Total Mass Flow In” and the “Total Mass Flow Out” will be 0. This is
because there are no specified velocity conditions (no labeled inlets), and the total mass flow
from the labeled outlets cancels (one is positive, and the other is negative).

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Analyze and Review

Temperature Statistics

For analyses with heat transfer, statistics for temperature distribution are included in the sum-
mary file. These statistics show how much (as a volume percentage) of the model has a tem-
perature within a given range.

8.3.3.3 Summary History File

This is a collection of all the summary files created for this analysis. Each time the analysis is
continued, a new summary file is appended.

8.3.3.4 Component Temperatures

This is an output text file that lists the maximum, minimum, and average temperature for all
solid components in the model. The location and name of each part are also given. This is a
report that is created when requested, and provides a detailed description of the thermal results
for every component in the assembly.

Analyze and Review

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Analyze and Review

8.3.4 Results
The Results dialog lists saved results
sets and/or time steps in the Available
group.
1. Move sets from the Available
group to the Active group to make
them part of the animation.There are
three ways to select sets:
• Directly from the list
Step1
(Windows-standard control-
left click to select certain
sets) and hit the Down button
to move.
• Enter the range and
increment in the Parametric
Selection section and hit the
Move button.
• Hit the All Down button.
2. After selections are made, hit the
Apply button.
3. After an animation occurs, hit the
Reset button to regain control in the
dialog.

To clear the Active list, hit the All Up Step2


Step3

button. To remove certain steps, select


them and hit the Up button.

Result sets that are added to the Active group can be animated. This is very useful for visualiz-
ing time dependent data. The next section describes animation of time steps.

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8.3.5 Animate

Once result sets are made Active on the Results tab, hit the Animate tab to view the animation:

Play Forward
Play In Reverse
Stop Single Frame
Single Frame Advance
Reverse
Pause

Use the “VCR” controls to control the animation. Animated files can be played forward or in
reverse as well as stopped, paused, and advanced by frame forward or reverse. Click the Cycle
box to alternate between playing the animation forward and then in reverse.

The speed of the animation is controlled with the Frame Interval value (in milliseconds).

Use the controls on the Results task dialog to set up the view. Results objects can be added,
removed, and manipulated during the animation. Additionally, cutting plane bulk data can be
output for all active sets during an animation.

Analyze and Review

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8-24 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 9 Viewing Results

9.1 Introduction

CFdesign has a powerful set of post processing tools to help view, extract, and present analysis
results quickly, easily, and efficiently. An integrated feature tree lists display entities, and sev-
eral ways to output graphical images and data make communicating your analysis results with
other members of the design supply chain very easy.

The Results dialog task is more than just a post-processor: it is the way to view results during
the calculation. CFdesign has had Run-Time Results viewing capability for several years, but
this is the first time that the run-time results viewing environment is the same as the post-anal-
ysis results environment.

The Results-specific icons, the Feature Tree, and the Results dialog task are all discussed in
this chapter. There are several icons that are unique to the Results task, and make viewing
results easier. The Feature tree contains a summary of the settings that were in effect for the
displayed results. Finally, the Results dialog task is divided into four tabs: Cut Plane, Iso Sur-
face, Wall, and Settings. Most of these tabs are divided into further sub-tabs for clarity.

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9.2 Results-Specific Icons

Most of the icons in the user interface are discussed in Chapter 2 -- the User Interface Chapter.
However, there are several icons that are specific to post-processing, and are discussed here:
Save Image. This saves a bitmap, gif, or tif image of the current contents
of the Graphics Region.

Save Dynamic Image. This saves a “.vtf” file, which is an image that
can be viewed in the free viewer distributed with CFdesign. It can also
be viewed in PowerPoint, Word, or Internet Explorer if the free plug-in
is installed (details later in this chapter). This image is navigable--it can
be panned, rotated, and zoomed by the viewer.

Left: Save View Settings. This saves post-processing views and objects
such as cutting planes and iso surfaces.
Right: Open View Settings: This retrieves and applies saved views and
objects. A settings file can be opened on a model different from the orig-
inal model.

Shaded Image. The


model is shown filled.

View Lines. The mesh


lines are shown

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Outline Image. The out-


line of the model is
shown.

Viewing Results
Transparent. This
works in conjunction
with a shaded image, and
makes the model trans-
parent.

Show Mesh. Displays


surface mesh. (Shaded
Image should be
enabled.)

9.3 Feature Tree

The Results Task Feature Tree behaves differently from the Feature Tree shown in the other
tasks. Most of the branches are informational only, and do not allow any modification to
assigned settings. The Length Units, Coordinate System, Boundary and Initial Conditions, and
Mesh Size branches behave this way.

Additionally, each of the branches lists the settings that were assigned to produce the current
results. If a boundary condition or mesh size is changed after results are obtained, they will not
be listed on branches of the Results Feature Tree until the analysis is run with the new settings.
However, any new settings will be listed on the feature tree for the other tasks.

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Viewing Results

9.3.1 Analysis Settings

The Boundary Conditions, Initial Conditions, and Mesh Size branches list the settings for
the current analysis, and left clicking on the entity label (volume, surface, or edge label) will
cause that entity to highlight. This is a convenient way to determine the location of settings
while viewing Results. Click the label again to turn off the highlighting.

9.3.2 Materials

The Materials branch lists each material and the associated parts.

Left clicking on a part label causes that part to highlight in the Graphics region. To remove
the highlighting, left click again on the part label.

Right clicking on a specific material branch brings up a menu with display controls that are
applied to all parts with that material.

Right clicking on a part label brings up the same display control menu but applies only to
that part.

Most of these commands are view settings, and perform the


same function as the tool-bar icons described earlier.
Additionally:
Visible toggles the visibility of the part.
Transparent displays the part with transparent surfaces.
Show Results toggles the display of analysis results on the
part.

9.3.3 Results

The result selected from the Scalar branch of the Feature Tree is the globally displayed result.
The result selected here will show on all surfaces of the model. This is important to note
because cutting planes and iso-surfaces can display a result different from the global result.

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If a desired quantity does not appear in the Results_Scalar list, then you should return to the
Analyze task, and click the Result Quantities button. Select which quantity you want dis-
played, and run the analysis zero iterations (ensure the last iteration is shown in the Continue
From menu). When you return to Results, the quantity will be available in the Feature Tree.

Viewing Results
Results

If an analysis has multiple saved results sets or time


steps, by default the last set will be visible. To select
a different set to view, go into the Results task, and
right click on the Results branch of the Feature Tree.
A menu will appear showing all the saved results sets
and time steps.
Select the desired set from the list. Results from the
selected set will then be displayed.

Scalars

All the entries under the Scalars heading are single-component quantities, and do not have a
direction. Toggle between quantities simply by clicking on the desired one.

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The right click menu for each scalar quantity looks like

Reference Frame is described below.


Visible controls the visibility of the quantity (also
toggled by left-clicking on the Scalars branch).
Settings calls up the Scalar Settings menu tab on
the Results dialog. This is covered later.
Units lists the available display unit types. The
analysis unit system will be marked as the
default.
Contours controls the display of contour lines on
the surfaces of the model--contour lines do not
appear on cutting planes.
Textured Fringes controls display of the fringe
display method. Textured fringes show discreet
divisions in the colors. When disabled, fringe col-
ors blend together smoothly.

Note that values on XY plots, the bulk calculations, and wall results always use the analy-
sis units system, and will not be updated when a different units system is chosen from the
Feature Tree menu.
Reference Frame is only available for Velocity Magnitude. This allows the user to toggle
between the Absolute and Relative velocity frames. Applies to velocity magnitude fringe dis-
play and velocity vector display. This is most applicable for rotating analyses:
relative velocity = absolute velocity - rotating component.

Vectors

The Vectors branche has multiple components. Click on a vector quantity to control its visibil-
ity in the Graphics Window. Note that this controls only the visibility of vectors on surfaces of
the model. Vector display throughout the interior of the model is controlled by the cutting
plane and iso surface dialogs.

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Each vector quantity has a right-click menu:

Visible controls the visibility of vectors on the


model surfaces. Uncheck to turn off the vector

Viewing Results
display.
Settings toggles the Vector Properties dialog.
This dialog will be discussed in the Settings sec-
tion of this chapter.

Iso Surfaces and Cutting Planes

All iso surfaces and cutting planes are listed in the Feature Tree. The appearance of each can be
controlled independently by right clicking on the cutplane or iso surface branch:

Visible/Shaded controls the visibility of an


entity.
Vectors toggles the display of vectors on a cutting
plane or iso-surface.
Textured Fringes toggles the display of textured
fringes (discreet coloring).
Delete removes the entity.

Cutting planes and iso surfaces can be created from the Feature Tree by right clicking on either
the Cutplanes or Isosurfaces branches, respectively, and selecting Add from the menu. Select-
ing Settings from this menu brings up the corresponding task dialog.

9.4 Color Legends

Each time the global result is changed in the Feature Tree, the color legend updates to show the
new quantity. Additionally, because each cutting plane and iso surface can show a unique
result quantity, a new color scale is drawn for each unique quantity.

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Viewing Results

The following graphic shows a model with velocity magnitude as the global result (which only
shows on the surfaces of the model), static pressure as a cutting plane quantity, velocity magni-
tude is shown on the other cutting plane, and u-velocity as an iso-surface quantity:

Each color legend has a title that indicates which display entity is displaying the result, and the
units of the result quantity

9.5 Cutting Plane

Cutting planes are the primary post processing tool for visualizing data on three dimensional
models. Traditionally, cutting planes have been used simply to visualize fringes or vectors on a
planar slice through the model. In CFdesign, cutting planes have several additional roles: they
provide a method to extract bulk data through any cross section, they provide a seed plane for
particle traces, and they serve as a basis for XY-plots.

In addition to the user-interface roles of the cutting plane, results can be probed at any location
on a cutting plane by holding down the shift key, and positioning the mouse at the point of
interest. The value at that location will be shown in the status bar at the bottom of the interface.

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The units of this value correspond to the units selected from the Scalar branch of the Feature
Tree.

Shown is an example of a cutting plane showing fringe (color) results:

Viewing Results
The Cutplane tab of the Results dialog is shown:

Basic Cutting Plane Tools:


Location, orientation, and displayed
result

Advanced Cutting Plane Controls


and dependent functionality tabs.

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The basic cutting plane controls are always visible on the dialog. The other controls and addi-
tional functionality, particle traces, bulk values, and xy plots, are accessed through tabbed dia-
logs on the cutting plane dialog.

9.5.1 Cutting Plane - Tools

The CutPlane Tools control the basic location and orientation of the cutting plane, and can be
accessed when any of the cutting plane sub-tabs is active:

1. Create a cutting plane with the Add


button. When a cutting plane is created, the Step 2
model will automatically be shown in out-
line mode. (Delete a cutting plane with the Step 3 Step 5
Delete button.)
2. Select the desired scalar quantity from
the Scalar menu. Step 4
Step 1
3. Enter a Normal vector to set its orien-
Step 6
tation.
4. Adjust the location with the slider bar.
5. All cutting planes are listed in the List
Region. The controls only apply to the
highlighted plane.
6. The Save Table button will export a
“.csv” file containing tabular data on the
cutting plane. The active quantity in the
Scalar menu will be written to the file. Data
is listed in a uniform grid throughout the
cutting plane. The density of the grid is set
by the Vector Spacing slider bar.

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9.5.2 Cutting Plane - Controls

The items in the Controls tab are some advanced controls for cutting plane appearance:

Viewing Results
Appearance:
• Shaded toggles visibility of the cutting
plane. (Uncheck to make cutting plane dis-
appear.)
• Vectors toggles display of vectors.
• Color by Scalar toggles the display of the
scalar quantity on the cutting plane.
• Clip cuts the model with the cutting plane.
• Show Grid toggles the display of the vec-
tor display grid.
• Show Mesh toggles the display of the
interpolated mesh that the plane cuts
through.
Vector Spacing: This slider adjusts the density
(in the length units of the analysis) of the
ordered grid of vectors. If a finer or coarser grid
spacing is needed than the defaults provide,
they can be keyed into the Max. or Min. fields,
respectively.
Position and Orientation:
• When Shift-RightClick to Align on Sur-
face is checked, the cutting plane is aligned
to a surface by holding the Shift key and
right clicking on that surface.
• Use Key-In Plane Location to specify
exact coordinates of a cutting plane
• Rotate Plane about the axis indicated on
the button. Change the increment with the
Deg. field.

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9.5.3 Cutting Plane - Particle Trace

Particle Traces are similar to an injected dye in the flow. They are a very useful method of
visualizing the flow distribution. Hit the Trace tab on the Cutting Plane dialog for particle trace
controls. There are three sub-tabs for particle traces: Sets, Attributes, and Mass. Each is dis-
cussed:

Sets
Seed points must first be created. The particle
traces will pass through these points. There are
three ways to create seed points:

• Pick on Plane: Graphically select seed


point locations directly on the cutting
plane. The coordinate locations will appear
in the Seed Point field. Hit the Add Traces
button to draw the traces. Sets are listed in
the Sets field.
• Rectangular Grid: A rectangle drawn any-
where on the cutting plane encloses a
matrix of points. Three locations are
selected: the two top corners and a lower
corner. Enter the number of points in the
length and width grid directions on the
plane. Hit the Add Traces button to draw
the traces.

• Key In: Key in the exact X,Y, and Z coor-


dinates. Separate each coordinate with a
comma. These coordinates do not have to
lie on the cutting plane. Hit the Add button

(The Remove All and Remove buttons delete all


or just the selected seed points from the Point
Field.)

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Settings made on these two tabbed dialogs apply to the trace set highlighted on the Sets field:

Attributes
• Lines: Display the trace as a line. Adjust the

Viewing Results
width bigger to display ribbons.
• Points: Display the trace as points; Adjust the
point size as desired.
• Hidden: Toggles the visibility of the traces.
• Max No. of Steps: Controls the length of the
trace; 5000 is good for most, but for very finely
meshed models, increase this value if traces stop
mid-field.
• Start button: Starts and stops animation
• Reset button: Removes all animation “worms”
• Animate Incrementally: Draws the trace as the
animation occurs (unchecked and a “worm”
crawls along the completely drawn trace).
• Color by Result: Displays active scalar quan-
tity on drawn traces.

Mass
Enabled: Simulates the effect of particles with mass
dropped into the flow.
Use the default Particle Density and Particle
Radius values, or enter new values.
Massed particle traces are only drawn forward, not
backward, so it is best to position the seed points
near the inlet of the geometry.
Inertial and drag effects are taken into account, and
if a particle has too much inertia to turn a corner, it
will hit the wall. Massed particles do not bounce.

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Shown is an example of a model with particle traces:

Note: if Relative Velocity is selected from the Feature Tree, particle traces will be shown in the
relative frame. This will show the flow with the rotating component subtracted out, and will
show the flow passing through the blade passages. An example is shown:

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9.5.4 Cutting Plane - Bulk Data

This feature quickly calculates and shows bulk-weighted results on a cutting plane. Bulk
(mass-weighted) results are automatically updated as the active cutting plane is moved:

Viewing Results
1. Position the cutting plane at the cross
section of interest.
Step 2
2. If a cutting plane divides a geometry in
more than one location--resulting in multi-
ple discreet regions, each region will be
listed in the Highlight Region drop menu. Step 3

Select one to view it in the model.


3. Select the desired variables to calculate.
4. The selected bulk quantities for all
regions will be listed in the Output region.
5. Hit the Save to File button to write
results to a text file (.blk extension).
Step 4
To obtain bulk data for multiple results sets,
while animating, hit the Save to File button.
A text file will be saved with data for each
Step 5
result set or time step that is in the active
animation set. (See the Analyze and Review
chapter, Chapter 8, for more details about
animation.)

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9.5.5 Cutting Plane - XY Plot

An XY plot can be created through points selected graphically on a cutting plane or through
keyed-in points.

1. Select the method of point selection:


Add by Picking or Add by Key-in.
Step 1 Step 4

Step 2
To Add by Picking, click on locations on
the cutting plane through which the xy plot
will pass. Points are shown in the Point List Step 3
Region. (A minimum of two points is
required.)
2. A title can be given to the plot using Point List Region

the Title field.


3. The number of divisions in each data
segment (a segment is between two entered
points) is set to 20 by default, but can be
changed if necessary.
4. To create the plot, hit the Plot button.

To Add (points) by keying in, enter X, Y,


and Z coordinates (separated by a comma)
in the field and hit the Add button. Points
are shown in the Point List Region.

Point List Region

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Viewing Results

The graph is shown. Any result


quantity can be displayed on

Viewing Results
this graph by selecting it from
the drop menu.
The Show Points button dis-
plays the divisions to each seg-
ment.

9.6 Iso Surface

An iso surface is a surface of constant value of a quantity. Shown is an example of a velocity


magnitude iso surface:

Iso surfaces are a three dimensional visualization tool that show a value as well as the physical
shape of the flow characteristics. They are very useful for visualizing velocity distributions in
complicated flow paths in addition to temperature distributions in thermal analyses. Iso sur-
faces can be used to determine the locations of the maximum and minimum values in a model.

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Viewing Results

The Iso Surface tab of the Results dialog task is shown:

1. Create iso surfaces by clicking the


Add button. Iso surfaces are listed in the
List region, and the highlighted iso sur- Step 1
face is controlled by the dialog.
2. The iso quantity is changed by select-
ing from the Iso Quantity drop menu. Step 2
This variable controls the shape of the iso Step 3
surface. If it is different from the results
Step 4
selected on the Results Feature Tree, then
an additional color legend will be dis-
played.
Step 5
3. The iso surface can be colored by a
different result than the iso quantity by
selecting from the Color by Result drop
menu.
4. The value of the iso quantity is
changed by moving the Value slider bar.
This value can be manually entered in the
field adjacent to the slider.
5. Display vectors on an iso surface by
checking the Show Vectors box.

9.7 Wall

The Wall tab of the Results dialog task provides a way to calculate flow-induced wall forces on
wall surfaces of the model. Such forces are useful in many situations. Examples include assess-
ing the hydrodynamic force on internal valve components for determining spring rate as well
as calculating the lift and drag on aerodynamic bodies.

In addition, this utility calculates wall temperatures, pressures, heat flux, and film coefficients
on walls. The torque about an axis as well as the center of force are also calculated.

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The Wall Results tab is broken into two sub-tabbed dialogs: Selection-and-Result and Output.
The former is used for selecting surfaces and the desired calculation value. The latter displays
the results.

Viewing Results
9.7.1 Wall - Selection and Result Quantities

When this dialog is invoked, surfaces on the model will highlight when the mouse is hovered
near them.

1. Select desired surfaces. Pickable sur-


faces are any wall surface as well as open- Step 4
ings (inlets and outlets). Selected surfaces
are listed in the List Region.
(List Region)
Step 1
2. Select the value to calculate. Choices
include Forces, Temperature, Heat Flux,
Pressure, Film Coefficient, and Torque.
(Description of each follows.)

3. Click the Calculate button.

4. To view the results, click the Output Step 2


tab.

Step 3

• Forces are the overall stress tensor--both pressure and shear are integrated over
the surface. Force components and magnitude are output for each surface. Total force
for all selected surfaces is also given. To remove very low wall pressures from the
force calculation (which may indicate the on-set of cavitation), check the Cutoff

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Viewing Results

Pressure box, and enter a minimum pressure value. All pressure values that fall
below the Cutoff (on the selected surfaces) will be re-assigned to the cutoff pressure
value for the wall calculation. (This cutoff does not affect the displayed results fringes
or any other output quantity.)
• To calculate the Torque about an axis, enter the coordinates of one point on the
axis of revolution in the Point on Axis group, and enter a unit vector that defines the
orientation of the axis (in the Direction group). When Forces is selected, the wall
forces, the center of force about each global axis, and the torque about the selected
axis will be displayed.
• Pressure is the average pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall surface.
• Temperature is the average temperature on the wall surface.
• Calculated Heat Flux is based on the thermal residual from the heat transfer
solution.
• Film coefficient can be calculated in two ways: Enter a value for the reference
temperature or use the near wall temperature at every wall node as the local reference
temperature. The latter is done by checking the Use near-wall temperatures box.

If a reference temperature is entered, the film coefficient will be calculated based on


the heat flux and the temperature difference between the specified reference tempera-
ture and the wall temperature. If near wall temperatures are used, then the film coeffi-
cient will be based on the difference between the wall temperature and temperature at
the closest non-wall (flow) node for every node on the wall.

Note: Wall calculations are not available for the walls of a moving solid. When the
Wall Results dialog is active, the surfaces of moving solids will not highlight. This
will be addressed in a future release of CFdesign.

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9.7.2 Wall - Output

To view calculated wall results, click the Output tab:

Viewing Results
The requested values from the Selection
and Result tab are displayed on this dia-
log for every selected surface.
A Summary section lists the total quan-
tities for all of the selected surfaces.
This data can be saved to an Excel csv
file by hitting the Write to File button.
The default extension of the file will be
“wal”.
Hitting the View File button will
prompt to select a previously saved wall
results file. When selected, the contents
of the file will be shown in the Output
region.

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Viewing Results

9.8 Settings

The Settings tab of the Results dialog contains numerous settings for customizing the display
of scalars and vectors. Items such as the legend fringe range and the vector sizing are con-
trolled here.

9.8.1 Settings - Scalar


• Fringe Range: Change the Minimum and
Maximum values to modify the color range
of the global result quantity (as selected on
the Feature Tree).
• Contour Lines control the display of and
the number of contour lines:

• Filtering controls the display for a given


scalar range. Areas of the model that fall
outside of the filter range will not be dis-
played.
• The Show Legend check box toggles the
display of the color legend.
• The number of color bars in the color legend
is controlled with the Legend Levels box.
• Hit the Apply button to implement settings.

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Viewing Results

9.8.2 Settings - Vector


• Attributes: Control the length of vectors
with the Scale Factor. If the Scale Relative to

Viewing Results
Model box is checked, this value is between
0 and 1. Unchecked, and it can be greater
than 1.

The Arrowhead size can be varied from 0 (no


arrow heads) to as big as necessary. The
default size of 1 is based on the average vec-
tor length.
• Clamping: Sets maximum and minimum cut
off values for vectors. Vectors that fall out-
side of this range will be resized to the length
corresponding to the maximum or minimum
value, as appropriate.
• Filtering limits the display of vectors to only
those that fall within the specified range.
• Same Length: If enabled, all vectors will be
displayed as the same length. The slider bar
controls this length.
• Hit the Apply button to implement settings.

9.9 Dynamic Images: Design Communication

Traditionally, communicating analysis results was accomplished by creating numerous images


in an attempt to convey the whole story to an audience (or a manager!). The creator of such
images often has to create additional images once the intended viewer decides they want to see
the results from a different orientation or they want to zoom in on a particular detail.

CFdesign takes Design Communication to a new level. With the introduction of the Design
Communication Center and the Dynamic Image, CFdesign users not only share images, they
can share the whole story. Unlike traditional bitmap, tif, and jpeg formats, a Dynamic Image

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Viewing Results

can be navigated--panned, zoomed, and rotated. Dynamic Images can contain animation of
transient results as well as animated particle traces.

Dynamic Images can be created, shared, and viewed very easily.

9.9.1 Creation of Dynamic Images

After setting up a view that you want to share, click the Dynamic Image icon:

You will be prompted to enter a name and location of the file. The extension is “.vtf”.

9.9.2 Viewing Dynamic Images

Design Communication Center

Included in the CFdesign installation (Design-Communication-Center sub-folder) is a file


called Design-Comm-Center.exe. Dynamic images can be viewed with this tool. This three
megabyte file is a free viewer that can be given to anyone with whom you wish to share your
results. Additionally, it can be downloaded from the CFdesign web site at www.cfdesign.com
by following the links on the web site.

Images in the Design Communication Center can be navigated using the mouse (Left mouse
button = pan, Middle mouse button = zoom, and Right mouse button = rotate). The integrity of
the Dynamic Image is preserved in that display objects such as cutting planes cannot be moved
or deleted.

By default, vtf files can be quite large if the analysis contained many elements. A compression
feature exists in the Design Communication Center to reduce the size of vtf files considerably.
To invoke this, hit File_Export to Compressed VTF. A prompt will appear for a new file name.
The compression has been found to shrink vtf file sizes to roughly 10% of their original size!
This is especially useful for e-mailing vtf files.

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Viewing Results
Dynamic Images can also be included in MicroSoft PowerPoint presentations and Microsoft
Word documents.

To view a Dynamic Image in PowerPoint or Word on a machine that does not contain a CFde-
sign 7.0 installation, it is first necessary to run the Design Communication Center installation.
This file is called CFdesign-Communication-setup.exe, and is part of the CFdesign installa-
tion (located in the Design-Communication-Center subfolder of your CFdesign installation).
It can be shared with anyone that wants to view Dynamic Images in PowerPoint or Word. It
can also be downloaded from the CFdesign web site. This quick installation will place the free
viewer (discussed above) and a few other files necessary for viewing dynamic images on the
computer.

If CFdesign 7.0 is installed on your computer, then all of these files can be found in the
Design-Communication-Center sub-folder in your CFdesign installation folder, and it is not
necessary to run the CFdesign-Communication-setup.exe file.

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Viewing Results

PowerPoint

Prior to adding an image into PowerPoint, add the CFdesign dynamic image macro. This adds
a button into the PowerPoint menu, and makes adding images much easier:
1. Start PowerPoint, and hit Tools-Add Ins.
2. Click the Add New button.
3. Browse to the Design-Communication-Center subfolder of the CFdesign instal-
lation, and select the add-in called ppt-dyn-img.ppa. This add-in uses a macro,
so a warning will come up about macros.

To add an image to a PowerPoint presentation:


1. Click the CFdesign Image button in the PowerPoint menu:

2. A frame will be drawn in the presentation. Right click on the frame, and select
Properties.
3. On the Properties dialog, enter the name of the image in the FileURL field.
Dynamic image files (files with the vtf extension) must reside in the same direc-
tory as the PowerPoint presentation.

4. The image will show when the Slide Show is presented.

9-26 CFdesign User’s Guide


Viewing Results

Word

To add an image to a Word document:

Viewing Results
1. Select View, ToolBars, and select Control Toolbox.
2. On the Control Toolbox dialog, select the More Controls icon:

3. From the list of controls, select GLView 3D Plugin, and position the frame in the
document as appropriate.
4. On the frame, hit the right mouse button, and select Properties.
5. On the Properties dialog, enter the name of the image in the FileURL field. It is
recommended that the dynamic image files (files with the vtf extension) reside in
the same directory as the document file.

6. Click the Exit Design Mode button to view the images:

CFdesign User’s Guide 9-27


Viewing Results

9.10 Design Review Center

When the Results dialog task is invoked when a Project is open (instead of an analysis), an
additional dialog will appear below the Graphics Window:

This is the Design Review Center, and is used to view results from all the analyses in a project.

By setting up a view on one analysis and hitting the DRC-GO button, all of the analyses in a
project will be presented with the exact same view attributes. Using this dialog, one can flip
from one analysis to the next manually, or hit the “Play” button on the VCR controls to auto-
matically flip through all of the analyses. The beauty of this is that each analysis is presented
with the same color legend scale and in the same manner--with the same cutting planes, iso
surfaces, etc.

This is a great way to visualize results data from multiple design concepts, without having to
create dozens (or even hundreds) of static images. Also, because each analysis is presented in
the same manner, it eliminates having to set up multiple viewing panes on the screen and trying
to make each one look the same.

More information about the Design Review Center is presented in the Projects chapter, Chap-
ter 11.

9-28 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 10 Results to FEA Loads

10.1 Introduction

CFdesign results can be applied as boundary conditions for FEA analyses using several popu-
lar FEA tools: Nastran, Abaqus, Ansys, Pro/Mechanica, I-DEAS, and Cosmos, as well as
FEMAP. This capability showcases one of the strengths of the finite element approach, in that
results can be shared across analysis platforms and used for subsequent calculations quickly
and easily. The ability to transfer results to loads in this manner greatly strengthens the bond
between flow and structural analysis, making for a more comprehensive and useful analysis
suite. As a critical element in this suite, CFdesign allows flow analysis to be an integral part of
the product design process.

Pressure and temperature results are interpolated onto the FEA model, meaning that the FEA
mesh does not have to coincide with the CFdesign mesh. Most of the time, these two meshes
will be very different, as required by the particular analysis tool. Additionally, the element
types used in the FEA analysis do not have to be the same as in the CFdesign analysis.

This chapter discusses the procedure for converting CFdesign results to FEA boundary condi-
tions. Specific details for each supported FEA tool are presented.

10.2 Procedure

Steps 1 through 4 need to be completed in the FEA tool. Steps 5 through 9 are performed in
CFdesign. Step 10 is performed in the FEA tool.
1. Prepare the FEA geometry. The model geometry must be in the same position
and orientation as the CFdesign analysis model.
2. Build the appropriate finite element mesh for your structural analysis. The mesh
does not have to have the same density or use the same element types as the

CFdesign User’s Guide 10-1


Results to FEA Loads Transfer

CFdesign mesh. Only those regions critical to the FEA analysis have to be
meshed.
3. Apply pressures or temperatures to the appropriate locations in the FEA model.
The specified value does not matter-they will be overwritten with values calcu-
lated by CFdesign.
4. Export an analysis deck. The type of file for each FEA tool is shown:

FEA Tool Analysis Deck


Nastran .nas (or .dat)
Abaqus .inp
Ansys .ans (or .cdb)
Pro/Mechanica No input file needed
FEMAP .neu
Cosmos .gfm
I-DEAS .unv

5. In the completed CFdesign analysis,


go to the Transfer task

Step 6
6. Select the FEA deck using the
Browse button.
7. Select the Results type to Map
(pressure or temperature). Step 7 Step 8
8. Indicate if the direction of pressure
should be reversed. (This is specific to
FEA tools--some direct positive pressure Step 9
inward, some outward.)
9. Hit the Map Results to BC button.

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Results to FEA Loads Transfer

10. A new deck will be written with results interpolated to the appropriate bound-
aries. This deck will have the words “_new BC” appended to the original name.
Return to the FEA tool, and import the new deck. The boundary condition values
will be the result values from CFdesign, and they will be interpolated to the new
nodal and/or elemental locations.

10.3 FEA Details

10.3.1 Nastran

Results to Loads
• Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported.
• The output deck is the “.nas” or “.dat” file.
• The converted deck from CFdesign has the words “_newBC” appended to its
name.
• Supported element types are:
3 node tri, 4 node quad, 4 node tet, 6 node wedge, 8 node hex, 10 node tet
• When the converted deck is read back into Nastran, the new loads are added to
the current load set.

10.3.2 Abaqus
• Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported.
• The output deck is the “.inp” file.
• The converted deck from CFdesign has the words “_newBC” appended to its
name.
• Abaqus files generated in Patran, Pro/E, FEMAP, I-DEAS, and Abaqus CAE are
supported.
• Supported element types are:
3 node tri, 4 node quad, 4 node tet, 6 node wedge, 8 node hex, 10 node tet
• When the converted deck is read back into Abaqus, the new loads are added to
the current load set.

CFdesign User’s Guide 10-3


Results to FEA Loads Transfer

10.3.3 Ansys
• Ansys versions 6.0 and 6.1 are supported.
• The output deck is the “.ans” or “.cdb” file. Use the command “cdwrite” in Ansys
to create an “.ans” file. This command is entered in the command line. The arguments
are:

CDWRITE option, Fname, Ext

Use “All” for “Option”. Enter the filename with directory (if not the working directory) for
“Fname”. The default extension is “cdb”. Alternatively, enter “ans” as the extension.
• Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported.
• Supported Ansys element types:
• Plane (2d): 13, 25, 42, 67, 75, 162, 182
• Shell (2d): 28, 41, 43, 57, 63, 131, 143, 157, 163, 181
• Solid (3d): 5, 45, 46, 62, 64, 65, 69, 70, 87, 90, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 117, 122, 123, 127, 128,
147, 148, 164, 185, 186, 187
• Linear varieties of these elements are supported; additionally, 10-node tetrahedrals are
supported. No other non-linear Ansys elements are support.
• The converted deck from CFdesign has the words “_newBC” appended to its
name.
• When the converted deck is read back into Ansys, the new loads are added to the
current load set.

10.3.4 Pro/Mechanica
• No input deck is required. An “.fnf” file with the same name as the analysis is
output automatically for every analysis based on a Pro/E geometry.
• Import the “.fnf” file into your Pro/Mechanica model.
• Note: only temperatures are included in this file. Mechanica will not accept pres-
sure data in this manner.
• CFdesign will output the correct fnf file format based on the version of Pro/E
from which the analysis was launched.

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Results to FEA Loads Transfer

10.3.5 FEMAP
• FEMAP neutral file version 7.1 is supported
• Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported.
• Supported element types are:
3 node tri, 4 node quad, 4 node tet, 6 node wedge, 8 node hex, 10 node tet
• The output deck is the “.neu” file.
• The converted deck from CFdesign has the words “_newBC” appended to its
name.
• When the converted deck is read back into FEMAP, the new loads are added to
the current load set.

Results to Loads
10.3.6 Cosmos
• Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported.
• Supported element types are:
3 node tri, 4 node quad, 4 node tet, 5 node pyramid, 6 node wedge, 8 node
hex, 10 node tet
• The output deck is the “.gfm” file.
• The converted deck from CFdesign has the words “_newBC” appended to its
name.
• When the converted deck is read back into COSMOS, the new loads are added to
the current load set.

10.3.7 I-DEAS
• I-DEAS versions 9 and up are supported.
• Nodal temperatures and elemental pressures are supported.
• Supported element types are:
3 node tri, 4 node quad, 4 node tet, 5 node pyramid, 6 node wedge, 8 node
hex, 10 node tet
• The output deck is the “.unv” file.

CFdesign User’s Guide 10-5


Results to FEA Loads Transfer

• The converted deck from CFdesign has the words “_newBC” appended to its
name.
• When the converted deck is read back into I-DEAS, the new loads are added to
the current load set.

10-6 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 11 Projects

11.1 Introduction

Most of the description in this guide has been about setting up, running, and post-processing an
individual analysis. CFdesign has made this process very easy. In fact, if product design was
accomplished with just one or two analyses, our work would be done. The reality of the situa-
tion however, is that design engineering requires many analyses and a great deal of information
to attain that much sought-after final design.

Most “traditional” CFD tools are aimed at the dedicated analyst whose goal is often to com-
plete one large-scale, complicated analysis at a time. CFdesign is different. CFdesign is a CFD
package whose mission is to accelerate product development. It is a design tool, and is devel-
oped for the product design engineer that isn’t satisfied with completing just one analysis--the
product design engineer might require one hundred analyses! The information learned from a
single analysis is often not enough to design a product--information from a multitude of analy-
ses is required.

This is why the concept of the project was introduced into CFdesign 6. A project is a collection
of analyses--much like a CAD assembly is a collection of parts. The link between analyses in a
project is a strong one, and one that makes setting up, running, and post-processing a multitude
of analyses a practical part of the product design process.

11.2 Definitions and Requirements

11.2.1 Definitions

An analysis is an individual simulation performed on a single geometric model. The preceding


chapters in this Guide discuss the components of a single analysis: geometry, boundary condi-

CFdesign User’s Guide 11-1


Projects

tions, mesh, materials, options, iterations, and results. When the flow and/or heat transfer
through or around an object is calculated, an analysis has been performed.

A project is a collection of analyses. The components that make up a single analysis can be
shared with other analyses in a project. Projects provide a convenient means of staging a large
number of analyses for simultaneous execution using the Fast Track Option (see the Analyze
and Review chapter, Chapter 8). Projects furthermore simplify post-processing multiple analy-
ses.

11.2.2 Requirements

All analyses in a project must reside in the same folder or directory.

Analyses are always created outside of a project, but are often set-up inside a project. The first
component of an analysis is geometry, of course. It does not matter if geometry comes from a
CAD system or is a file in the working directory, it is the foundation of the analysis, and is
always first read into a CFdesign analysis. Once an analysis is created, it can be set up and run
as an individual analysis OR it can be brought into a project to be set-up and run.

11.3 Assembling a Project

11.3.1 Project Creation

There are two primary ways to create a project.

The first is to hit the New icon, select Project from the Browse window, and type in a
name. The results will be an empty project.

The second method is to create a project from within an analysis. To do this, hit the
Place Analysis In Project icon:

11-2 CFdesign User’s Guide


Projects

A browse window will appear prompting for the name of the project. After entering it and hit-
ting the Save button, the project will be created. The analysis from which the project was cre-
ated will be in the project. The Feature Tree will look something like:

Project Name

Analysis Name

Analysis Settings

When in a project, the project name is shown as the top branch of the Feature Tree. Each anal-
ysis is a sub-branch. The settings for each analysis (mesh sizes, boundary conditions, etc.) are
listed as sub-branches for each analysis.

11.3.2 Adding Analyses to a Project

There are two primary ways to add an analysis to a project.

The first is to put an analysis into a project.

Projects
Starting from an analysis, click the Place Analysis in Project icon. This was
described in the previous section as a way to create a new project from an existing
analysis, but it is also a method to launch an analysis (containing nothing more than
geometry) into an existing project.

A common scenario for this command is something like this:


1. An analysis is run to completion.
2. While viewing results, a problem is identified, and a change to the design is con-
templated.
3. Before returning to the CAD system, create a new project from this
completed analysis using the Place Analysis in Project icon, and save
the project using the Save Project icon.
4. Shut down CFdesign, and return to the CAD system. Make the geomet-
ric change, and launch back into CFdesign.

CFdesign User’s Guide 11-3


Projects

5. Create a new analysis.


6. Hit the Place Analysis in Project icon, and select the project that was just cre-
ated.
7. Now the project has two analyses, and the new analysis can be set up by reading
settings from the first analysis (see the next section).

The second way is to bring an analysis into a project.

Starting from a project, hit the Add Analysis into a Project icon, and select an exist-
ing analysis from the browse window. The analysis can be completely set-up, or just
contain geometry. This method is less convenient for bringing in and setting up analy-
ses because it requires the user to leave the analysis, open the project and then bring in the
analysis. The method described above is easier for assembling new analyses for set-up and
running. This command is more useful for bringing in completed analyses, and assembling
them for post processing. A typical scenario might look like:
1. Several analyses are run to completion outside of a project.
2. Create a project by starting CFdesign from the Desktop icon or Start
Menu, and hit the New icon. Select Project on the Browse window, and
give the project a name.
3. Hit the Add Analysis into a Project icon, and select an analysis from
the browse window.
4. Once in the project, the analyses can be opened using the Feature Tree
(see the next section). Results from all of the analyses can be viewed using the
Design Review Center (discussed in a later section in the chapter).

Note: Individual analyses in a project can be saved by hitting the Save Analysis icon.
The entire project can be saved by hitting the Save Project icon. This automatically
saves all of the analyses in the project as well.

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Projects

11.4 Managing Analyses in a Project

11.4.1 Opening an Analysis

All analyses in a project are listed in the Feature Tree. The analysis with the “+” beside its
name is the open analysis. To open a different analysis, right click on its name, and select
Open.

The open analysis

The open analysis is the active one, and it can be interacted with as if it were open as a single
analysis outside of a project. Controls to set up, run, and view results can be applied to the
analysis. When a different analysis is opened, the previous one is closed, and all settings and
results shown are for the open one only.

Note: if an analysis is created from Pro/E and added to a project, only that analysis correspond-
ing to the active Pro/E session can be meshed. If a different analysis is opened, it cannot be

Projects
meshed. We recommend that on Pro/E models, the mesh be generated (run 0 iterations) prior to
opening any other analyses in the project.

11.4.2 Sharing Settings Between Analyses

One of the major strengths of the project is the ability to share settings between analyses. All of
the settings (analysis units, loads, mesh sizes, materials, and options) can be imported from a
completed analysis to a new one simply by using the Feature Tree.

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Projects

The new analysis (we’ll call it the target) has to be open. Right click on its Analysis branch in
the Feature Tree, and hit Import Settings From. This will show a list of all the other analyses in

the project. Simply select the analysis that has the settings that are to be applied to the new one,
and they will be applied automatically.

This settings transfer works best if the two analyses are topologically similar. Parametric
changes can exist between the two, but if the change was topological in nature (added or
deleted geometric features), then some settings may not be applied automatically, and will
have to be applied manually. An example is if a part with an assigned heat generation load was
removed from the model. The heat generation boundary condition would be lost from the
model.

In this case and for the case in which an analysis is re-opened after geometric changes, any set-
tings that are lost are now listed in a small dialog. The user can reassociate these settings to the
model by selecting the geometric entity and then the setting from the list.

If settings are lost (either because a topological change eliminated some geometry or because
of because the topology was changed too much), a “Show Lost” button will appear on the
appropriate dialog (based on the type of settings that were lost):

The Show Lost button will only appear on a dialog if settings of the dialog type are lost.

11-6 CFdesign User’s Guide


Projects

When the Show Lost button is hit, a window will come up listing the lost settings:

The number to the right of the setting indicates how many instances of the condition were lost.
Lost conditions can be applied to as many entities as desired, however.

For lost mesh sizes, the type of entity the condition was applied to (volume, surface, or edge)
will be indicated in the list.

To reassign a lost setting, first select the geometric entity (or entities) in the model. Select the
setting from the list of lost settings. Hit Apply on the task dialog.

All lost lists will be cleared from the analysis when the analysis is saved.

Projects
11.4.3 Removing an Analysis

An analysis can be removed from a project by right clicking on the analysis name in the Fea-
ture Tree, and selecting Remove from the menu. This will not delete the analysis from the disk,
but will only remove it from the project.

11.4.4 Running Analyses in a Project

If an analysis is running, another analysis can be opened, and will appear in its current state.
The running analysis will continue to run, although results and convergence information are

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Projects

not available for viewing until the analysis is opened again. When it is opened, the results and
convergence information from the current iteration will be displayed.

In conjunction with the Fast Track option (described in the Analyze chapter, Chapter 8),
projects can serve as a central hub for running multiple analyses. Each analysis can be run on a
selected analysis computer, and can be monitored from the project. To inspect the progress of
an analysis, simply open it from the Feature Tree. That analysis will open in its current state,
and can be interacted with while running. It will continue to run even when a different analysis
is opened for inspection.

When finished, results from all the analyses can be viewed in a truly novel manner...

11.5 Viewing Results

In “traditional” CFD tools, examining results from a large number of analyses (assuming that a
large number of analyses could be run) is a daunting chore. Often it requires setting up two,
three, or four viewing panes on the computer screen and setting up the results view for each
analysis in the same way. A great deal of time is often spent trying to show each model in the
same orientation and with the same display entities and the same color legend range.

The alternative is not much better: Paper. Images are created and printed out, but again, a great
deal of care has to be put into making sure that each analysis is shown in the same manner. The
result is a great deal of time lost and a whole lot of paper. Now the design team has to lay all
these images out on a large table and peruse them in search of the best design. This alone can
be pretty time consuming.

CFdesign introduces a better way. The Design Review Center.

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Projects

11.5.1 The Design Review Center (DRC)

When the Results task dialog is invoked in an analysis in a project, the Design Review Center
controls appear below the Graphics window:

This simple dialog provides the ability to automatically apply a view from a single analysis to
all the analyses in the project.

Instead of toiling over multiple results panes to create the same view or printing out a forest of
paper, the Design Review Center makes it possible to view results from a multitude of analyses
quickly and easily. It is called the “Design Review Center” because it acts like an engineering
design review meeting. By presenting results from each analysis in exactly the same manner,
everyone involved in the design process gets a good apples-to-apples comparison of the perfor-
mance of every design alternative.

Set up the view with any of the results tools available--cutting planes, vectors, particle traces,
iso surfaces, etc. Click the DRC-GO button. The project will enter the DRC mode. Use the
slider bar on the DRC controls to manually flip between analyses. Use the “VCR” controls to
automatically flip between analyses.

Projects
While in the DRC mode, the model can be navigated (panned, zoomed, and rotated). To
change a display object (move a cutting plane, for example), hit the Reset button (Reset
replaces DRC-GO while in DRC mode) to leave DRC mode, and return to a regular interactive
state with the analysis. The analysis that is shown when the DRC is turned off (by hitting the
Reset button) will automatically be opened.

When the DRC is activated, the scalar fringe range on the current model will be applied to all
analyses in the Project. This is done so that all analyses can be viewed with the same scale.
When the DRC is reset, the scalar fringe range will not be reset to the extrema of the current
analysis. To reset the scalar fringe range, hit the Settings_Scalar tab, and hit the Reset button in
the Fringe Range group.

It is not necessary for geometric models to be the same for the DRC to work. It is not neces-
sary for geometry to be in the same location, or to be the same size, or have the same orienta-

CFdesign User’s Guide 11-9


Projects

tion. The DRC applies to all analyses in a project that have results, and does not discriminate
based on size, location, or orientation.

There are two things that should be the consistent across all analyses to be compared in the
DRC:
• Each analysis should be run with the same length unit.
• Each analysis should have the same result output quantities.

11.5.2 XY Plotting

An XY plot over a path can be created for all analyses in a project. Create the plot on the active
analysis, and start the DRC. Curves will be added to the plot showing results along the same
path for each analysis in the project. A legend on the plot indicates the analysis for each curve.

11.5.3 Bulk Results

Bulk Results on a cutting plane are shown for each analysis in the DRC. To view the results,
create and position a cutting plane, and switch to the Bulk tab (under Cutplanes). Start the
DRC. The Bulk results text information will update as the DRC scroll bar is manually dragged
between analyses. The text information will not update if the frames are animated using the
VCR play button.

11.5.4 Selecting a Specific Result Set/Time Step

If an analysis has multiple saved results sets or time steps, by default the last set will be viewed
in the DRC. To select a different set to view, go into the Results task, and right click on the

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Projects

Results branch of that feature tree. A menu will appear showing all the saved results sets and
time steps:

Select the desired set from the list. Results from the selected set will be displayed immediately,
and when the DRC is invoked. This can be done for any analysis in the project. The selected
result set will be remembered, even when a different analysis is opened.

11.5.5 Removing an Analysis From the DRC

By default all analyses in a project will be shown when the DRC is invoked. To prevent an
analysis from being part of the DRC, right click the Analysis name, and select “Remove from

Projects
DRC” from the menu. To include it again in the DRC, select “Add to DRC” from the right
mouse button menu.

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Projects

11-12 CFdesign User’s Guide


CHAPTE R 12 Analysis Guidelines

12.1 Introduction

This chapter presents guidelines for various types of flow analyses. While the previous chap-
ters in this Guide discuss the general operation of the software, this chapter discusses some of
the specific physical details of various flow conditions. The suggestions offered should be used
in conjunction with the Examples Manual. The following analysis types are discussed:
• Internal and External Incompressible Flows
• Basic Heat transfer (conduction and convection)
• Porous Media Flows
• Multiple Fluids
• Boundary Layer Flows
• Periodic Boundary Conditions
• Transient Flows
• Moist/Humid Flows
• Steam/Water Flows
• Radiation Heat Transfer
• Height of Fluid
• Internal and External Compressible Flow
• Joule Heating
• Motion Analyses

Note that the first six items make up the “Basic” configuration. The “Advanced” configuration
is made up of the first 13 items. The “Motion Module” is required for Motion analyses.

The final section discusses troubleshooting techniques.

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Guidelines

12.2 Incompressible Flows

12.2.1 Internal Flow

Internal flow is a very general category which describes the flow of a fluid that is contained by
and passes through a solid structure. There may be one or several openings through which fluid
enters and leaves the device. The solutions to internal flow problems are among the most diffi-
cult to achieve in “typical” CFD (CFdesign is hardly typical!), particular for turbulent and
compressible flows. The reason is that there are often several flow regimes throughout differ-
ent regions of the device, and hence the mathematical characteristics vary widely through the
calculation domain.

CFdesign has several tools to aid convergence for a wide range of internal flow problems. The
most powerful is the Automatic Turbulent Start-Up algorithm described in Chapter 7. This
algorithm is on by default, and will often prevent solution instability or divergence, particu-
larly in the early iterations. Other troubleshooting techniques are described in the last section
of this chapter.

There are many different types of boundary condition specifications for internal flows.
Regions where problems arise most commonly are at inlet/outlet passages.

Some things to keep in mind are:


1. When using the k-epsilon turbulence model (the default) there should be at least
five elements across inlet and outlet passages so that gradients can be properly
resolved. Mesh Enhancement will ensure that this criteria is met.
2. It is good practice to refine the mesh near openings so that the boundary condi-
tions will correctly influence the flow in the interior.
3. At the outlet, where a uniform pressure is commonly applied, there must not be
any flow features which will conflict with this uniform pressure boundary. Addi-
tionally, the flow should be approximately normal to the plane of the outlet.
Sometimes the boundary must be extended to achieve this result.

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Guidelines

The following figure illustrates these concepts.

For flow situations in which a small, high speed jet of fluid is blowing into a relatively large
region filled with fluid, it has been found to be helpful to change the Turb/Lam Ratio to 1000
or greater (the default is 100). This control is accessed with the Turbulence button on the Ana-
lyze dialog task.

12.2.2 External Flows

External flows are characterized by a solid body immersed in fluid that is moving relative to
the body. Nearly all engineering aerodynamic problems are external flows. Examples include
noise generated by a car mirror at highway speeds, the drag on a motorcycle fairing, and the lift
on an air to air cruise missile. These problems generally require the greatest number of nodes
of any CFD calculation since the velocity and pressure boundary conditions applied at the
exterior of the flow domain must not affect flow features around the immersed body. Gener-
ally, the exterior or “far-field” boundary must be 20-50 times the longest chord of the
immersed body. Higher Reynolds number flows will require far-field distances in the upper
portion of this range.

Guidelines
It is important to transition the element sizes in the mesh quite substantially to conserve nodes.
It is common for elements on the body surface to be several thousand times smaller than ele-
ments at the far-field. Lift and drag forces calculated by CFdesign will be dependent upon the
mesh size near the body. Transitioning must be smooth for solution stability and accuracy, as
described in the Meshing chapter, Chapter 5, and care must be taken to avoid creating tetrahe-
dral elements with very high aspect ratios. Sometimes embedding fluid volumes around the

CFdesign User’s Guide 12-3


Guidelines

object of interest is very useful for concentrating many elements around it. This “Russian
Doll” approach helps transition the mesh from very small elements around the object to larger
elements further away from the object.

For incompressible and subsonic compressible flow problems with subsonic inlets, velocity
and pressure boundary conditions are applied on the far-field boundary as shown in the follow-
ing figure. To aid convergence, it is useful to specify the velocity boundary condition around a
greater portion of the flow domain than for pressure, as shown in the following figure:

12.3 Basic Heat Transfer

This section discusses conduction and the different types of convection. Radiation is discussed
in a subsequent section in the “Advanced” part of this chapter.

There are several variations of heat transfer analyses that can be performed using CFdesign.
They include: conduction, natural convection, forced convection and mixed convection. Some
of these can occur together in the same analysis. For example, conjugate heat transfer includes
both convection through a fluid and conduction through a solid. The following discussions
present information about performing each of these types of heat transfer analysis.

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12.3.1 Conduction

A conduction heat transfer analysis can be performed on fluid materials, solid materials, or a
combination of both. For all cases, the correct properties (particularly thermal conductivity)
are necessary. Be sure to define the material properties on the Material dialog task. Also, select
Laminar from the Options_Turbulence dialog. This will ensure that the correct conductivity is
used in the fluid.

On the Options dialog, you should turn Flow to Off and Heat Transfer to On. Click the Tur-
bulence button, and turn turbulence Off. This will use the laminar conductivities of the materi-
als in the model. Additionally, adjust the temperature convergence to 1.0 using the
Convergence Control dialog launched from the Analyze task. If the material properties are not
varying with temperature, the analysis should only require 10 iterations.

12.3.2 Natural Convection

Natural and free convection flows are largely dominated by buoyancy forces. The buoyancy
forces are generated by density gradients which vary primarily with temperature since pressure
gradients are relatively small in these flows. Natural convection flows may be laminar or tur-
bulent depending on the Grashof number associated with the flow. The Grashof number is
defined as
3
gβL ∆T
Gr = --------------------
ν
where g is the local acceleration of gravity, β is the thermal coefficient of volume expansion, L
is a characteristic length of the surface in the direction of gravitational acceleration, ∆T is the
temperature difference between the heated surface and the undisturbed fluid and ν is the kine-
matic viscosity.

The Grashof number is a measure of the ratio of net buoyancy forces to viscous forces. Transi-
8
tion to turbulence occurs at around Gr ≈ 4 × 10 .
Guidelines
Some prefer to use the Rayleigh number to characterize the flow. The Rayleigh number is the
product of the Grashof and Prandtl numbers. The Prandtl number is defined as
µC
Pr = ---------p-
k

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For most gas flows, Pr ≈ 1 .

For fully-enclosed mixed or natural convection flows, construct a box (the calculation domain)
around the device. A good guideline for the size of this box is a height 10 times the vertical
dimension of the device, and a width and depth that are 5 times the respective width and depth
of the device. It is very important that a temperature be specified somewhere in the model (in
addition to the known heat loadings). This can be an applied temperature boundary condition,
but can also be the reference temperature for a film coefficient or radiation boundary condition.
Without a specified temperature somewhere in the model, the temperature solution will not
converge. For some complicated geometries, it has been found that a specified pressure some-
where in the model helps convergence considerably as well. If possible, specify pressure on an
outer solid surface, or on some location that fluid cannot pass through. If no such convenient
location exists in the model, apply pressure AND a zero value velocity condition to some
external surface.

For free convection flows (where the fluid can be drawn in or expelled from the domain), con-
struct a box (the calculation domain) around the device. A good guideline for the size of this
box is a height 10 times the vertical dimension of the device, and a width and depth that are 5
times the respective width and depth of the device. Apply a constant pressure to the top and
bottom openings of the domain, and a temperature to the bottom. In most cases, air will flow in
through the bottom-most opening (hence the applied temperature), and out through the top-
most opening. The surrounding surfaces should be left as walls or have an applied slip condi-
tion.

An alternative to the calculation domain open at both ends is to only apply a pressure to the top
surface, and leave the bottom surface a wall. In addition, apply temperature or a low convec-
tion coefficient value to the sides of the box.

When defining the mesh for buoyancy-driven analyses, more elements will be required in the
interior of the domain (away from the solid boundaries) than for a pressure driven flow. The
reason is that accurate representation of the small density gradients is critical to computing the
driving buoyancy forces correctly.

The number of iterations required, and hence the total solution time, will be greater for a natu-
ral convection than for a pressure-driven flow analyses. Solution progression is slowed by the
fact that buoyancy forces are generally significantly larger than pressure forces.

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On the Options dialog, be sure to set Heat Transfer to On and to set a gravity vector. Be sure
to select a property with Buoyancy on the Material task or select Equation of State as the den-
sity variation in the Material Editor. In the Options_Turbulence window, it may be necessary
to set the Turb/Lam Ratio to a higher value, at least 2-5 times the default. It is also helpful to
initialize the temperature field to a value close to what is expected. Do this by applying the ini-
tial temperature on the Initial Conditions tab of the Loads task dialog.

12.3.3 Forced Convection

If the heated or cooled air is being blown (by a fan, for example) through the solution domain,
this is usually forced convection. In forced convection heat transfer, the temperature does not
influence the fluid material properties. For this reason, the energy equation can and should be
solved alone (Flow is Off on the Options window) after the flow solution (velocity, pressure)
has converged. As with the conduction heat transfer analyses, ten thermal only iterations are
sufficient for thermal convergence if the temperature convergence control is set to 1.0 after the
second or third thermal iteration.

Note that you should not specify a gravity vector for forced convection analyses (leave the
gravity components set to 0).

12.3.4 Mixed Convection

In some heat transfer analyses, the heated or cooled air is blown but may contain local temper-
ature gradients that will cause some appreciable buoyancy effects. This type of heat transfer is
known as mixed convection, since it has features of both natural and forced convection. There
is not a good way to tell prior to the analysis if the heat transfer is mixed or forced. To check,
you should run a mixed convection analysis after the forced convection analysis is finished.
The steps required are:
1. Get a converged flow solution with Thermal set to Off on the Options window
and constant fluid properties on the Materials dialog.
2. Turn Flow to Off, and turn Heat Transfer to On on the Options window and run 5 Guidelines
iterations.
3. Set Flow to On, keep Heat Transfer On, and set the gravity on the Options dia-
log. Select a fluid property with Buoyancy in its name from the fluid property

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data base or choose Equation of State for the functional form for density. For the
latter, set the appropriate parameters for this functional form.
4. Run 25 - 50 more iterations and examine the results for changes.

Many electronic cooling applications are in the mixed convection regime. The above steps are
recommended for these analyses. Temperature results should be reviewed carefully after step 2
to ensure that unrealistically high temperatures have not been predicted. This is generally an
indication that buoyancy effects are significant. In this case, continue on to step 3, BUT choose
the previous iteration from the Starting At menu on the Analyze dialog to start the thermal
solution from a constant temperature field instead of the unrealistic values.

12.3.5 Conjugate Heat Transfer

For conjugate heat transfer analyses, the solid material conduction and the fluid convection are
analyzed simultaneously. For this type of analysis, the type of fluid convection (natural, forced
or mixed) determines the analysis parameters. For forced convection, you should again get a
converged flow solution and then run the forced convection analysis with the flow turned off
for a few more iterations. If the fluid convection is natural convection, you need to run the ther-
mal equation analysis with the flow turned on for all iterations. For mixed fluid convection,
follow the steps outlined above.

12.4 Porous Media Flows

Multiple obstructions in a geometry (holes in a baffle plate, for example) can conveniently be
modeled using distributed resistance (porous media) materials. This eliminates the need to
mesh around every finite obstruction, thereby resulting in a more efficient mesh.

Assign a distributed resistance material to a part by selecting the part and indicating the
through-flow and cross directions. If such a material does not exist, create one using the Mate-
rial Editor. In the Material Editor, the through-flow and cross-direction resistances are
required, as is the thermal conductivity. If the object that is being represented with distributed
resistances has a different thermal conductivity than the surrounding fluid, enter that value in
the Material Editor as well. An example of such a situation is air through a porous ceramic fil-

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ter. The ceramic material has a different conductivity from that of the surrounding fluid, and
that is entered as a property of the material.

There are 5 ways to enter flow resistances for these obstacles:

12.4.1 Constant K-factor approach

A good reference for calculating or estimating K-factors is: Handbook of Hydraulic Resis-
tance, 3rd edition by I.E. Idelchik, published by CRC Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-8493-9908-4). To
use this data, enter the value of the loss coefficient as K.

If measured data for pressure drop versus flow rate is available, this can be used to calculate
the K-factor. This is done using the following equation:
2
u
∆P = ζ i ρ ----i-
2
If you know the pressure drop, the velocity, and the density, you can back out the value of ζ .
Enter this value for K.

In many situations, the loss in one direction will be significantly less than the loss in the other
two directions. To represent this, enter the calculated or estimated loss coefficient for the
through flow direction and some value four or five orders of magnitude higher in the cross
directions. This will allow the flow to go in the desired direction, and impede it in the other
directions.

12.4.2 Friction Factor Approach

In this method, the pressure drop is expressed as:


2
∂p- f ui
------ = ------- Lρ -----
Guidelines
∂x i DH 2
where f is the friction factor and DH is the hydraulic diameter of the obstructions. Both of these
values must be entered as material properties.

The friction factor can be calculated in one of two ways:

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In the first method, the friction factor is calculated with the Moody formula. The obstruction
roughness height must be entered in the correct length units.

In the second method, the friction factor is determined from:


–b
f = aRe

where Re is the Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter of the obstruction. If this
method is chosen, the values for a and b are required. For this case, note that the friction factor
is dimensionless but the hydraulic diameter should be entered in the correct length units.

Note that for both methods, the hydraulic diameter and the simulated pipe length are required
properties of the material.

12.4.3 Free Area Ratio

To represent a perforated plate or a baffle that has a known open (free) area, use a free area
ratio. The free area ratio is the ratio of the open area to the total area of a perforated plate:
A open
f = ------------
-
A total
A value of 0 represents a completely closed direction. Enter a free area ratio for each compo-
nent direction.

12.4.4 Pressure-Flow Rate Curve

A head capacity table controls the flow rate based on the calculated pressure drop.

12.4.5 Darcy Equation Approach

A permeability can be input using the Darcy equation. Unlike loss coefficients which have dif-
ferent resistance values in the three directions, a permeability provides a constant resistance in
all directions. An example is a packed bed of stones.

∂p
------- = Cµu i
∂x i

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where C is the permeability coefficient, µ is the viscosity and ui is the velocity in the global i
coordinate direction. To use this model, enter a value for C in units 1/length2.

12.5 Multiple Fluids

CFdesign has the ability to handle multiple fluids in one model. Note that fluids with different
materials cannot come in physical contact with each other unless one or more is a distributed
resistance. Non-distributed resistance fluids can be connected thermally (separated by a solid
material).

To implement multiple fluids into an analysis, assign the fluids as appropriate, ensuring that no
fluids come in contact.

Examples where this is useful include an air-water heat exchanger or flow blown over a sealed
electronics component box. In the latter example, natural convection might be important inside
the sealed box, and forced convection may play a role outside the box.

Note that a pressure boundary condition must be set in all fluid regions. For a totally enclosed
area with no inlets or outlets, it is a good idea to specify the pressure on at least one surface
somewhere in the enclosure. If necessary, specify a 0-value velocity to the same surface to pre-
vent it from being treated as an opening. This will decrease the analysis time significantly.

12.6 Boundary Layer Flows

Boundary layer flows are performed in a fashion similar to external flows with one important
exception. Since the pressure field is generally uniform throughout the domain in these types
of flows, the nodal pressures must be initialized to the same value (usually zero) and not
Guidelines
updated during the calculation. The solution relaxation for pressure must be set to zero to
maintain the initial pressure field.
∂P ∂P ∂P
Note that there will be finite ------ , ------ and ------ terms in the governing flow equations since
∂x ∂y ∂z
“intermediate” pressures are used in their computation. “Intermediate” refers to a point in the
middle of a sequential solver iteration when pressure gradients are established to conserve

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mass. At the end of each sequential solver iteration, these pressure gradients will not be present
since pressure relaxation is set to zero.

12.7 Periodic Boundary Conditions

Periodic boundary condition (cyclic symmetry) enables users to model a single passage of an
axial or centrifugal turbomachine. It is not a sliding mesh implementation (like the full rotating
device), but will capture the flow within the blade passage. Periodic boundary conditions can
also be used to simulate non-rotating devices such as a single blade passage through a stator
cascade.

For such an analysis, only a single blade passage is modeled. Additional volumes are added to
the inlet and the outlet of the model. These should be distinct volumes from the blade passage
as they do not rotate. Periodic boundary conditions are always applied in pairs, typically to sur-
faces on the inlet and outlet extensions that are not walls or openings.

12.7.1 Boundary Conditions

The sides of the extensions must be translated or offset from each other in the same manner.
For example, if the sides of the inlet extension are rotated 30 degrees from each other, then the
sides of the outlet extension must be rotated 30 degrees from each other as well. Alternatively,
if the periodic sides of the inlet extension are translated in the Y direction 3 inches, then the
periodic sides of the outlet must be translated 3 inches in the Y direction as well.

At least one set of periodic surfaces in the model must be planar. As long as one set is planar,
the other surfaces can be curvilinear.

When applying a periodic condition, a pair ID is required. Use an integer value for the pair ID,
and use the same value on the periodic surfaces of each extension. Additionally, a unique side
ID is required for each member of a pair. For example, one surface of a periodic pair might
have pair ID =1 and side ID =1. The corresponding surface in the pair would have pair ID =1,
and side ID = 2.

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The side ID should be consistent from one region to the next. This is shown:
side 1

side 2

Being consistent with the sides from one region to the next will greatly speed-up startup pro-
cessing. If side ID’s are not marked consistently, the start-up processing of the analysis will
take considerably longer.

Guidelines

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12.7.2 Geometry Configuration

There are two ways to configure the rotating region based on the blade passage. One approach
is for the passage to be exactly between the blades (extending from the suction side of one
blade to the pressure side of the other):
Outlet Periodic
Extension

Periodic Pair 1
Side 1
Side 2

Side 1 Side 2
Periodic Pair 2
Inlet Periodic
Extension
Rotating Region
(Blade passage,
pressure and suction sides of blades)

This approach is better for most centrifugal devices and axial devices that have a large number
of blades or high degree of blade curvature.

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Alternatively, the rotating region can extend from the mid-point of one passage to the mid-
point of the neighboring passage. In this case, a single blade will run through the middle of the
rotating region. The blade should either be a cutout or should be a solid:
pair 2, side 1
pair 3, side 1
pair 1, side 1

pair 3, side 2

pair 1, side 2 pair 2, side 2

Turbomachinery analyses using periodic conditions are only useful for blade passages. Such
analyses are not appropriate for geometries in which a non-moving solid is included, such as a
centrifugal pump surrounded by a volute.

The blade passage will be set up as a rotating region, and the rotational speed and direction of
rotation must be defined. Periodic boundary conditions are required on the sides of the rotating
region as well, if the blade is centered within the region. If the sides of the rotating region are
the pressure and suction sides of the blade, then it is not necessary to assign periodic conditions
to the sides of the rotating region.

Periodic boundary conditions can also be used for non-rotating devices, such as a stator cas-
cade. Periodic pairs are required at the inlet and outlet extensions:

Outlet
Pair ID 1

Inlet Pair ID 2 Guidelines

Blades

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Analyses with periodic boundary conditions that include a rotating region must be run tran-
sient. For analyses of non-rotating devices, it is not required to run as a transient analysis.

Note that periodic boundary conditions are included in the Basic configuration, but the Motion
Module is required to analyze rotating machinery passages with periodic boundaries.

Advanced Functionality:
The following functionality items are the additional items in the “Advanced” configuration.

12.8 Transient Flows

In fluid flow analyses, transient refers to both periodic in time (albeit steady) and the usual
time-varying flow solution. For transient flows, initial conditions must be set. The default ini-
tial condition will be zero for all variables except temperature. Assign initial conditions using
the Initial tab of the Loads dialog task.

Time-varying boundary conditions are often necessary. The steps for setting a time-varying
boundary condition are outlined in Chapter 4--the Loads chapter.

Note that the time unit is always seconds for transient analyses. This unit of time is consistent
with that used for the properties. If you are interested in transients which take days or longer,
the time step size should still be entered in seconds.

Because CFdesign uses an implicit method to discretize the transient flow equations, iterations
must be run for every time step. This inner iteration is similar to the amount of work required
for a single steady state iteration. However, the inner iterations in a transient analysis are
almost always better-conditioned mathematically than a steady state iteration. For this reason,
far fewer inner iterations per time step (typically 10) are required than iterations for a steady
state solution.

If transient calculation is diverging, the time step size will probably need to be decreased.

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When running a transient analysis with time-varying pressure boundary conditions, the analy-
sis should be set to compressible. The transient terms in the pressure equations can only be
accurately determined if the density is allowed to vary. Namely, pressure waves always have to
be modeled as a compressible flow phenomenon.

Note: in water hammer analyses, the density does not vary. Compressible and Transient must
still be invoked however to solve a water hammer analysis.

Transient analyses will take more CPU time than a steady state analysis. To estimate the
amount of time, use the cycle time for a similar problem as shown in the Technical Reference
Guide, for example, and multiply by the number of time steps times by the number of inner
iterations per time step.

Finally, the transient results sets calculated by CFdesign can quickly be animated in the Results
dialog. This is described in the Chapters 8 and 9 of this Guide.

12.9 Height of Fluid

Designed to track the fluid level for a tank filling or emptying operation, the Height of Fluid
(HOF) function is a transient-based formulation that works for two and three dimensional
geometries as well as axisymmetric.

To implement HOF into an analysis, simply apply the Height of Fluid initial condition to those
regions of the model that contain fluid at Time 0. Regions that do not have this condition are
considered empty at the onset of the analysis. The geometry should be oriented such that the
filling or emptying direction is the “Y” coordinate direction.

Additionally, be sure to select Transient on the Analyze dialog, and set an appropriate time
step.

The filling or emptying process must be driven by an applied velocity boundary condition. The Guidelines
hydrostatic head of the water column will not cause the water to spontaneously empty from a
tank.

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Note: the Residence Time scalar quantity can be selected for results viewing, and is often use-
ful for HOF analyses. This is selected from the Results Quantities dialog available on the Ana-
lyze dialog. Note also that an HOF analysis can have a scalar quantity as part of the
calculation. This is useful for modeling the concentration of additives to the water.

12.10 Moist/Humid Flows

To model the effect of moisture on a gas flow, specify a relative humidity and a temperature
boundary condition at every inlet.

Additionally, it is often helpful to apply the initial value of temperature and humidity to the
model. Use one of the inlet values as the initial condition value.

On the Materials dialog, select one of the Air_Moist properties from the fluid material data
base, or define a new material using a Moist Gas density variation. The values that can be
changed are the Reference Pressure and Gas Constant. The reference pressure is the sum of
the partial pressures of the gas and the water vapor. You should also enter the carrier gas vis-
cosity, conductivity and specific heat.

Also, select the Humidity option on the Scalar dialog on the Options task, and set Heat Trans-
fer to On on the Options dialog.

For incompressible flows, only the temperature affects the fluid properties (including relative
humidity). If pressure effects are to be considered, select Subsonic Compressible from the
Options dialog task.

When continuing an analysis from existing results, there may be a blip in the convergence
monitor for temperature and scalar due to some internal conversion variables.

Note: CFdesign can model the condensation process but not the evaporation process. The
amount of liquid condensed and the calculated field values of relative humidity can be viewed
as results. The condensed liquid is calculated as a mixture fraction, i.e., the mass of the con-
densed liquid divided by the total mass of the liquid, vapor and carrier gas. Also, the enthalpy
of the mixture can be post-processed.

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It is often helpful to apply Convergence Control to the following variables for moist/humid
analyses: pressure, temperature, and density. Values of 0.1-0.25 are appropriate.

Be sure to enable output of the Scalar quantity on the Result Quantities dialog (available from
the Analyze dialog). This will allow humidity to be viewed as a result quantity.

12.11 Steam/Water Flows

To model a two-phase mixture of steam and water, specify the steam quality and static temper-
ature (as well as the appropriate flow condition) at all inlets. If the inlet fluid is 100% liquid
water, then the steam quality is 0.

Select the H2O_Steam/Liquid property from the Fluid list on the Material dialog. If operating
far from STP, create a new steam/water material, and change the Reference Pressure accord-
ingly. The actual values of the fluid properties will be determined during the analysis using the
steam tables and the specified reference pressure.

On the Options dialog, turn Heat Transfer On, and select Steam Quality from the Scalar dia-
log.

For incompressible flows, only the temperature and reference pressure will affect the fluid
properties (including the steam quality). If local pressure effects need to be considered, select
Subsonic Compressible flow on the Options dialog.

In the case of steam/water flows, CFdesign assumes a homogeneous two-phase mixture. The
energy equation that is used is written in terms of enthalpy. Temperature is determined using
the steam tables. Both temperature and enthalpy results can be viewed in the Results dialog
task (make sure both quantities are enabled on the Output Quantity dialog on the Analyze dia-
log).

It is often very helpful to apply convergence control to the following variables: pressure, tem- Guidelines
perature, density, and specific heat. Control values of 0.1-0.2 are appropriate for most flows.

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12.12 Radiation Heat Transfer

To use radiation, specify an emissivity for every solid material type in the model. If there are
no solids present, specify an emissivity for the surrounding walls by setting an emissivity on
the fluid material. (You will have to create a new material, but it can be based on a database
material.) Because the radiation algorithm does not allow the fluid medium to participate,
emissivity specified on a fluid material is automatically applied to the walls touching the fluid.

Enable Heat Transfer and Radiation on the Options dialog.

Radiation can be run with or without flow, but should be run with Heat Transfer set to On.

Note that for large models, the start up time can be somewhat longer because the program has
to calculate view factors for every element. Note also that radiation does not currently work for
axisymmetric or symmetric 2D and 3D geometries. It does however work for full 2D planar
and full 3D geometries.

The radiation model has been extended with the addition of temperature-dependent emissivity.
This allows the user to simulate the effect of spectral radiation. This variation is in the form of
a piece-wise linear table, and is entered on the Material Editor by hitting the Emissivity button,
and selecting Piecewise Linear on the Variation Method drop menu.

To account for the spectral characteristics of a surface, use the radiation functions in the fol-
lowing Table to construct a second table of total emissivity vs. temperature to be used in CFde-
sign:

λT λT E b0 – λT λT λT E b0 – λT
µm – °R µm – °K ----------------
- µm – °R µm – °K ----------------
-
4 4
σT σT

0 0 0.0 10,200 5666.7 0.70754

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λT λT E b0 – λT λT λT E b0 – λT
µm – °R µm – °K ----------------- µm – °R µm – °K -----------------
4 4
σT σT

1000 555.6 1.70e-8 10,400 5777.8 0.71806

1200 666.7 7.56e-7 10,600 5888.9 0.72813

1400 777.8 1.06e-5 10,800 6000 0.73777

1600 888.9 7.38e-5 11,000 6111.1 0.74700

1800 1000 3.21e-4 11,200 6222.2 0.75583

2000 1111.1 0.00101 11,400 6333.3 0.76429

2200 1222.2 0.00252 11,600 6444.4 0.77238

2400 1333.3 0.00531 11,800 6555.6 0.78014

2600 1444.4 0.00983 12,000 6666.7 0.78757

2800 1555.6 0.01643 12,200 6777.8 0.79469

3000 1666.7 0.02537 12,400 6888.9 0.80152

3200 1777.8 0.03677 12,600 7000 0.80806

3400 1888.9 0.05059 12,800 7111.1 0.81433

3600 2000 0.06672 13,000 7222.2 0.82035

3800 2111.1 0.08496 13,200 7333.3 0.82612 Guidelines


4000 2222.2 0.10503 13,400 7444.4 0.83166

4200 2333.3 0.12665 13,600 7555.6 0.83698

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λT λT E b0 – λT λT λT E b0 – λT
µm – °R µm – °K ----------------- µm – °R µm – °K -----------------
4 4
σT σT

4400 2444.4 0.14953 13,800 7666.7 0.84209

4600 2555.6 0.17337 14,000 7777.8 0.84699

4800 2666.7 0.19789 14,200 7888.9 0.85171

5000 2777.8 0.22285 14,400 8000 0.85624

5200 2888.9 0.24803 14,600 8111.1 0.86059

5400 3000 0.27322 14,800 8222.2 0.86477

5600 3111.1 0.29825 15,000 8333.3 0.86880

5800 3222.2 0.32300 16,000 8888.9 0.88677

6000 3333.3 0.34734 17,000 9444.4 0.90168

6200 3444.4 0.37118 18,000 10,000 0.91414

6400 3555.6 0.39445 19,000 10,555.6 0.92462

6600 3666.7 0.41708 20,000 11,111.1 0.93349

6800 3777.8 0.43905 21,000 11,666.7 0.94104

7000 3888.9 0.46031 22,000 12,222.2 0.94751

7200 4000 0.48085 23,000 12,777.8 0.95307

7400 4111.1 0.50066 24,000 13,333.3 0.95788

7600 4222.2 0.51974 25,000 13,888.9 0.96207

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λT λT E b0 – λT λT λT E b0 – λT
µm – °R µm – °K ----------------- µm – °R µm – °K -----------------
4 4
σT σT

7800 4333.3 0.53809 26,000 14,444.4 0.96572

8000 4444.4 0.55573 27,000 15,000 0.96892

8200 4555.6 0.57267 28,000 15,555.6 0.97174

8400 4666.7 0.58891 29,000 16,111.1 0.97423

8600 4777.8 0.60449 30,000 16,666.7 0.97644

8800 4888.9 0.61941 40,000 22,222.2 0.98915

9000 5000 0.63371 50,000 27,777.8 0.99414

9200 5111.1 0.64740 60,000 33,333.3 0.99649

9400 5222.2 0.66051 70,000 38,888.9 0.99773

9600 5333.3 0.67305 80,000 44,444.4 0.99845

9800 5444.4 0.68506 90,000 50,000 0.99889

10,000 5555.6 0.69655 100,000 55,555.6 0.99918

Radiation functions from R.V. Dunkle, Trans. ASME, 76, p549, 1954

Guidelines
For example, if you know the range of temperatures for your model is 100F to 1200F and the
emittance of the surface is 0.3 ( ε 1 ) below 3 µ and is 0.8 ( ε 2 ) at the longer wavelengths, you

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Guidelines

would create the following table, and enter this data in the Piecewise Linear property table in
CFdesign:

E b0 – λT
----------------
4
-
λT σT Emissivity Temperature (F)

1680 9.888e-5 0.8 100

4980 0.220354 0.69 1200

The emissivity in the above table is determined using the equation:


E b0 – λT⎞ E b0 – λT⎞
ε = ⎛ ----------------
- ε + ⎛ 1.0 – ----------------
- ε2
⎝ σT 4 ⎠ 1 ⎝ σT ⎠
4

Substituting the numbers above and interpolating values from the table:

E b0 – λT
( T = 100 ( F ) → ( λT = 3 × 560 = 1680 ) ) → ⎛ ----------------
- = 9.888e – 5⎞
⎝ σT 4 ⎠

So, the emissivity at 100 F is:

ε = ( 9.888e – 5 ) ( 0.3 ) + ( 1.0 – 9.888e – 5 ) ( 0.8 ) = 0.80

For the emissivity at 1200F:

E b0 – λT
( T = 1200 ( F ) → ( ( λT = 3 × 1660 ) = 4980 ) ) → ⎛ ----------------
- = 0.220354⎞
⎝ σT 4 ⎠

So, the emissivity at this temperature is:

ε = 0.220354 ( 0.3 ) + ( 1.0 – 0.220354 ) ( 0.8 ) = 0.69

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12.13 Compressible Flows

Physically, the density in compressible flow varies with pressure. In CFdesign, we distinguish
between Subsonic Compressible flow--where the pressure-density affects are weak--and Com-
pressible flow--where pressure strongly affects the density.

Subsonic Compressible flow contains no shocks. The local Mach number is always less than
1.0.

Compressible flow may have shocks and regions where the local Mach number is greater than
1.0. This type of flow may be either transonic or supersonic. In supersonic flows, pressure
effects are transported downstream. The upstream flow is not affected by downstream condi-
tions. The mathematical implications of compressible flow is that downstream boundary con-
ditions should not be fixed. In this case, the downstream boundary should be set using the
Unknown boundary condition. This will allow the pressure value to float; its only constraint is
continuity.

When running compressible flow, use a material with a density that varies with equation of
state.

For subsonic compressible and full compressible analyses without heat transfer, it is necessary
to specify a stagnation temperature in the Options dialog. The equation for stagnation tempera-
ture is:
2
Vi ⎛ γ – 1 2⎞
- or T t = T ⎝ 1 + ----------
T t = T + -------- 2
-M

2C p
To include heat transfer in a compressible analysis, apply TOTAL (STAGNATION) tempera-
ture boundary conditions instead of static temperatures. Set Heat Transfer to On in the Options
dialog, but it is not necessary to set a Stagnation Temperature on the Options dialog.

Note that when heat transfer is present in a compressible analysis, viscous dissipation, pressure
work, and kinetic energy terms are calculated. It is only necessary to enable heat transfer if you Guidelines
are solving for heat transfer or for Mach numbers greater than 3. The latter condition is appli-
cable only if viscous dissipation is important.

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12.13.1 Internal Flow

The practices outlined in the Incompressible flow section about internal flow modeling should
be followed for compressible flows as well, with the important exception of the boundary con-
ditions.

For compressible flows, if the inlet is supersonic, pressure and velocity must be specified at
the inlet because pressure signals only travel downstream in a supersonic flow. If the outlet
flow is supersonic, then it is not a good idea to specify the outlet pressure for the same reason.
The Unknown boundary condition is a better outlet condition for supersonic outlet flow.

There are situations, however, in which the inlet and/or the outlet may be subsonic, while flow
within the domain is supersonic. For a subsonic inlet that is well below sonic, it is a good idea
to specify only velocity. For a subsonic inlet that is near sonic, both velocity and pressure can
be specified. If the outlet is very far downstream of supersonic flow, you should specify a pres-
sure. In some instances it is possible to add an extension to the exit to be able to set a uniform
pressure at the domain exit. If such an extension is used, it is good practice to set the slip con-
dition on the walls of the extension to prevent any Fanno flow effects. If, however, the outlet is
fairly close to supersonic flow, you should set the Unknown boundary condition.

The analysis sequence for internal flows that have some internal compressibility effects is to
run 15 iterations with Incompressible set on the Options dialog. After the first 15 iterations, run
the remaining iterations with Compressible enabled. This sequence allows the flow to get
established throughout the calculation domain prior to introducing compressibility effects.

12.13.2 External Flow

Please refer to the general information about external flows in the Incompressible flow section
of this chapter. The key difference between incompressible and compressible external flow
modeling is the boundary conditions. For supersonic flows, specify both pressure and velocity

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upstream of the object. Downstream of the object, set the Unknown boundary condition. An
example of this is shown:

Note that if the domain is not large enough, you may have to make the inlet condition (velocity
and pressure) extend over a greater portion of the domain.

Another approach that can be used for subsonic and transonic flows is to specify velocity and
pressure upstream of the object and pressure downstream of the object. This is valid if the
domain is at least 50 chord lengths away from the object. The analysis sequence for this type of
analysis is to run 50 iterations as subsonic compressible then switch to full compressible and
run for at least 300 more iterations. Convergence Control should be set to 0.1-0.2 for velocity
and pressure. This method has been found to be quite stable for flows around Mach 1.

Higher velocity flows (greater than Mach 1.5) should be run with velocity and pressure speci-
fied upstream and the Unknown set downstream (as shown in the preceding figure). Also,
Pressure Control should be set to 0.001 and Convergence Control on velocity and pressure
should be set to 0.1 in the Control_Convergence window.

Sometimes it might be more convenient to use a rectangular shaped domain instead of a semi-
Guidelines
circular or spherical shape. This has been found to work quite well for some situations, and the
boundary conditions should be applied as shown in the following graphic:

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12.14 Joule Heating

Joule heating is the generation of heat by passing an electric current through a metal. Also
known as resistance heating, this feature allows the user to simulate stove-top burner elements
as well as electrical resistance heaters. User-supplied inputs include current, voltage, and the
resistivity of the metal.

Two new boundary conditions have been added to help define a Joule heating condition: cur-
rent and voltage. The typical way to define the loading is to set a current on one end of the
solid through which electricity is passing and a voltage of 0 on the other end:

Current on surface Voltage = 0 on surface

Electrically Heated Object Flow Volume

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Alternatively, a potential (voltage) difference can be applied across the device, and the current
boundary condition can be omitted.

A new material property has also been added: Resistivity. This is the resistance times the area
dividied by the length of the device. A value for resistivity is required for any solid that is
heated by the Joule effect.
r×L
The relationship between resistivity and resistance is: R = -----------
A
• R = resistance (ohms)
• r = resistivity (ohms-length unit)
• L = length of the device
• A = cross sectional area

As with any heat transfer analysis, a temperature needs to be specified somewhere in the model
(either as a temperature boundary condition or as a surrounding temperature for a film coeffi-
cient boundary condition).

Care should be taken that the mesh on any object heated by the Joule effect should have two
layers of elements across the object. This will ensure that there are enough nodes to calculate
the heating in the object.

Joule heating is invoked automatically if the Current and Voltage Boundary Conditions and the
Resistivity Material Property are set. Additionally, heat transfer must be enabled on the
Options task dialog. There is not a separate button to invoke Joule Heating.

Guidelines

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Motion Module:
The Motion Module is required for analyzing the effects of solids moving through or within a
fluid.

12.15 Motion Analyses

The interaction between a solid body in motion and the surrounding fluid is a key aspect to the
design of many mechanical devices. The CFdesign Motion Module brings this capability to the
world of product design as a key element of Upfront CFD. Through simulation, this Module
allows understanding the interaction between fluids and moving solids to be integral to the
product design process.

There are two principal types of solid body motion in the new Motion Module: Rotational
Motion and Linear Motion. Rotational motion allows the study of rotating machinery, most
notably turbomachinery applications such as pumps and turbines. Linear motion allows the
study of translating machinery such as hydraulic valves, pistons, and objects moving on a con-
veyor belt.

12.15.1 Rotating Machinery

CFdesign includes the ability to analyze rotating devices surrounded by a static (non-rotating)
frame of reference. By physically rotating the device and the region immediately surrounding
it, this capability offers great flexibility for analyzing rotating machinery. Examples include
pumps, fans, blowers, and turbines. Centrifugal, axial, and mixed configurations are supported.
Multiple rotating components in a device (such as the pump and turbine in an automotive
torque converter) can be analyzed.

This functionality gives the user the ability to analyze the flow within the blade passages of a
rotating device. It also allows study of the interaction between rotating and non-rotating geom-
etry. A classic example is the interaction between the rotor and the stator in an axial compres-
sor or turbine. Another example is the influence of a volute cutwater (tongue) on the exit flow
from a centrifugal pump impeller.

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12.15.1.1 Geometric Considerations

The CFdesign rotating machinery capability analyzes rotating devices using a locally rotating
frame of reference. This region completely surrounds a rotating object, and is called the rotat-
ing region.

Areas in the model that are not rotating are analyzed in a static (absolute) frame of reference.
These regions are called static regions. (Obviously fluid in a static region can move, but the
volume itself does not rotate in space.)

The following points summarize the geometric considerations for setting up rotating analyses:
• All rotating objects must be completely immersed in a rotating region. Such a
region will rotate using its own relative rotating frame of reference.
• The mesh that is generated in a rotating region will physically rotate along with
the parts that are immersed.
• Immersed parts can be modeled as voids in the rotating region, or they can be
included as solids. (Solid objects in a rotating region will rotate at the same speed as
the rotating region.)
• The interface between a rotating and a static region is called the periphery zone.
Within a periphery zone, the outer element faces of the rotating region will slide along
the neighboring element faces of the static region.
• The shape of a rotating region needs to correspond (loosely) to the shape of the
rotating device. Rotating regions are usually fairly simple cylindrical shapes. This
allows the element faces on both sides of the periphery zone to “fit” together easily.
• The rotating region should extend to roughly the mid-point between the outer
blade tips and the closest point of the surrounding non-rotating wall.
• Do not apply any boundary conditions to nodes on the periphery zone. Care
should be exercised when constructing fluid geometry to avoid such a condition.
• Rotating regions from multiple rotating components must not overlap. Devices

Guidelines
such as gear pumps or the beaters of a kitchen mixer cannot be modeled with the
rotating machinery capability because their rotating regions overlap.
• All rotating devices must have a rotating region and a static region that interact
via the periphery zone. In other words, a rotating region cannot directly contact a non-
rotating solid region, even if the solid is not inside of the rotating region. An example
is a solid annulus surrounding the outside of rotating region. The result will be that

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solid annulus (which is supposed to be static) will rotate. The resultant images will be
very unexpected.

The following graphics illustrate these principals:

Rotating Region
Axial Fan
(solid or cut-out)

Static Regions

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Static Region Rotating Region

Discharge
Volute
Pump Impeller
Periphery Zone

• If the blade tip clearance is extremely small (often because of tight seals), the sur-
rounding static region can be eliminated. An example is shown:

Rotating Region
Impeller

Inlet Outlet

Static Regions
• A rotating region must not be in direct contact with a solid region. The outer edge
of the rotating region must either be a fluid or an exterior boundary. Guidelines

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12.15.1.2 Boundary Conditions

If the rotational speed of the rotor is known, then pressures will often be specified. In many
cases, the purpose of the analysis is to determine the flow rate generated by the device for a
given pressure. Apply a pressure rise across the device. This will impose the resistance faced
by the rotor. Note that it is recommended to start such an analysis with equal pressures
assigned to both the inlet and outlet. As the impeller starts rotating and moving flow, the pres-
sure rise can be gradually imposed. This can be done either manually or with a time-varying
boundary condition.

Another situation involving a known rotational speed is that the flow rate is known, and the
pressure drop is the desired output quantity. For such a model, specify a pressure of 0 gage at
the inlet and the flow rate at the outlet. This method will often solve faster than specifying a
pressure on both the inlet and outlet.

If the rotational speed of the rotor is unknown (as in the case of the torque-driven or the free-
spinning scenarios), then a specified velocity or flow rate is most often appropriate. Recall that
a pressure MUST be assigned to at least one opening in the model unless the model is fully
enclosed.

Heat transfer boundary conditions can be applied as appropriate to conduct a heat transfer anal-
ysis.

12.15.1.3 Defining Rotating Regions

The parameters that define a Rotating Region are based on the type of analysis to be run. There
are three different scenarios: Known Rotational Speed, Known Driving Torque, and Free Spin-
ning. The type is selected from the Rotating Regions Material Editor, as described below.

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Known Rotational Speed

Enter the Rotational Speed of the rotor in either


radians per second or RPM.
A variable rotational speed can be entered by
changing the Variation Method to Table, and
entering data points for rotational speed vs.
time.

Guidelines

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Guidelines

Known Driving Torque

This method is useful for modeling a device


that is rotated by a known driving torque
(such as from a motor). Torque can be entered
as a constant value or as varying with time or
RPM using a piece-wise linear data table.
(The direction of applied torque is set as the
rotational direction on the main Material Task
dialog.)
If there is a resistive torque acting on the
device, subtract that from the Known Torque
value. For example, if the known motor
torque is 100 N-m, and the resistive torque is
5 N-m, then apply a value of 95 N-m.

In addition to torque, enter the inertia of the


rotating device. This is commonly the rota-
tional inertia of the rotor and shaft and any-
thing that is connected to the shaft (such as a
motor or flywheel if the rotating device is a
turbine). An easy way to determine an
approximate inertia is to multiply the com-
bined mass of the rotor, shaft, and shafted
accessories by the average radius squared.
This approach is reasonable if the intent of the
analysis is to run the device to a steady state
condition.
If the intent of the analysis is to obtain a
detailed time history of the rotational speed,
then a more precise value of inertia is neces-
sary.

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Free Spinning

In this case, the rotor starts with no rotational


speed, and will “spin up” based on the applied fluid
loading. Specify the inertia of the mechanical com-
ponents and the rotor. The steady rotational speed
will occur when the net hydraulic torque is zero.
If the device is free spinning, but a known resistive
torque exists:
1. Set the Analysis Type to Known Driving
Torque,
2. Apply the resistive torque as a negative value.
This will cause the device to spin up due to the sur-
rounding flow, and will find a steady rotational
speed when the net hydraulic torque is zero.

12.15.1.4 Running Rotational Motion Analyses

Rotating device analyses are always run transient (varying with time). This is because the
mesh of the rotating region physically rotates relative to the static regions in the model. Tran-
sient will be set automatically on the Analyze dialog when a part is assigned to be a rotating
region.

In addition, the time step size will be automatically set when the rotational speed of the region
is defined. The time step is calculated such that the device will rotate three degrees per time
step.

For cases in which the rotational speed is not known (the known torque and free spinning
cases), it is often possible to estimate a value for time step using a velocity polygon based on
the flow rate and the blade angles. This method will result in an approximate rotational speed
that can then be used to determine a time step size. Use the following formula to calculate a Guidelines
time step size that results in three degrees of rotation per time step:

3 / (6 * RPM)

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A good guideline to ensure that the time step is reasonable is that the rotational speed should
not change by more than 1% per time step. If it does, then you should either use a smaller time
step or inspect the inertia value. If the inertia value is too small, (smaller than the physical iner-
tia in the system) then the rotor could spin up too quickly. This could lead to calculation insta-
bilities and possible divergence.

In addition to the time step size, CFdesign automatically invokes several other settings for
rotating devices: The number of iterations per time step is set to 1. The Automatic Turbulence
Startup is set to the “Extend” mode.

Be sure to set a Results Output frequency. This controls how frequently the time steps are
saved to the disk. Saved time steps can be used to animate the results after the analysis is com-
pleted. Care should be exercised when setting the output frequency to avoid saving so many
results sets that your hard drive fills up.

As the analysis runs, the rotation of the rotating region (and any solids within the region) will
appear both computationally and visually in the run-time results viewer.

At the conclusion of an analysis, a csv (comma separated variable) file containing a time his-
tory of velocity and torque is written to the working directory.

12.15.1.5 Analysis Strategy

The purpose of many rotating analyses is to obtain the flow rate for a known head or pressure
rise. The most basic approach to such a problem is to apply the pressure rise across the device
as inlet and outlet boundary conditions, and then spin the rotor or impeller at its known rota-
tional speed. The problem with this approach is that solution accuracy may be compromised
because of the unrealistically fast start-up of the device. Rotating analyses can be quite sensi-
tive to instantaneous changes in the rotational speed or to the back pressure.

A better (and often more accurate) approach is to first run two revolutions with a known flow
rate running through the device. The boundary conditions would include a velocity or flow rate
on the inlet and a pressure on the outlet. After two revolutions, replace the flow rate boundary
condition with a pressure condition (to impart the specified head rise), and continue the analy-
sis for another two or three revolutions. The flow rate will then adjust slightly, resulting in a
better overall solution.

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The challenge with this approach is knowing the appropriate flow rate to start the analysis
with. This can usually be calculated using velocity triangles based on the known rotating speed
and the blade angle, and the assumption of ideal flow. This initial flow just needs to loosely
approximate the operating condition, and will provide a much better starting condition for the
device than an impulsive no-flow start.

12.15.1.6 Visualization Notes

Results from a rotating analysis are viewed using the visualization tools described in Chapter 9
of this guide. It is often useful to animate results to more fully understand the rotational effects
and the interaction between the rotating and static geometry.

Velocity can be presented in the relative frame with the Feature Tree sub menus: On the
Results_Scalar_Velocity Magnitude branch, right click on Velocity Magnitude, and select Ref-
erence Frame. The choices are Absolute and Relative. Absolute is the default. Relative is the
velocity flow field with the rotational component (r omega) subtracted out. This is very useful
for visualizing the flow within the impeller blade passages. Note that particle traces will show
the relative velocity if this selection is made.

12.15.2 Linear Motion

This feature allows user-controlled solid-body motion to occur within a flow regime. Applica-
tion examples include pistons, hydraulic rams, and items on a conveyor belt process. Solid
objects can move in and out of the flow volume, and the flow will respond to their movement.

In version 7.0, the user interface is set up so that only linear motion can be prescribed. More
advanced types of motion (curvilinear) will be added in future versions of CFdesign. In version
7.0, solid objects will not move in response to the flow.

12.15.2.1 Geometric Considerations


Guidelines
Unlike Rotating Objects, a special “envelope” is not necessary around the moving object. The
primary consideration is the location of the solid within the CAD model. Using the interface,
there are two ways to describe the motion of a solid: as a displacement and period or with a
table of displacement vs. time. If the motion is described with a displacement and period, then
the location in the CAD geometry is the starting point of the object. If the motion is described

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with a table, then the starting point can be changed by defining a displacement (relative to the
CAD location) at time 0.

Moving objects can start completely inside the flow volume, partially inside, or completely
outside. Moving objects can pass through the flow volume, and exit completely. If the moving
solid starts outside of the flow volume but overlaps or even touches it, then the volume outside
of the flow volume will be maintained as part of the flow volume, even after the solid leaves
that region. This is illustrated:

When an object moves through the fluid volume, the mesh of the object will appear to overlap
the flow mesh. The solid elements will block out the fluid elements, and the velocity of the
moving solid will be transferred to the nodes of the underlying fluid.

If heat transfer is of interest, then the energy equation is solved between the fluid and the solid
nodes. Obviously the heat transfer between the moving solid and the fluid will be a function of
the respective materials as well as the velocity of the solid and of the fluids.

The motion of a moving solid can be described such that the solid will collide with static sol-
ids. The solver will allow this type of motion, and care should be taken to ensure that physi-
cally real solid motion is defined. A Preview function is provided that allows the motion to be
“practiced” prior to running the analysis. This is described in a subsequent section.

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The same criteria for meshing non-moving solid analyses is applied to analyses that include
moving solids. Be careful to define a mesh that adequately defines the shapes of the fluid and
solid components.

12.15.2.2 Defining Moving Solids

There are two variation methods to define moving solids: constant reciprocating velocity and
with a table.

Constant Velocity

This is used to prescribe a periodic (reciprocating) motion.

The Half Period Time is the time it takes the


object to move from the start position to the end
of the stroke.

The Distance is the length of the stroke.


Start End

Distance

Guidelines

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Table

A table of displacement vs. time can be used to describe a more general motion:

The Displacement is relative to the as-built


location in the CAD model.
To start the motion from a location different
from the as-built location, enter a displacement
for time 0.
Checking the Cyclical box defines the motion
by repeating only forward passes through the
displacement table.
Checking the Reciprocating box defines the
motion by alternating forward and reverse
passes through the displacement table.

12.15.2.3 Previewing Solid Motion

We recommend that you preview the prescribed motion prior to running the analysis. This is
done through the Feature Tree. Right click on the top level Materials branch of the tree to pre-
view the motion of all moving objects in the model:

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To preview the motion on an individual part, right click on the part ID in the Materials branch
of the feature tree:

Either method will bring up the Preview dialog:

Use the slider bar to move through the motion. If the motion is defined with a displacement
and period, then the slider will cause the object to move through an entire forward and back-
ward stroke, completing one full period. For motion defined with a table, the slider will move
the object from the beginning to the end of the motion described in the table.

When the motion of multiple moving solids is previewed, the default time span will corre-
spond to the object with the smallest period or cycle time. To add more time to the preview,
change the Time Span on the Preview dialog.

12.15.2.4 Running Solid Motion Analyses

Solid body motion analyses are always run transient. When a moving solid material is Guidelines
assigned, certain Solution settings are automatically set. Such settings include switching the
analysis to transient, setting the time step based on the half period time (or on the maximum
time described in a motion table), and setting the number of internal iterations to one per time
step. Additionally, Mesh Enhancement is turned Off. We’ve found that for some Solid Motion

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analyses, the presence of Mesh Enhancement can cause stability problems during the analysis.
If you decide to enable it, it may be necessary to apply convergence control to the solution
parameters (velocity and pressure) to ensure stability.

Setting the time step save interval and the number of times steps are left to the user. Be careful
not to set a save interval that fills the hard disk with time step results sets. Also, it is often a
good idea to run at least two to three complete periods of motion to arrive at a quasi steady-
state condition.

Care should be taken for analyses in which the fluid vessel is completely enclosed. For such a
situation, a moving piston or ram can induce pressure waves through the fluid. Running the
analysis as incompressible will not capture these waves, so for completely enclosed vessels in
which divergence occurs, try enabling compressibility. For liquid flows, this will automatically
enable liquid compressibility (the “water hammer” effect). The liquid bulk modulus is entered
in the Ratio of Specific Heats field on the Material Editor dialog.

Note: when visualizing results for moving solids analyses, wall results (Results_Wall Results
dialog) are not available for the surfaces of moving solids. They are available for the other
walls in the analysis model, however.

12.16 Troubleshooting

This section discusses some common problems that occur when creating an analysis, during
mesh generation, and during the calculation.

12.16.1 Problems between CAD and CFdesign

If CFdesign crashes while reading in CAD geometry:

If Launching From Pro/E:


• Ensure that all parts have the same absolute accuracy.
• Ensure the model does not have any Geom Checks.
• Ensure that no parts are interfering.

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• Check the analysis-name_model.log file for the location of bad geometry. If nec-
essary, create a construction point at this location to assist in locating the problem.
• Ensure that all parts are assigned an absolute accuracy (relative accuracy is the
default). Also, ensure that the accuracy value is the same for all parts.
• If all else fails, systematically suppress components and/or slice away parts of the
model until the problem area is isolated.

If Launching From Inventor, Solid Edge, or Solid Works or with Parasolid or


Acis geometry:
• Search the geometry for obvious errors--check to see if mating components con-
tact properly, check for any sliver-type volumes or surfaces.
• Check the analysis-name_meodel.log file for the location of bad geometry. If
necessary, create a construction point at this location to assist in locating the problem.
• If all else fails, systematically suppress components and/or slice away parts of the
model until the problem area is isolated.

12.16.2 Problems During Meshing

If CFdesign crashes or gives an error while the mesh is generating,

Geometry From Pro/Engineer


• Ensure that there are no interfering parts in the model.
• The mesher is pretty good at fixing intersecting elements, but if the geometry is
too small, and the element size is too large, then the mesher might falter. Try a smaller
element size.
• The problem might be caused by one or more components in the model that con-
tain errors. Try to suppress parts systematically to find out which component is the
culprit. Once located, it can be fixed.

Guidelines
• Check the analysis-name_mesh.log file found in the working directory. Create a
datum point in Pro/E to help locate the problem area.
• Check the Pro/E trail file. This file contains all of the messages written during the
meshing process, and will list the coordinates of problem areas.

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Geometry From Inventor, Solid Edge, or Solid Works


• The mesher is pretty good at fixing intersecting elements, but if the geometry is
too small, and the element size is too large, then the mesher might falter. Try a smaller
element size.
• The problem might be caused by one or more components in the model that con-
tain errors. Try to suppress parts systematically to find out which component is the
culprit. Once located, it can be fixed.
• Check the analysis-name_mesh.log file found in the working directory.

12.16.3 Startup Problems

Once Go on the Analyze dialog is hit, if an error occurs and the analysis does not start, consult
the Status file (Review_Notes) to read the error. Various errors that can occur are:
• If the error “Could not connect to server” is encountered, then make sure that the
solver machine has the process cfdserv.exe running. If the analysis is to be solved
locally, this process should start automatically, but verify that it did using the Task
Manager. Start it manually if necessary opening the server manager (servman.exe) in
the installation directory, and hit Start.
• If the error “Could not connect to server” is encountered, a second solution is to
verify that a network connection exists between the local computer and the solver
computer. Ensure that permissions allow reading and writing between both machines.
In particular, the Analyze sub-folder of the CFdesign installation directory on the
Solver machine must be shared, and accessible to the client machine.
• If there is a licensing problem, the Solver will not start. Verify that the licensing
is configured and operating correctly.
• If an error occurs about not being able to find the GBI file, chances are the work-
ing directory (as set in Pro/E) is not the same directory as where the Pro/E model was
saved. Change the working directory and try again, and/or copy the model files into
the intended working directory.
• If an error occurs during the Mesh Enhancement step, (it may indicate an overly
distorted mesh), go to the Mesh dialog, and open the Mesh Enhancement dialog.
Reduce the Boundary Layer Thickness Factor.

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Guidelines

Once the analysis phase has started, the start up processing steps are displayed in the informa-
tion window of the Analysis window. When all input processing is completed, iterations
should commence.
• If the analysis hangs at this point, make sure the program has been installed prop-
erly and that all CFdesign files are in the installation directory. You may need to re-
install the software.
• If there is not enough in-core memory available for the CFD problem being run,
the message “Maximum available memory may have been exceeded” will be printed
in the status file. If the memory limit is exceeded, CFdesign can be run using a virtual
memory manager to “page” to the hard disk.

12.16.4 Divergence Before Iteration 10

Check property values and variations (a zero viscosity frequently causes quick divergence) in
the summary file or on the Materials dialog. Also, make sure the length unit specified in the
Feature Tree is correct (for Pro/E models) or results in the expected dimensional lengths in the
geometry.

If you are using variable properties, the temperature should be initialized to some appropriate
value. A temperature of zero will definitely cause problems.

If the flow is turbulent, but laminar is selected from the Turbulence dialog on the Options dia-
log, the solution will diverge quickly. Try turning on a turbulence model. Also, make sure the
Automatic Turbulent Start Up is turned On.

Try increasing the Turb/Lam Ratio in the Turbulence dialog on the Options dialog by an order
of magnitude.

12.16.5 Divergence After Iteration 10

If the inlets or outlets contain recirculation zones, the problem is not well-posed mathemati- Guidelines
cally and may eventually diverge. You may have to move these boundaries out, as shown in the
Boundary Condition section of this chapter.

CFdesign User’s Guide 12-47


Guidelines

If there are gaps which have fewer than 3 interior nodes, the solution may also diverge. This is
usually only true if the gap is in a critical area of the flow. Make sure Mesh Enhancement is
enabled, and that more than one element layer will be generated.

12.16.6 Divergence After Iteration 50

If the solution gets a large spike soon after iteration 50 and continues to grow or at least does
not converge, you should try choosing Lock On for the Automatic Turbulent Startup Procedure
(Options_Turbulence).

12.16.7 Divergence After Iteration 100

Though many CFD analyses, including turbulent ones, may be performed with the default
CFdesign control settings, some require special treatment to achieve a solution. When neces-
sary, the following steps are recommended to aid convergence, particularly when the solution
is unstable or diverging in the early iterations (these steps should be implemented individually
in the order given):
1. Lower the convergence control on the pressure equation from the default value to
0.2. This is done on the Convergence Controls dialog on the Analyze task.
2. Try setting the Auto Turb to Extend in the Options_Turbulence dialog. This is a
variation of the Automatic Turbulent Startup algorithm that is particularly useful
for some compressible flow problems.
3. Observe the solution results during the analysis in the Results dialog. Wherever
you see errant velocity vectors or splotches of high or low pressures is where the
solution is having difficulty. Often refining the mesh in these locations solves the
problem. If necessary, you may have to re-run the analysis and stop just before
divergence occurs (1-2 iterations). The turbulence quantities (TKE and EPS) can
also be indicators.

12.16.8 Oscillating Results

There are three scenarios which cause results to oscillate in the Convergence Monitor:
1. The first is that the mesh is not fine enough. By observing where the solution
changes in the Run-time CFDisplay window, you can quickly locate areas of the

12-48 CFdesign User’s Guide


Guidelines

mesh in need of refinement, while the analysis is running. Display vectors, and
note where the directions are changing. Often you will see one or a small number
of vectors in some critical location such as a wake oscillating back and forth.
2. Another scenario which causes this condition is recirculation zones crossing
inlet/outlet planes. Again, this can be quickly diagnosed by observing the Results
window. If these zones can be eliminated in your model, the solution should con-
verge.
3. The third cause of oscillating residuals is vortex shedding. If you switch to tran-
sient, you should be able to obtain a converged solution.

Finally, the solution may be converged enough for the purpose of the analysis. If you check the
summary information in the Convergence Monitor and under Review_Convergence, and the
plots have all flattened, the solution is converged for this mesh. The summary information is
the best indicator of convergence.

Guidelines

CFdesign User’s Guide 12-49


Guidelines

12-50 CFdesign User’s Guide


Index

Index 11 conductivity 6-6, 6-16


Boundary Mesh configurations 1-4
Adaptation 5-14 conjugate heat transfer 12-
A bring analysis into a 8
Abaqus 10-3 project 11-4 constant eddy viscosity 7-5
absolute pressure BC 4-7 Bring analysis into a project constant internal fan flow
absolute velocity 9-6, 12- icon 2-4, 11-4 rate 6-29

Index
39 bulk data 9-15 constant loss coefficient 6-
accuracy in Pro/E 3-10 bulk results 11-10 22
Acis 1-5, 3-12, 8-7, 12-45 buoyancy 12-5 constant property type 6-7
acis names 3-16 constant velocity of moving
activation energy 6-9 solid 6-45
add analysis to a C
CAD-KEY 3-12 contact information 1-14
project 11-3 Continue From 8-6
adiabatic compressible Carreau property
variation 6-11 contour lines 9-6, 9-22
flow 6-8, 6-14 convection boundary
Advanced 1-4, 12-1 cavitation 9-20
center of rotation 2-5, 9-19 condition 4-5, 4-9
aerodynamic forces 9-19 convection coefficient 9-20
analysis 11-1 centrifugal pump material
creation 6-32 convergence controls 8-9
analysis client 8-5 convergence monitor 8-13,
analysis computer 8-5 centrifugal pump/blower
material 6-30 8-14
analysis queue 8-8 Coordinate axis icon 2-7
analysis server 8-5, 12-46 CFdesign 5.0 1-13
CFdesign 6.0 1-13 coordinate systems 2-15
analyze directory 1-11 Cosmos 10-5
analyze information 8-12 cfdesigntemp 3-6
cfdserv7.exe 1-9, 8-6 create analysis 1-5
Analyze task dialog 2-25, current boundary
8-2 change analysis model 8-7
change length unit only 2- condition 4-10, 12-28
animation of particle cut plane appearance 9-11
traces 9-13 15
check valve creation 6-36 cut plane location 9-10
animation of results 8-23 cut plane orientation 9-10
animation speed 8-23 check valves 6-34
clamping 9-23 Cut plane task dialog 9-9
Ansys 10-4 cutoff pressure 9-20
Arrhenius 6-9 client/server 8-5
colored stripes for loads 4- cutoff strain rate 6-10
associative selection 2-12 cutoff viscosity 6-10
Auto Turb (ATSU) 7-6 14
component temperatures 8- cutting plane location 9-11
automatic wall cutting plane orientation 9-
specification 4-4 21
compressible 8-10 11
compressible flow 7-3, 12- cutting plane table 9-10
B 25 cutting planes 9-8
background color 2-7, 2-8 external 12-26 cyclic symmetry 12-12
Basic 1-4, 12-1 internal 12-26 cyclical motion 6-45
batch mode 8-8 condensation 12-18 cylindrically-shaped
bias factor 5-7 condensed water 7-7 resistance 6-19
blanking 2-13 conduction 12-5
boundary layer flows 12- conduction-only 7-2

CFdesign User’s Guide I-1


Index

D F 12-9
Darcy Equation 6-25, 12- Fast Track 1-2, 1-10, 8-5
10 FEA 1-2 G
database materials 6-5, 6- FEA deck 10-2 gage pressure boundary
15 FEA mesh 10-1 condition 4-7
default analysis options 7-1 feature tree 2-14 gas constant 6-8
default units 2-15 loads 4-16 general scalar variable 7-7
density 6-6, 6-16 materials 6-46 geometry
Design Comm Center 1-2 mesh sizes 5-11 moving solids 12-40
Design Review Center 1-2, part names 3-16 geometry inversion 3-2
9-28, 11-9 results 9-3 geometry modification 3-
dialog placement 2-8 feature tree placement 2-8 18, 11-3
distributed resistance 5-5, FEMAP 10-5 globally displayed result 9-
6-17, 12-9 File creation 2-7 4
divergence file types 1-12 GLView PlugIn 9-27
after iteration 10 12-47 fillvoids 3-6 GO 8-6
before iteration 10 12-47 film coefficient 9-20 graphics region 2-2
docking of dialogs 2-2 film coefficient boundary Grashof number 12-5
documentation 1-3 condition 4-5, 4-9 gravity 12-7
domain shape 3-3 film coefficient result 9-19 gravity vector 7-4
driving torque 6-41 filtering 9-22, 9-23 grayed out Anayze
Dynamic Image 1-2, 9-23, first order polynomial prop- dialog 8-7
9-25 erty variation 6-12 grayed out mesh dialog 8-7
flow core in acis/ groups 2-16
E parasolid 3-13
Earth 7-4 flow core in Pro/E 3-2, 3-4
flow geometry 3-1 H
edge bias factor 5-7 harmonic time curve 4-13
edge mesh size 5-7 flow off 7-2
flow on 7-2 heat flux boundary
element 5-1 condition 4-5, 4-8
element size criteria 5-9 flow types
boundary layer 12-11 heat flux results 9-19
emissivity 6-6, 6-16 heat transfer 12-4, 12-25
empirical film compressible flow 12-25
moist gas 12-18 conduction 12-5
coefficient 8-11 forced convection 12-7
energy balance 8-20 radiation 12-20
steam/water 12-19 gravity 7-4
equation of state 6-8, 7-3 mixed convection 12-7
Euler or invisid flow 4-3 subsonic
compressible 12-25 natural convection 7-4,
existing analysis 1-7 12-5
extended ATSU 7-6 supersonic flow 12-25
transonic 12-25 off 7-3
extensions 1-12 on 7-3
external fan boundary fluid material creation 6-3
fluid property types 6-6 radiation 7-3
condition 4-9 heat transfer boundary
external flow 12-3 forced convection 12-7
free area ratio 6-23, 12-10 conditions 4-5
free spinning 6-42, 12-37 Height of Fluid 4-17, 12-
friction factor 6-23, 6-24, 17

I-2 CFdesign User’s Guide


Index

help 2-10 speed 6-30 material creation 6-2, 6-3


Herschel-Buckley property internal fans 6-26 material database 2-8
variation 6-11 internal flow 12-2 Material Editor 6-3
humidity 7-7, 12-18 Inventor 1-5, 2-15, 3-12, materials database 6-4
humidity boundary 12-45 Materials task dialog 2-24,
condition 4-8 inverse polynomial prop- 6-2
hydrodynamic forces 9-19 erty variation 6-13 materials task dialog

Index
inverse polynomial time centrifugal pump 6-30
I curve 4-13 check valves 6-35
I-DEAS 1-13, 10-5 iso surface 9-17 internal fan/pump 6-27
I-DEAS mesh 3-20 iso surface vectors 9-18 moving solids 6-43
IGES 1-1, 3-1 Iterations to Run 8-7 resistance 6-18
implicit method 8-4 rotating regions 6-37
included fluid materials 6-5 J Mechanica 10-4
included solid materials 6- Joule heating 4-5, 12-28 Mesh Enhancement 5-12,
15 12-46
incompressible flow 7-2 boundary mesh
K adaptation 5-14
external 12-3 k-epsilon turbulence
internal 12-2 number of layers 5-13
model 7-5 thickness factor 5-13
Incremental rotation 2-6 known driving torque 6-41,
infinite strain viscosity 6- mesh generation 5-14, 8-7
12-36 mesh import 3-20
11 known rotating speed 12-
Information 8-12 mesh inspection 8-8
35 mesh reference points 5-8
initial conditions 4-16, 12- known rotational speed 6-
16 mesh refinement 5-4
40 mesh size fundamentals 5-
inlet boundary
conditions 4-1 2
external fan 4-1 L mesh size of 0 5-6
pressure 4-1 laminar 7-5 Mesh Size task dialog 2-
scalar 4-2 launching 1-4 23, 5-6
temperature 4-1 launching errors 12-44 mesh-independent
total pressure 4-1 legend levels 9-22 solution 5-3
total temperature 4-2 Loads task dialog 2-23 meshing problems 12-45
velocity 4-1 boundary conditions 4-6 meshing refinement
volumetric flow rate 4-1 initial conditions 4-17 inlets/outlets 5-5
inlets/outlets 5-5, 8-20 localhost 8-5 moving solds 5-5
inner iterations 8-4, 12-16 Lock on 7-6 porous media 5-5
interface computer 8-5 lost settings 11-7 rotating regions 5-5
interfering parts in Pro/E 3- solid boundaries 5-4
9 sudden discontinuity 5-5
M thermal boundaries 5-5
internal fan creation 6-28 massed particle trace 9-13
internal fan curve meshing strategy 5-2
material appearance 9-4 MicroSoft PowerPoint 9-
constant flow rate 6-29 material assignment 6-2
pressure-head curve 6-29 26
material colors 6-46 MicroSoft Word 9-27
internal fan rotational

CFdesign User’s Guide I-3


Index

mixed convection 12-7 pressure 4-2 power law time curve 4-14
mixture fraction 12-18 unknown 4-2 PowerPoint 9-26
model change 11-5 velocity 4-2 Prandtl number 12-5
moist gas 7-7, 12-18 volumetric flow rate 4-2 preferences 2-7
moment 9-19 outlet location 4-2 pressure boundary
monitor points 8-13, 8-15 outlets 3-17 condition 4-7
Moody formula 12-10 Outline image icon 2-4, 9- pressure control 8-10
Motion Module 1-2, 1-4, 3 pressure direction 10-2
5-5, 6-37, 6-42, 12-30 pressure flow-rate curve 6-
moving solids 5-5, 6-42, P 25
12-39 parametric changes 3-1 pressure result 9-19, 10-2
multiple fluids 12-11 Parasolid 1-5, 3-12, 8-7, pressure-flow rate
multiple scalar legends 9-8 12-45 curve 12-10
parasolid names 3-16 pressure-head curve 6-29
N part appearance 2-16 preview solid motion 12-
Nastran 10-3 particle trace 9-12 42
Nastran mesh 3-20 particle trace appearance 9- Previous View icon 2-6
natural boundary 13 Pro/E meshing 8-7
condition 12-25 Patankar 1-2 Pro/Engineer 1-5, 3-11,
natural convection 12-5 periodic boundary 12-44
navigation 2-11 condition 4-4, 4-10 Pro/Mechanica 10-4
near wall temperatures 9- periodic boundary project 1-7, 11-2
20 conditions 12-12 settings 3-19
new analysis 1-5 periodic time curve 4-13 property variations
New icon 2-4, 11-2, 11-4 permeability 6-25 Arrhenius 6-9
node 5-1 permiability 6-23 Carreau 6-11
no-mesh condition 5-6 Perspective view icon 2-6 constant 6-7
non-Cartesian-oriented piece-wise linear property equation of state 6-8
resistance 6-19 variation 6-14 first order polynomial 6-
non-Newtonian property piecewise linear time 12
variation 6-10 curve 4-14 Herschel-Buckley 6-11
number of layers 5-13 Place analysis in project inverse polynomial 6-13
icon 11-2, 11-3 non-Newtonian 6-10
PLM/PDM 3-1 piece-wise linear 6-14
O polynomial 6-13
open analysis 1-7 polynomial property
variation 6-13 power law 6-7
Open icon 2-4 second order
Open view settings icon 9- polynomial time curve 4-
13 polynomial 6-12
2 Sutherland 6-9
Options task dialog 2-24, porous media 5-5, 6-17,
12-8 Put analysis to project
7-1 icon 2-4
oscillating results 12-48 post monitor points 8-17
outlet boundary power law exponent 6-10
conditions 4-2 power law index 6-11 Q
external fan 4-2 power law property queue 8-8
variation 6-7

I-4 CFdesign User’s Guide


Index

R project 11-8 12
radiation 7-3, 12-20 scalar 9-5 selection 2-11
radiation boundary vectors 9-6 Selection Basis 2-12
condition 4-9 results interpolation 10-1 server 1-9, 12-46
ramp step time curve 4-12 results output interval 8-4 server manager 8-6
ratio of specific heats 6-6 results range 9-22 Server Monitor 8-6
Rayleigh number 12-5 Results task dialog 2-26, 9- server.cfg file 8-6

Index
reciprocating motion 6-45 9 servman.exe 1-10
reference frame 9-6, 9-14, results units 9-6 settings transfer 11-5
12-39 resume interface element 2- Shaded image icon 2-4, 9-2
reference pressure 6-14 2 show legend 9-22
reference properties 6-8, 6- Review task dialog 2-25 show lost 3-19, 11-6
14 Review_Animation 8-23 Show mesh icon 9-3
reference temperature 6-14 Review_Results dialog 8- shutting down Pro/E 8-7
re-initialize 4-17 22 slip boundary condition 4-8
relative velocity 9-6, 9-14, right hand rule 6-38 slip wall boundary
12-39 RNG turbulence model 7-5 condition 4-3
remove analysis from rotating machinery 12-30 solid boundaries 5-4
DRC 11-11 rotating regions 5-5, 6-37 Solid Edge 1-5, 3-12, 12-
repeating (piecewise rotational direction 6-38 45
linear) 4-14 rotational speed 6-40 solid property types 6-15
Reset view icon 2-5 rotational velocity bound- Solid Works 1-5, 3-12, 12-
Residence Time 12-18 ary condition 4-7 45
resistance 6-16 runtime monitor points 8- solver 1-9
resistance directions 6-18 16 specific heat 6-6, 6-16
resistance heating 4-5 spectral radiation 6-6, 6-
resistance material S 16, 12-20
creation 6-21 Save analysis icon 2-4 stagnation temperature 7-2
resistance methods Save dynamic image Standard Views 2-6
constant loss icon 2-4, 9-2 Start/End iteration 8-15
coefficient 6-22, 12- Save image icon 2-4, 9-2 starting and stopping 8-7
9 save intervals 8-4 startup problems 12-46
Darcy Equation 6-25, Save project icon 2-4 static temperature 7-2
12-10 save table 9-10 status file 8-18
free area ratio 6-23, 12- Save view settings icon 9-2 steady state 8-3
10 scalar boundary steam quality 7-8
friction factor 6-24, 12-9 condition 4-8 steam quality boundary
pressure-flow rate scalar filtering 9-22 condition 4-8
curve 6-25, 12-10 scalar legend 9-7 steam/water 7-8, 12-19
resistivity 6-16 scalar quantities 7-4 Step 1-1, 3-1
result quantities 8-11 scalar result quantity 9-5 STL 1-1
result scale 9-7 scalar settings 9-22 stop time 8-3
result set 11-10 scalar visibility 9-6 submerged objects in acis/
results second order polynomial parasolid 3-15
cutting planes 9-8 property variation 6- subsonic compressible 7-2,

CFdesign User’s Guide I-5


Index

12-25 time step size 8-3 two dimensional geometry


subsonic inlet 4-2 time step size for rotating acis/parasolid 3-16
sudden discontinuity 5-5 analyses 12-37 Pro/E 3-8
summary file 8-19 tool buttons 2-3
energy balance 8-20 toolbar 2-2 U
inlets/outlets 8-20 torque 6-41, 9-19, 12-36 under-relaxation 8-10
summary history file 8-21 total heat flux boundary Unigraphics 3-12
summary output 8-5 condition 4-9 units 2-8, 2-14, 9-6
supersonic flow 12-25 total heat generation bound- units conversion 2-15
supersonic inlet 4-2 ary condition 4-10 unknown boundary
support 2-9 total temperature 7-2 condition 4-3, 4-8, 12-
suppressed components 3- Transfer task dialog 2-26 25
20 transient 8-3, 12-16
surface mesh size 5-6 inner iterations 8-4
surface radiation boundary stop time 8-3 V
condition 4-5 time step size 8-3 vector clamping 9-23
surface regions 3-7 transient boundary vector filtering 9-23
Sutherland constant 6-9 conditions 4-12 vector length 9-23
Sutherland property transient loads vector results quantity 9-6
variation 6-9 harmonic 4-13 vector settings 9-23
swirl 4-2 inverse polynomial 4-13 vector spacing 9-11
symmetry 5-2 periodic 4-13 velocity boundary
piecewise linear 4-14 condition 4-7
polynomial 4-13 version 2-10
T Version 6.0 1-13
tabular description of mov- power law 4-14
ramp step 4-12 View lines icon 9-2
ing solid motion 6-45 viscosity 6-6
Task Manager 8-5 transonic flow 12-25
transparent icon 9-3 viscosity coefficient 6-10
temperature 9-19 visible 9-6
stagnation 7-2 Transparent image icon 2-4
triangle element 5-1 voltage boundary
static 7-2 condition 4-10, 12-28
total 7-2 Turb/lam ratio 7-6
turbulence 7-4 volume flow rate boundary
temperature boundary condition 4-7
condition 4-5, 4-8 auto startup 7-6
extend 7-6 volume mesh size 5-6
temperature control 8-10 volume regions 3-7
temperature dependent heat lock on 7-6 volumetric heat generation
generation 4-11 intensity 7-7 boundary condition 4-
temperature results 10-2 roughness 7-7 10
temperature statistics 8-21 turb/lam ratio 7-6 volumetric heat source
tetrahedral element 5-1 turbulence inlet boundary condition 4-
textured fringes 9-6 quantities 4-2 5
thermal boundaries 5-5 Turbulence models vorticity 8-12
thermal boundary constant eddy
conditions 4-5 viscosity 7-5
thickness factor 5-13 k-epsilon model 7-5 W
time step 11-10 RNG model 7-5 wall film coefficient 9-19

I-6 CFdesign User’s Guide


Index

wall forces 9-19


wall heat flux 9-19
wall pressure 9-19
wall results 9-18
wall temperature 9-19
wall turbulence
conditions 4-4

Index
walls 4-4
walls (groups) 2-21
water hammer 7-3
Wireframe navigation
icon 2-6
Word 9-27

X
xy plots 9-16, 9-17, 11-10

Y
y+ 5-4, 5-14

Z
Z-clip 2-5
zero strain viscosity 6-11
Zoom icon 2-6

CFdesign User’s Guide I-7


Index

I-8 CFdesign User’s Guide