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Wikipedia pdf of the ideal gas law. Explanation, derivation, and some of its applications.

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temperature: in the SI system of units, Kelvin.[4]

The most frequently introduced form is

P V = nRT

where:

P is the pressure of the gas

V is the volume of the gas

n is the amount of substance of gas (also known as number

of moles)

R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant, equal to the product of the Boltzmann constant and the Avogadro constant.

Isotherms of an ideal gas. The curved lines represent the relationship between pressure (on the vertical, y-axis) and volume (on

the horizontal, x-axis) for an ideal gas at dierent temperatures:

lines which are further away from the origin (that is, lines that

are nearer to the top right-hand corner of the diagram) represent

higher temperatures.

cubic metres, n is measured in moles, and T in Kelvin

(The Kelvin scale is a shifted Celsius scale where 0.00

Kelvin = 273.15 degrees Celsius, the lowest possible

temperature). R has the value 8.314 JK1 mol1 or

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothet- 0.08206 Latmmol1 K1 or 2 calories if using pressure

ical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behavior in standard atmospheres (atm) instead of pascals, and volof many gases under many conditions, although it has sev- ume in litres instead of cubic metres.

eral limitations. It was rst stated by mile Clapeyron in

1834 as a combination of Boyles law, Charless law and

Avogadros Law.[1] The ideal gas law is often written as: 1.2 Molar form

How much gas is present could be specied by giving the

mass instead of the chemical amount of gas. Therefore,

P V = nRT

an alternative form of the ideal gas law may be useful.

The chemical amount (n) (in moles) is equal to the mass

where the letters denote pressure, volume, amount (in

(m) (in grams) divided by the molar mass (M) (in grams

moles), ideal gas constant, and temperature of the gas,

per mole):

respectively.

It can also be derived microscopically from kinetic

theory, as was achieved (apparently independently) by n = m

M

August Krnig in 1856[2] and Rudolf Clausius in 1857.[3]

By replacing n with m / M, and subsequently introducing

density = m/V, we get:

Equation

The state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern form of the

equation relates these simply in two main forms. The

1

PV =

m

RT

M

P =

R

T

M

P = Rspecific T

This form of the ideal gas law is very useful because it

links pressure, density, and temperature in a unique formula independent of the quantity of the considered gas.

Alternatively, the law may be written in terms of the

specic volume v, the reciprocal of density, as

P v = Rspecific T

It is common, especially in engineering applications, to

represent the specic gas constant by the symbol R. In

such cases, the universal gas constant is usually given a

dierent symbol such as R to distinguish it. In any case,

the context and/or units of the gas constant should make

it clear as to whether the universal or specic gas constant

is being referred to.[5]

1.3

Statistical mechanics

2 Applications to thermodynamic

processes

The table below essentially simplies the ideal gas equation for a particular processes, thus making this equation

easier to solve using numerical methods.

A thermodynamic process is dened as a system that

moves from state 1 to state 2, where the state number

is denoted by subscript. As shown in the rst column

of the table, basic thermodynamic processes are dened

such that one of the gas properties (P, V, T, or S) is constant throughout the process.

For a given thermodynamics process, in order to specify the extent of a particular process, one of the properties ratios (which are listed under the column labeled

known ratio) must be specied (either directly or indirectly). Also, the property for which the ratio is known

must be distinct from the property held constant in the

previous column (otherwise the ratio would be unity, and

not enough information would be available to simplify the

gas law equation).

state

2 can be calculated from the properties at state 1

In statistical mechanics the following molecular equation

using

the equations listed.

is derived from rst principles:

^

P V = N kB T

where P is the absolute pressure of the gas measured in

pascals; N is the number of molecules in the given volume

V. The number density is given by the ratio N/V; kB is the

Boltzmann constant relating temperature and energy; and

T is the absolute temperature.

The number density contrasts to the other formulation,

which uses n, the number of moles and V, the volume. This relation implies that R=NAkB where NA is

Avogadros constant, and the consistency of this result

with experiment is a good check on the principles of statistical mechanics.

a. In an isentropic process, system entropy (S) is constant. Under these conditions, P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 , where

is dened as the heat capacity ratio, which is constant for

a calorically perfect gas. The value used for is typically 1.4 for diatomic gases like nitrogen (N2 ) and oxygen

(O2 ), (and air, which is 99% diatomic). Also is typically 1.6 for monatomic gases like the noble gases helium

(He), and argon (Ar). In internal combustion engines

varies between 1.35 and 1.15, depending on constitution

gases and temperature.

real gases

The equation of state given here applies only to an ideal

of times the atomic mass constant m (i.e., the mass is

gas, or as an approximation to a real gas that behaves suf u)

ciently like an ideal gas. There are in fact many dierent

forms of the equation of state. Since the ideal gas law nem

glects both molecular size and intermolecular attractions,

Y =

it is most accurate for monatomic gases at high tempermu

atures and low pressures. The neglect of molecular size

and since = mn, we nd that the ideal gas law can be becomes less important for lower densities, i.e. for larger

rewritten as:

volumes at lower pressures, because the average distance

between adjacent molecules becomes much larger than

the molecular size. The relative importance of interk

1 m

kT =

T.

P =

molecular attractions diminishes with increasing thermal

V mu

mu

kinetic energy, i.e., with increasing temperatures. More

In SI units, P is measured in pascals; V in cubic metres; detailed equations of state, such as the van der Waals

Y is a dimensionless number; and T in Kelvin. k has the equation, account for deviations from ideality caused by

molecular size and intermolecular forces.

value 1.381023 JK1 in SI units.

3

A residual property is dened as the dierence between a where the rst equality is Newtons second law, and

real gas property and an ideal gas property, both consid- the second line uses Hamiltons equations and the

ered at the same pressure, temperature, and composition. equipartition theorem. Summing over a system of N particles yields

Derivations

3N kB T =

4.1

Empirical

qk F k .

k=1

The ideal gas law can be derived from combining two em- net force of the system is the force applied by the walls

pirical gas laws: the combined gas law and Avogadros of the container, and this force is given by the pressure P

law. The combined gas law state that

of the gas. Hence

PV

=C

T

qk F k

I

q dS,

=P

surface

k=1

amount of gas, n (Avogadros law). The proportionality where dS is the innitesimal area element along the walls

of the container. Since the divergence of the position vecfactor is the universal gas constant, R, i.e. C = nR.

tor q is

Hence the ideal gas law

P V = nRT

q=

qx

qy

qz

+

+

= 3,

qx

qy

qz

4.2

4.2.1

Theoretical

Kinetic theory

q dS = P

P

surface

( q) dV = 3P V,

volume

and V is the total volume of the container.

The ideal gas law can also be derived from rst principles

using the kinetic theory of gases, in which several simplifying assumptions are made, chief among which are that

the molecules, or atoms, of the gas are point masses, possessing mass but no signicant volume, and undergo only

elastic collisions with each other and the sides of the container in which both linear momentum and kinetic energy

are conserved.

4.2.2

P V = N kB T = nRT,

Statistical mechanics

3N kB T =

qk F k

= 3P V,

k=1

NAkB is the gas constant.

vector and momentum vector of a particle of an ideal gas,

respectively. Let F denote the net force on that particle.

Then the time-averaged potential energy of the particle is:

5 See also

Van der Waals equation

Boltzmann constant

dp dp dp

Conguration integral

y

z

x

+ qy

+ qz

q F = qx

dt

dt

dt

Dynamic pressure

H H H

= qx

qy

qz

= 3kB T, Internal energy

qx

qy

qz

References

de la chaleur. Journal de l'cole Polytechnique (in

French) XIV: 15390. Facsimile at the Bibliothque nationale de France (pp. 15390).

[2] Krnig, A. (1856). Grundzge einer Theorie der

Gase.

Annalen der Physik und Chemie (in German) 99 (10): 31522. Bibcode:1856AnP...175..315K.

doi:10.1002/andp.18561751008. Facsimile at the Bibliothque nationale de France (pp. 31522).

[3] Clausius, R. (1857).

Ueber die Art der Bewegung, welche wir Wrme nennen.

Annalen

der Physik und Chemie (in German) 176

(3):

35379.

Bibcode:1857AnP...176..353C.

doi:10.1002/andp.18571760302.

Facsimile at the

Bibliothque nationale de France (pp. 35379).

[4] Equation of State.

[5] Moran and Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 4th Ed, 2000

Further reading

Davis and Masten Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New York (2002) ISBN 0-07-235053-9

Website giving credit to Benot Paul mile Clapeyron, (17991864) in 1834

External links

Conguration integral (statistical mechanics) where

an alternative statistical mechanics derivation of the

ideal-gas law, using the relationship between the

Helmholtz free energy and the partition function,

but without using the equipartition theorem, is provided. Vu-Quoc, L., Conguration integral (statistical mechanics), 2008. this wiki site is down; see

this article in the web archive on 2012 April 28.

Online Ideal Gas law Calculator

EXTERNAL LINKS

9.1

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9.2

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