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Cable System

ElmCabsys, TypCabsys

DIgSILENT GmbH

Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9

72810 - Gomaringen

Germany

T: +49 7072 9168 0

F: +49 7072 9168 88

http://www.digsilent.de

info@digsilent.de

Version: 15.2

Edition: 2

Copyright 2015, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.

No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means

electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.

Cable System (ElmCabsys, TypCabsys)

Contents

Contents

1 Introduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

5

3.4.1 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.2 Admittance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

10

3.5.1 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

3.5.2 Admittance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

A Parameter Definitions

14

B Calculation Results

16

C References

19

List of Figures

20

List of Tables

21

Introduction

Introduction

This document describes the definition of a cable system in terms of its geometry, the properties

of the conducting, semi-conducting and insulating layers, installation characteristics (buried directly underground, in a pipe). Besides it details calculation of its frequency-dependent electrical

parameters.

The definition of a frequency-dependent cable system success in PowerFactory with help of two

type objects: a single core cable type TypCab which describes the constructive characteristics

of the cable and a cable system type TypCabsys, which defines the coupling between phases,

i.e. the coupling between the single core cables in a multiphase/multi-circuit cable system.

A built-in cable constants function in the cable system type calculates then the frequencydependent electrical parameters (impedance and admittance matrices). The function can handle coaxial cables consisting of a core, sheath and armour directly undergrounded or installed

in pipes (pipe-type cables). This function can be started in a stand-alone case from the Calculate button on the edit dialog of the cable system, in which case the results are printed to

the output windows, or be automatically called by any simulation function in PowerFactory , eg.

when running a frequency scan or when adjusting the model for an electromagnetic transient

simulation.

Finally, the reader should notice that this cable system type supports the definition of the cable

in terms of geometrical data; is the cable to be defined in terms of electrical data, the reader is

referred to [3] where the general line/cable element (ElmLne) is used instead.

2.1

The single core cable type TypCab supports up to three tubular conducting layers in coaxial

arrangement, i.e. core, sheath and armour, separated by three insulating layers. Figure 2.1

shows the typical layout of a HV AC single core cable. The model also supports the definition

of a core-outer and insulation-outer semiconducting layer.

Figure 2.1: Cross section of a single core cable including the core, sheath and armour.

Section A shows the complete list of input parameters including units, range and the symbol

used in this document. Hover the mouse pointer over the input parameters in the edit dialog of

TypCab to display the name of the input parameter. This is the name listed in the first column of

the table.

The input data in the edit dialog of TypCab is organized according to layers, i.e. the conducting,

insulation and semiconducting layers, if available. Use TypCab to enter all the geometrical data

defining the cross section of the single core cable and the properties of all constitutive materials.

2.1.1

To account for the compacting ratio of the cross section of the conducting layers (stranded

conductors, shaped compact, etc.) the users can enter a filling factor Cf. This filling factor is

related with the dc resistance of the cable by the following equation:

1

10

(r2 q 2 ) Cf

where r and q are the outer and inner radius of the conducting layer respectively.

The user chooses the input parameter between the filling factor in % or the DC resistance in

ohm/km by clicking the selection arrow

note that one of them is always greyed out indicating

its dependency on the other one.

2.1.2

Temperature coefficient

If the temperature dependency of line/cables option is enabled in the load flow calculation, the

resistivity of the conducting layers is adjusted by the following equation

T = 20 C [1 + (T 20)]

where is the temperature coefficient of resistance. The resistivities and temperature coefficient of common metals are given in Table 2.1 for reference.

Table 2.1: Resistivities and temperature coefficient of resistance

Material

Aluminium

Cooper, hard drawn

Cooper, annealed

Brass

Iron

Silver

Steel

2.2

Resistivity at 20

C [ cm]

DC Current Input

2.83

1.77

6.4 - 8.4

10

1.59

12 - 88

Temperature coefficient

at 20 C [1/ C]

p.u.

0,0039

0.00382

0.0020

0.0050

0.0038

0.001 - 0.005

The cable system type TypCabsys is used to complete the definition of a cable system. It

defines the coupling between phases, i.e. the coupling between the single core cables in a

multiphase/multi-circuit cable system. As in general the cables are laid close together this coupling has to be taken into account.

Among other factors, this coupling depends on how the cables are laid. The PowerFactory

model supports following two options:

Parallel single-core cables: the cables are grounded direct into ground. This is normally

the case of underground HV AC cables.

Pipe-Type cables: the cables are drawn into a pipe, usually made of steel, and the pipe

laid into ground. This is in widespread use in submarine cables.

The input parameter Buried: Direct in ground/ in Pipe lets the user choose between both

models. In case of pipe-type cables additionally data is required for the pipe. The complete list

of input parameters is shown in Table A.2 in section A.

The cable system type also defines the bonding conditions of the sheath and armours when

available.

The calculation of the impedance and admittance of the cable is based on the cable constants

equations formulated by [2] and underlies the following assumptions:

Cable System (ElmCabsys, TypCabsys)

Coaxial arrangement of the conducting and insulating layers inside the single core cable

Single core cables inside the pipe are concentric with respect to the pipe

Each conducting layer of the cable has constant permeability. Furthermore, conducting

layers are non-magnetic so that the cable model does not account for current-dependent

saturation effects

Displacement currents and dielectric losses of the insulating layers are negligible.

A general formulation of the series impedance and shunt admittance of the cable is given by:

[U ] = [Z] [I]

x

(1)

[I] = [Y ] [U ]

x

(2)

where [U ] and [I] are the voltage and currents vectors at a distance x along the cable.

The dimension of [Z] and [Y ] depends on the total number of cables in the system and the total

number of layers per single core cable. For instance in a three phase cable system with three

conducting layers per single core cable (core, sheath and armour) the dimension of the [Z] (i.e.

[Y ]) results 9 (=3 phases x 1 single core cable/phase x 3 conducting layers/cable).

[Z] and [Y ] are symmetric square matrices that can be expressed in the following terms:

[Z] = [Z I ] + [Z P ] + [Z C ] + [Z 0 ]

(3)

[Y ] = s [P ]1

[P ] = [PI ] + [PP ] + [PC ] + [P0 ]

(4)

where [P ] is a potential coefficient matrix and the Laplaces operator (complex frequency).

The matrices with subscript I account for the internal impedance and admittance respectively

and matrices with subscript O for the earth or air return path. In case if a pipe enclosure cable

the matrices with subscript C and P define the impedance and admittance of the pipe; these

matrices becoming zero if the cable is laid directly underground. In the next sub-chapters we will

discuss the physical meaning of these sub-matrices and the formulas used to calculate them.

Following naming convention is used in this document:

Subscript I accounts for the internal impedance, subscript O for the earth or air return path

and subscripts C and P for the pipe enclosure if available.

Subscripts c,s and a (lower case) are used for core, sheath and armour in cable layer

equations.

Subscripts i,j and k refer to the cables in the system (typically three cables in a three

phase cable system).

Cable System (ElmCabsys, TypCabsys)

3.1

Internal Impedance

The internal impedance is associated to the longitudinal voltage drop due to the magnetic field

inside the single core cable and it is given by the following equation:

U

Z

c cc

U s = Z sc

x

Ua

Z ac

Z cs

Z ss

Z as

Z ca

Ic

Ic

Z sa I s = [ZI ] I s

Ia

Ia

Z aa

(5)

where the layer internal impedances in 5 are defined in terms of coaxial loop impedances as

follow:

Z cc = Z 11 + 2 Z 12 + Z 22 + 2 Z 23 + Z 33

Z cs = Z sc = Z 12 + Z 22 + 2 Z 23 + Z 33

Z ca = Z ac = Z sa = Z as = Z 23 + Z 33

Z ss = Z 22 + 2 Z 23 + Z 33

Z aa = Z 33

(6)

The impedances with subscript 1,2 and 3 are referred as loop impedances. For instance Z 11 is

the impedance of the inner most loop of concentric tubular conductors and therefore that of the

loop core-sheath.

Z 22 = Z s,OU T + Z s/a,IN S + Z a,IN

Z 33 = Z a,OU T + Z a,IN S

Z 12 = Z 21 = Z s,M U T U AL

Z 23 = Z 32 = Z a,M U T U AL

(7)

The impedance of the tubular conductors are found with the modified Bessel functions with tube

= c, s and a respectively:

m

{I0 (mq) K1 (mr) + K0 (mq) I1 (mr)}

2qrD

m

=

{I0 (mr) K1 (mq) + K0 (mr) I1 (mq)}

2qrD

Z tube,M U T U AL =

2qrD

Z tube,IN =

Z tube,OU T

(8)

where

s

m=

j

1

=

(9)

(10)

The parameter m is the reciprocal of the depth of penetration p and are both frequency-dependent

complex values.

Z IN S accounts for the longitudinal voltage drop due to the magnetic filed in the insulating layers.

For the general case of non-concentric tubular conductors it results:

Z IN S

0

= j

ln

2

"

2 #)

qk

di

1

ri

qk

(11)

Z IN S

3.2

0

qk

= j

ln

2

ri

Internal Admittance

The internal admittance matrix is associated to the capacitive coupling and dielectric losses due

to the insulating layers within the single core cable. The capacitance and dielectric losses of

each insulating layers is given by:

1

20 r

=

ln(r/q)

Pi

Gi = Ci tg()

Ci =

(12)

Assuming that the single core cable consist of three layers, hence the insulation between core

and sheath, sheath and armour and outermost insulating layer of the single core cable, it follows:

Pc + Ps + Pa

[PI ] = Ps + Pa

Pa

[CI ] =

Ps + Pa

Ps + Pa

Pa

1

[PI ]

[Y I ] = [GI ] + j[CI ]

3.3

Pa

Pa

Pa

(13)

(14)

(15)

Semiconducting Layers

The model supports the definition of a semiconducting layer on the conductors outer surface

and the insulations outer surface. These semiconducting layers mainly influence the admittance

of the insulation. Their effect on the impedance of the conductor is rather minor and therefore

not considered by the moment in the model.

The capacitance and conductance of the tubular semiconducting layer is given by the following

equations:

CSC = 20 rSC

GSC =

1

ln(rSC /qSC )

2

1

SC ln(rSC /qSC )

where rSC and qSC are the outer and inner radius of the tubular semiconducting layer respectively, rSC the relative permittivity and SC the resistivity.

Hence the equivalent admittance of the insulation under consideration of the semiconducting

layers is calculated in the following form:

1

GiIns

1

1

+

GIL

GSC

1

1

1

=

+

CiIns

CIL

CSC

3.4

3.4.1

Impedance

Lets assume being i, j, k three parallel single core cables each of them consisting of core,

sheath and armour. Equation (1) can be expanded as:

[Z I,ii ]

[Z 0,ii ] [Z 0,ij ] [Z 0,ik ]

[0]

[0]

[I i ]

[U ]

..

..

i

[U j ] =

[Z I,jj ]

[0]

[Z 0,jj ] [Z 0,jk ]

.

+ .

[I j ]

.

.

[U k ]

[I k ]

..

..

[Z I,kk ]

[Z 0,kk ]

(16)

where [Z 0,s ] and [Z 0,m ] are the self and mutual earth-return impedance matrices of the cable

system given as:

Z e,s

[Z 0,s ] = Z e,s

Z e,s

Z e,s

Z e,s

Z e,s

Z e,s

Z e,s ...s = jj, kk, ll

Z e,s

(17)

Z e,m

[Z 0,m ] = Z e,m

Z e,m

Z e,m

Z e,m

Z e,m

Z e,m

Z e,m ...m = jk, kl, lj

Z e,m

(18)

Z e,m is the mutual earth-return impedance between two parallel cables i, j given by:

Z e,jk = j

0

[K0 (m dik ) K0 (m Dik )] + (Pik + jQik )

(19)

and Pik + jQik the terms of the Carsons serie (see [1] for further reference).

Z e,s is the self earth-return impedance of the single core cable. Its value is obtained from (19)

by replacing d with R, D with 2h and h+y with 2h.

3.4.2

Admittance

As the cable is directly laid underground and the earth surrounding the cable being assumed

an equipotential surface, there is no capacitive coupling effect among the single core cables. It

follows then that [P 0 ] = in equation 4 and therefore the admittance matrix of the cable results:

[PI,i ]

0

0

[PI,j ]

0

[P ] = [PI ] = 0

0

0

[PI,k ]

[Y ] = [P ]1

[I i ]

[U i ]

[I j ] = [Y ] [U j ]

x

[I k ]

[U k ]

(20)

(21)

3.5

3.5.1

Impedance

Assuming again a system of three single core cables i, j, k each of them consisting of core,

sheath and armour, equation (3) can be expanded as follows for the case of a pipe type cable:

10

[Z I,ii ]

[U i ]

..

[U j ] =

..

x [U k ]

.

[U p ]

[Z P,ii ]

..

.

+

...

0

[Z C1 ]

..

.

+

...

[0]

[0]

[Z I,jj ]

[0]

[Z I,kk ]

0

[Z P,ij ]

[Z P,ik ]

[Z P,jj ]

[Z P,jk ]

[Z P,kk ]

0

[Z C1 ]

0

0

0

0

[Z C1 ] Z C2

[Z C1 ] Z C2

[Z C1 ] Z C2

Z C2

Z C2

Z C2 Z C3

[Z 0 ] [Z 0 ] [Z 0 ] Z 0

[I i ]

..

[Z 0 ] [Z 0 ] Z 0

[I j ]

+

.

[I k ]

..

[Z 0 ] Z 0

Ip

Z0

Z0

Z0 Z0

[Z C1 ]

(22)

[Z P ] defines the self and mutual impedances of the pipe-return path of the single core cables.

A submatrix is given by:

Z P,ij

[Z P,ij ] = Z P,ij

Z P,ij

Z P,ij

Z P,ij

Z P,ij

Z P,ij

Z P,ij

Z P,ij

(23)

Self impedance of the with pipe-return path for the i-th cable (i=j):

Z P,ii

0

= j

2

"

X

r K0 (mq)

+

mqK1 (mq) n=1

di

q

2n

2r Kn (mq)

nr Kn (mq) mqKn0 (mq)

#

(24)

Mutual impedance between the i-th and the j-th cables with common pipe-return path (16=j):

Z P,ij

0

K0 (mq)

q

= j

ln 2 2

+ r mqK

1 (mq)

di +dj 2di dj cos ij

2

)

n

X di dj

1

2r Kn (mq)

cos (nij )

+

q2

nr Kn (mq) mqKn0 (mq) n

n=1

(25)

[Z C ] is the connection impedance matrix between the pipe inner and outer surfaces. The submatrix [Z C1 ], [Z C2 ] and [Z C3 ] are given by:

Z C1

[Z C1 ] = Z C1

Z C1

Cable System (ElmCabsys, TypCabsys)

Z C1

Z C1

Z C1

Z C1

Z C1

Z C1

(26)

11

where Z C1 , Z C2 and Z C3 are calculated using equations (8) to (11) for the impedance of tubular

conductors and tube being the pipe as follows:

Z C2 = Z pipe,OU T + Z pipe,IN S Z pipe,M U T U AL

Z C3 = Z pipe,OU T + Z pipe,IN S

(27)

Finally, [Z 0 ] represent the impedance of the earth return-path of the pipe. The diagonal submatrix [Z 0 ] is given by:

Z0

[Z 0 ] = Z 0

Z0

Z0

Z 0

Z0

Z0

Z0

Z0

(28)

where Z 0 is the self earth return impedance of the pipe according to equation (19).

3.5.2

Admittance

The admittance follows the general definition in terms of the potential coefficient matrix as follows:

[PI,ii ]

..

[P ] =

..

[PP,ii ]

..

.

+

...

0

[PC ]

..

.

+

.

..

PC

[0]

[0]

[PI,kk ] 0

0

0

0

[PP,ij ] [PP,ik ] 0

[PP,jj ] [PP,jk ] 0

[PP,kk ] 0

0

0

0

[PC ] [PC ] PC

[PC ] [PC ] PC

[PC ] PC

PC

PC PC

[PI,jj ]

[0]

(29)

where

[GI,i ]

0

[Y ] =

0

0

0

[GI,j ]

0

0

0

0

0

0

+ j ([P ])1

[GI,k ] 0

0

0

(30)

12

[I i ]

[U i ]

[I j ] = [Y ] [U j ]

[U k ]

x [I k ]

Ip

Up

(31)

Note in equation (30) that dielectric losses of the pipe are not being considered.

Each of the [PI,ii ] submatrices of [PI ] is the internal potential coefficient matrix of the single

core cable according to (20).

[PP ] is the pipe internal potential coefficient matrix and defines the capacitive coupling between

the outermost layer of the single core cables and the pipe and hence the dielectric medium

between the cables and the pipe. Each of the submatrices [PP,ij ] of [PP ] is a matrix with equal

elements given in the following form:

PP,ij

[PP,ij ] = PP,ij

PP,ij

PP,ij

PP,ij

PP,ij

PP,ij

PP,ij

PP,ij

(32)

with

1

ln

Pii =

20 r

"

2 #)

q

di

1

Ri

q

n

X

d

d

1

q

1

i j

Pij =

ln q

cos

ij

20 r

n

q2

d2i + d2j 2di dj cos ij

n=1

(33)

(34)

[PC ] is the potential coefficient matrix between the pipe inner and outer surfaces and hence the

capacitance due to the dielectric layer surrounding the pipe. A submatrix and the last column

and row elements are given by:

PC

[PC ] = PC

PC

PC =

PC

PC

PC

1

ln

20 r

PC

PC

PC

r

q

(35)

(36)

It is assumed in the model that the pipe is underground. Therefore the outer surface of the

insulating layer surrounding the pipe is in direct contact with the earth (equipotential surface

with U=0). Hence no additional capacitive effect exists between the insulating layer of the pipe

and ground.

13

Parameter Definitions

Parameter Definitions

Table A.1: Input parameter of the single core cable type (TypCab)

Parameter

loc name

uline

typCon

diaCon

diaTube

cHasEl

rho

my

cThEl

Cf

rpha

alpha

cHasIns

tand

epsr

thIns

cHasSc

rhoSc

mySc

epsrSc

thSc

tmax

rtemp

Ithr

diaCab

Description

Name

Rated voltage

Shape of the core

Outer diameter of the core

Inner diameter of the core

Exists: use this flag to enable/disable the conducting layers

Resistivity (20 C) of the conducting layers

Relative Permeability of the conducting layers

Thickness of the conducting layers

Filling factor of the conducting

layers

DC-Resistance (20 C) of the

conducting layers

Temperature coefficient of the

conducting layers

Exists: use this flag to enable/disable the corresponding

insulation layers

Dielectric Loss Factor of the insulating layer, i.e. tg of the insulation. Set this value to zero to

neglect insulation losses.

Relative Permittivity of the insulating layer

Thickness of the insulating layer

Exists: use this flag to enable/disable the semiconducting

layers

Resistivity of the semiconducting

layer

Relative permeability of the

semiconducting layer

Relative permittivity of the semiconducting layer

Thickness of the semiconducting

layer

Max. Operational Temperature

Max. End Temperature

Rated Short-Time (1s) Current

Overall Cable Diameter

Unit

Range

Default

Symbol

kV

x0

mm

mm

x0

x0

0

Compact

5

0

1

1.7241

cm

x>0

mm

r

q

2.5

x > 0 and

x 100

Cf

0.8780769 Rdc

/km

x0

1/K

100

0.00393

0.02

3

mm

cm

x0

1

0

x>0

1000000

1

r,SC

r,SC

mm

x0

x0

x>0

x0

80

80

0

15

C

C

kA

mm

14

Parameter Definitions

Parameter

loc name

frnom

rhoEarth

cGearth

iopt bur

nlcir

pcab c

nphas

dInom

red

bond

xy c

dep pipe

rad pipe

th pipe

th ins

rho pipe

my pipe

epsr fil

epsr ins

Description

Name

Nom. Frequency

Resistivity of the earth return

path

Conductivity of the earth return

path = inverse of the earth resistivity.

To specify is the cable is laid

direct in ground (parallel single

core cables) or in a pipe (pipetype cable)

Number of circuits defining the

cable system

Single core cable type: select

from the library the single core

cable type (TypCab) of each circuit

Number of phases

Rated current

Reduced: assert this option to

automatically bond the sheaths

and armours of the cable. This

operation will reduced the Z/Y

matrices of the cable to nphas x

nphas.

Assert this option to cross bond

the sheaths

Coordinate of Line Circuits: enter

the coordinates of the single core

cables in the cable systems. Cables buried direct underground

have positive Y-distances with

respect to the ground surface.

For pipe type cables, X- and Ycoordinates are referred to the

center of the pipe.

Depth of the center of the

pipe (parameter only required for

pipe-type cables).

Outer Radius of the pipe

Thickness of the pipe

Thickness of the pipe outer insulation

Resistivity of the pipe

Relative permeability of the pipe

Relative permittivity of the filling

material (insulating material between the single core cables and

the pipe)

Relative permittivity of the pipe

outer cover. Se

Unit

Range

Default

Hz

m

x>0

50

100

Symbol

100

S/cm

gnd

x1

TypCab

3

1

0

kA

0

m

x0

m

mm

mm

x>0

x0

x>0

0.1

0

1

cm

x>0

x>0

x>0

20

1

1

x>0

15

Calculation Results

Calculation Results

The cable constants function in stand-alone mode can be started from the Calculate button

on the edit dialog of the cable system type TypCabsys. Then PowerFactory prints the resulting

impedance and admittance matrices to the output windows.

It follows an extract of the output window for a 132 kV, 3-phase cable system, 630 mm2 , directly

underground. The first two matrices correspond to the unreduced layer impedances and admittances in phase components; cores first, followed by sheaths. Cables are in the same order as

the input. Rows follow real and imaginary part.

16

Calculation Results

The next two matrices are the impedances and admittances in symmetrical components in 01-2 sequence. Idem before, cores come first followed by the sheaths. Cables are in the same

order as the input. Rows follow real and imaginary part.

17

Calculation Results

18

References

References

[2] A. Ametani. A General Formulation of Impedance and Admittance of Cables. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS-99(3), May 1980.

[3] B. K. Bose. Modern Power Electronics and AC Drivers. Prentice Hall of India, 1 edition,

2008.

19

List of Figures

List of Figures

2.1 Cross section of a single core cable including the core, sheath and armour. . . .

20

List of Tables

List of Tables

2.1 Resistivities and temperature coefficient of resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

15

21

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