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CHAPTER 31F [For SLC]

MARINE OIL TERMINALS


DIVISION 1
SECTION 3101F [SLC] - INTRODUCTION
3101F.1 General. The Lempert-Keene-Seastrand oil
spill prevention and response act of 1990 (act), as
amended, authorized the California State Lands
Commission (SLC) to regulate marine oil terminals
(MOTS) in order to protect public health, safety, and
the environment. The authority for this regulation is
contained in Sections 8755 and 8756 of the California
Public Resources Code. This act defines oil as any
kind of petroleum, liquid hydrocarbons, or petroleum
products or any fraction or residues thereof, including
but not limited to, crude oil, bunker fuel, gasoline,
diesel fuel, aviation fuel, oil sludge, oil refuse, oil
mixed with waste, and liquid distillates from
unprocessed natural gas. The provisions of this
Chapter regulate marine oil terminals as defined
under this act.
3101F.2 Purpose. The purpose of this Code is to
establish minimum engineering, inspection and
maintenance criteria for MOTs in order to prevent oil
spills and to protect public health, safety and the
environment.
This Code does not, in general,
address
operational
requirements.
Relevant
provisions from existing codes, industry standards,
recommended practices, regulations and guidelines
have been incorporated directly or through reference,
as part of this Code.
Where there are differing requirements between this
Code and/or references cited herein, the choice of
application shall be subject to Division approval.
In special circumstances where certain requirements
of these standards cannot be met, alternatives that
provide an equal or better protection of the public
health, safety and the environment shall be subject to
Division approval.
3101F.3 Applicability.
The provisions of this
Chapter are applicable to the evaluation of existing
MOTs and design of new MOTs in California. Each
provision is classified as New (N), Existing (E), or
Both (N/E) and shall be applied accordingly. If no
classification is indicated, the classification shall be
considered to be (N/E).
Existing (E) requirements apply to MOTs that are in
operation on the date this Code is adopted. For these
MOTs, equivalent or in-kind replacement of existing
equipment, short pipeline sections, or minor
modification of existing components shall also be
subject to the existing (E) requirements.
New (N) requirements apply to:

1. A MOT or berthing system (subsection 3102F.1.3)


that commences or recommences operation with a
new or modified operations manual after adoption of
this Code.

2. Addition of new structural components or systems


at an existing MOT that are structurally independent
of existing components or systems
3. Addition of new (non-replacement) equipment,
piping, pipelines, components or systems to an
existing MOT
4. Major repairs or substantially modified in-place
systems
5. Any
associated
modifications

major

installations

or

3101F.4 Overview. This Code ensures that a MOT


can be safely operated within its inherent structural
and equipment-related constraints
Section 3102F defines minimum requirements for
audit, inspection and evaluation of the structural,
electrical and mechanical systems on a prescribed
periodic basis, or following a significant damagecausing event.
Section 3103F, 3104F and 3107F provide criteria for
structural loading, deformation and performancebased evaluation considering earthquake, wind,
wave, current, seiche and tsunami effects.
Section 3105F provides requirements for the safe
mooring and berthing of tank vessels and barges.
Section
3106F
describes
requirements
for
geotechnical hazards and foundation analyses,
including consideration of slope stability and soil
failure.
Section 3108F provides requirements for fire
prevention, detection and suppression including
appropriate water and foam volumes.
Sections 3109F through 31011F provide requirements
for piping, mechanical and electrical equipment.
English units are prescribed herein; however, many of
the units in the references are in System International
(SI).
3101F.5 Risk Reduction Strategies. Risk reduction
strategies, such as pipeline segmentation devices,

system flexibility and spill containment devices may


be used to reduce the size of a potential oil spill.
Such strategies may reduce the MOT risk
classification as determined from Table 31F-4-1.
3101F.6 Review Requirements.
3101F.6.1 Quality Assurance.
All audits,
inspections, engineering analyses or design shall be
reviewed by a professional having the similar or
higher qualifications as the person who performed the
work, to ensure quality assurance. This review may
be performed in-house.
Peer review is required for nonlinear dynamic
structural analyses and alternative lateral force
procedures not prescribed herein. The peer review
may be from an independent internal or external
source. The peer reviewer shall be a California
registered civil or structural engineer.
3101F.6.2 Division Review. The following will be
subject to review and approval by the Division or its
designated representative(s) for compliance with this
Code:
1.

Any audit, inspection, analysis or evaluation of


existing MOTs.

2.

Any significant change, modification or re-design


of a structural, mooring, fire, piping/pipelines,
mechanical or electrical system at an existing
MOT, prior to use or reuse.

3.

Engineering analysis and design for any new


MOT prior to construction.

4.

Construction
inspection
team
construction inspection report(s).

and

the

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 2

SECTION 3102F AUDIT AND INSPECTION


3102F.1 General.
3102F.1.1 Purpose. Section 3102F defines minimum
requirements for audit, inspection, and evaluation of the
structural, mechanical and electrical components and
systems.
3102F.1.2 Audit and Inspections Types. The audit
and inspections described in this Chapter (31F) and 2
CCR 2320 (a) and (b) [2.1] are:
1.
2.
3.

Annual Inspection
Audit
Post-Event Inspection

Each has a distinct purpose and is conducted either at a


defined interval (see Tables 31F-2-1 and 31F-2-2), as a
result of a potentially damaging event or a significant
change in operations. In the time between audits and
inspections, operators are expected to conduct periodic
walk-down examinations of the MOT to detect potentially
unsafe conditions.
3102F.1.3 Berthing Systems. For the purpose of
assigning structural ratings and documenting the
condition of mechanical and electrical systems, an MOT
shall be divided into independent "berthing systems." A
berthing system consists of the wharf and supporting
structure, mechanical and electrical components that
serve the berth and the entire pipeline from the loading
arm or manifold to the last valve before the pipeline
enters a tank storage area.
For example, a MOT consisting of wharves with three
berths adjacent to the shoreline could contain three
independent berthing systems if the piping does not
route through adjacent berths. Therefore, a significant
defect that would restrict the operation of one berth
would have no impact on the other two berths.
Conversely, if a T-head Pier, with multiple berths sharing
a trestle that supports all piping to the shoreline, had a
significant deficiency on the common trestle, the
operation of all berths could be adversely impacted.
This configuration is classified as a single berthing
system.
The physical boundaries of a berthing system may
exclude unused sections of a structure. Excluded
sections must be physically isolated from the berthing
system. Expansion joints may provide this isolation.

3102F.1.4 Records. All MOTs shall have records


reflecting current, as-built conditions for all berthing
systems. Records shall include, but not be limited to
modifications
and/or
replacement
of
structural
components, electrical or mechanical equipment or
relevant operational changes, new construction including
design drawings, calculations, engineering analyses, soil
borings, equipment manuals, specifications, shop
drawings, technical and maintenance manuals and
documents.
Chronological records and reports of Annual Inspections,
Audits and Post-Event Inspections and documentation of
equipment or structural changes shall be maintained.
Records shall be indexed and be readily accessible to the
Division (see 2 CCR Section 2320 (c) (2)) [2.1].
3102F.1.5
Baseline Inspection.
If as-built or
subsequent modification drawings are not available,
incomplete, or inaccurate, the Audit must include a
Baseline Inspection to gather data in sufficient detail to
adequately evaluate the MOT.
The level of detail required shall be such that structural
member sizes, connection and reinforcing details are
documented, if required in the structural analysis. In
addition, the strength and/or ductility characteristics of
construction materials shall be determined, as appropriate.
Non-destructive testing, partially destructive testing and/or
laboratory testing methods may be used.
All fire, piping, mechanical and electrical systems shall be
documented as to location, capacity, operating limits, and
physical conditions.
3102F.2 Annual Inspection. The Annual Inspection
required by 2 CCR 2320 (a)(1) [2.1], may include an
engineering examination of the topside and underside
areas of the dock, including the splash zone. The Division
shall perform the inspection, with cooperation from the
owner/operator. Observations will be recorded and a
report of violations and deficiencies shall be provided to
the operator.
Subject to operating procedures, a boat shall be provided
to facilitate the inspection of the dock undersides and piles
down to the splash zone. If a boat is not available or the
under dock inspection cannot be performed by the
Division during the Annual Inspection, the MOT operator
shall carry out or cause to be carried out, such an
inspection. The operator will then provide the Division
with a report detailing the examination results including
photographs, videos and sketches as necessary to
accurately depict the state of the underside of the dock.

3102F.3 Audit.

Remedial Action Priorities (RAP) shall be assigned for


component
deficiencies
(Table
31F-2-6).
Recommendations for remediation and/or upgrading shall
be prescribed as necessary.

3102F.3.1 Objective. The objective of the Audit is to


review structural, mechanical and electrical systems on
a prescribed periodic basis to verify that each berthing
system is fit for its specific defined purpose. The Audit
includes both above water and underwater inspections,
as well as engineering analyses.

An Audit is not considered complete until the Audit Report


is received by the Division.
3102F.3.3 Schedule.

3102F.3.2 Overview. The Initial Audit shall include


above water and underwater structural inspections,
mooring, berthing and structural evaluations, and
electrical/mechanical systems evaluation. The audit is
performed by a multi-disciplinary team of engineers,
qualified inspectors and may include Division
representatives.

3102F.3.3.1 Initial Audit. Table 31F-2-1 provides the


deadlines for the submission of the Initial Audit report.
The MOT classification in Table 31F-2-1 is determined
from the higher assigned risk classification obtained from
Table 31F- 4-1.

The above water inspection involves an examination of


all structural, mechanical and electrical components
above the waterline. Structural defects and their severity
shall be documented, but the exact size and location of
each deficiency is typically not required.

TABLE 31F- 2-1


INITIAL AUDIT REPORT SUBMISSION DEADLINE
FOR EXISTING BERTHING SYSTEMS

Representative underwater sampling may be acceptable


with Division approval, for cases of limited visibility,
heavy marine growth, restricted inspection times
because of environmental factors (currents, water
temperatures, etc.) or a very large number of piles [2.2].

Risk Classification1

Submission Deadline2

High

30 Months

Medium
Low

48 Months
60 Months

1
2

As defined in Tables 31F-4-1 and 31F-5-1


From the effective date of this Chapter (31F)

A global Condition Assessment Rating (CAR) shall be


assigned to above and underwater structural systems
(Table 31F-2-5).

TABLE 31F - 2- 2
MAXIMUM INTERVAL BETWEEN UNDERWATER AUDIT INSPECTIONS (YEARS)1
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

Condition
Rating From
Previous
Inspection

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Unwrapped Timber or Unprotected


Steel (no coating or cathodic
4
protection)
3
2
Aggressive
Benign
Environment
Environment

Channel Bottom or Mudline


4
Scour

Concrete, Wrapped Timber,


Protected Steel or Composite
4
Materials (FRP, plastic, etc.)
2

Benign
Environment

Aggressive
Environment

Benign
Environment

Aggressive
Environment

6
(Good)

5
(Satisfactory)

4
(Fair)

3
(Poor)

2
(Serious)

1
(Critical)

N/A5

N/A5

N/A5

N/A5

N/A5

N/A5

The maximum interval between Underwater Audit Inspections shall be reduced as appropriate based on the extent of deterioration observed on a
structure, the rate of further anticipated deterioration, or other factors.
Benign environments include fresh water and maximum current velocities less than 1.5 knots for the majority of the days in a calendar year
Aggressive environments include brackish or salt water, polluted water, or waters with current velocities greater than 1.5 knots for the majority of the days
in the calendar year.
For most structures, two maximum intervals will be shown in this table, one for the assessment of construction material (timber, concrete, steel, etc) and
one for scour (last 2 columns). The shorter interval of the two should dictate the maximum interval used.
MOTs rated Critical will not be operational; and Emergency Action shall be required in accordance with Table 31F-2-7.

For a new MOT berthing system, the Initial Audit shall be


performed within three years of commencement of
operations.
3102F.3.3.2 Subsequent Audits. An above water Audit
of structural, mechanical and electrical systems shall be
completed at a maximum interval of 3 years. This interval
may be reduced, based on the recommendation of the
Audit Team Leader, and with the approval of the Division,
depending on the extent and rate of deterioration or other
factors.
The maximum interval for underwater Audits is
dependent upon the condition of the facility, the
construction material type and/or the environment at the
mudline, as shown in Table 31F-2-2.
If there are no changes in the defined purpose (see
subsection 3102F.3.6.1) of the berthing system, then
analyses from previous Audits may be referenced.
However, if there is a significant change in a berthing
system, or when deterioration or damage must be
considered, a new analysis may be required.
The Division may require an Audit to justify changes in
the use of a berthing system. An example of such change
would be in the berthing and mooring configuration of
larger or smaller vessels relative to dolphin and fender
spacing, and potential resultant modification to
operational environmental limitations (e.g. wind speed).
Subsequent audits of the above water and underwater
structures and mechanical and electrical systems may or
may not be performed concurrently, depending upon the
required inspection intervals based on the prior audit
report.
3102F.3.4 Audit Team
3102F.3.4.1 Project Manager. The Audit shall be
conducted by a multi-disciplinary team under the direction
of a Project Manager representing the MOT. The Project
Manager shall have specific knowledge of the MOT and
may serve other roles on the Audit Team.
3102F.3.4.2 Audit Team Leader. The Audit Team
Leader shall lead the on-site audit team and shall be
responsible for directing field activities, including the
inspection of all structural, mechanical and electrical
systems. The Team Leader shall be a California
registered civil or structural engineer and may serve other
roles on the audit team.
3102F.3.4.3
Structural Inspection Team.
The
structural inspection shall be conducted under the
direction of a registered civil or structural engineer.
All members of the structural inspection team shall be
graduates of a 4-year civil/structural engineering, or
closely related (ocean/coastal) engineering curriculum,
and shall have been certified as an Engineer-in-Training;
or shall be technicians who have completed a course of

study in structural inspections. The minimum acceptable


course in structural inspections shall include 80 hours of
instruction specifically related to structural inspection,
followed by successful completion of a comprehensive
examination. An example of an acceptable course is the
U.S. Department of Transportations Safety Inspection of
In-Service Bridges. Certification as a Level IV Bridge
Inspector by the National Institute of Certification in
Engineering Technologies (NICET) shall also be
acceptable [2.3].
For underwater inspections, the registered civil or
structural engineer directing the underwater structural
inspection shall also be a commercially trained diver or
equivalent and shall actively participate in the inspection,
by personally conducting a minimum of 25 percent of the
underwater examination [2.3].
Each underwater team member shall also be a
commercially trained diver, or equivalent.
Divers
performing manual tasks, such as cleaning or supporting
the diving operation, but not conducting or reporting on
inspections may have lesser technical qualifications [2.3].
3102F.3.4.4 Seismic Structural Analyst. A California
registered civil or structural engineer shall perform the
seismic structural evaluation required for the Audit.
3102F.3.4.5 Electrical Inspection Team. A registered
electrical engineer shall direct the on-site team
performing the inspection and evaluation of electrical
components and systems.
3102F.3.4.6
Mechanical Inspection Team.
A
registered engineer shall direct the on-site team
performing the inspection of pipeline, mechanical and fire
systems.
3102F.3.4.7 Divisional Representation. The Division
representative(s) may participate in any Audit as
observer(s) and may provide guidance.
3102F.3.5 Scope of Inspection
3102F.3.5.1 Above Water Structural Inspection. The
above water inspection shall include all accessible
components above +3 ft MLLW. Accessible components
shall be defined as those components above and below
deck that are reachable without the need for excavation
or extensive removal of materials that may impair visual
inspection. The above water inspection shall include but
not be limited to the following:
1. Piles
2. Pile caps
3. Beams
4. Deck soffit
5. Bracing
6. Retaining walls and Bulkheads
7. Connections

TABLE 31F-2-3
UNDERWATER INSPECTION LEVELS OF EFFORT [2.3]
Level

Purpose

Extensive corrosion, holes

II

III

General visual/tactile
inspection to confirm asbuilt condition and detect
severe damage

To detect surface defects


normally obscured by
marine growth

To detect hidden or
interior damage, evaluate
loss of cross-sectional
area, or evaluate material
homogeneity

Detectable Defects
Concrete
Timber

Steel
Severe mechanical
damage

Major spalling and


cracking
Severe reinforcement
corrosion

Permanent deformation

Broken piles and


bracings

Broken piles

Broken piles

Severe abrasion or
marine borer attack

Moderate mechanical
damage

Surface cracking and


spalling

External pile damage due


to marine borers

Corrosion pitting and loss


of section

Rust staining

Splintered piles

Exposed reinforcing steel


and/or prestressing
strands

Loss of bolts and


fasteners

Thickness of material

Location of reinforcing
steel

Electrical potentials for


cathodic protection

Beginning of corrosion of
reinforcing steel

Internal damage due to


marine borers (internal
voids)

Internal voids

Composite

Major loss of section

Major cracking or
mechanical damage
Cracking
Delamination
Material degradation

Rot or insect infestation


N/A

Decrease in material
strength

Change in material
strength

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Seawalls
Slope protection
Deck topsides and curbing
Expansion joints
Fender system components
Dolphins and deadmen
Mooring points and hardware
Navigation aids
Platforms, ladders, stairs, handrails and gangways
Backfill (sinkholes/differential settlement)

3102F.3.5.2 Underwater Structural Inspection. The


underwater inspection shall include all accessible
components from +3 ft MLLW to the mudline, including
the slope and slope protection, in areas immediately
surrounding the MOT. The water depth at the berth(s)
shall be evaluated, verifying the maximum or loaded draft
specified in the MOTs Operations Manual (2 CCR 2385
(d)) [2.1].
The underwater structural inspection shall include the
Level I, II, and III inspection efforts, as shown in Tables
31F-2-3 and 31F-2-4. The underwater inspection levels of
effort are described below, per [2.3]:
Level I Includes a close visual examination, or a tactile
examination using large sweeping motions of the hands
where visibility is limited. Although the Level I effort is
often referred to as a Swim-By inspection, it must be
detailed enough to detect obvious major damage or

deterioration due to overstress or other severe


deterioration. It should confirm the continuity of the full
length of all members and detect undermining or
exposure of normally buried elements. A Level I effort
may also include limited probing of the substructure and
adjacent channel bottom.
Level II A detailed inspection which requires marine
growth removal from a representative sampling of
components within the structure. For piles, a 12-inch
high band should be cleaned at designated locations,
generally near the low waterline, at the mudline, and
midway between the low waterline and the mudline. On a
rectangular pile, the marine growth removal should
include at least three sides; on an octagon pile, at least
six sides; on a round pile, at least three-fourths of the
perimeter. On large diameter piles, 3 ft or greater, marine
growth removal should be effected on 1 ft by 1 ft areas at
four locations approximately equally spaced around the
perimeter, at each elevation. On large solid faced
elements such as retaining structures, marine growth
removal should be effected on 1 ft by 1 ft areas at the
three specified elevations. The inspection should also
focus on typical areas of weakness, such as attachment
points and welds. The Level II effort is intended to detect
and identify damaged and deteriorated areas that may be
hidden by surface biofouling. The thoroughness of
marine growth removal should be governed by what is
necessary to discern the condition of the underlying
structural material. Removal of all biofouling staining is
generally not required.

TABLE 31F-2-4
SCOPE OF UNDERWATER INSPECTIONS [2.3]
Sample Size and Methodology1, 2

Level

Steel

Piles

Sample
Size:
Method:
Sample
Size:
Method:

II

Sample
Size:
Method:

III

Bulkheads/
Retaining Walls

Concrete

Timber

Bulkheads/
Retaining
Walls

Piles

Piles

Composite

Bulkheads/
Retaining
Walls

Slope
Protection/
Channel
Bottom or
MudlineScour

Piles

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

Visual/
Tactile

10%

Every 100 LF

10%

Every 100 LF

10%

Every 50 LF

10%

0%

Visual:
Removal of marine
growth in 3 bands

Visual:
Removal of marine
growth in 1 SF
areas

Visual:
Removal
of marine
growth in
3 bands

Visual:
Removal of
marine
growth in 1
SF areas

Visual: Removal
of marine growth
on 3 bands
Measurement:
Remaining
diameter

Visual:
Removal of
marine
growth in 1
SF areas

Visual:
Removal of
marine growth in
3 bands

5%

Every 200 LF

0%

0%

5%

Every 100 LF

0%

Remaining
thickness
measurement;
electrical potential
measurement;
corrosion profiling
as necessary

Remaining
thickness
measurement;
electrical potential
measurement;
corrosion profiling
as necessary

N/A

N/A

Internal marine
borer infestation
evaluation

Internal
marine borer
infestation
evaluation

0%

The stated sample size may be reduced in the case of large structures where statistically representative sampling can be demonstrated to the Division
in accordance with these standards. The sampling plan must be representative of all areas and component types (i.e. approach trestles, pier/wharf,
dolphins, inboard, outboard, batter, vertical, concrete, steel, timber, etc.). Any reduced sampling plan proposed to the Division must include the Level I
inspection of all piles around the perimeter of the facility where vessels may berth or where debris may impact or accumulate. If the reduced sampling
plan proposes to conduct less than 100 percent Level I effort, then the results of the inspection must be carefully monitored. If significant deterioration is
observed on any component, which could reasonably be expected to be present on additional components, and which could have a detrimental effect
on the load bearing capacity of the structure either locally or globally, then the inspection scope shall be increased to include a 100 percent Level I
effort. See reference [ 2.2].

The minimum inspection sampling size for small structures shall include at least two components.

LF = Linear Feet; SF = Square Feet; N/A = Not Applicable

Level III A detailed inspection typically involving nondestructive or partially-destructive testing, conducted to
detect hidden or interior damage, or to evaluate material
homogeneity.
Typical inspection and testing techniques include the use
of ultrasonics, coring or boring, physical material
sampling and in-situ hardness testing. Level III testing is
generally limited to key structural areas, areas which are
suspect, or areas which may be representative of the
underwater structure.
3102F.3.5.3 Special Inspection Considerations
3102F.3.5.3.1 Coated Components. For coated steel
components, Level I and Level II efforts should focus on
the evaluation of the integrity and effectiveness of the
coating. The piles should be inspected without damaging
the coating. Level III efforts should include ultrasonic
thickness measurements without removal of the coating,
where feasible.

For steel,
3102F.3.5.3.2
Encased Components.
concrete or timber components that have been encased,
the Level I and II efforts should focus on the evaluation of
the integrity of the encasement. If evidence of significant
damage to the encasement is present, or if evidence of
significant deterioration of the underlying component is
present, then the damage evaluation should consider
whether the encasement was provided for protection
and/or structural capacity. Encasements should not
typically be removed for an Audit.
For encasements on which the formwork has been left in
place, the inspection should focus on the integrity of the
encasement, not the formwork. Level I and Level II
efforts in such cases should concentrate on the top and
bottom of the encasement. For concrete components, if
deterioration, loss of bonding, or other significant
problems with the encasement are suspected, it may be
necessary to conduct a Special Inspection, including
coring of the encasement and laboratory evaluation of the
materials.

3102F.3.5.3.3
Wrapped Components.
For steel,
concrete or timber components that have been wrapped,
the Level I and II efforts should focus on the evaluation of
the integrity of the wrap. Since the effectiveness of a
wrap may be compromised by removal, and since the
removal and re-installation of wraps is time-consuming, it
should not be routinely done. However, if evidence of
significant damage exists, or if the effectiveness of the
wraps is in question, then samples should be removed to
facilitate the inspection and evaluation. The samples may
be limited to particular zones or portions of members if
damage is suspected, based on the physical evidence of
potential problems. A minimum sample size of three
members should be used. A five-percent sample size, up
to 30 total members, may be adequate as an upper limit.
For wrapped timber components, Level III efforts should
consist of removal of the wraps from a representative
sample of components in order to evaluate the condition
of the timber beneath the wrap. The sample may be
limited to particular zones or portions of the members if
damage is suspected (e.g. at the mudline/bottom of wrap
or in the tidal zone). The sample size should be
determined based on the physical evidence of potential
problems and the aggressiveness of the environment. A
minimum sample size of three members should be used.
A five-percent sample size, up to 30 total members, may
be adequate as an upper limit.
3102F.3.5.4 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment.
The inspection of mechanical and electrical equipment
shall include but not be limited to the following
components and systems:
1. Loading arms
2. Cranes and lifting equipment, including cables
3. Piping/manifolds and supports
4. Oil transfer hoses
5. Fire detection and suppression systems
6. Vapor control system
7. Sumps/sump tanks
8. Vent systems
9. Pumps and pump systems
10. Lighting
11. Communications equipment
12. Gangways
13. Electrical switches and junction boxes
14. Emergency power equipment
15. Air compressors
16. Meters
17. Cathodic protection systems
18. Winches
19. ESD and other control systems
20. Ladders
All alarms, limit switches, load cells, current meters,
anemometers, leak detection equipment, etc., shall be

operated and/or tested to the extent feasible, to ensure


proper function.
3102F.3.6 Evaluation and Assessment.
3102F.3.6.1 Terminal Operating Limits. The physical
boundaries of the facility shall be defined by the berthing
system operating limits, along with the vessel size limits
and environmental conditions.
The Audit shall include a Statement of Terminal
Operating Limits, which must provide a concise
statement of the purpose of each berthing system in
terms of operating limits. This description must at least
include, the minimum and maximum vessel sizes,
including Length Overall (LOA), beam, and maximum
draft with associated displacement (see Fig. 31F-2-1).
In establishing limits for both the minimum and maximum
vessel sizes, due consideration shall be given to water
depths, dolphin spacing, fender system limitations,
manifold height and hose/loading arm reach, with
allowances for tidal fluctuations, surge, and drift.
Maximum wind, current, or wave conditions, or
combinations thereof, shall be clearly defined as limiting
conditions for vessels at each berth, both with and
without active product transfer.
3102F.3.6.2 Mooring and Berthing. Mooring and
berthing analyses shall be performed in accordance with
Section 3105F. The analyses shall be consistent with the
terminal operating limits and the structural configuration
of the wharf and/or dolphins and associated hardware.
3102F3.6.3 Structure. A structural evaluation, including
a seismic analysis, shall be performed in accordance with
Sections 310F3 through 3107F. Such evaluation shall
consider local or global reduction in capacity, as
determined from the inspection.
Based on inspection results, structural analyses and
engineering judgment, CARs shall be assigned on a
global basis, independently for above and underwater
structures. The CARs defined in Table 31F-2-5 shall be
used for this purpose. The CAR documents the structural
fitness-for-purpose. Structural component deficiencies
may be assigned RAPs as per Table 31F-2-6. The
assigned ratings shall remain in effect until all the
significant corrective action has been completed to the
satisfaction of the Division, or until completion of the next
Audit.
3102F3.6.4 Mechanical and Electrical Systems. An
evaluation of all mechanical and electrical systems and
components shall be performed in accordance with
Sections 3108F through 3111F of these standards. If a
pipeline analysis is required, forces and imposed seismic
displacements resulting from the structural analysis shall
be considered. Mechanical and electrical component
deficiencies may be assigned ratings from Table 31F-2-6.

3102F.3.7
Follow-up Actions. Structural
actions as described in Table 31F-2-7 shall be
Multiple follow-up actions may be assigned;
guidance should be provided as to the order in
follow-up actions should be carried out.

follow-up
assigned.
however,
which the

If a CAR of 1 (Table 31F-2-5) or a RAP of P1 (Table


31F-2-6) or Emergency Action using Table 31F-2-7, is
assigned to a berthing system, the Division shall be
notified immediately. The audit report shall include
implementation schedules for all follow-up and remedial
actions. Follow-up and remedial actions and
implementation schedules are subject to Division
approval.
Follow-up actions shall also state the
maximum interval before the next audit.
3102F.3.8 Documentation and Reporting. The audit
report shall be signed and stamped by the Audit Team
Leader.
Each Audit, whether partial or complete, shall be
adequately documented.
Partial audits cover only
specific systems or equipment examined. The resulting
report shall summarize and reference relevant previous
ratings and deficiencies.
The contents of the audit report for each berthing system
shall, at a minimum, include the following as appropriate:
Executive Summary a concise summary of the audit
results and analyses conclusions.
It shall include
summary information for each berthing system, including
an overview of the assigned follow-up actions (See
Example Tables ES-1 and ES-2).
Table of Contents
Body of Report
Introduction a brief description of the purpose and
scope of the audit, as well as a description of the
inspection/evaluation methodology used for the audit.
Existing Conditions a brief description, along with a
summary of the observed conditions. Subsections should
be used to describe the above water structure,
underwater structure and mechanical and electrical
systems, to the extent each are included in the scope of
the audit. Photos, plan views and sketches shall be
utilized as appropriate to describe the structure and the
observed conditions. Details of the inspection results
such as test data, measurements data, etc. shall be
documented in an appendix.

Evaluation and Assessment - a CAR shall be assigned


to structural systems (above and under water). Mooring
and berthing analyses, structural analysis results, and all
supporting calculations shall be included in appendices
as appropriate to substantiate the ratings. However, the
results and recommendations of the engineering
analyses shall be included in this section. Component
deficiencies
should
be
described
and
a
corresponding RAP assigned.
Follow-up Actions Specific structural follow-up actions
shall be documented (Table 31F-2-7) and remedial
schedules included, for each audited system. Audit Team
Leaders shall specify which follow-up actions require a
California registered engineer to certify that the
completion is acceptable.
Appendices When appropriate,
appendices shall be included:

the

following

1.

Background data on the terminal - description of the


service environment (wind/waves/ currents), extent
and type of marine growth, unusual environmental
conditions, etc.
2. Inspection/testing data
3. Mooring and berthing analyses
4. Structural and seismic analyses and calculations
5. Geotechnical report
6. MOT Fire Plan
7. Pipeline stress and displacement analyses
8. Mechanical and electrical system documentation
9. Photographs and/or sketches shall be included to
document typical conditions and referenced
deficiencies, and to justify CARs and RAPs.
10. Condition Assessment Rating (CAR) report and
supporting data
11. Remedial Action Priorities (RAP) report and
supporting data
3102F.3.9 Action Plan Implementation Report. Within
90 days of completion of the remedial measures (for
serious deficiencies, such as P1, P2, or any structural
CAR less than 5) specified in the follow-up action plan(s),
a report shall be submitted to the Division and shall
include:
1. A description of each action taken
2. Updated RAPs and CARs
3. Supporting documentation with calculations and/or
relevant data

TABLE 31F-2-5
CONDITION ASSESSMENT RATINGS (CAR) [2.3]
Rating
6

Good

Description of Structural Systems, Above and Below Water Line


No problems or only minor problems noted. Structural elements may show very minor deterioration, but no overstressing
observed. The capacity of the structure meets the requirements of this standard.
The structure should be considered fit-for-purpose. No repairs or upgrades are required.

Satisfactor
y

Limited minor to moderate defects or deterioration observed, but no overstressing observed. The capacity of the structure
meets the requirements of this standard.
The structure should be considered fit-for-purpose. No repairs or upgrades are required.

Fair

All primary structural elements are sound; but minor to moderate defects or deterioration observed. Localized areas of
moderate to advanced deterioration may be present, but do not significantly reduce the load bearing capacity of the structure.
The capacity of the structure is no more than 15 percent below the structural requirements of this standard, as determined from
an engineering evaluation.
The structure should be considered as marginal. Repair and/or upgrade measures may be required to remain operational.
Facility may remain operational provided a plan and schedule for remedial action is presented to and accepted by the Division.
Advanced deterioration or overstressing observed on widespread portions of the structure, but does not significantly reduce the
load bearing capacity of the structure. The capacity of the structure is no more than 25 percent below the structural
requirements of this standard, as determined from an engineering evaluation.

Poor
The structure is not fit-for-purpose. Repair and/or upgrade measures may be required to remain operational. The facility may
be allowed to remain operational on a restricted or contingency basis until the deficiencies are corrected, provided a plan and
schedule for such work is presented to and accepted by the Division.
Advanced deterioration, overstressing or breakage may have significantly affected the load bearing capacity of primary
structural components. Local failures are possible and loading restrictions may be necessary. The capacity of the structure is
more than 25 percent below than the structural requirements of this standard, as determined from an engineering evaluation.

Serious
The structure is not fit-for-purpose. Repairs and/or upgrade measures may be required to remain operational. The facility may
be allowed to remain operational on a restricted basis until the deficiencies are corrected, provided a plan and schedule for
such work is presented to and accepted by the Division.

Critical

Very advanced deterioration, overstressing or breakage has resulted in localized failure(s) of primary structural components.
More widespread failures are possible or likely to occur and load restrictions should be implemented as necessary. The
capacity of the structure is critically deficient relative to the structural requirements of this standard.
The structure is not fit-for-purpose. The facility shall cease operations until deficiencies are corrected and accepted by the
Division.

TABLE 31F-2-6
COMPONENT DEFICIENCY REMEDIAL ACTION PRIORITIES (RAP)
Remedial
Priorities

Description and Remedial Actions

P1

Specified whenever a condition that poses an immediate threat to public health, safety or the environment is
observed. Emergency Actions may consist of barricading or closing all or portions of the berthing system,
evacuating product lines and ceasing transfer operations.
The berthing system is not fit-for-purpose. Immediate remedial actions are required prior to the continuance of
normal operations.

P2

Specified whenever defects or deficiencies pose a potential threat to public health, safety and the environment.
Actions may consist of limiting or restricting operations until remedial measures have been completed.
The berthing system is not fit-for-purpose. This priority requires investigation, evaluation and urgent action.

P3

Specified whenever systems require upgrading in order to comply with the requirement of these standards or
current applicable codes. These deficiencies do not require emergency or urgent actions.
The MOT may have limitations placed on its operational status.
Specified whenever damage or defects requiring repair are observed.

P4

The berthing system is fit-for-purpose. Repair can be performed during normal maintenance cycles, but not to
exceed one year.
Recommended action is a good engineering/maintenance practice, but not required by these standards.

The berthing system is fit-for-purpose.

TABLE 31F-2-7
STRUCTURAL FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS [2.3]
Follow-up Action

Description

Emergency Action

Specified whenever a condition which poses an immediate threat to public health, safety or the
environment is observed. Emergency Actions may consist of barricading or closing all or portions of the
berthing system, limiting vessel size, placing load restrictions, evacuating product lines, ceasing transfer
operations, etc.

Engineering Evaluation

Specified whenever structural damage or deficiencies are observed which require further investigation or
evaluation, to determine appropriate follow-up actions.

Repair Design
Inspection

Specified whenever damage or defects requiring repair are observed. The repair design inspection is
performed to the level of detail necessary to prepare appropriate repair plans, specifications and
estimates.

Upgrade Design and


Implementation

Specified whenever the structural system requires upgrading in order to comply with the requirements of
these standards and current applicable codes.

Special Inspection

Typically specified to determine the cause or significance of non-typical deterioration, usually prior to
designing repairs. Special testing, laboratory analysis, monitoring or investigation using non-standard
equipment or techniques are typically required.

Develop and Implement


Repair Plans

Specified when the Repair Design Inspection and required Special Inspections have been completed.
Indicates that the structure is ready to have repair plans prepared and implemented.

No Action

Specified when no further action is necessary until the next scheduled audit or inspection.

Example

Berthing
System

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TABLE (ES-1)


GLOBAL STRUCTURAL CONDITION ASSESSMENT RATINGS (CAR)
System

Condition
Assessment
Rating

From
this
1
Audit

Above Water Structure

4 (Fair)

4 (date)

Underwater Structure

5
(Satisfactory)

Above Water Structure

4 (Fair)

Underwater Structure

3 (Poor)

North Wharf

South Wharf

From
Previou
1
s Audit

Next
Audit
Due
(Mo/Yr)
6/2004

4 (date)
4 (date)

Upgrade Design and


Implementation

10/2006
6/2004

4 (date)

Assigned
Follow-Up
Actions

10/2006

Fit-forPurpose?
No
Yes

Repair Design
Inspection
Special Inspection;
Repair Design
Inspection

No
No

Dolphin,
Trestle, etc.
1. Place check mark and date of respective audit in proper column to indicate for each structural system, whether the system was included in the current
audit or the results are summarized from a previous audit.

Example
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TABLE (ES-2)
COMPONENT DEFICIENCY REMEDIAL ACTION PRIORITIES (RAP)
Berthing
System

North
Wharf

Deficiency

Remedial
Action Priority
(RAP)
(P1-P4)

Fire main leaking

P3

Pipeline badly
corroded

P2

4 (date)

Electrical (Class I,
Div 2 violation)

P1

4 (date)

From
this
Audit

From
Previous
Audit

Next Audit
Due (Mo/Yr)

4 (date)

3102F.4
Post-Event Inspection.
A Post-Event
Inspection is a focused inspection following a significant,
potentially damage-causing event such as an earthquake,
storm, vessel impact, fire, explosion or tsunami. The
primary purpose is to assess the integrity of structural,
mechanical and electrical systems. This assessment will
determine the operational status and/or any remedial
measures required.
3102F.4.1 Notification and Action Plan. Notification
as per 2 CCR 2325(e) [2.1] shall be provided to the local
area Division field office. The notification shall include, as
a minimum:
1. Brief description of the event
2. Brief description of the nature, extent and
significance of any damage observed as a result of
the event
3. Operational status and any required restrictions
4. Statement as to whether a Post-Event Inspection will
be carried out
The Division may carry out or cause to be carried out, a
Post-Event Inspection. In the interim, the Division may
direct a change in the Operations Manual, per 2 CCR
2385 (f)(3) [2.1].
If a Post-Event Inspection is required, an Action Plan
shall be submitted to the Division within five (5) days after
the event. This deadline may be extended in special
circumstances. The Action Plan shall include the scope
of the inspection (above water, underwater, electrical,
mechanical systems, physical limits, applicable berthing
systems, etc.) and submission date of the final report.
The Action Plan is subject to Division approval.
3102F.4.2 Inspection Team. The qualifications of the
inspection team shall be the same as those prescribed in
subsection 3102F.3.4. Division representatives may
participate in any Post-Event Inspection, as observers,
and may provide guidance.
3102F.4.3 Scope. The Post-Event Inspection shall
focus on the possible damage caused by the event.

Description of
Planned Remedial
Action

Fit-ForPurpose?

Repair
6/2004

Investigate; urgent
action required

No

Immediate remedial
action required

General observations of long-term or preexisting


deterioration such as significant corrosion-related
damage or other deterioration should be made as
appropriate, but should not be the focus of the inspection.
The Inspection shall always include an above-water
assessment of structural, mechanical and electrical
components.
The Inspection Team Leader shall determine the need
for, and methodology of, an underwater structural
assessment, in consultation with the Division. Above
water observations, such as shifting or differential
settlement, misalignments, significant cracking or
spalling, bulging, etc. shall be used to determine whether
or not an underwater assessment is required. Similarly,
the Inspection Team Leader shall determine, in
consultation with the Division, the need for, and
methodology of any supplemental inspections (e.g.
Special Inspections (see subsection 3102F.3.5.3).
The following information may be important in
determining the need for, and methodology of, the PostEvent Inspection:
1.

2.
3.

Earthquakes or vessel or debris impact typically


cause damage both above and below the water line.
Following a major earthquake, the inspection should
focus on components likely to attract highest lateral
loads (batter or shorter piles in the rear of the
structure, etc.). In case of vessel or debris impact,
the inspection effort should focus on components in
the path of the impact mass.
Major floods or tsunamis may cause undermining of
the structure, and/or scouring at the mudline.
Fire damage varies significantly with the type of
construction materials but all types may be adversely
affected.
Special Inspections (sampling and
laboratory testing) shall be conducted, as determined
by the Inspection Team Leader, in order to determine
the nature and extent of damage.

TABLE 31F-2-8
POST-EVENT RATINGS AND REMEDIAL ACTIONS [2.3]
Rating

4.

Summary of Damage

Remedial Actions

No significant event-induced damage observed.

No further action required. The berthing


system may continue operations.

Minor to moderate event-induced damage observed but all


primary structural elements and electrical/mechanical systems
are sound.

Repairs or mitigation may be required to


remain operational. The berthing system
may continue operations.

Moderate to major event-induced damage observed which may


have significantly affected the load bearing capacity of primary
structural
elements
or
the
functionality
of
key
electrical/mechanical systems.

Repairs or mitigation may be necessary to


resume or remain operational. The berthing
system may be allowed to resume limited
operations.

Major event-induced damage has resulted in localized or


widespread failure of primary structural components; or the
functionality of key electrical/mechanical systems has been
significantly affected. Additional failures are possible or likely to
occur.

The berthing system may not resume


operations until the deficiencies are
corrected.

High wind or wave events often cause damage both


above and below the water line. An underwater
inspection may be required if damage is visible
above the waterline. Structural damage may be
potentially increased if a vessel was at the berth
during the event. The effects of high wind may be
most prevalent on equipment and connections of
such equipment to the structure.

The methodology of conducting an underwater PostEvent Inspection should be established with due
consideration of the structure type and type of damage
anticipated. Whereas slope failures or scour may be
readily apparent in waters of adequate visibility,
overstressing cracks on piles covered with marine growth
will not be readily apparent. Where such hidden damage
is suspected, marine growth removal should be
performed on a representative sampling of components in
accordance with the Level II effort requirements
described in subsection 3102F.3.5.2. The cause of the
event will determine the appropriate sample size and
locations.
3102F.4.4 Post-Event Ratings. A post-event rating
[2.3] shall be assigned to each berthing system upon
completion of the inspection (see Table 31F-2-8). All
observations of the above and under water structure,
mechanical and electrical components and systems shall
be considered in assigning a post-event rating.
Ratings should consider only damage that was likely
caused by the event. Pre-existing deterioration such as
corrosion damage should not be considered unless the
structural integrity is immediately threatened or safety
systems or protection of the environment may be
compromised.
Assignment of ratings should reflect an overall
characterization of the berthing system being rated. The
rating shall consider both the severity of the deterioration
and the extent to which it is widespread throughout the

facility. The fact that the facility was designed for loads
that are lower than the current standards for design
should have no influence upon the ratings.
3102F.4.5 Follow-up Actions. Follow-up actions shall
be assigned upon completion of the Post-Event
Inspection of each berthing system. Table 31F-2-6
specifies remedial action priorities and actions for
mechanical and electrical deficiencies. Table 31F-2-7
specifies various options for structural systems. Multiple
follow-up actions may be assigned; however, guidance
should be provided as to the order in which the follow-up
actions should be carried-out. Follow-up actions shall be
subject to Division approval.
3102F.4.6
Documentation
and
Reporting.
Documentation of the specific attributes of each defect
shall not be required during a Post-Event Inspection.
However, a narrative description of significant damage
shall be used. The description shall be consistent with
and shall justify the post-event rating assigned.
A report shall be prepared and submitted to the Division
upon completion of the Post-Event Inspection and shall,
at a minimum, include:
1. Brief description of the facility including the physical
limits of the structure, type of construction
material(s), and the mechanical and electrical
systems present.
2. Brief description of the event triggering the
inspection.
3. Scope of the inspection (above water, underwater,
electrical or mechanical)
4. Date of the inspection
5. Names and affiliations of inspection team
6. Description of the nature, extent and significance of
any observed damage resulting from the event.
7. Photographs should be provided to substantiate the
descriptions and justify the condition rating

8.
9.

Assignment of a post-event rating


Statement regarding whether the facility is fit to
resume operations and, if so, under what conditions
10. Assignment of follow-up action(s)
11. Inspection data, drawings, calculations and other
relevant engineering materials
12. Signature and stamp of Team Leader(s)
3102F.4.7 Action Plan Report. Upon completion of all
actions delineated in the Action Plan, a final report shall
be submitted to the Division to document the work
completed.
Supporting documentation such as
calculations or other relevant data shall be provided in
appendices.
3102F.5 References
[2.1]

California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 2,


Division 3, Chapter 1, Article 5, Marine Terminals
Inspection and Monitoring, Sections 2315, 2320,
2325, and 2385 (short form example: 2 CCR
2315 = Title 2 of California Code of Regulations,
Section 2315).

[2.2]

Buslov, V., Heffron, R. and Martirossyan, A.,


2001, Choosing a Rational Sample Size for the
Underwater Inspection of Marine Structures,
Proceedings, Ports 2001, ASCE Conference,
April 29-May 2, Norfolk, VA.

[2.3]

Childs, K.M., editor, 2001, Underwater


Investigations - Standard Practice Manual,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston,
VA.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and


Resources Code.

8757,

Public

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and 8757,


Public Resources Code.

0
30

34 0

50

60

10

20
30

40

13
0

LEGEND:

DISCONNECT PRODUCT LINES


AND DEPART BERTH

TERMINATE
PRODUCT TRANSFER

WIND RESTRICTION DIAGRAM

KN

20
S
OT

30

40

350

EAST BERTH

280

270

0
31
0

70

12

WIND RESTRICTION DIAGRAM IS


APPLICABLE WITH AMAXIMUM
EBB OR FLOOD CURRENT OF
3.2 KNOTS, WAVE PERIOD T <4.0
SECONDS, CHANGE IN DRAFT <6 FT,
AND PASSING VESSEL EFFECTS
ARE INSIGNIFICANT.

NOTE:

0
33

11 0

FIRST VALVE
ON SHORE

PIPEWAY

100

WEST BERTH

CAUSEWAY

FENDER LINE

32

22

BERTHING SYSTEM BOUNDARY

29 0

(MUST BE QUALIFIED AND DOCUMENTED BY


A MOORING/BERTHING ANALYSIS)

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION LIMITS:

21

PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES OF BERTHING SYSTEM:

20 0

LOA
DWT
BEAM
DRAFT
LBP

180

MINIMUM VESSEL:

90

260

80

250

70

24

60

170

LOA
DWT
BEAM
DRAFT
LBP
MIN. WATER DEPTH =
WITH UNDERKEEL CLEARANCE OF
(FROM OPERATION MANUAL)

16 0

MAXIMUM VESSEL:

VESSEL SIZE LIMITS:

DATE:
No. OF TRANSFERS/YEAR:
OIL SPILL AT RISK (BBL):
FACILITY SEISMIC CLASSIFICATION:
FACILITY MOORING/BERTHING CLASSIFICATION:
FACILITY FIRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION:

15

FACILITY OWNER/OPERATOR:
FACILITY ADDRESS:

BERTHING SYSTEM NAME:

EXAMPLE
STATEMENT OF TERMINAL OPERATING LIMITS

14

FIGURE
31F-2-1
FIGURE
2-1

23

50

DIVISION 3

SECTION 3103F STRUCTURAL LOADING CRITERIA

TABLE 31F-3-2
EQUIPMENT AND PIPING AREA LOADS

3103F.1
General.
Section 3103F establishes the
environmental and operating loads acting on the Marine Oil
Terminal (MOT) structures and on moored vessel(s). The
analysis procedures are presented in Sections 3104F
3107F.

Location

3103F.2 Dead Loads.

TABLE 31F-3-1
UNIT WEIGHTS
Material

Unit Weight (pcf)*

Steel or cast steel

490

Cast iron

450

Aluminum alloys

175

Timber (untreated)

40-50

Timber (treated)

45-60

Concrete, reinforced (normal weight)

145-160

Concrete, reinforced (lightweight)

90-120

Asphalt paving

150

3103F.4 Earthquake Loads


3103F.4.1 General.. Earthquake loads are described in
terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), spectral
acceleration and earthquake magnitude.

Trestle roadway

20*

3103F.4.2 Design Earthquake Motion Parameters. The


earthquake ground motion parameters of peak ground
acceleration, spectral acceleration and earthquake
magnitude are modified for site amplification and near fault
directivity effects. The resulting values are the Design Peak
Ground Acceleration (DPGA), Design Spectral Acceleration
(DSA) and Design Earthquake Magnitude (DEM).
The peak ground and spectral acceleration may be
evaluated using:
1.

2.

3.

3103F.3 Live Loads and Buoyancy. The following vertical


live loading shall be considered, where appropriate: uniform
loading, truck loading, crane loading and buoyancy.
Additionally, MOT specific, non-permanent equipment shall
be identified and used in loading computations.

20*
35**

seismic analysis procedures (Tables 31F-4-2, and 31F-4-3)


are dependent on the risk classification of Table 31F-4-1.

* pounds per cubic foot

3103F.2.3 Equipment and Piping Area Loads. The


equipment and piping area loads in Table 31F-3-2 may be
used, as a minimum, in lieu of detailed as-built data.

Open areas
Areas containing equipment and piping

* Allowance for incidental items such as railings, lighting,


miscellaneous equipment, etc.
** 35 psf is for miscellaneous general items such as
walkways, pipe supports, lighting, and instrumentation. Major
equipment weight shall be established and added into this
weight for piping manifold, valves, deck crane, fire monitor
tower, gangway structure, and similar major equipment.
*** pounds per square foot

3103F.2.1 General. Dead loads shall include the weight of


the entire structure, including permanent attachments such
as loading arms, pipelines, deck crane, fire monitor tower,
gangway structure, vapor control equipment and mooring
hardware. Units weights specified in subsections 3103F.2.2
may be used for MOT structures if actual weights are not
available.
3103F.2.2 Unit Weights. The unit weights in Table 31F-31 may be used for both existing and new MOTs.

Area Loads
(psf)***

U.S. Geological Survey


(USGS) or California
Geological Survey (CGS, formerly the California
Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG)) maps as
discussed in subsection 3103F.4.2.2,
A site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis
(PSHA) as discussed in subsection 3103F.4.2.3.
For the Ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Port
Hueneme, PSHA results are provided in subsection
3103F.4.2.3.

Unless stated otherwise, the DSA values are for 5 percent


damping; values at other levels may be obtained as per
subsection 3103F.4.2.9.
The appropriate probability levels associated with DPGA
and DSA for different seismic performance levels are
provided in Table 31F-4-2.
Deterministic earthquake
motions, which are used only for comparison to the
probabilistic results, are addressed in subsection
3103F.4.2.7.
The evaluation of Design Earthquake Magnitude (DEM), is
discussed in subsection 3103F.4.2.8. This parameter is
required when acceleration time histories (subsection

3103F.4.2.10) are addressed or if liquefaction potential


(subsection 3106F.3) is being evaluated.
3103F.4.2.1 Site Classes. The following site classes,
defined in subsection 3106F.2, shall be used in developing
values of DSA and DPGA:
SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, and SF.
For SF, a site specific response analysis is required per
subsection 3103F.4.2.5.
3103F.4.2.2 Earthquake Motions from USGS Maps.
Earthquake ground motion parameters can be obtained from
the Maps 29-32 in the National Earthquake Hazard
Reduction Program (NEHRP) design map set discussed in
subsection
1.6.1
of
[3.1],
online
at
(http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/eq/html/canvmap.html) or on
CD ROM from the USGS. These are available as peak
ground acceleration and spectral acceleration values at 5
percent damping for 10 and 2 percent probability of
exceedance in 50 years, which correspond to Average
Return Periods (ARPs) of 475 and 2,475 years, respectively.
The spectral acceleration values are available for 0.2, and
1.0 second spectral periods. In obtaining peak ground
acceleration and spectral acceleration values from the
USGS web site, the site location can be specified in terms of
site longitude and latitude or the zip code when appropriate.
The resulting values of peak ground acceleration and
spectral acceleration correspond to surface motions for Site
Classification approximately corresponding to the boundary
of Site Class SB and SC .
Once peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration
values are obtained for 10 and 2 percent probability of
exceedence in 50 years, the corresponding values for other
probability levels may be obtained.
A procedure is
presented in subsection 1.6 of Chapter 1 of [3.1].
3103F.4.2.3
Earthquake Motions from Site-Specific
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses. Peak ground
acceleration and spectral acceleration values can be
obtained using site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard
analysis (PSHA). In this approach, the seismic sources and
their characterization used in the analysis shall be based on
the published data from the California Geological Survey,
which can be obtained online at the following web site:
(http://www.consrv.ca.gov/dmg/rghm/psha/Index.htm) [3.2].
Appropriate attenuation relationships shall be used to obtain
values of peak ground acceleration and spectral
acceleration at the ground surface for site conditions
corresponding to the boundary of Site Class SB and SC,
regardless of the actual subsurface conditions at the site.
These results shall be compared to those based on the
FEMA/USGS maps discussed in subsection 3103F.4.2.2. If
the two sets of values are significantly different, a
justification for using the characterization chosen shall be
provided.
Alternatively, peak ground acceleration and spectral
accelerations at the ground surface for the subsurface
conditions that actually exist at the site may be directly

obtained by using appropriate attenuation relationships in a


site-specific PSHA. This approach is not permissible for Site
Classes SE and SF.
For site-specific PSHA, peak ground acceleration and
spectral acceleration values corresponding to the seismic
performance level (See Table 31F-4-2) shall be obtained.
For peak ground acceleration, PSHA may be conducted
using the magnitude weighting procedure in Idriss [3.3].
The actual magnitude weighting values should follow the
Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) procedures
[3.4]. This magnitude weighting procedure incorporates the
effects of duration corresponding to various magnitude
events in the PSHA results. The resulting peak ground
acceleration shall be used only for liquefaction assessment
(see subsection 3106F.4).
PSHA have been developed for the Port of Los Angeles,
Port of Long Beach and Port Hueneme. This assessment
has included a review of onshore and offshore faulting and
was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
[3.5]. Resulting response spectra are provided in Tables
31F-3-3, 31F-3-4 and Figures 31F-3-1 and 31F-3-2. Results
are provided only for site classification SC and five percent
damping. These spectral values (DSAs) are the minimum
acceptable and represent the subsurface only. To obtain
appropriate values for piles and/or the mudline, the
simplified procedures of subsection 3103F.4.2.4 may be
used.

TABLE 31F-3-3
Response Spectra
for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach
475 Year Return Period (5% Critical Damping)
Site Class C
(Shear Wave Velocity from 1220-2500 ft/sec)
Period (sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Spectral Acceleration (gs)

0.03

33.33

0.47

0.05

20.00

0.52

0.10

10.0

0.71

0.15

6.67

0.86

0.20

5.0

0.93

0.30

3.33

0.93

0.50

2.00

0.85

1.0

1.0

0.62

2.0

0.50

0.37

3103F.4.2.4 Simplified Evaluation of Site Amplification


Effects. When the MOT Site Class is different from the SB SC boundary, site amplification effects shall be incorporated
in peak ground accelerations and spectral accelerations.
This may be accomplished using a simplified method or a
site-specific evaluation (subsection 3103F.4.2.5).

TABLE 31F-3-4
Response Spectra for Port Hueneme
475 Year Return Period (5% Critical Damping)
Site Class C
(Shear Wave Velocity from 1200-2500 ft/sec)
Period
(sec)

Frequency
(Hz)

Spectral Acceleration
(gs)

0.03

33.33

0.41

0.05

20.00

0.46

0.10

10.0

0.63

0.15

6.67

0.75

0.20

5.0

0.80

0.30

3.33

0.78

0.50

2.00

0.69

1.0

1.0

0.49

2.0

0.50

0.28

SXS = FaSS
SX1 = FvS1
Where:
Fa
Fv

=
=

site coefficient obtained from Table 31F-3-5


site coefficient obtained from Table 31F-3-6

SS

S1

SXS

SX1

short period (usually at 0.20 seconds)spectral


acceleration value (for the boundary of SB and
SC) obtained using subsection 3103F.4.2.2, or at
the period corresponding to the peak in spectral
acceleration values when obtained from
subsection 3103F.4.2.3
spectral acceleration value (for the boundary of
SB and SC) at 1.0 second period
spectral acceleration value obtained using the
short period SS and factored by Table 31F-3-5
for the Site Class under consideration.
spectral acceleration value obtained using the
1.0 second period S1 and factored by Table 31F3-6 for the Site Class under consideration.

Figure 31F-3-1 Response Spectra for the


Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, 475
Year Return Period (5% Critical Damping)

For a given Site Class, the following procedure [3.1]


presents a simplified method that may be used to
incorporate the site amplification effects for peak ground
acceleration and spectral acceleration computed for the SB
and SC boundary.

(3-1)
(3-2)

Figure 31F-3-2 Response Spectra for Port


Hueneme, 475 Year Return Period (5%
Critical Damping)

2.

Set

PGAX = 0.4SXS

(3-3)

Where:
1.

Calculate the spectral acceleration values at 0.20


and 1.0 second period:

PGAX =

peak ground acceleration corresponding to the


Site Class under consideration.

When the value of PGAX is less than the peak ground


acceleration obtained following subsection 3103F.4.2.2 or
subsection 3103F.4.2.3, an explanation of the results shall
be provided.

for

Sa = SXS
for

TABLE 31F-3-5
VALUES OF Fa

<0.25

0.5

0.75

1.0

> 1.25

SA

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

SB

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

SC

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

1.0

SD

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.1

1.0

SE

2.5

1.7

1.2

0.9

0.9

SF

NOTE: Linear interpolation can be used to estimate values of Fa


for intermediate values of SS.
* Site-specific dynamic site response analysis shall be performed

TABLE 31F-3-6
VALUES OF FV
Site
Class

<0.1

0.2

S1
0.3

0.4

>0.5

SA

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

SB

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

SC

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

SD

2.4

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.5

SE

3.5

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.4

SF
*
*
*
*
*
NOTE Linear interpolation can be used to estimate values of FV
for intermediate values of S1.
* Site-specific dynamic site response analysis shall be performed

3.
PGAX, SXS, and SX1 constitute three spectral
acceleration values for the Site Class under consideration
corresponding to periods of 0, SS (usually 0.2 seconds), and
1.0 second, respectively.
4.
The final response spectra, without consideration
for near-fault directivity effects, values of Sa for the Site
Class under consideration may be obtained using the
following equations (for 5% critical damping):
0<T<0.2To
Sa = (SXS)(0.4 + 3T/To)

(3-4)

where:
T
To

=
=

(3-5)

T>To
Sa = SX1/T

(3-6)

To = SX1/SXS

(3-7)

where:

SS

Site
Class

for

0.2To<T<To

Period corresponding to calculated Sa


Period at which the constant acceleration and
constant velocity regions of the design
spectrum intersect

The resulting PGAX is the DPGA. However, the Sas (except


for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Port
Hueneme) shall be modified for near-fault directivity effects,
per subsection 3103F.4.2.6 to obtain the final DSAs.
3103F.4.2.5 Site-Specific Evaluation of Amplification
Effects. As an alternative to the procedure presented in
subsection 3103F.4.2.4, a site-specific response analysis
may be performed. For SF, a site specific response analysis
is required. The analysis shall be either an equivalent linear
or nonlinear analysis. Appropriate acceleration time histories
as discussed in subsection 3103F.4.2.10 shall be used.
In general, an equivalent linear analysis using, for example,
SHAKE91 [3.6] is acceptable when the strength and
stiffness of soils are unlikely to change significantly during
the seismic shaking, and the level of shaking is not large. A
nonlinear analysis should be used when the strength and/or
stiffness of soils could significantly change during the
seismic shaking or significant non-linearity of soils is
expected because of high seismic shaking levels.
The choice of the method used in site response analysis
shall be justified considering the expected stress-strain
behavior of soils under the shaking level considered in the
analysis.
Site-specific site response analysis may be performed using
one-dimensional analysis. However, to the extent that MOTs
often involve slopes or earth retaining structures, the onedimensional analysis should be used judiciously. When
one-dimensional analysis cannot be justified or is not
adequate, two-dimensional equivalent linear or nonlinear
response analysis shall be performed.
Site-specific
response analysis results shall be compared to those based
on the simplified method of subsection 3103F.4.2.4 for
reasonableness.
For the port areas of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Port
Hueneme, the resulting response spectra shall not fall below
values obtained in subsection 3103F.4.2.3.
The peak ground accelerations obtained from this sitespecific evaluation are DPGAs and the spectral
accelerations are DSAs as long as the near-fault directivity
effects addressed in subsection 3103F.4.2.6 are
appropriately incorporated into the time histories (subsection
3103F.4.2.10).
3103F.4.2.6 Directivity Effects. When the site is 15 km
(9.3 miles) or closer to a seismic source that can
significantly affect the site, near-fault directivity effects shall

be reflected in the spectral acceleration values and in the


deterministic spectral acceleration values of subsection
3103F.4.2.7. However, Tables 31F-3-3 and 31F-3-4 for the
port areas of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Port Hueneme
already have these effects included.

closest distance from the source to the site. The


resulting Design Earthquake shall be associated with all
DPGA values for the site, irrespective of probability
levels.
2.

Two methods are available for incorporating directivity


effects.
1.

2.

Directivity effects may be reflected in the spectral


acceleration values in a deterministic manner by using,
for example, the equation on pg. 213 (and Tables 6 and
7) of Somerville, et al. [3.7].
The critical seismic
sources and their characterization developed as part of
the deterministic ground motion parameters (subsection
3103F.4.2.7) should be used to evaluate the directivity
effects.
The resulting adjustments in spectral
acceleration values may be applied in the probabilistic
spectral acceleration values developed per subsection
3103F.4.2.4 or 3103F.4.2.5. Such adjustment can be
independent of the probability levels of spectral
accelerations.
Directivity effects may be incorporated in the results of
site-specific PSHA per subsection 3103F.4.2.3. In this
case, the directivity effects will also depend on the
probability level of spectral accelerations.

The Design Earthquake (DEQ) may be obtained for


each DPGA or DSA value and associated probability
level by determining the corresponding dominant
distance and magnitude. These are the values of the
distance and magnitude that contribute the most to the
mean seismic hazards estimates for the probability of
interest. They are usually determined by locating the
summits of the 3-D surface of contribution of each small
interval of magnitude and distance to the total mean
hazards estimate. If this 3-D surface shows several
modes with approximate weight of more than 20% of
the total, several DEQs may be considered, and the
DEQ leading to the most conservative design
parameters shall be used.

3103F.4.2.9 Design Spectral Acceleration for Various


Damping Values. Design Spectral Acceleration (DSA)
values at damping other than 5% shall be obtained by using
The
a procedure given in [3.1], and is denoted as DSAd.
following procedure does not include near-fault directivity
effects.
For 0 < T < 0.2 To

If spectral accelerations are obtained in this manner, the


effects of site amplification using either subsection
3103F.4.2.4, 3103F.4.2.5 or an equivalent method (if
justified) shall be incorporated.
3103F.4.2.7
Deterministic Earthquake Motions.
Deterministic ground motions from scenario earthquakes
may be used for comparison purposes. Deterministic peak
ground accelerations and spectral accelerations may be
obtained using the Critical Seismic Source with maximum
earthquake magnitude and its closest appropriate distance
to the MOT. Critical Seismic Source is that which results
in the largest computed median peak ground acceleration
and spectral acceleration values when appropriate
attenuation relationships are used. The values obtained
from multiple attenuation relationships should be used to
calculate the median peak ground acceleration and spectral
acceleration values.
Alternatively, the values of peak ground accelerations and
spectral accelerations may be obtained from the USGS
maps [3.1], corresponding to the Maximum Considered
Earthquake (MCE). In this case, the median values of peak
ground acceleration and spectral acceleration values shall
be 2/3 (see subsection 1.6 of [3.1]) of the values shown on
the USGS maps.
3103F.4.2.8 Design Earthquake Magnitude. The Design
Earthquake Magnitude used in developing site-specific
acceleration time histories (subsection 3103F.4.2.10) or
liquefaction assessment (subsection 3106F.3) is obtained
using either of the following two methods.
1.

The Design Earthquake may be selected as the largest


earthquake magnitude associated with the Critical
Seismic Source. The distance shall be taken as the

DSAd

SXS [ (5/BS 2) T/ To + 0.4]

(3-8)

For 0.2 To < T < To


DSAd

DSA/BS

(3-9)

For T > To
DSAd

S1 /(B1 T)

(3-10)

where:
T
To
BS

=
=
=

B1

period
SX1/SXS
Coefficient used to adjust the short period
spectral response, for the effect of viscous
damping.
Coefficient used to adjust one-second period
spectral response, for the effect of viscous
damping

Values of BS and B1 are obtained from Table 31F-3-7.


Such a procedure shall incorporate the near-fault directivity
effects when the MOT is 15 km (9.3 miles) or closer to a
significant seismic source.
3103F.4.2.10
Development of Acceleration Time
Histories. When acceleration time histories are utilized,
target spectral acceleration values shall be initially selected
corresponding to the DSA values at appropriate probability
levels. For each set of target spectral acceleration values
corresponding to one probability level, at least three sets of

horizontal time histories (one or two horizontal acceleration


time histories per set) shall be developed.
TABLE 31F-3-7 [3.1]

used in the design, evaluation and rehabilitation. When


seven or more sets of time histories are used in the
analysis, the average value of each response parameter
may be used.
3103F.5 Mooring Loads on Vessels.

VALUES OF BS AND B1
Damping (%)

BS

B1

<2

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

10

1.3

1.2

20

1.8

1.5

30

2.3

1.7

40

2.7

1.9

>50

3.0

2.0

Note: Linear interpolation should be used for damping values not


specifically listed.

Initial time histories shall consider magnitude, distance, and


the type of fault that are reasonably similar to those
associated with the conditions contributing most to the
probabilistic DSA values. Preferred initial time histories
should have their earthquake magnitude and distance to the
seismic source similar to the mode-magnitude and modedistance derived from the PSHA or from appropriate maps.
When an adequate number of recorded time histories are
not available, acceleration time histories from simulations
may be used as supplements.
Scaling or adjustments, either in the frequency domain or in
the time domain (preferably), prior to generating
acceleration time histories should be kept to a minimum.
When the target spectral accelerations include near-fault
directivity effects (subsection 3103F.4.2.6), the initial time
histories should exhibit directivity effects.
When three sets of time histories are used in the analysis,
the envelope of the spectral acceleration values from each
time history shall be equal to or higher than the target
spectral accelerations. If the envelope values fall below the
target values, adjustments shall be made to insure that the
spectral acceleration envelope is higher than target spectral
accelerations.
If the envelope is not higher, then a
justification shall be provided.
When seven or more sets of time histories are used, the
average of the spectral acceleration values from the set of
time histories shall be equal or higher than the target
spectral acceleration values. If the average values fall
below the target values, adjustments shall be made to
insure that average values are higher than the target
spectral accelerations. If this is not the case, then an
explanation for the use of these particular spectral
acceleration values shall be provided.
When three sets of time histories are used in the analysis,
the maximum value of each response parameter shall be

3103F.5.1 General. Forces acting on a moored vessel may


be generated by wind, waves, current, tidal variations,
tsunamis, seiches and hydrodynamic effects of passing
vessels. Forces from wind and current acting directly on the
MOT structure (not through the vessel in the form of
mooring and/or breasting loads) shall be determined in
subsection 3103F.7.
The vessels moorings shall be strong enough to hold during
all expected conditions of surge, current and weather and
long enough to allow adjustment for changes in draft, drift,
and tide (2 CCR 2340 (c) (1)) [3.8].
3103F.5.2 Wind Loads. Wind loads on a vessel, moored
at a MOT, shall be determined using procedures described
in this subsection. Wind loads shall be calculated for each
of the load cases identified in subsection 3105F.2.
3103F.5.2.1 Design Wind Speed. The design wind speed
is the maximum wind speed of 30-second duration used in
the mooring analysis (see Section 3105F).
3103F.5.2.1.1
Operating Condition.
The operating
condition is the wind envelope in which a vessel may
conduct transfer operations. It is determined from the
mooring analysis (Section 3105F). Transfer operations shall
cease, at an existing MOT, when the wind exceeds the
maximum velocity of the envelope.
3103F.5.2.1.2 Survival Condition. The survival condition
is defined as the state wherein a vessel can remain safely
moored at the berth during severe winds. For new MOTs,
the survival condition threshold is the maximum wind
velocity, for a 30 second gust and a 25-year return period,
obtained from historical data.
For an existing MOT, a reduced survival condition threshold
is acceptable (see Fig. 2-1). If the wind rises above these
levels, the vessel must depart the berth; it shall be able to
depart within 30 minutes (see 2 CCR 2340 (c) (28)) [3.8].
The 30-second duration wind speed shall be determined
from the annual maximum wind data. Average annual
summaries cannot be used. Maximum wind speed data for
eight directions (45-degree increments) shall be obtained.
If other duration wind data is available, it shall be adjusted to
a 30-second duration, in accordance with equation (3.12).
The 25-year return period shall be used to establish the
design wind speed for each direction. Once these wind
speeds are established for each increment, the highest wind
speed shall be used to determine the mooring/berthing risk
classification, from Table 31F-5-1.
In order to simplify the analysis for barges (or other small
vessels), they may be considered to be solid free-standing

walls (Section 6 of ASCE 7-98 [3.9]). This will eliminate the


need to perform a computer assisted mooring analysis.
3103F.5.2.2 Wind Speed Corrections.
Wind speed
measured at an elevation of 33 feet (10 meters) above the
water surface, with duration of 30 seconds shall be used to
determine the design wind speed. If these conditions are
not met, the following corrections shall be applied.
The correction for elevation is obtained from the equation:

V w = Vh

33

h

17

(3-11)

Vt =30 sec =
where:
Vt=30sec=
vt
=
ct
=

vt
ct

wind speed for a 30 second duration


wind speed over a given duration
conversion factor from Figure 31F-3-3

If wind data is available over land only, the following


equation shall be used to convert the wind speed from overland to over-water conditions [3.10]:
Vw = 1.10 VL

where:
=
Vw
Vh
=
h
=

wind speed at elevation 33 ft. (10 m.)


wind speed at elevation h
elevation above water surface of wind data[feet]

(3-12)

where:
=
Vw
VL
=

over water wind speed


over land wind speed

The available wind duration shall be adjusted to a 30second value, using the following formula:

Figure 31F-3-3 Windspeed Conversion Factor [3.10]

(3-13)

Figure 31F-3-4 Current Velocity Correction Factor ( p. 41, OCIMF, 1997 [3.11])

The
3103F.5.2.3
Static Wind Loads on Vessels.
Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs [3.11] or
the British Standard Code of Practice for Maritime
Structures [3.12] shall be used to determine the wind loads
for all tank vessels.
Alternatively, wind loads for any type of vessel may be
calculated using the guidelines in Ferritto et al, 1999 [3.13].

Operational dates need to be clearly stated in the definition


of the terminal operating limits (see subsection 3102F.3.6).
3103F.5.3.2 Current Velocity Adjustment Factors. An
average current velocity (Vc) shall be used to compute
forces and moments. If the current velocity profile is known,
the average current velocity can be obtained from the
following equation:

3103F.5.3 Current Loads. Environmental loads induced


by currents at MOTs shall be calculated as specified in this
subsection.
3103F.5.3.1 Design Current Velocity. Maximum ebb and
flood currents, annual river runoffs and controlled releases
shall be considered when establishing the design current
velocities for both existing and new MOTs.
Local current velocities may be obtained from NOAA [3.14]
or other sources, but must be supplemented by site-specific
data, if the current velocity is higher than 1.5 knots.
Site-specific data shall be obtained by real time
measurements over a one-year period. If this information is
not available, a safety factor of 1.25 shall be applied to the
best available data until real time measurements are
obtained.
If the facility is not in operation during annual river runoffs
and controlled releases, the current loads may be adjusted.

Vc2 = 1 / T (vc ) ds
2

(3-14)

where:
Vc = average current velocity (knots)
T = draft of vessel
vc = current velocity as a functionof depth (knots)
s = water depth measured from the surface
If the velocity profile is not known, the velocity at a known
water depth should be adjusted by the factors provided in
Figure 31F-3-4 to obtain the equivalent average velocity
over the draft of the vessel.
3103F.5.3.3 Static Current Loads. The OCIMF [3.11], the
British Standard [3.12] or the Mil-HDBK-1026/4A [3.15]
procedures shall be used to determine current loads for
moored tank vessels.
3103F.5.4
Wave Loads. When the significant wave
period, Ts , is greater than 4 seconds (See subsection

3105F.3.1), the transverse wave induced vessel reactions


shall be calculated using a simplified dynamic mooring
analysis described below.
The horizontal water particle accelerations shall be
calculated for the various wave conditions, taken at the middepth of the loaded vessel draft. The water particle
accelerations shall then be used to calculate the wave
excitation forces to determine the static displacement of the
vessel.
The Froude-Krylov method discussed in
Chakrabartis Chapter 7 [3.16] may be used to calculate the
wave excitation forces, by conservatively approximating the
vessel as a rectangular box with dimensions similar to the
actual dimensions of the vessel. The horizontal water
particle accelerations shall be calculated for the various
wave conditions, taken at the mid-depth of the loaded vessel
draft. The computed excitation force assumes a 90- degree
incidence angle with the longitudinal axis of the vessel,
which will result in forces that are significantly greater than
the forces that will actually act upon the vessel from
quartering seas. A load reduction factor may be used to
account for the design wave incidence angle from the
longitudinal axis of the ship. The overall excursion of the
vessel shall be determined for each of the wave conditions
by calculating the dynamic response of the linear spring
mass system.
3103F.5.5 Passing Vessels. When required in subsection
3105F.3, the sway and surge forces, as well as yaw
moment, on a moored vessel, due to passing vessels, shall
be established considering the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Ratio of length of moored vessel to length of passing


vessel
Distance from moored vessel to passing vessel
Ratio of mid-ship section areas of the moored and
passing vessels
Underkeel clearances of the moored and passing
vessels
Draft and trim of the moored vessel and draft of the
passing vessel
Mooring line tensions

The passing vessels speed should take into consideration


the ebb or flood current. Normal operating wind and current
conditions can be assumed when calculating forces due to a
passing vessel. Any of the following methods may be used
to determine forces on a moored vessel: Wang [3.17], Flory
[3.18] or Seelig [3.19].
3103F.5.6 Seiche. The penetration of long period low
amplitude waves into a harbor can result in resonant
standing wave systems, when the wave forcing frequency
coincides with a natural frequency of the harbor. The
resonant standing waves can result in large surge motions if
this frequency is close to the natural frequency of the
mooring system. Subsection 3105F.3.3 prescribes the
procedure for the evaluation of these effects.

3103F.5.7 Tsunamis. A tsunami may be generated by an


earthquake or a subsea or coastal landslide, which may

induce large wave heights and excessive currents. The


large wave or surge and the excessive currents are
potentially damaging, especially if there is a tank vessel
moored alongside.
Table 31F-3.8 provides estimated
tsunami run-up values for specific areas of California.
Tsunamis can be generated either by a distant or near
source. A tsunami generated by a distant source (far field
event) may allow operators to have an adequate warning for
mitigating the risk by departing the MOT and going into deep
water. For near-field events, with sources less than 500
miles away, the vessel may not have adequate time to
depart.

TABLE 31F-3-8
TSUNAMI RUN-UP VALUES [ft.] in CALIFORNIA [3.20], [3.21]

Location

100 Year Return


Period

500 Year
Return Period

W. Carquinez
Strait

3.3

4.0

Richmond Harbor
Channel

7.6

13.5

Richmond Inner
Harbor

5.9

10.6

Oakland Inner
Harbor

4.7-5.5

7.5-9.5

Oakland Middle
Harbor

5.9

10.5

Oakland Outer
Harbor

7.9-9.1

15.1-17.6

Hunters Point

3.9-5.3

5.0-8.7

San Francisco S.
of Bay Bridge

4.5-5.0

7.5-8.4

Ports of Los
Angeles and Long
Beach

8.0

15.0

Port Hueneme

11.0

21.0

Loads from tsunami-induced waves can be calculated for


various structural configurations [3.22]. Tsunami wave
heights in shallow water and particle kinematics can also be
obtained. Other structural considerations include uplift and
debris impact.
3103F.6 Berthing Loads
3103F.6.1 General. Berthing loads are quantified in terms
of transfer of kinetic energy of the vessel into potential
energy dissipated by the fender(s).
The terms and
equations below are based on those in Mil-HDBK-1025/1,
Piers and Wharves [3.23]. An alternate procedure is
presented in PIANC [3.24].
Kinetic energy shall be calculated from the following
equation:

E vessel =
where:
Evessel
W

=
=

g
Vn

=
=

1 W
2
Vn
2 g

(3-15)

Berthing energy of vessel [ft-lbs]


Total weight of vessel and cargo in pounds
[long tons x 2240]
2
Acceleration due to gravity [32.2 ft/sec ]
Berthing velocity normal to the berth [ft/sec]

The following correction factors shall be used to modify the


actual energy to be absorbed by the fender system:

E fender = C b C m E vessel

(3-16)

where:
Efender
Cb
Cm

=
=
=

Energy to be absorbed by the fender system


Berthing Coefficient
Effective mass or virtual mass coefficient (see
3103F.6.6)

The berthing coefficient, Cb, is given by:

Cb = C e C g C d C c

(3-17)

where:
Ce
Cc
Cg
Cd

=
=
=
=

Eccentricity Coefficient
Configuration Coefficient
Geometric Coefficient
Deformation Coefficient

These coefficients are defined in subsections 3103F.6.2


through 3103F.6.5.
The approximate displacement of the vessel (when only
partially loaded) at impact, DT, can be determined from an
extension of an equation from Gaythwaite [3.25]:

DT = 1.25 DWT (d actual d max )

(3-18)

to the reaction from the fender(s), the vessel will start to


rotate around the contact point, thus dissipating part of its
energy. Treating the vessel as a rigid rod of negligible width
in the analysis of the energy impact on the fenders leads to
the equation:

Ce =
where:
k
=
a
=

k2
a2 + k 2

(3-19)

Longitudinal radius of gyration of the vessel [ft]


Distance between the vessels center of gravity
and the point of contact on the vessels side,
projected onto the vessels longitudinal axis [ft]

3103F.6.3 Geometric Coefficient (Cg). The geometric


coefficient, Cg, depends upon the geometric configuration of
the ship at the point of impact. It varies from 0.85 for an
increasing convex curvature to 1.25 for concave curvature.
Generally, 0.95 is recommended for the impact point at or
beyond the quarter points of the ship, and 1.0 for broadside
berthing in which contact is made along the straight side
[3.23].
3103F.6.4 Deformation Coefficient (Cd). This accounts
for the energy reduction effects due to local deformation of
the ships hull and deflection of the whole ship along its
longitudinal axis. The energy absorbed by the ship depends
on the relative stiffness of the ship and the obstruction. The
deformation coefficient varies from 0.9 for a nonresilient
fender to nearly 1.0 for a flexible fender. For larger ships on
energy-absorbing fender systems, little or no deformation of
the ship takes place; therefore, a coefficient of 1.0 is
recommended.
3103F.6.5 Configuration Coefficient (Cc). This factor
accounts for the difference between an open pier or wharf
and a solid pier or wharf. In the first case, the movements of
the water surrounding the berthing vessel is not (or is
hardly) affected by the berth. In the second case, the water
between the berthing vessel and the structure, introduces a
cushion effect that represents an extra force on the vessel
away from the berth and reduces the energy to be absorbed
by the fender system.
For open berth and corners of solid piers, Cc = 1.0

where:
DWT =
dactual =
dmax =

For solid piers with parallel approach, Cc = 0.8


Dead Weight Tonnage (in long tons)
Actual arrival draft of the vessel
Maximum loaded vessel draft

The berthing load shall be based on the fender reaction due


to the kinetic berthing energy. The structural capacity shall
be established based on allowable concrete, steel or timber
properties in the structural components, as defined in
Section 3107.
3103F.6.2 Eccentricity Coefficient (Ce). During the
berthing maneuver, when the vessel is not parallel to the
berthing line (usually the wharf face), not all the kinetic
energy of the vessel will be transmitted to the fenders. Due

For berths with different conditions, Cc may be interpolated


between these values [3.23].
3103F.6.6 Effective Mass or Virtual Mass Coefficient
(Cm). In determining the kinetic energy of a berthing vessel,
the effective or the virtual mass is the sum of vessel mass
and hydrodynamic mass. The hydrodynamic mass does not
necessarily vary with the mass of the vessel, but is closely
related to the projected area of the vessel at right angles to
the direction of motion.
Other factors, such as the form of vessel, water depth,
berthing velocity, and acceleration or deceleration of the
vessel, will have some effect on the hydrodynamic mass.

Taking into account both model and prototype experiments,


the effective or virtual mass coefficient can be estimated as:

Cm = 1 + 2

d actual
B

or fully laden), and human factors (experience of the tug


boat captain.).
The berthing velocity, normal to berth, shall be in
accordance with Table 31F-3-9, for existing berths. Site
condition is determined from Table 31F-3-10. For new
berths, the berthing velocity, Vn, is established according to
Table 4.2.1 of the PIANC guidelines [3.24].

(3-20)

where:

dactual =
B

Subject to Division approval, if an existing MOT can


demonstrate lower velocities by velocity monitoring
equipment, then such a velocity may be used.

Actual arrival draft of the vessel


Beam of vessel

The value of Cm for use in design should be a minimum of


1.5 and need not exceed 2.0 [3.23].
3103F.6.7 Berthing Velocity and Angle. The berthing
velocity, Vn, is influenced by a large number of factors such
as, environmental conditions of the site (wind, current, and
wave), method of berthing (with or without tug boat
assistance), condition of the vessel during berthing (ballast

In order to obtain the normal berthing velocity, Vn, an


approach angle, defined as the angle formed by the fender
line and the longitudinal axis of the vessel must be
determined. The berthing angles, used to compute the
normal berthing velocity, for various vessel sizes are shown
in Table 31F-3-11.

TABLE 31F-3-9
BERTHING VELOCITY Vn (NORMAL TO BERTH)
Vessel Size (dwt)

Tug Boat Assistance

<10,000
10,000 50,000
50,000 100,000
>100,000

No
Yes
Yes
Yes

Site Conditions
Unfavorable

Moderate

Favorable

1.31 ft/sec
0.78 ft/sec
0.53 ft/sec
0.39 ft/sec

0.98 ft/sec
0.66 ft/sec
0.39 ft/sec
0.33 ft/sec

0.53 ft/sec
0.33 ft/sec
0.26 ft/sec
0.26 ft/sec

1. If tug boat is used for vessel size smaller than 10,000 DWT the berthing velocity may be reduced by 20%

TABLE 31F- 3-10


SITE CONDITIONS
Site Conditions

Description

Wind Speed1

Significant Wave Height

Current
Speed2

Unfavorable

Strong Wind
Strong Currents
High Waves

>38 knots

>6.5 ft

>2 knots

Moderate

Strong Wind
Moderate Current
Moderate Waves

>38 knots

<6.5 ft

<2 knots

Favorable

Moderate Wind
Moderate Current
Moderate Waves

<38 knots

<6.5 ft

<2 knots

1. A 30-second duration measured at a height of 33 ft.


2. Taken at 0.5 x water depth

TABLE 31F-3-11
MAXIMUM BERTHING ANGLE
Vessel Size (DWT)

Angle [degrees]

Barge

15

<10,000

10

10,00-50,000

> 50,000

The vacant condition is the case wherein there is no


vessel at the berth. The mooring and breasting
condition exists after the vessel is securely tied to the
wharf. The berthing condition occurs as the vessel
impacts the wharf, and the earthquake condition
assumes no vessel is at the berth, and there is no
wind or current forces on the structure.
The use of various load types is discussed below:

3103F.7 Wind And Current Loads On Structures.


3103F.7.1 General. This section provides methods
to determine the wind and current loads acting on the
structure directly, as opposed to forces acting on the
structure from a moored vessel.

3103F.8.1 Dead Load (D). Upper and lower bound


values of dead load are applied for the vacant
condition to check the maximum moment and shear
with minimum axial load.
3103F.8.2 Live Load (L). The live load on MOTs is
typically small and is therefore neglected for
combinations including earthquake loads.
3103F.8.3 Buoyancy Load (B). Buoyancy forces
shall be considered for any submerged or immersed
substructures (including pipelines, sumps and
structural components).

TABLE 31F-3-12
LRFD LOAD FACTORS FOR LOAD COMBINATIONS [3.13]

Load Type
Dead Load (D)
Live Load (L)
Buoyancy (B)
Wind on Structure (W)
Current on Structure (C)
Earth Pressure on the Structure
(H)
Mooring/Breasting Load (M)
Berthing Load (Be)
Earthquake Load (E)
a.
b.
c.

Vacant
Condition
1.4a
1.7b
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.6

Mooring &
Breasting
Condition
1.2
1.7b
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.6

Berthing
Condition
1.2

Earthquake
Condition
c
1k

1.3
1.0
1.0
1.6

1.0

1.3
1.7
1.0

Reduce load factor for dead load (D) to 0.9 to check components for minimum axial load and maximum moment.
The load factor for live load (L) may be reduced to 1.3 for the maximum outrigger float load from a truck crane.
k = 0.50 (PGA)

3103F.7.2 Wind Loads. Section 6 of the ASCE 7


[3.9] shall be used to establish minimum wind loads
on the structure. Additional information about wind
loads may be obtained from Simiu and Scanlan
[3.26].
3103F.7.3 Current Loads. The current forces acting
on the structure may be established using the current
velocities, per subsection 3103F.5.3.
3103F.8 Load Combinations. Each component of
the structure shall be analyzed for all applicable load
combinations given in Table 31F3-12 or 31F-3-13,
depending on component type.

3103F.8.4 Wind (W) and Current (C) on the


Structure. Wind and currents on the vessel are
included in the mooring and breasting condition. The
wind and current loads acting on the structure are
therefore additional loads that can act simultaneously
with the mooring, breasting and/or berthing loads.
3103F.8.5 Earth Pressure on the Structure (H).
The soil pressure on end walls, typically concrete cutoff walls, steel sheet pile walls on wharf type
structures and/or piles shall be considered.

TABLE 31F-3-13
SERVICE or ASD LOAD FACTORS FOR LOAD COMBINATIONS
Vacant
Condition

Mooring &
Breasting
Condition

Berthing
Condition

Earthquake
Condition

Dead Load (D)

1.0

1.0

1.0

10.7k

Live Load (L)

1.0

1.0

Buoyancy (B)

1.0

1.0

1.0

Wind on Structure (W)

1.0

1.0

1.0

Current on Structure (C)

1.0

1.0

1.0

Earth Pressure on the structure


(H)

1.0

1.0

1.0

Load Type

Mooring/Breasting Load (M)

1.0

1.0

Berthing Load (Be)

1.0

Earthquake Load (E)


% Allowable Stress
a.

0.7
100

100

100

133

k= 0.5 (PGA)

3103F.8.6
Mooring Line/Breasting Loads (M).
Mooring line and breasting loads can occur
simultaneously or individually, depending on the
combination of wind and current. Multiple load cases
for operating and survival conditions may be required
(see subsections 3103F.5.2 and 3105F.2).
In
addition, loads caused by passing vessels shall be
considered for the mooring and breasting condition.
Refer to subsections 3105F.2 and 3105F.3 for the
determination of mooring line and breasting loads.
3103F.8.7 Berthing Load (Be). Berthing is a
frequent occurrence, and shall be considered as a
normal operating load. No increase in allowable
stresses shall be applied for ASD, and a load factor of
1.7 shall be applied for the LRFD approach.
3103F.8.8 Earthquake Loads (E). In LRFD or
performance based design, use a load factor of 1.0;
for ASD use 0.7. A load factor of 1.0 shall be
assigned to the earthquake loads. Performance
based seismic analysis methodology requires that the
actual force demand be limited to defined strains in
concrete, steel and timber. For the deck and pile
evaluation, two cases of dead load (upper and lower
bound) shall be considered in combination with the
seismic load.
3103F.9 Safety Factors For Mooring Lines. Safety
factors for different material types of mooring lines are
given in Table 31F-3-14. The safety factors should be
applied to the minimum number of lines specified by
the mooring analysis, using the highest loads
calculated for the environmental conditions. The
minimum breaking load (mbl) of new ropes is
obtained from the certificate issued by the

manufacturer. If nylon tails are used in combination


with steel wire ropes, the safety factor shall be based
on the weaker of the two ropes.
3103F.10 Mooring Hardware. Marine hardware
consists of quick release hooks, other mooring fittings
and base bolts.
The certificate issued by the
manufacturer normally defines the allowable working
loads of this hardware.
TABLE 31F-3-14
SAFETY FACTORS FOR ROPES*
Steel Wire Rope

1.82

Nylon

2.2

Other Synthetic

2.0

Polyester Tail

2.3

Nylon Tail
2.5
*From Mooring Equipment Guidelines, OCIMF[3.27]

3103F.10.1 Quick Release Hooks. For new MOTs,


a minimum of three quick-release hooks are required
for each breasting line location for tankers larger than
50,000 DWT. At least two hooks at each location
shall be provided for breasting lines for tankers less
than 50,000 DWT.
All hooks shall withstand the minimum breaking load
(MBL) of the strongest line with a Safety Factor of 1.2
or greater. Only one mooring line shall be placed on
each quick release hook.
3103F.10.2 Other Fittings.
cleats, bitts, and bollards.

Other fittings include

If the allowable working loads for existing fittings are


not available, the values listed in Table 31F-3-15 may
be used, for typical sizes, bolt patterns and layout.
The allowable working loads are defined for mooring
line angles up to 60 degrees from the horizontal. The
combination of vertical and horizontal loads must be
considered.

TABLE 31F-3-15

3103F.12 Symbols.

B
B1 ,

=
=

Bs

Cb
Cc
Cg
Cd
Ce
Cm
Ct
DSA
DSAd
DT
DWT
dactual
dmax

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

ALLOWABLE WORKING LOADS


Type of
Fittings

No. of
Bolts

Bolt Size
(in)

Working Load
(kps)

30 in. Cleat

1-1/8

20

42 in. Cleat

1-1/8

40

Low Bitt

10

1-5/8

60 per column

High Bitt

10

1-3/4

75 per column

44-1/2 in.
Ht. Bollard

1-3/4

70

44-1/2 in.
Ht. Bollard

2-1/4

200

48 in.
Ht. Bollard

12

2-3/4

450

Note: This table is modified from Table 48, MIL-HDBK1026/4A [3.15]

E fender
3103F.10.3 Base Bolts. Base bolts are subjected to
both shear and uplift. Forces on bolts shall be
determined using the following factors:
1.

Height of load application on bitts or bollards.

2.

Actual vertical angles of mooring lines for the


highest and lowest tide and vessel draft
conditions, for all sizes of vessels at each
particular berth
Actual horizontal angles from the mooring line
configurations, for all vessel sizes and positions
at each particular berth.
Simultaneous loads from more than one vessel

3.

4.

For existing MOTs, the deteriorated condition of the


base bolts and supporting members shall be
considered in determining the capacity of the fitting.
3103F.11 Miscellaneous Loads. Handrails and
guardrails shall be designed for 25 plf with a 200
pounds minimum concentrated load in any location or
direction.

Distance between the vessels center of


gravity and the point of contact on the
vessels side, projected onto the vessels
longitudinal axis [ft]
Beam of vessel
Coefficient used to adjust one-second period
spectral response, for the effect of viscous
damping
Coefficient used to adjust the short period
spectral response, for the effect of visous
damping.
Berthing Coefficient
Configuration Coefficient
Geometric Coefficient
Deformation Coefficient
Eccentricity Coefficient
Effective mass or virtual mass coefficient
Windspeed conversion factor
Design Spectral Acceleration
DSA values at damping other than 5%
Displacement of vessel
Dead weight tons
Arrival maximum draft of vessel at berth
Maximum vessel draft (in open seas)
Energy to be absorbed by the fender system

Evessel
Fa, Fv
g
h
K

=
=
=
=
=

Berthing energy of vessel [ft-lbs]


Site coefficients from Tables 3-5 and 3-6
Acceleration due to gravity [32.2 ft/sec2]
Elevation above water surface [feet]
Current velocity correction factor (Fig 3-4)

PGAX

s
Sa
S1

=
=
=

SA-SF
SS

=
=

SX1

SXS

Radius of longitudinal gyration of the vessel


[ft]
Peak ground acceleration corresponding to
the Site Class under consideration.
Water depth measured from the surface
Spectral acceleration
Spectral acceleration value (for the boundary
of SB and SC) at 1.0 second
Site classes as defined in Table 6-1
Spectral acceleration value (for the boundary
of SB and SC) at 0.2
Spectral acceleration value at 1.0 second
corresponding to the Site Class under
consideration
Spectral acceleration value at 0.2 second
corresponding to the period of SS and the
Site Class under consideration

T
T
To

=
=
=

Vc
vc
Vh
VL
Vn

=
=
=
=
=

vt
Vt=30 sec
Vw
W

=
=
=
=

WD

Draft of vessel (see Fig 3-4)


Period (Sec)
Period at which the constant acceleration
and constant velocity regions of the design
spectrum intersect
Average current velocity [knots]
Current velocity as a function of depth [knots]
Wind speed (knots) at elevation h
Over land wind speed

Engineering,
Davis, CA.

[3.2]

[3.3]

[3.4]

Federal Emergency Management Agency,


FEMA-356, Nov. 2000, Prestandard and
Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation
of Buildings, Washington, D.C.
California Geological Survey, 1998,
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Map of
California,
(website:
www.consrv.ca.gov/dmg/rghm/psha/index.
htm), Sacramento, CA.
Idriss, I.M., August 1985, Evaluating
Seismic Risk in Engineering Practice,
Proceedings, Theme Lecture No. 6, XI
International
Conference
on
Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,
San Francisco, CA, vol. I, pp. 255-320.
Southern California Earthquake Center
(SCEC), March 1999, Recommended
Procedures for Implementation of DMG
Special Publication 117 Guidelines for
Analyzing and Mitigating Liquefaction in
California,
University
of
Southern
California, Los Angeles.

[3.5]

Savy, J. and Foxall, W, 2002, Probabilistic


Seismic Hazard Analysis for Southern
California
Coastal
Facilities,
2003,
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

[3.6]

Idriss, I.M. and Sun, J.I., 1992, User's


Manual for SHAKE91, A Computer
Program for Conducting Equivalent Linear
Seismic
Response
Analyses
of
Horizontally Layered Soil Deposits,
Center
for
Geotechnical
Modeling,
Department of Civil and Environmental

California,

Somerville, Paul G., Smith, Nancy F.,


Graves, Robert W., and Abrahamson,
Norman A., 1997, Modification of
Empirical
Strong
Ground
Motion
Attenuation Relations to Include the
Amplitude and Duration Effects of Rupture
Directivity,
Seismological
Research
Letters, Volume 68, Number 1, pp.199 222.

[3.8]

California Code of Regulations, Marine


Terminals, Inspection and Monitoring, Title
2, Division 3, Chapter 1, Article 5.
California State Lands Commission,
Sacramento, CA.

[3.9]

American Society of Civil Engineers, Jan.


2000, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 798, Revision of ANSI/ASCE 9-95, Reston,
VA.

[3.10]

Pile Buck Production, 1992, Mooring


Systems, Pile Buck Inc., Jupiter, Florida.

[3.11]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF), 1977, Prediction of Wind and
Current Loads on VLCCs, London,
England.

[3.12]

British Standards Institution, 2000, British


Standard Code of Practice for Maritime
Structures - Part 1 General Criteria
BS6349, Part 1, London, England.

[3.13]

Ferritto, J., Dickenson, S., Priestley N.,


Werner, S., Taylor, C., Burke D., Seelig
W., and Kelly, S., 1999, Seismic Criteria
for California Marine Oil Terminals, Vol.1
and Vol.2, Technical Report TR-2103SHR, Naval Facilities Engineering Service
Center, Port Hueneme, CA.

[3.14]

National
Oceanic
and
Atmospheric
Administration, Contact: National PORTS
Program Manager, Center for Operational
Oceanographic Products and Services,
1305 EW Highway, Silver Spring, MD
20910,
web
page:
http://coops.nos.noaa.gov/d_ports.html

[3.15]

Dept. of Defense, 1 July 1999, Mooring


Design, Mil-HDBK-1026/4A, Washington,
D.C.

[3.16]

Chakrabarti, S. K., 1987, Hydrodynamics


of Offshore Structures, Computational
Mechanics.

3103F.13 References.
[3.1]

of

[3.7]

Berthing velocity normal to the berth [ft/sec]


Velocity over a given time period
Wind speed for a 30 second interval
Wind speed at 33 ft. (10 m) elevation [knots]
Total weight of vessel and cargo in pounds
[displacement tonnage x 2240]
Water Depth (Fig 3-4)

University

[3.17]

Wang, Shen, August 1975, Dynamic


Effects of Ship Passage on Moored
Vessels, Journal of the Waterways,
Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division,
Proceedings of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, Vol. 101, WW3, Reston,
VA.

[3.18]

Flory, John. F., 2001, A Method for


Estimating
Passing
Ship
Effects,
Proceedings,
Ports
2001,
ASCE
Conference April 29-May 2, Norfolk,
Virginia.

[3.19]

Seelig, William N., 20 November 2001,


Passing Ship Effects on Moored Ships,
Technical Report TR-6027-OCN, Naval
Facilities Engineering Service Center,
Washington, D.C.

[3.20]

Garcia, A. W. and Houston, J. R.,


November, 1975, Type 16 Flood
Insurance Study: Tsunami Predictions for
Monterey and San Francisco Bays and
Puget Sound, Technical Report H-75-17,
U.S.
Army
Engineer
Waterways
Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

[3.21]

Synolakis, C., Tsunami and Seiche,


Chapter 9 in Earthquake Engineering
Handbook, Chen, W., Scawthorn, C. S.
and Arros, J. K., editors, 2002, CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL.

[3.22]

Camfield, Frederick E., February 1980,


Tsunami Engineering, U.S. Army, Corps
of Engineers, Coastal Research Center,
Special Report No. 6.

[3.23]

Dept. of Defense, 30 June 1994, Military


Handbook, Piers and Wharves, MilHDBK-1025/1, Washington, D.C.

[3.24]

Permanent International Association of


Navigation Congresses (PIANC), 2002,
Guidelines for the Design of Fender
Systems: 2002, Brussels.

[3.25]

Gaythwaite, John, 1990, Design of Marine


Facilities for the Berthing, Mooring and
Repair of Vessels, Van Nostrand
Reinhold.

[3.26]

Simiu E. and Scanlan R., 1978, Wind


Effects on Structures: An Introduction to
Wind Engineering, Wiley-Interscience
Publications, New York.

[3.27]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF), 1997, Mooring equipment
nd
Guidelines, 2 ed., London, England.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 4

SECTION 3104F SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND


STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE

the classification level of the facility may be lowered.


All new MOTs are classified as high risk.

3104F.1 General

Each
3104F.1.4
Configuration Classification.
onshore MOT shall be designated as regular or
irregular, in accordance with Figure 31F-4-1.

3104F.1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this Section is


to establish minimum standards for seismic analysis
and structural performance. Seismic performance is
evaluated at two criteria levels. Level 1 requirements
define a performance criterion to ensure MOT
functionality. Level 2 requirements safeguard against
major structural damage or collapse.
3104F.1.2 Applicability. Section 3104F applies to
all new and existing MOTs structures. Structures
supporting loading arms, pipelines, oil transfer and
storage equipment, critical non-structural systems and
vessel mooring structures, such as mooring and
breasting dolphins are included. Catwalks and similar
components that are not part of the lateral load
carrying system and do not support oil transfer
equipment may be excluded.
3104F.1.3 Oil Spill Risk Classification. Each
existing MOT shall be catagorized into one of three
risk classifications (high, moderate or low) as shown
in Table 31F-4-1, based on the following:
1. Exposed total volume of oil during transfer (total
volume as calculated in subsection 3108F.2.3)
2. Number of oil transfer operations per berthing
system per year
3. Maximum vessel size (DWT) that may call at the
berthing system
If risk reduction strategies (see subsection 3101F.5)
are adopted such that the maximum volume of
exposed oil during transfer is less than 1,200 barrels,

Figure 31F-4-1: Pier and Wharf Configurations


Irregular configurations, such as the T layout, may
be analyzed as regular if the presence of expansion
joints divides the T-configuration into two or more
regular segments. Expansion joints in this context are
defined as joints that separate each structural
segment in such a manner that each segment will
move independently during an earthquake.

TABLE 31F-4-1
MOT RISK CLASSIFICATION
Risk Classification

Exposed Oil (bbls)

Transfers per Year per


Berthing System

Maximum Vessel Size


(DWTx1000)

High

1200

N.A.

N.A.

Moderate

<1200

90

30

Low

<1200

<90

<30

If an irregular MOT is divided into seismically isolated


sections, an evaluation of the relative movement of pipelines
and supports shall be considered, including phase
differences (subsection 3109F.3).
3104F.2

EXISTING MOTs

3104F.2.1 Design Earthquake Motions. Two levels of


design seismic performance shall be considered. These
levels are defined as follows:
Level 1 Seismic Performance:

Minor or no structural damage

Temporary or no interruption in operations


Level 2 Seismic Performance:

Controlled inelastic structural behavior with


repairable damage

Prevention of structural collapse

Temporary loss of operations, restorable within


months
Prevention of major spill ( 1200 bbls)
3104F.2.2 Basis for Evaluation. Component capacities
shall be based on existing conditions, calculated as best
estimates, taking into account the mean material strengths,
strain hardening and degradation over time. The capacity of
components with little or no ductility, which may lead to
brittle failure scenarios, shall be calculated based on lower
bound material strengths. Methods to establish component
strength and deformation capacities for typical structural
materials and components are provided in Section 3107F.
Geotechnical considerations are discussed in Section
3106F.
3104F.2.3 Analytical Procedures. The objective of the
seismic analysis is to verify that the displacement capacity
of the structure is greater than the displacement demand, for
each performance level defined in Table 31F-4-2. The
required analytical procedures are summarized in Table
31F-4-3.
The displacement capacity of the structure shall be
calculated using the nonlinear static (pushover) procedure.
It is also acceptable to use a nonlinear dynamic procedure
for capacity evaluation. Methods used to calculate the
displacement demand are linear modal, nonlinear static and
nonlinear dynamic.

Risk Classification
High
Moderate
Low

Seismic
Performance Level
Level 1
Level 2
Level 1
Level 2
Level 1
Level 2

Any rational method, subject to the Divisions approval, can


be used in lieu of the required analytical procedures shown
in Table 31F-4-3.
3104F.2.3.1
Nonlinear Static Capacity Procedure
(Pushover). Two-dimensional nonlinear static (pushover)
analyses shall be performed; three-dimensional analyses
are optional. A model that incorporates the nonlinear load
deformation characteristics of all components for the lateral
force-resisting system shall be displaced to a target
displacement to determine the internal deformations and
forces. The target displacement depends on the seismic
performance level under consideration and the details are
as follows:
3104F.2.3.1.1 Modeling. A series of nonlinear pushover
analyses may be required depending on the complexity of
the MOT structure. At a minimum, pushover analysis of a
two-dimensional model shall be conducted in both the
longitudinal and transverse directions. The piles shall be
represented by nonlinear elements that capture the
moment-curvature/rotation relationships for components
with expected inelastic behavior in accordance with Section
3107F. A nonlinear element is not required to represent
each pile location. Piles with similar lateral force-deflection
behavior may be lumped in fewer larger springs provided
that the overall torsional effects are captured.
Linear material component behavior is acceptable where
nonlinear response will not occur. All components shall be
based on effective moment of inertia calculated in
accordance with Section 3107F. Specific requirements for
timber pile structures are discussed in the next subsection.
3104F.2.3.1.2 Timber Pile Supported Structures. For all
timber pile supported structures, linear elastic procedures
may be used. Alternatively, the nonlinear static procedure
may be used to estimate the target displacement demand,
d.
A simplified single pile model for a typical timber pile
supported structure is shown in Figure 31F-4-2. The piledeck connections may be assumed to be pinned. The
lateral bracing can often be ignored if it is in poor condition.
These assumptions shall be used for the analysis, unless a
detailed condition assessment and lateral analysis indicate
that the existing bracing and connections may provide
reliable lateral resistance.

Probability of
Exceedance
50% in 50 years
10% in 50 years
65% in 50 years
15% in 50 years
75% in 50 years
20% in 50 years

Return Period
72 years
475 years
48 years
308 years
36 years
224 years

TABLE 31F-4-3
MINIMUM REQUIRED ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES
Risk Classification

Configuration

Substructure
Material

Displacement
Demand Procedure

Displacement
Capacity Procedure

High/Moderate

Irregular

High/Moderate

Regular

Concrete/Steel

Linear Modal

Nonlinear Static

Concrete/Steel

Nonlinear Static

Nonlinear Static

Low
High/Moderate/Low

Regular/Irregular

Concrete/Steel

Nonlinear Static

Nonlinear Static

Regular/Irregular

Timber

Nonlinear Static

Nonlinear Static

A series of single pile analyses may be sufficient to


establish the nonlinear springs required for the
pushover analysis.

Figure 31F-4-2: Simplified Single Pile Model of a


Timber Pile Supported Structure
3104F.2.3.1.3
Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI).
Load-deformation characteristics for foundations shall
be modeled as per subsection 3106F.5. Selection of
soil springs shall be based on the following:
1.

Effect of the large difference in up and down


slope stiffnesses for wharf type structures

2.

Effect of upper and lower bound soil parameters,


especially for t-z curves used to model batter pile
behavior

A separate analysis that captures the demand


(subsection 3104F.2.3.2) on the piles due to
permanent ground deformations, at embankments
only, shall be performed.
If a simplified methodology is followed, the piles need
to be checked for the following load combinations:
1.0Einertial
1.0Hd + 0.25Einertial
where:
Einertial
Hd

=
=

Inertial seismic load


Foundation deformation load

3104F.2.3.2 Nonlinear Static Demand Procedure.


A nonlinear static procedure shall be used to
determine the displacement demand for all concrete
and steel structures, with the exception of irregular
configurations with high or moderate seismic risk
classifications. The following subsections describe
the procedure of reference [4.1]; an alternate
procedure is presented in ATC 40 [4.2]. A linear
modal procedure is required for irregular structures
with high or moderate seismic risk classifications, and
may be used for all other classifications in lieu of the
nonlinear static procedure.
3104F.2.3.2.1
Lateral Stiffness.
The lateral
stiffness, k, is calculated from the force-displacement
relation as the total base shear, Vy , corresponding to
the yield displacement of the structure y. y is the
displacement at first yield in the pile/deck connection
reinforcement.
3104F.2.3.2.2 Structural Period. The fundamental
period, T, of the structure in the direction under
consideration shall be calculated as follows:

T = 2
where:
m
=
k
=
g

m
k

(4-1)

mass of structure in kips/g


stiffness in direction under consideration in
kips/ft.
gravity, 32 ft/sec2 (9.8 meters/sec2)

3104F.2.3.2.3 Target Displacement Demand. The


target displacement demand of the structure, d, can

be calculated by multiplying the spectral


response acceleration, SA, corresponding to the
2
2
period, T, by T /4

d = SA

T2
4 2

(4-2)

If T < To, where To is the period corresponding to the


peak of the acceleration response spectrum, a refined
analysis (see subsection 3104F.2.3.2.5) shall be used

to
calculate
the
displacement
demand.
Multidirectional excitation shall be addressed per
subsection 3104F.4.2.
3104F.2.3.2.4 Damping. The displacement demand
established in subsection 3104F.2.3.2.3 is based on
5% damping. Higher damping values obtained from a
refined analysis may be used to calculate the
displacement demand.
3104F.2.3.2.5
Refined Analyses.
Refined
displacement demand analyses may be calculated as
per Chapters 4 and 5 of [4.1] and is briefly
summarized below.

3.

Determine d, from subsection 3104F.2.3.2.3.


From the nonlinear pushover analysis, determine
the structural yield displacement y.
The ductility level, , is found from d/y. Use
the appropriate relationship between ductility and
damping, for the component undergoing inelastic
deformation, to estimate the effective structural
damping, eff. In lieu of more detailed analysis,
the relationship shown in Figure 31F-4-3 or
equation (4.3) may be used for concrete and
steel piles connected to the deck through dowels
embedded in the concrete.

eff = 0.05 +

1 1 r
1
r (4-3)

where:

r
4.

6.

ratio of second slope over elastic


slope (see Figure 31F-4-5)

From the acceleration response spectra, create


elastic displacement spectra, SD , using equation
(4.4) for various levels of damping.

SD =
5.

Figure 31F-4-3: Relation Between Ductility,


and Effective Damping, eff [4.1]

Displacement

1.
2.

T2
SA
4 2

(4-4)

Figure 31F-4-4 Design Displacement


Response Spectra

7.

The effective stiffness ke, can then be found


from:

Using the curve applicable to the effective


structural damping, , find the effective period, Td
(see Figure 31F-4-4).
In order to convert from a design displacement
response spectra to another spectra for a different
damping level, the adjustment factors in
subsection 3103F.4.2.9 shall be used.

ke =

4 2
M
Td2

(4-5)

where:
M

Td

mass of deck considered in the


analysis.
effective structural period

8.

The required strength Fu, can now be estimated


by:

Fu = k e d

(4-6)

Fu and d can be plotted on the forcedisplacement curve established by the pushover


analysis. Since this is an iterative process, the
intersection of Fu and d most likely will not fall
on the force-displacement curve and a second
iteration will be required. An adjusted value of
d, taken as the intersection between the forcedisplacement curve and a line between the
origin and Fu and d, can be used to find .

10.

Repeat the process until a satisfactory solution


is obtained (see Figure 31F-4-5).

Lateral Force

9.

approach. Most of the p-y springs will typically be


based on their initial stiffness; no iteration is required.
If the fundamental period in the direction under
consideration is less than To, as defined in subsection
3104F.2.3.2.3, then the displacement demand shall
be amplified as specified in subsection 3104F.2.3.2
.5.

Figure 31F-4-6: Stiffness for Linear Modal


Analysis

Figure 31F-4-5: Effective Stiffness, ke [4.1]

3104F.2.3.4
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis.
Nonlinear dynamic time history analysis is optional,
and if performed, a peer review is required (see
subsection 3101F.6.1). Multiple acceleration records
shall be used, as explained in subsection
3103F.4.2.10. The following assumptions may be
made:
1.

3104F.2.3.3 Linear Modal Demand Procedure. For


irregular concrete/steel structures with moderate or
high risk classifications, a linear analysis is required to
predict the global displacement demands. A 3-D
linear elastic response analysis shall be used, with
effective moment of inertia applied to components to
establish lateral displacement demands.
Sufficient modes shall be included in the analysis
such that 90% of the participating mass is captured in
each of the principal horizontal directions for the
structure. For modal combinations, the Complete
Quadratic Combination rule shall be used.
Multidirectional excitation shall be accounted for in
accordance with subsection 3104F.4.2.
The lateral stiffness of the linear elastic response
model shall be based on the initial stiffness of the
nonlinear pushover curve as shown in Figure 31F-4-6
(also see subsection 3106F.5.1). The p-y springs
shall be adjusted based on the secant method

2.

Equivalent super piles can represent groups of


piles.
If the deck has sufficient rigidity (both in-plane
and out-of-plane) to justify its approximation as a
rigid element, a 2-D plan simulation may be
adequate.

A time-history analysis should always be compared


with a simplified approach to ensure that results are
reasonable. Displacements calculated from the
nonlinear time history analyses may be used directly
in design, but shall not be less than 80% of the values
obtained from subsection 3104F.2.3.2.
3104F.2.3.5 Alternative Procedures. Alternative
lateral-force procedures using rational analyses
based on well-established principles of mechanics
may be used in lieu of those prescribed in these
provisions. As per subsection 3101F.6.1, peer review
is required.
3104F.3 New MOTs. The analysis and design
requirements described in subsection 3104F.2 shall

also apply to new MOTs. Additional requirements are


as follows:
1.
2.

Site specific response spectra analysis (see


subsection 3103F.4.2.3).
Soil parameters based on site specific and new
borings (see subsection 3106F.2.2).

3104F.4 General Analysis and Design


Requirements.
3104F.4.1 Load Combinations. Earthquake loads
shall be used in the load combinations described in
subsection 3103F.8.
3104F.4.2 Combination of Orthogonal Effects.
The design displacement demand, d , shall be
calculated by combining the longitudinal, x , and
transverse, y , displacements in the horizontal
plane (Figure 31F-4-7):

d =

x2 + y2

In lieu of combining the displacement demands as


presented above, the design displacement demand
for marginal wharf type MOTs may be calculated as:

d = y 1 + ( 0.3( 1 + 20 e / Ll )) 2
where:
e

=
=

Ll

transverse displacement demand


eccentricity between center of mass and
center of rigidity
longitudinal
length
between
wharf
expansion

This equation is only valid for wharf aspect ratios


(length/breadth) greater than 3.
3104F.4.3 P- Effects. The P- effect (i.e. the
additional moment induced by the total vertical load
multiplied by the lateral deck deflection) shall be
considered unless the following relationship is
satisfied (see Figure 31F-4-8):

(4-7)

V
4 d
W
H

where:

and

(4-12)

x = xy + 0.3 xx

(4-8)

y = 0.3yx + yy

(4-9)

(4-13)

where:

Figure 31F-4-7 Plan View of Wharf Segment under X and Y seismic excitations [4.3]

or

y = yx + 0.3yy

(4-10)

base shear strength of the structure


obtained from a plastic analysis
dead load of the frame

displacement demand

distance from the location of maximum inground moment to center of gravity of the
deck

and

x = 0.3xy + xx

(4-11)

whichever results in the greater design displacement


demand.

3104F.4.7
Batter Piles.
Batter piles primarily
respond to earthquakes by developing large axial
compression or tension forces. Bending moments are
generally of secondary importance.
Failure in
compression may be dictated by the deck-pile
connection
(most
common
type),
material
compression, buckling, or by excessive local shear in
deck members adjacent to the batter pile. Failure in
tension may be dictated by connection strength or by
pile pull out. (p. 3-83 of [4.3]).

Figure 31F-4-8: P- Effect


For wharf structures where the lateral displacement is
limited by almost fully embedded piles, P- effects
may be ignored; however, the individual stability of
the piles shall be checked in accordance with
subsection 3107F.2.5.2.
If the landside batter piles are allowed to fail in a
Level 2 evaluation, the remaining portion of the wharf
shall be checked for P- effects.
3104F.4.4
Expansion Joints.
The effect of
expansion joints shall be considered in the seismic
analysis.
3104F.4.5 Shear Key Forces. Shear force across
shear keys connecting adjacent wharf segments, Vsk ,
(approximate upper bound to the shear key force
[4.3]) shall be calculated as follows:

Vsk=1.5(e/Ll)VT

(4-14)

Where VT is the total segment lateral force found


from a pushover analysis at the level of displacement
T calculated for pure translational response at the
appropriate limit state. Ll is the segment length and e
is the eccentricity between the center of stiffness and
the center of mass.
3104F.4.6 Connections. For an existing wharf, the
deteriorated conditions at the junction between the
pile top and pile cap shall be considered in evaluating
the moment capacity. Connection detail between the
vertical pile and pile cap shall be evaluated to
determine whether full or partial moment capacity can
be developed under seismic action.
For new MOTs, the connection details shall develop
the full moment capacities.
The modeling shall simulate the actual moment
capacity (full or partial) of the joint in accordance with
subsection 3107F.2.7.

When the controlling failure scenario is reached and


the batter pile fails, the computer model shall be
adjusted to consist of only the vertical pile acting
either as a full or partial moment frame based on the
connection details between the pile top and pile cap.
The remaining displacement capacity, involving
vertical piles, before the secondary failure stage
develops, shall then be established (see subsection
3107F.2.8).
Axial p-z curves shall be modeled. In compression,
displacement capacity should consider the effect of
the reduction in pile modulus of elasticity at high loads
and the increase in effective length for friction piles.
This procedure allows the pile to deform axially before
reaching ultimate loads, thereby increasing the
displacement ductility [4.3].
Horizontal nonlinear p-y springs are only applied to
batter piles with significant embedment, such as for
landside batter piles in a wharf structure. Moment
fixity can be assumed for batter piles that extend well
above the ground such as waterside batter piles in a
wharf structure or batter piles in a pier type structure.
3104F.5 Nonstructural Components. Nonstructural
components including, but not limited to pipelines,
loading arms, raised platforms, control rooms and
vapor control equipment may affect the global
structural response. In such cases, the seismic
characteristics (mass and/or stiffness) of the
nonstructural components shall be considered in the
structural analysis.
3104F.5.1
Mass Contribution.
The weight of
permanently attached nonstructural components shall
be included in the dead load of the structure, per
subsection 3103F.2. An exception is an MOT pipeline
that is allowed to slide between anchor points and
hence the pipeline response is typically out of phase
with the structural response. Thus, the pipeline may
be subjected to a different acceleration than the
substructure, even if the pipeline cannot slide
between anchor points. In such cases, the pipeline
mass shall not be included directly in the seismic
mass of the structure.

3104F.5.2
Seismic Loads.
In general, for
nonstructural components, the evaluation procedures
of section 3110F.8 are adequate.
For pipelines, the seismic analysis shall be performed
in accordance with subsection 3109F.3, in lieu of
subsection 3110F.8. If an analysis has been
performed and support reactions are available, they
may be used to determine the forces on the support
structure.
A pipeline segment under consideration shall extend
between two adjacent anchor points. A simplified
pipeline analysis may be used when the relative
displacement demands of anchor points are
considered. As an option, a full nonlinear time-history
analysis can be used to capture the nonlinear
interaction between the structure and the pipeline.
3104F.6
Nonstructural
Critical
Systems
Assessment.
A seismic assessment of the
survivability and continued operation during a Level 2
earthquake (see Table 31F-4-2) shall be performed
for critical systems such as fire protection, emergency
shutdown and electrical power systems. The
assessment shall consider the adequacy and
condition of anchorage, flexibility and seismicallyinduced interaction. The results shall be included in
the Audit.
3104F.7 Symbols.

= Eccentricity between center of mass and

Einertial
Fu
Fp

= Inertial seismic load


= Required strength at maximum response
= Seismic design force applied horizontally

Fpv

center of rigidity

r
SA
SD
Sap

=
=
=
=

T
Td
V

=
= Effective structural period
= Base shear strength of the structure

W
Wp

= Dead load of the frame


= Weight of pipeline

d
x
xx

= Longitudinal displacement demand

xy

= X

y
yx

= Y

under

direction

yy

under

direction

eff or

Ratio of second slope over elastic slope


Spectral response acceleration, at T
Displacement response spectrum, at T
Spectral response acceleration of pipeline
segment under consideration
Fundamental period of structure

obtained from a plastic analysis


segment
consideration
Design displacement demand

= X

displacement
excitation

under

under

direction

displacement under Y direction


excitation
Transverse displacement demand
displacement
excitation
Y displacement
excitation
Ductility level

= Effective structural damping

3104F.8 References.
[4.1]

Priestley, M.J.N., Sieble, F., Calvi, G.M.,


1996, Seismic Design and Retrofit of
Bridges, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, USA.

= Seismic design force applied vertically to

[4.2]

Applied Technology Council, ATC-40, 1996,


Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete
Buildings, Vol 1 and 2, Redwood City, CA.

[4.3]

Hd

Ip
K

= Importance factor equal to 1.0


= Stiffness in direction under consideration in

Ferritto, J., Dickenson, S., Priestley N.,


Werner, S., Taylor, C., Burke D., Seelig W.,
and Kelly, S., 1999, Seismic Criteria for
California Marine Oil Terminals, Vol.1 and
Vol.2, Technical Report TR-2103-SHR,
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center,
Port Hueneme, CA.

Ke
Ll

= Effective stiffness
= Longitudinal length between wharf

at the center of gravity of pipeline segment


under consideration
the center of gravity of pipeline segment
under consideration
Distance from maximum in-ground
moment to center of gravity of the deck
Foundation deformation load

k/ft

expansion joints
Mass of structure in kips/g

= Mass of deck considered in the analysis

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 5

Exceedance of any of the defined condition


thresholds in Table 31F-5-1 places the MOT in the
appropriate mooring/berthing risk classification.

SECTION 3105F MOORING AND BERTHING


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
3105F.1 General
3105F.1.1
Purpose.
This Section establishes
minimum standards for safe mooring and berthing of
vessels at MOTs.
3105F.1.2 Applicability. This Section applies to
onshore MOTs; Figure 31F-5-1 shows typical pier and
wharf configurations.

The maximum wind, Vw, (corrected for duration,


height and over water) and maximum current, Vc, shall
be obtained (see subsection 3103F.5).
In order to determine if there are significant potential
passing vessel effects on moored vessels at an MOT,
see subsection 3105F.3.2.
The range of vessel draft shall be based on the local
tidal variation and the operational limits of the vessels
berthing at the MOT.
Multiple berth MOTs shall use the same conditions for
each berth unless it can be demonstrated that there
are significant differences.
MOTs with high mooring/berthing risk classifications
(Table 31F-5-1) shall have the following equipment in
operation: an anemometer (N/E), a current meter
(N/E) (may be omitted if safety factor according to
subsection 3103F.5.3.1 is applied to current) and
remote reading tension load devices (N).

Figure31F-5-1: Typical Pier and Wharf


Configurations
3105F.1.3 Mooring/Berthing Risk Classification.
Each MOT shall be assigned a mooring/berthing risk
classification of high, medium or low, as determined
from Table 31F-5-1, based on the following sitespecific parameters:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Wind
Current
Hydrodynamic effects of passing vessels
Change in vessel draft

3105F.1.4 New MOTs. Quick release hooks are


required at all new MOTs, except for spring line
fittings. Quick release hooks shall be sized, within
normal allowable stresses, for the safe working load
of the largest size mooring line and configuration. To
avoid accidental release, the freeing mechanism shall
be activated by a two-step process. Quick release
hooks shall be insulated electrically from the mooring
structure, and should be supported so as not to
contact the deck.
3105F.1.5
Analysis and Design of Mooring
Components. The existing condition of the MOT
shall be used in the mooring analysis (see Section
3102F).
Structural characteristics of the MOT,
including type and configuration of mooring fittings
such as bollards, bitts, hooks and capstans and

TABLE 31F-5-1
MOORING/BERTHING RISK CLASSIFICATION
Risk Classification
High
Moderate
Low

Wind, (VW) (knots)


>50
30 to 50
<30

Current, (Vc) (knots)


>1.5
1.0 to 1.5
<1.0

Passing Vessel
Effects
Yes
No
No

Change in Draft (ft.)


>8
6 to 8
<6

material properties and condition, shall be determined


in accordance with subsections 3107F.4 and
3103F.10.
The analysis and design of mooring components shall
be based on the loading combinations and safety
factors defined in subsections 3103F.8 through
3103F.10, and in accordance with ACI 318 [5.1],
AISC-LRFD [5.2] and ANSI/AF&PA NDS-1997 [5.3],
as applicable.
3105F.2 Mooring Analyses. A mooring analysis
shall be performed for each berthing system, to justify
the safe berthing of the various deadweight capacities
of vessels expected at the MOT. The forces acting on
a moored vessel shall be determined in accordance
with subsection 3103F.5. Mooring line and breasting
load combinations shall be in accordance with
subsection 3103F.8.

3105F.2.1 Manual Procedure. For MOTs classified


as Low risk (Table 31F-5-1), simplified calculations
may be used to determine the mooring forces, except
if any of the following conditions exist (Figures 31F-52 and 31F-5-3, below).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Mooring layout is significantly asymmetrical


Horizontal mooring line angles () on bow and
stern exceed 45 degrees
Horizontal breast mooring line angles exceed 15
normal to the hull
Horizontal spring mooring line angles exceed 10
degrees from a line parallel to the hull
Vertical mooring line angles () exceed 25
degrees
Mooring lines for lateral loads not grouped at bow
and stern

Two procedures, manual and numerical are available


for performing mooring analyses. These procedures
shall conform to either the OCIMF documents,
Mooring Equipment Guidelines [5.4] and Prediction
of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs [5.5] or the
Department of Defense Mooring Design document
[5.6]. The manual procedure (subsection 3105F.2.1)
may be used for barges.
Figure 31F-5-2: Horizontal Line Angles [5.4]

A new mooring assessment shall be performed when


conditions change, such as any modification in the
mooring configuration, vessel size or new information
indicating greater wind, current or other environmental
loads.
In general, vessels shall remain in contact with the
breasting or fendering system. Vessel motion (sway)
of up to 2 feet off the breasting structure may be
allowed under the most severe environmental loads,
unless greater movement can be justified by an
appropriate mooring analysis that accounts for
potential dynamic effects. The allowable movement
shall be consistent with mooring analysis results,
indicating that forces in the mooring lines and their
supports are within the allowable safety factors. Also,
a check shall be made as to whether the movement is
within the limitations of the cargo transfer equipment.
The most severe combination of the environmental
loads has to be identified for each mooring
component. At a minimum, the following conditions
shall be considered:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Two current directions (maximum ebb and flood;


See subsection 3103F.5.3)
Two tide levels (highest high and lowest low)
Two vessel loading conditions (ballast and
maximum draft at the terminal)
Eight wind directions (45 degree increments)

Figure 31F-5-3: Vertical Line Angles [5.4]


When the forces have been determined and the
distance between the bow and stern mooring points is
known, the yaw moment can be resolved into lateral
loads at the bow and stern. The total environmental
loads on a moored vessel are comprised of the lateral
load at the vessel bow, the lateral load at the vessel
stern and the longitudinal load. Line pretension loads
must be added.
Four load cases shall be considered:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Entire load is taken by mooring lines


Entire load is taken by breasting structures
Load is taken by combination of mooring lines
and breasting structures
Longitudinal load is taken only by spring lines

3105F.2.2 Numerical Procedure. A numerical


procedure is required to obtain mooring forces for
MOTs classified as Moderate or High (See Table 31F5-1) and for those that do not satisfy the requirements
for using simplified calculations.
Computer
program(s) shall be based on mooring analysis
procedures that consider the characteristics of the
mooring system, calculate the environmental loads
and provide resulting mooring line forces and vessel
motions (surge and sway).
3105F.3 WAVE, PASSING VESSEL, SEICHE AND
TSUNAMI

Figure 31F-5-4: Passing Vessel

3105F.3.1
Wind Waves.
MOTs are generally
located in sheltered waters such that typical wind
waves can be assumed not to affect the moored
vessel if the significant wave period, Ts , is less than 4
seconds. However, if the period is equal to or greater
than 4 seconds, then a simplified dynamic analysis
(See subsection 3103F.5.4) is required. The wave
period shall be established based on a 1-year
significant wave height, Hs. For MOTs within a harbor
basin, the wave period shall be based on the locally
generated waves with relatively short fetch.

For MOTs located in ports, the passing distance, L,


may be established based on channel width and
vessel traffic patterns. The guidelines established in
the Navys Harbors Design Manual, Figure 27 [5.7]
for interior channels may be used. The vertical bank
in Figure 27 of [5.7] shall be replaced by the side of
the moored vessel when establishing the distance,
L.

3105F.3.2
Passing Vessels. These forces
generated by passing vessels are due to pressure
gradients associated with the flow pattern. These
pressure gradients cause the moored vessel to sway,
surge, and yaw, thus imposing forces on the mooring
lines.
Passing vessel analysis shall be conducted when all
of the following conditions exist (See Figure 31F-5-4):

The following passing vessel positions shall be


investigated:

1.
2.
3.

Passing vessel size is greater than 25,000 dwt.


Distance L is 500 feet or less
Vessel speed V is greater than Vcrit

where:

Vcrit = 1.5 +

L 2B
4.5 (knots)
500 2 B

For MOTs, not located within a port, the distance, L,


must be determined from observed traffic patterns.

1.
2.

Passing vessel is centered on the moored ship.


This position produces maximum sway force.
The mid-ship of the passing vessel is fore or aft
of the centerline of the moored ship by a distance
of 0.40 times the length of the moored ship. This
position is assumed to produce maximum surge
force and yaw moment at the same time.

The mooring loads due to a passing vessel shall be


added to the mooring loads due to wind and current.

Exception: If L 2B, passing vessel loads shall be


considered.

3105F.3.3 Seiche. A seiche analysis is required for


existing MOTs located within a harbor basin and
which have historically experienced seiche. A seiche
analysis is required for new MOTs inside a harbor
basin prone to penetration of ocean waves.

L and B are shown in Figure 31F-5-4, in units of feet.


V is defined as the speed of vessel over land minus
the current velocity, when traveling with the current, or
the speed of vessel over land plus the current
velocity, when traveling against the current.

The standing wave system or seiche is characterized


by a series of nodes and antinodes". Seiche
typically has wave periods ranging from 20 seconds
up to several hours, with wave heights in the range of
0.1 to 0.4 ft [5.7].

When such conditions (1, 2 and 3 above) exist, the


surge and sway forces and the yaw moment acting on
the moored vessel shall, as a minimum, be
established in accordance with subsection 3103F.5.5.
If the demands from such evaluation are greater than
75% of the mooring system capacity (breaking
strength of mooring lines), then a more sophisticated
dynamic analysis is required.

The following procedure may be used, as a minimum,


in evaluating the effects of seiche within a harbor
basin.
In more complex cases where the
assumptions below are not applicable, dynamic
methods are required.
1. Calculate the natural period of oscillation of the
basin. The basin may be idealized as

(5-1)

2.

3.

4.

rectangular, closed or open at the seaward end.


Use the formula provided (Eqn. 2-1, page 26.140) in the Navys Harbor Design Manual [5.7],
to calculate the wave period and length for
different modes. The first three modes shall be
considered in the analysis.
Determine the location of the moored ship with
respect to the antinode and node of the first three
modes to determine the possibility of resonance.
Determine the natural period of the vessel and
mooring system. The calculation shall be based
on the total mass of the system and the stiffness
of the mooring lines in surge. The surge motion
of the moored vessel is estimated by analyzing
the vessel motion as a harmonically forced linear
single degree of freedom spring mass system.
Methods outlined in a paper by F.A. Kilner [5.8]
can be used to calculate the vessel motion.
Vessels are generally berthed parallel to the
channel; therefore, only longitudinal (surge)
motions shall be considered, with the associated
mooring loads in the spring lines. The loads on
the mooring lines (spring lines) are then
determined from the computed vessel motion and
the stiffness of those mooring lines.

Figure 31F-5-5: Berthing Energy Capacity

When batter piles are present, the fender system


typically absorbs most of the berthing energy. This
can be established by comparing the force-deflection
curves for the fender system and batter piles. In this
case only the fender system energy absorption shall
be considered.

3105F.3.4 Tsunami. Run-up and current velocity


shall be considered in the tsunami assessment.
Table 31F-3-8 provides run-up values for the San
Francisco Bay area, Los Angeles/Long Beach
Harbors and Port Hueneme.

3105F.4.3 Tanker Contact Length

3105F.4 Berthing Analysis and Design. In general


and for new MOTs, the fender system alone shall be
designed to absorb the berthing energy. For existing
MOTs, the berthing analysis may include the fender
and structure.

The contact length of a ship during berthing depends


on the spacing of the fender piles and fender units,
and the connection details of the chocks and wales to
the fender piles.

The analysis and design of berthing components shall


be based on the loading combinations and safety
factors defined in subsections 3103F.8 and 3103F.9
and in accordance with ACI 318 [5.1], AISC-LRFD
[5.2], and ANSI/AF&PA NDS-1997 [5.3], as
applicable.
3105F.4.1 Berthing Energy Demand. The kinetic
berthing energy demand shall be determined in
accordance with subsection 3103F.6.
3105F.4.2 Berthing Energy Capacity. For existing
MOTs, the berthing energy capacity shall be
calculated as the area under the force-deflection
curve for the combined structure and fender system
as indicated in Figure 31F-5-5. Fender piles may be
included in the lateral analysis to establish the total
force-deflection curve for the berthing system. Loaddeflection curves for other fender types shall be
obtained from manufacturers data. The condition of
fenders shall be taken into account when performing
the analysis.

3105F.4.3.1
Continuous Fender System.
A
continuous fender system consists of fender piles,
chocks, wales, and rubber or spring fender units.

The contact length, Lc can be approximated by the


chord formed by the curvature of the bow and the
berthing angle as shown in Equation 31F-5.2 below.
Lc = 2r sin
where:
=
Lc
r
=

(5-2)

contact length
Bow radius
Berthing Angle

In lieu of detailed analysis to determine the contact


length, Table 31F-5-2 may be used. The contact
length for a vessel within the range listed in the table
can be obtained by interpolation.
3105F.4.3.2 Discrete Fender System. For discrete
fender systems (i.e. not continuous), one fender unit
or breasting dolphin shall be able to absorb the entire
berthing energy.

breasting dolphins depends on the DWT and length


overall (LOA) of vessels to be accommodated.

TABLE 31F-5-2
CONTACT LENGTH
Vessel Size (dwt)

Contact Length

330

25 ft

1,000 to 2,500

35 ft

5,000 to 26,000

40 ft

35,000 to 50,000

50 ft

65,000

60 ft

100,000 to 125,000

70 ft

Breasting dolphins shall be positioned adjacent to the


parallel body of the vessel when berthed. A minimum
of two breasting dolphins shall be provided. The
spacing of breasting dolphins shall be adequate for all
sizes of vessels that may berth at the MOT.
Mooring dolphins shall be set back from the berthing
line (fender line) for a distance between 115 ft. and
165 ft., so that longer bow, stern and breast lines can
be deployed.

3105F.4.4
Longitudinal and Vertical Berthing
Forces. The longitudinal and vertical components of
the horizontal berthing force shall be calculated using
appropriate coefficients of friction between the vessel
and the fender. In lieu of as-built data, the values in
Table 31F-5-3 may be used for typical fender/vessel
materials:
TABLE 31F-5-3
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
Contact Materials

Friction Coefficient

Timber to Steel

0.4 to 0.6

Urethane to Steel

0.4 to 0.6

Steel to Steel

0.25

Rubber to Steel

0.6 to 0.7

UHMW* to Steel

0.1 to 0.2

*Ultra high molecular weight plastic rubbing strips

Longitudinal and vertical forces shall be determined


by:
F=N

(5-3)

where:
F

longitudinal or vertical
horizontal berthing force

component

For a preliminary layout, the guidelines in the British


Standards, Part 4, Section 2 [5.11], may be used in
conjunction with the guidelines below.
1. If four breasting dolphins are provided, the
spacing between exterior breasting dolphins shall
be between 0.3 and 0.4 LOA of the maximum
sized vessel expected to call at the MOT. The
spacing between interior breasting dolphins shall
be approximately 0.3 to 0.4 LOA of the minimum
sized vessel expected to call at the MOT.
2. If only two breasting dolphins are provided, the
spacing between the dolphins shall be the
smaller (0.3 LOA) of the guidelines specified
above.
3. If bow and stern lines are used for mooring, the
spacing between exterior mooring dolphins shall
be 1.35 times the LOA of the maximum sized
vessel expected to call at the MOT.
4. The spacing between interior mooring dolphins
shall be 0.8 times the LOA of the maximum sized
vessel expected to call at the MOT.
The final layout of the mooring and breasting dolphins
shall be determined based on the results of the
mooring analysis that provides optimal mooring line
and breasting forces for the range of vessels to be
accommodated. The breasting force under the
mooring condition shall not exceed the maximum
fender reaction of the fender unit when it is being
compressed at the manufacturers rated deflection.

of

coefficient of friction of contact materials


maximum horizontal berthing force
(normal to fender)

3105F.4.5 Design and Selection of New Fender


Systems. For guidelines on new fender designs,
refer to the Navys Piers and Wharves handbook
[5.9] and the PIANC Guidelines for the Design of
Fenders Systems: 2002 [5.10].

3105F.5 Layout of New MOTs. The number and


spacing of independent mooring dolphins and

3105F.6 Symbols

Berthing Angle. It also means the angle of


horizontal mooring lines, see Fig 5-2

Deflection

B
F

=
=
=
=

L
Lc
N

=
=
=

Distance between passing and moored vessels

Vertical mooring line angles


Beam of vessel
Longitudinal or vertical component of horizontal
normal berthing force
Contact length
Maximum horizontal berthing force

=
=

Bow radius

V
Vc
Vcrit

=
=
=

Ground speed (knots)

Vw

Maximum wind speed (knots)

Coefficient of friction of contact materials


Maximum current (knots).
Ground speed (knots) above which passing
loads must be considered

3105F.7 References
[5.1]

American Concrete Institute, ACI 318-02,


2002, Building Code Requirements for
Structural
Concrete
(318-02)
and
Commentary (318R-02), Farmington Hills,
Michigan.

[5.2]

American Institute of Steel Construction


(AISC), 2001, Manual of Steel Construction,
Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD), Third Edition, Chicago, IL.

[5.3]

American Forest & Paper Association, 1999,


ASD Manual - National Design Specification
for Wood Construction, ANSI/AF&PA NDS1997, Washington, D.C.

[5.4]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF),
1997,
Mooring
Equipment
Guidelines, 2nd Ed., London, England.

[5.5]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF), 1977, Prediction of Wind and
Current Loads on VLCCs, London, England.

[5.6]

Department of Defense, 1 July 1999,


Mooring Design, Handbook, MIL-HDBK1026/4A, Alexandria, VA, USA.

[5.7]

Department of the Navy, Dec. 1984,


Harbors Design Manual, NAVFAC DM26.1, Alexandria, VA, USA.

[5.8]

Kilner F.A., 1961, Model Tests on the


Motion of Moored Ships Placed on Long
th
Waves. Proceedings of 7 Conference on
Coastal Engineering, August 1960, The
Hague, Netherlands, published by the
Council on Wave Research - The
Engineering Foundation.

[5.9]

Department of the Navy, 30 October 1987,


Piers and Wharves, Military Handbook,
MIL-HDBK-1025/1, Alexandria, VA, USA.

[5.10]

Permanent International Association of


Navigation Congresses (PIANC), 2002,
Guidelines for the Design of Fender
Systems: 2002, Brussels.

[5.11]

British Standards Institution, 1994, British


Standard Code of Practice for Maritime
Structures - Part 4. Code of Practice for
Design of Fendering and Mooring Systems,
BS6349, London, England.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 6
SECTION 3106F - GEOTECHNICAL HAZARDS
AND FOUNDATIONS

3.

3106F.1 General

4.

3106F.1.1 Purpose. This section provides minimum


standards for analyses and evaluation of geotechnical
hazards and foundations.

3106F.2.2 Site-Specific Information.


In general, geotechnical characterization shall be
based on site-specific information. This information
may be obtained from existing or new sources.
However, if existing or non-site specific information is
used, the geotechnical engineer of record shall
provide adequate justification for its use.

3106F.1.2 Applicability. The requirements provided


herein apply to all new and existing MOTs.
3106F.1.3 Seismic Loading. The seismic loading
for geotechnical hazard assessment and foundation
analyses is provided in subsection 310F3.4.

Site-specific investigations shall include, at a


minimum, borings and/or cone penetration tests, soil
classifications, configuration, foundation loading and
an assessment of seismic hazards. The array
(number and depths) of exploratory borings and cone
penetration tests (CPT) will depend on the proposed
or existing structures and site stratigraphy. The
investigation or testing activities shall be completed
following the procedures in Section 5 of SCEC [6.3].
CPT data may also be used by first converting to
standard penetration test (SPT) data, using an
appropriate method, that reflects the effects of soil
gradation. If geotechnical data other than SPT and
CPT are used, an adequate explanation and rationale
shall be provided.

3106F.2 Site Characterization


3106F.2.1 Site Classes. Each MOT shall be
assigned at least one site class, based on sitespecific geotechnical information. Site Classes SA,
SB, SC, SD, and SE are defined in Table 31F-6-1 and
Site Class SF is defined as follows:
1.

2.

Very high plasticity clays with a plasticity index


(PI) greater than 75, where depth of clay exceeds
25 feet.
Very thick soft/medium stiff clays, where the
depth of clay exceeds 120 feet.

Soils vulnerable to significant potential loss of


stiffness, strength, and/or volume under seismic
loading, such as liquefiable soils, quick and
highly sensitive clays, and collapsible weakly
cemented soils.
Peats and/or highly organic clays, where the
thickness of peat or highly organic clay exceeds
10 feet

Quantitative soil information is required to a depth of


100 feet below the mudline, for assigning a Site Class

TABLE 31F-6-1
SITE CLASSES
Average Values for Top 100 Feet of Soil Profile
Site Class

Soil Profile Name/Generic


Description

SA

Shear Wave
Velocity, VS [ft/sec]

Standard
Penetration Test
[blows/ft]

Undrained Shear
Strength, SU [psf]

Hard Rock

>5,000

SB

Rock

2,500 to 5,000

SC

Very Stiff/Dense Soil


and Soft Rock

1,200 to 2,500

>50

>2,000

SD

Stiff/Dense Soil Profile

600 to 1,200

15 to 50

1,000 to 2,000

SE

Soft/Loose Soil Profile

<600

<15

<1,000

SF

Defined in Subsection 3106F.3.1

Notes:
1.Site Class SF shall require site-specific geotechnical information as discussed in subsections 3106F.2.2 and 3103F.4
2.Site Class SE also includes any soil profile with more than 10 feet of soft clay defined as a soil with a plasticity index, PI>20, water content >40
percent and SU 500 psf.
3.The plasticity index, PI, and the moisture content shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D4318 [6.1] and ASTM D2216 [6.2], respectively.

(see Table 31F- 6-1). When data to a depth of 100


feet is unavailable, other information such as geologic
considerations may be used to determine the Site
Class.
3106F.3 Liquefaction. A liquefaction assessment
shall address triggering and the resulting hazards,
using residual shear strengths of liquefied soils.
3106F.3.1 Triggering Assessment. Liquefaction
triggering shall be expressed in terms of the factor of
safety (SF):
SF = CRR/CSR
Where:
CRR =
CSR =

(6-1)

Cyclic Resistance Ratio


The Cyclic Stress Ratio induced by Design
Peak Ground Acceleration (DPGA) or
other postulated shaking

The CRR shall be determined from Figure 7.1 in


SCEC [6.3]. If available, both the SPT and CPT data
can be used.
CSR shall be evaluated using the simplified
procedure in subsection 3106F.3.1.1 or site-specific
response analysis procedures in subsection
3106F.3.1.2.
Shaking-induced shear strength reductions
liquefiable materials are determined as follows:
1.

in

SF > 1.4

Reductions of shear strength for the materials for


post-earthquake conditions may be neglected.
2.

1.0 < SF < 1.4

A strength value intermediate to the material's initial


strength and residual undrained shear strength should
be selected based on the level of residual excess
pore water pressure expected to be generated by the
ground shaking (e.g., Figure 10 of Seed and Harder,
[6.4]).
3.

SF 1.0

Reduction of the material shear strength to a residual


undrained shear strength level shall be considered, as
described in subsection 3106F.3.2.
3106F.3.1.1 Simplified Procedure. The simplified
procedure to evaluate liquefaction triggering shall
follow Section 7 of SCEC [6.3]. Cyclic stress ratio
(CSR) is used to define seismic loading, in terms of
the Design Peak Ground Acceleration (DPGA) and
Design Earthquake Magnitude (DEM). DPGA and
DEM are addressed in subsection 3103F.4.2. CSR is
defined as:

DPGA v

CSR = 0.65
'
g v

r d

r MSF

(6-2)

where:

v
v
rd
rMSF

=
=
=
=
=

gravitational constant
the vertical total stress
the vertical effective stress
a stress reduction factor
the magnitude scaling factor

For values of rMSF and rd, see SCEC [6.3] Figures 7.2
and 7.3, respectively. To evaluate rMSF, the DEM
value associated with DPGA shall be used.
3106F.3.1.2 Site Specific Response Procedure. In
lieu of the simplified procedure, either onedimensional or two-dimensional site response
analysis may be performed using the ground motion
parameters discussed in subsection 3103F.4. The
computed cyclic stresses at various points within the
pertinent soil layers shall be expressed as values of
CSR.
3106F.3.2
Residual Strength.
The residual
undrained shear strength may be estimated from
Figure 7.7 of SCEC [6.3]. When necessary, a
conservative extrapolation of the range should be
made. Under no circumstances, shall the residual
shear strength be higher than the shear strength
based on effective strength parameters.
The best estimate value should correspond to 1/3
from the lower bound of the range for a given value of
equivalent clean sand SPT blowcount. When a value
other than the 1/3 value is selected for the residual
shear strength, the selection shall be justified. An
alternate method is provided in Stark and Mesri [6.5].
The residual strength of liquefied soils may be
obtained as a function of effective confining pressures
if a justification is provided. The resulting residual
shear strength shall be used as the post-earthquake
shear strength of liquefied soils.
3106F.4 Other Geotechnical Hazards. For a SF
less than 1.4, the potential for the following hazards
shall be evaluated:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Flow slides
Slope movements
Lateral Spreading
Ground settlement and differential settlement
Other surface manifestations

These hazards shall be evaluated, using the residual


shear strength described above (subsection
3106F.3.2).

3106F.4.1 Stability of Earth Structures. If a slope


failure could affect the MOT, a stability analysis of
slopes and earth retaining structures shall be
performed. The analysis shall use limit equilibrium
methods that satisfy all of the force and/or moment
equilibrium conditions and determine the slope
stability safety factor.
1.

Slope stability safety factor 1.2


Flow slides can be precluded; however,
seismically induced ground movements shall be
addressed.

2.

1.0 Slope stability safety factor < 1.2


Seismically induced ground movements should
be evaluated using the methods described below.

3.

Slope stability safety factor < 1.0


Mitigation measures shall be implemented per
subsection 3106F.6.

3106F.4.2 Simplified Ground Movement Analysis.


The seismically induced ground settlement may be
estimated using Section 7.6 of SCEC [6.3]. Surface
manifestation of liquefaction may be evaluated using
Section 7.7 of SCEC. Results shall be evaluated to
determine if mitigation measures are required.
Seismically induced deformation or displacement of
slopes shall be evaluated using the Makdisi-Seed
[6.6] simplified method as described below.

simplified method or other similar methods shall


be used to estimate lateral spreading.
2.

If the computed displacement from the simplified


method(s) is 0.5 ft., the effects can be
neglected.

3.

If the computed displacements using simplified


methods are > 0.5 ft., the use of a detailed
ground movement analysis (see subsection
6.4.3) may be considered.

4.

If the final resulting displacement, regardless of


the method used, remains > 0.5 ft., it shall be
considered in the structural analysis.

3106F.4.3 Detailed Ground Movement Analysis.


As an alternative to the simplified methods discussed
above, a two-dimensional (2-D) equivalent linear or
nonlinear dynamic analysis of the MOT and/or slopes
and earth retaining systems may be performed.
An equivalent linear analysis is adequate when the
stiffness and/or strength of the soils involved are likely
to degrade by less than one-third, during seismic
excitation of less than 0.5 gs. Appropriate time
histories need to be obtained to calculate seismically
induced displacement (see subsection 3103F.4.2).
Such analysis should account for the accumulating
effects of displacement if double-integration of
acceleration time histories is used. The seismic
stresses or stress time histories from equivalent linear
analysis may be used to estimate seismically induced
deformation.

The stability analysis shall be used with the residual


shear strengths of soils to estimate the yield
acceleration coefficient, Ky , associated with the
critical potential movement plane. In general, the
DPGA shall be used as Kmax (see [6.6]) and DEM as
the earthquake magnitude, M. These parameters
shall be used together with the upper bound curves
Figures 9 11 of [6.6], to estimate the seismically
induced ground movement along the critical plane.

A nonlinear analysis should be used if the stiffness


and/or strength of the soils involved are likely to
degrade by more than one-third during seismic
motion.

However, the value of Kmax may be different from the


DPGA value to include the effects of amplification,
incoherence, etc. When such adjustments are made
in converting DPGA to Kmax, a justification shall be
provided. Linear interpolation using the upper bound
curves in Figure 10 in [6.6] or Figure 4-10 in Ferritto et
al [6.7] can be used to estimate the seismically
induced ground movement for other earthquake
magnitudes.

3106F.5 Soil Structure Interaction

For screening purposes only, lateral spreading shall


be evaluated, using the simplified equations in Youd
et al. [6.8]. The total seismically induced ground
displacement shall include all contributory directions.

Pile capacity parameters may be evaluated using the


procedures in Chapter 4 of FEMA 356 [6.9]. The p-y
curves, t-z curves, and tip load displacement
curves for piles (nonlinear springs for horizontal and
vertical modes and nonlinear vertical springs for the
pile tip, respectively) and deep foundations shall be

1.

When the resulting displacement from the


screening method is > 0.1 ft., the Makdisi-Seed

If the structure is included in the analysis, the ground


motion directly affects the structural response.
Otherwise, the uncoupled, calculated movement of
the soil on the structure shall be evaluated.

3106F.5.1
Soil Parameters.
Soil structure
interaction (SSI) shall be addressed for the seismic
evaluation of MOT structures. SSI may consist of
linear or non-linear springs (and possibly dashpots)
for various degrees of freedom, including horizontal,
vertical, torsional, and rotational, as required by the
structural analysis.

evaluated using Section G of API RP 2A-LRFD [6.10]


including the consideration of pile group effects.
Equivalent springs (and dashpots) representing the
degrading properties of soils may be developed.
Where appropriate, alternative procedures can be
used to develop these parameters. Rationale for the
use of alternative procedures shall be provided. One
simplified method is presented in Chapter 5 of the
Naval Design Manual 7.02 [6.11] and provides
deflection and moment for an isolated pile, subject to
a lateral load.
3106F.5.2
Shallow Foundations.
Shallow
foundations shall be assumed to move with the
ground. Springs and dashpots may be evaluated as
per Gazetas [6.12].
3106F.5.3 Underground Structures. Buried flexible
structures or buried portions of flexible structures
including piles and pipelines shall be assumed to
deform with estimated ground movement at depth.

[6.2]

American Society for Testing and Materials


(ASTM), 2002, D2216-98 Standard Test
Method for Laboratory Determination of
Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock
by Mass, West Conshohocken, PA.

[6.3]

Southern California Earthquake Center


(SCEC), March 1999, Recommended
Procedures for Implementation of DMG
Special Publication 117 Guidelines for
Analyzing and Mitigating Liquefaction in
California, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles.

[6.4]

Seed, R.B. and Harder, C.F., 1999, SPTBased Analysis of Cyclic Port Pressure
Generation
and
Undrained
Residual
Strength, Proceedings of the H.B. Seed
Memorial Symposium, Editor: J.M. Duncan,
BiTech Publishers Ltd., v. 2, pp. 351-376.

[6.5]

Stark, T.D., and Mesri, G., 1992, Undrained


shear strength of liquefied sands for stability
analysis,
Journal
of
Geotechnical
Engineering, American Society of Civil
Engineers, v118, n11, pp 1727-1747.

[6.6]

Makdisi, F.I. and Seed, H.B., Simplified


Procedure for Estimating Dam and
Embankment
Earthquake-Induced
Deformations, ASCE Journal of the
Geotechnical Engineering Division, Vol 104,
No. 7, pp. 849-867.

[6.7]

Ferritto, J., Dickenson, S., Priestley N.,


Werner, S., Taylor, C., Burke D., Seelig W.,
and Kelly, S., 1999, Seismic Criteria for
California Marine Oil Terminals, Vol.1 and
Vol.2, Technical Report TR-2103-SHR,
Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center,
Port Hueneme, CA.

[6.8]

Youd, T. L., Hansen, C. M., and Bartlett, S.


F., Revised MLR Equations for Predicting
Lateral Spread Displacement Proceedings
of the 7th U.S.-Japan Workshop on
Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline
Facilities and Countermeasures Against Soil
Liquefaction, 1999.

[6.9]

Federal Emergency Management Agency,


FEMA-356, Nov. 2000, Prestandard and
Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation
of Buildings, Washington, D.C.

[6.10]

American Petroleum Institute, July 1993,


Recommended Practice 2A-LRFD (API RP
2A-LRFD), Recommended Practice for
Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed
Offshore Platforms Load and Resistance
Factor Design, Washington, D.C.

As the soil settles, it shall be assumed to apply shear


forces to buried structures or buried portions of
structures including deep foundations.
3106F.6 Mitigation Measures and Alternatives. If
the hazards and consequences addressed in
subsections 3106F.3 and 3106F.4 are beyond the
specified range, the following options shall be
considered:
1.
2.
3.

Perform a more sophisticated analysis


Modify the structure
Modify the foundation soil

Examples of possible measures to modify foundation


soils are provided in Table 4-1 of [6.7].
3106F.7 Symbols

SF
CRR
CSR
g

v
v

rd
rMSF

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Safety Factor
Cyclic Resistance Ratio
Cyclic Stress Ratio induced by DPGA
Gravitational constant
the vertical total stress
the vertical effective stress
a stress reduction factor
the magnitude scaling factor

3106F.8 References
[6.1]

American Society for Testing and Materials


(ASTM), 2002, D4318-00 Standard Test
Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and
Plasticity
Index
of
Soils,
West
Conshohocken, PA

[6.11]

Foundations and Earth Structures, Design


Manual 7.02, Chapter 5, 1986, Naval
Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria,
VA.

[6.12]

Gazetas, G., Formulas and Charts for


Impedances of Surface and Embedded
Foundations, Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 117, No. 9,
September, 1991.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 7

SECTION 3107F - STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND


DESIGN OF COMPONENTS
3107F.1 General
3107F.1.1 Purpose. This section establishes the
minimum performance standards for structural
components. Evaluation procedures for seismic
performance, strength and deformation characteristics
of concrete, steel and timber components are
prescribed herein. Analytical procedures for structural
systems are presented in Section 3104F.
3107F.1.2 Applicability.
MOTs constructed using
components:
1.
2.
3.
4.

This section addresses


the following structural

Reinforced concrete decks supported by batter


and/or vertical concrete piles.
Reinforced concrete decks supported by batter
and/or vertical steel piles, including pipe piles filled
with concrete.
Reinforced concrete decks supported by batter
and/or vertical timber piles.
Timber decks supported by batter or vertical
timber, concrete, or steel pipe piles.

11. Past and current loading


overload, fatigue or fracture
12. Earthquake damage
13. Discontinuous components
14. Construction deficiencies

effects,

including

3107F.2.1.1 Material Properties. Material properties


of existing components, not determined from testing
procedures, and of new components, shall be
established using the following methodology.
The strength of structural components shall be
evaluated based on realistic upper bound estimates of
material properties, except for non-ductile components,
which shall be evaluated based on design material
properties. The following values shall be substituted
(Section 5.3 of [7.1] and p. 3-73 & 3-74 of [7.2]):
Non-ductile components (shear):

fc =
fy =
fp =

1.0 fc
1.0 fy
1.0 fp

(7-1a)
(7-1b)
(7-1c)

Other components (moment, axial):

fc = 1.3fc
fy = 1.1fy
fp = 1.0 fp

3107F.2 Concrete Deck with Concrete or Steel Piles


3107F.2.1
Component Strength.
The following
parameters shall be established in order to compute the
component strength:
1. Specified concrete compressive strengths
2. Concrete and steel modulus of elasticity
3. Yield and tensile strength of mild reinforcing and
prestressed steel and corresponding strains
4. Confinement steel strength and corresponding
strains
5. Embedment length
6. Concrete cover
7. Yield and tensile strength of structural steel
8. Ductility
In addition, for existing components, the following
conditions shall be considered:
9. Environmental effects, such as reinforcing steel
corrosion, concrete spalling, cracking and chemical
attack
10. Fire damage

(7-2a)
(7-2b)
(7-2c)

Capacity protected members, such as pile caps and


joints (maximum demand):

fc = 1.7fc
fy = 1.3fy
fp = 1.1fp

(7-3a)
(7-3b)
(7-3c)

where:

fc = Compressive strength of concrete


fy = Yield strength of steel
fp = Yield strength of prestress strands
Capacity Design (Section 5.3 of [7.1]) ensures that the
strength at protected locations are greater than the
maximum feasible demand, based on realistic upper
bound estimates of plastic hinge flexural strength. In
addition, a series of pushover analyses using moment
curvature characteristics of pile hinges may be required.

Alternatively, if a moment-curvature analysis is


performed that takes into account the strain hardening
of the steel, the demands used to evaluate the capacity
protected components may be estimated by multiplying
the moment-curvature values by 1.25.
Based on a historical review of the building materials
used in the twentieth century, guidelines for tensile and
yield properties of concrete reinforcing bars and the
compressive strength of structural concrete have been
established (see Tables 6-1 to 6-3 of FEMA 356 [7.3].
The values shown in these tables can be used as
default properties, only if as-built information is not
available and testing is not performed. The values in
Tables 31F-7-1 and 31F-7-2, are adjusted according to
equations (7-1) through (7-3).
3107F.2.1.2
Knowledge Factor (k).
Knowledge
factor, k, shall be applied on a component basis.
The following information is required, at a minimum, for
a component strength assessment:
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Original construction records, including drawings


and specifications.
A set of as-built drawings and/or sketches,
documenting both gravity and lateral systems
(subsection 3102F.1.5) and any post-construction
modification data.
A visual condition survey, for structural
components including identification of the size,
location and connections of these components.
In the absence of material properties, values from
limited in-situ testing or conservative estimates of
material properties (Table 31F- 7-1 and 31F-7-2).
Assessment of component conditions, from an insitu evaluation, including any observable
deterioration.
Detailed geotechnical information, based on recent
test data, including risk of liquefaction, lateral
spreading and slope stability.

The knowledge factor, k, is 1.0 when comprehensive


knowledge as specified above is utilized. Otherwise,
the knowledge factor shall be 0.75. Further guidance
on the determination of the appropriate k value can be
found in Table 2-1 of FEMA 356 [7.3].

3107F.2.2 Component Stiffness. Stiffness that takes


into account the stress and deformation levels
experienced by the component shall be used.
Nonlinear load-deformation relations shall be used to
represent the component load-deformation response.
However, in lieu of using nonlinear methods to establish
the stiffness and moment curvature relation of structural
components, the equations of Table 31F-7-3 may be
used to approximate the effective elastic stiffness, EIe,
for lateral analyses (see subsection 3107F.5 for
definition of symbols).
3107F.2.3
Deformation Capacity of Flexural
Members.
Stress-strain models for confined and
unconfined concrete, mild and prestressed steel
presented in subsection 3107F.2.4 shall be used to
perform the moment-curvature analysis.
The stress-strain characteristics of steel piles shall be
based on the actual steel properties.
If as-built
information is not available, the stress-strain
relationship may be calculated per subsection
3107F.2.4.2.
For concrete in-filled steel piles, the stress-strain model
for confined concrete shall be in accordance with
subsection 3107F.2.4.1.
Each structural component expected to undergo
inelastic deformation shall be defined by its momentcurvature relation. The displacement demand and
capacity shall be calculated per subsections 3104F.2
and 3104F.3, as appropriate.
The moment-rotation relationship for concrete
components shall be derived from the momentcurvature analysis per subsection 3107F.2.5.4 and shall
be used to determine lateral displacement limitations of
the design. Connection details shall be examined per
subsection 3107F.2.7.
3107F.2.4 Stress-Strain Models
3107F.2.4.1 Concrete. The stress-strain model and
terms for confined and unconfined concrete are shown
in Figure 31F-7-1.
3107F.2.4.2 Reinforcement Steel and Structural
Steel. The stress-strain model and terms for reinforcing
and structural steel are shown in Figure 31F-7-2.

TABLE 31F-7-1
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (PSI)1
Time Frame
1900-1919
1920-1949
1950-1965
1966-present

Piling
2,500-3,000
3,000-4,000
4,000-5,000
5,000-6,000

1. Concrete strengths are likely to be highly variable for an older structure

Beams
2,000-3,000
2,000-3,000
3,000-4,000
3,000-5,000

Slabs
1,500-3,000
2,000-3,000
3,000-4,000
3,000-5,000

TABLE 31F-7-2
TENSILE AND YIELD PROPERTIES OF REINFORCING BARS FOR VARIOUS
ASTM SPECIFICATIONS AND PERIODS (after Table 6-2 of [7.3])
Structual

Year
3
Range

Intermediate

Hard

Grade

33

40

50

60

70

75

Minimum
2
Yield (psi)

33,000

40,000

50,000

60,000

70,000

75,000

Minimum
2
Tensile (psi)

55,000

70,000

80,000

90,000

80,000

100,000

ASTM

Steel Type

A15

Billet

19111966

A16

Rail

19131966

A61

Rail

19631966

A160

Axle

19361964

A160

Axle

19651966

A408

Billet

19571966

A431

Billet

19591966

A432

Billet

19591966

A615

Billet

19681972

A615

Billet

19741986

A615

Billet

19871997

A616

Rail

19681997

A617

Axle

19681997

A706

Low-Alloy

A955

Stainless

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

19741997

19961997

General Note:

An entry X indicates that grade was available in those years.

Specific Notes:

1. The terms structural, intermediate, and hard became obsolete in 1968.

2. Actual yield and tensile strengths may exceed minimum values


3. Until about 1920, a variety of proprietary reinforcing steels were used. Yield strengths are likely to be in the range from 33,000 psi
to 55,000 psi, but higher values are possible. Plain and twisted square bars were sometimes used between 1900 and 1949
4. Rail bars should be marked with the letter R.
5. ASTM steel is marked with the letter W

3107F.2.4.3 Prestressed Steel. The stress-strain


model of Blakeley and Park [7.4] may be used for
prestressed steel. The model and terms are illustrated
in Figure 31F-7-3.
3107F.2.4.4
Alternative Stress-Strain Models.
Alternative stress-strain models are acceptable if

adequately documented and supported by test results,


subject to Division approval.
3107F.2.5 Concrete Piles
3107F.2.5.1 General. The capacity of concrete piles is
based on permissible concrete and steel strains
corresponding to the desired performance criteria.

Different values may apply for plastic hinges forming at


in-ground and pile-top locations. These procedures are
applicable to circular, octagonal, rectangular, and
square pile cross sections.

TABLE 31F-7-3
EFFECTIVE ELASTIC STIFFNESS
Concrete Component
Reinforced Pile
Pile/Deck Dowel
1
Connection
Prestressed Pile1
Steel Pile
Concrete w/ Steel Casing
Deck

EIe/EIg
0.3 + N/(fcAg)
0.3 + N/(fcAg)
0.6< EIe/EIg < 0.75
1.0
(EsIs+0.25EcIc)/(EsIs +
EcIc)
0.5

Figure 31F-7-2 Stress-Strain Curve for Mild


Reinforcing Steel or Structural Steel [7.1]

The pile/deck connection and prestressed pile may also be


approximated as one member with an average stiffness of 0.42
EIe/EIg (Ferritto et al, 1999 [7.2])
N = is the axial load level.
ES = Youngs modulus for steel
IS = Moment of inertia for steel section
EC = Youngs modulus for concrete
IC = Moment of inertia for uncracked concrete section

Figure 31F-7-3 Stress-Strain Curve for Prestressed


Steel [7.4]
3107F.2.5.3 Plastic Hinge Length. The plastic hinge
length is required to convert the moment-curvature
relationship into a moment-plastic rotation relationship
for the nonlinear pushover analysis.
The piles plastic hinge length, Lp (above ground), when
the plastic hinge forms against a supporting member is:
Figure 31F-7-1: Stress-Strain Curves for
Confined and Unconfined Concrete [7.1]
3107F.2.5.2 Stability. Stability considerations are
important to pier-type structures. The moment-axial
load interaction shall consider effects of high
slenderness ratios (kl/r). An additional bending moment
due to axial load eccentricity shall be incorporated
unless:
e/h 0.10
where:

eccentricity of axial load

width of pile in considered direction

(7-4)

L p = 0.08L + 0.15 f ye dbl 0.3 f ye dbl

(7-5)

where:

dbl

fye

the distance from the critical section of the


plastic hinge to the point of contraflexure
the
diameter
of
the
longitudinal
reinforcement
design yield strength of longitudinal
reinforcement (ksi)

If a large reduction in moment capacity occurs due to


spalling, then the plastic hinge length shall be:

L p = 0.3 f ye d bl

(7-6)

TABLE 31F-7-4
SUBGRADE MODULUS K
Avg Undrained
Subgrade
Soil Type
Shear Strength
Modulus K
[psf]
[lb/in3]

When the plastic hinge forms in-ground, the plastic


hinge length may be determined from Figure 31F-7-4
(see page 311 of [7.1] ).
The stiffness parameter (x-axis) is:
6

KD
[ D*] EIe
where:
EIe
=
K
=
D
=
D*
=

(7-7)

the effective stiffness


the subgrade modulus
pile diameter
reference diameter of 6 ft

Soft Clay

250-500

30

Medium Clay

500-1000

100

Stiff Clay

1000-2000

500

Very Stiff Clay

2000-4000

1000

Hard Clay

4000-8000

2000

Loose Sand (above


WT/submerged)

25/20

Medium Sand (above


WT/submerged)

90/60

Dense Sand (above


WT/submerged)

275/125

If site specific soil information is not available then the


values for K in Table 31F-7-4 may be used.

H = distance from ground to


pile point of contraflexure

Figure 31F-7-4: Influence of Pile/Soil Stiffness Ratio


on Plastic Hinge Length (after Fig 5.30 of [7.1])
Figure 31F-7-5: Moment Curvature Analysis
3107F.2.5.4 Plastic Rotation. The plastic rotation, P,
can be determined from Equation 31F-7-8, by using
moment-curvature analysis and applicable strain
limitations, as shown in Figure 31F-7-5.
The plastic rotation is:

p = L p p = L p ( m y )

(7-8)

The maximum curvature, m, shall be determined by the


concrete or steel strain limit state at the prescribed
performance level, whichever comes first.
Alternatively, the maximum curvature,
calculated as:

where:

Lp

p
m
y

=
=
=

m =

plastic hinge length


plastic curvature
maximum curvature
= yield curvature

cm
cu

m,

may be

(7-9)

where:

cm

max limiting compression strain for the


prescribed performance level (Table 31F-75)

neutral-axis depth, at ultimate strength of


section

For all non-seismic loading combinations, concrete


components shall be designed in accordance with the
ACI requirements [7.5].

The yield curvature, y is the curvature at the


intersection of the secant stiffness, EIc , through first
yield and the nominal strength, (c = 0.004)

Note that for existing facilities, the pile/deck hinge may


be controlled by the capacity of dowel reinforcement in
accordance with subsection 317F.2.7.

cu

y =

My
EI c

(7-10)

TABLE 31F-7-5
LIMITS OF STRAIN

3107F.2.5.5 Ultimate Concrete and Steel Flexural


Strains. Strain values computed in the nonlinear
pushover analysis shall be compared to the following
limits for flexure:
3107F2.5.5.1
Unconfined concrete piles: An
unconfined concrete pile is defined as a pile having no
confinement steel or one in which the spacing of the
confinement steel exceeds 12 inches.
Ultimate concrete compressive strain:

cu = 0.005

(7-11)

3107F.2.5.5.2 Confined concrete piles [7.1]:


Ultimate concrete compressive strain:

cu = 0.004 + (1.4sfyhsm)/fcc 0.005

(7-12)

cu 0.035

fyh

sm

fcc

Level 1

Level 2

c 0.005

c 0.025

c 0.005

c 0.008

MRSTS

s 0.01

s 0.05

MPSTS
In-ground hinge

p 0.005

p 0.04

(incremental)

=
=
=

effective volume ratio of confining steel


yield stress of confining steel
strain at peak stress of confining
reinforcement, 0.15 for grade 40, 0.12 for
grade 60 and 0.10 for A82 grade 70 plain
spiral
confined strength of concrete approximated
by 1.5 fc

317F.2.5.6
Component
Acceptance/Damage
Criteria. The maximum allowable concrete strains may
not exceed the ultimate values defined in Section
3107F.2.5.5. The following limiting values (Table 31F-75) apply for each performance level for both existing
and new structures. The Level 1 or 2 refer to the
seismic
performance
criteria
(see
subsection
3104F.2.1).

(total strain)

MCCS = Maximum Concrete Compression Strain, c


MRSTS = Maximum Reinforcing Steel Tension Strain, s
MPSTS = Maximum Prestressing Steel Tension Strain, p

317F.2.5.7
Shear Capacity (Strength).
Shear
strength shall be based on nominal material strengths,
and reduction factors according to ACI-318 [7.5].
To account for material strength uncertainties,
maximum shear demand, Vmax,push established from
nonlinear pushover analyses shall be multiplied by 1.4
(Section 8.16.4.4.2 of ATC-32 [7.6]):
Vdesign = 1.4Vmax,push

where:

Component Strain
MCCS
Pile/deck hinge
MCCS
In-ground hinge

(7-13)

If moment curvature analysis that takes into account


strain-hardening, an uncertainty factor of 1.25 may be
used:
Vdesign = 1.25Vmax,push

(7-14)

If the factors defined in Section 31F-7.2.1.1 are used,


the above uncertainty factors need not be applied.
As an alternative, the method of Kowalski and Priestley
[7.7] may be used. This is based on a three-parameter
model with separate contributions to shear strength
from concrete (Vc), transverse reinforcement (Vs), and
axial load (Vp) to obtain nominal shear strength (Vn):

Vn = Vc + V s + V p

(7-15)

A shear strength reduction factor of 0.85 shall be


applied to the nominal strength, Vn , to determine the
design shear strength. Therefore:
Vdesign 0.85 Vn

(7-16)

angle of critical crack to the pile axis (see


Fig. 31F-7-7) taken as 30 for existing
structures, and 35 for new design

spacing of hoops or spiral along the pile


axis

The equations to determine Vc, Vs and Vp are:

Vc = k f c' Ae

(7-17)

where:

= factor dependent on the curvature ductility


= y ,within the plastic hinge region,
from Figure 31F-7-6. For regions greater
than 2Dp (see eqn. 7-18) from the plastic
hinge location, the strength can be based on
= 1.0 (see Ferritto et. al.[7.2]).

f c'
Ae

=
=

concrete compressive strength


0.8Ag is the effective shear area

Figure 31F-7-7

Transverse Shear Mechanism

Rectangular hoops or spirals [7.2]:


Vs =

31F Figure 7-6: Concrete shear Mechanism


(from Fig 3-30 of [7.1])

Ah f yh (D p c co )cot ( )
s

(7-19)

where:
Circular spirals or hoops [7.2]:

Vs = 2

Ah

Asp f yh D p c c o cot ( )
s

(7-18)

total area of transverse reinforcement,


parallel to direction of applied shear cut by
an inclined shear crack

Shear strength from axial mechanism, Vp (see Fig. 31F7-8):

V p = (N u + F p ) tan

where:
Asp
fyh

=
=

Dp

co

spiral or hoop cross section area


yield strength of transverse or hoop
reinforcement
pile diameter or gross depth (in case of a
rectangular pile with spiral confinement)
depth from extreme compression fiber to
neutral axis (N.A.) at flexural strength (see
Fig. 31F-7-7)
concrete cover to center of hoop or spiral
(see Fig. 31F-7-7)

(7-20)

where:
Nu

= external axial compression on pile including

Fp

=
=

seismic load. Compression is taken as


positive; tension as negative.
prestress compressive force in pile
angle between line joining centers of flexural
compression in the deck/pile and in-ground

hinges, and the pile axis

= 1.0 for existing structures, and 0.85 for new


design

3107F.2.6.5
Component Acceptance/Damage
Criteria. The maximum allowable strain may not
exceed the ultimate value defined in subsection
3107F.2.6.4. Table 31F-7-6 provides limiting strain
values for each performance level, for both new and
existing structures.
TABLE 31F-7-6
STRUCTURAL STEEL STRAIN LIMITS, u
Components

Level 1

Level 2

Concrete Filled Pipe

0.008

0.030

Hollow Pipe

0.008

0.025

Level 1 or 2 refer to the seismic performance criteria (subsection


3104F.2.1)

Steel components for all non-seismic loading


combinations shall be designed in accordance with
AISC-LRFD [7.8].
3107F.2.6.6
Shear Capacity (Strength).
The
procedures of subsection 3107F.2.5.7 to establish
Vdesign are applicable to steel piles (Equations 7-13 and
7-14). If the factors defined in subsection 3107F.2.1.1
are used, the uncertainty factors need not be applied.
Figure 31F-7-8: Axial Force Shear Mechanism

3107F.2.6 Steel Piles

Vshell = (/2 )t fy,shell (Dp-c-c0) cot

3107F.2.6.1 General. The capacity of steel piles is


based on allowable strains corresponding to the desired
performance criteria and design earthquake.
3107F.2.6.2 Stability. Subsection 3102F.2.5.2 applies
to steel piles.
3107F.2.6.3 Plastic Hinge Length. The plastic hinge
length depends on the section shape and the slope of
the moment diagram in the vicinity of the plastic hinge.
For plastic hinges forming in steel piles at the deck/pile
interface and where the hinge forms in the steel section
rather than in a special connection detail (such as a
reinforced concrete dowel connection), allowance
should be made for strain penetration into the pile cap.
This increase may be taken as 0.25Dp, where Dp is the
pile diameter or pile depth in the direction of the applied
shear force.
3107F.2.6.4 Ultimate Flexural Strain Capacity. The
following limiting value applies:
Strain at extreme-fiber,

The shear capacity shall be established from the AISCLRFD [7.8]. For concrete filled pipe, equation 7-15 may
be used to determine shear capacity, however Vshell
must be substituted for Vs; it thus becomes:

u 0.035

(7-21)

where:
t
=
fy,shell =
co
=

shell thickness
yield strength of steel shell
outside of steel pipe to center of hoop or
spiral
(All other terms are as listed for equation 7-18).
3107F.2.7 Pile/Deck Connection Strength
3107F.2.7.1 Joint Shear Capacity. The joint shear
capacity shall be computed in accordance with ACI 318
[7.5]. For existing MOTs, the method [7.1, 7.2] given
below may be used:
1.

Determine the nominal shear stress in the joint


region corresponding to the pile plastic moment
capacity.

j =

0.9 M p
2l dv D p2

(7-22)

where:

Mp

=
=

ldv

Dp

Nominal shear stress


Overstrength moment of the plastic hinge
(the maximum possible moment in the pile)
as determined from a pushover analysis at
displacements corresponding to the damage
control limit state (1.25 Mn when established
from moment curvature and 1.3 and 1.1
over-strength factors are applied to fc and fy,
respectively, 1.4 otherwise.)
Vertical development length, see Figure
31F-7-9
Diameter of pile

Figure 31F-7-10: Degradation of Effective Principal


Tension Strength with Joint Shear Strain (rotation)
[7.1, pg. 564]

For pt =

5.0 f c' , determine the corresponding joint

shear stress,

j :

j = pt ( pt f a )
3.
Figure 31F-7-9: Development Length
2.

Determine the nominal principal tension pt, stress


in the joint region:
2

fa
f
pt =
+ a + 2j
2
2

(7-23)

where:

fa =

(D

+ hd )

(7-24)

(7-25)

The moment capacity of the connection can be


approximated as:

1
2
Mc =
2 j l dv D p M p
.90

(7-26)

This will result in a reduced strength and effective


stiffness for the pile in a pushover analysis. The
maximum displacement capacity of the pile should be
based on a drift angle of 0.04 radians.
If no mechanisms are available to provide residual
strength, the moment capacity will decrease to zero as
the joint shear strain increases to 0.04 radians, as
shown in Figure 31F-7-11.

is the average compressive stress at the joint center


caused by the pile axial compressive force N and hd is
the deck depth. Note, if the pile is subjected to axial
tension under seismic load, the value of N, and fa will be
negative.
If pt >

5.0 f c' psi, joint failure will occur at a lower

moment than the column plastic moment capacity Mp.


In this case, the maximum moment that can be
developed at the pile/deck interface will be limited by
the joint principal tension stress capacity, which will
continue to degrade as the joint rotation increases, as
shown in Figure 31F-7-10. The moment capacity of the
connection at which joint failure initiates can be
established from equations 7-26 and 7-27.
Figure 31F-7-11 Reduced Pile Moment Capacity

If deck stirrups are present within hd/2 of the face of the


pile, the moment capacity, Mc,r, at the maximum plastic
rotation of 0.04 radians may be increased from zero to
the following (see Figure 31F-7-12):

M c ,r = 2 As f y (hd d c ) + N (

Dp
2

dc )

(7-27)

p =

0.04
Lp

Lp is given by equation 7-5.

Where

The adjusted ultimate curvature,


calculated as:

As = Area of slab stirrups on one side of joint


hd = See Figure 31F-7-9 (deck thickness)
dc = Depth from edge of concrete to center of main
reinforcement
In addition, the bottom deck steel (As , deckbottom)
area within hd/2 of the face of the pile shall satisfy:

As ,deckbottom 0.5 As

(7-30)

u' = p +

u' ,

can now be

y M c ,r
Mn

(7-31)

Note that Mc,r = 0 unless deck stirrups are present as


discussed above.
Examples of adjusted moment
curvature relationships are shown in Figure 31F-7-13.

(7-28)

Figure 31F-7-13 Equivalent Pile Curvature


Figure 31F-7-12: Joint Rotation

4.

3107F.2.7.2 Development Length. The development


length, ldc , is:

Using the same initial stiffness as in subsection


3107F.2.5.4, the moment-curvature relationship
established for the pile top can now be adjusted to
account for the joint degradation.

The adjusted yield curvature,

y' =

u' ,

can be found from:

y M c

(7-29)

Mn

Mn is defined in Figure 31F-7-5


The plastic curvature,

p ,

corresponding to a joint

rotation of 0.04 can be calculated as:

l dc

0.025 d b f ye
f c'

where:

db
f ye

= dowel bar diameter


= expected yield strength of dowel

fc

= compressive strength of concrete

In assessing existing details, actual or estimated values


for

f ye and f c' rather than nominal strength should be

used in accordance with 3107F.2.1.1.


When the development length is less than that
calculated by the equation 7-32, the moment capacity

(7-32)

shall be calculated using a proportionately reduced


yield strength, fye,r , for the vertical pile reinforcement:

f ye, r = f ye

ld
ldc

(7-33)

where:

ld
fye

=
=

actual development length


expected yield strength of dowel

3107F.2.8 Batter Piles

When the row of batter piles fail in tension or shear,


stored energy will be released. The structure will
therefore experience a lateral displacement demand
following the non-ductile pile failures. If the structure
can respond to this displacement demand without
exceeding other structural limitations, it may be
assumed that the structure is stable and will start to
respond to further shaking with a much longer period
and corresponding lower seismic demands. The wharf
structure may therefore be able to sustain larger
seismic demands following the loss of the batter piles
than before the loss of pile capacity, because of a much
softer seismic response.

3107F.2.8.1Existing Ordinary Batter Piles. Wharves


or piers with ordinary (not fused, plugged or having a
seismic release mechanism) batter piles typically have
a very stiff response when subjected to lateral loads in
the direction of the batter.
The structure often
maintains most of its initial stiffness all the way to failure
of the first row of batter piles. Since batter piles most
likely will fail under a level 2 seismic event, the following
method may be used to evaluate the post failure
behavior of the wharf or pier:
1. Identify the failure mechanism of the batter piledeck connection (refer to subsection 3104F.4.7) for
typical failure scenarios) and the corresponding
lateral displacement.
2. Release the lateral load between the batter pile
and the deck when the lateral failure displacement
is reached.
3. Push on the structure until subsequent failure(s)
have been identified.

The area under the pushover curve before the batter


pile failures is compared to the equivalent area under
the post failure pushover curve (refer to Figure 31F-714). If no other structural limitations are reached with
the new displacement demand, it is assumed that the
structure is capable of absorbing the energy. It should
be noted that even though the shear failure is nonductile, it is expected that energy will be absorbed and
the damping will increase during the damage of the
piles. The above method is, therefore, considered
conservative.

As an example, following these steps will result in a


force-displacement (pushover) curve similar to the one
shown in Figure 31F-7-14 for a wharf supported by one
row of batter piles.

3107F.2.8.2 Non-ordinary Batter Piles. For the case


of a plugged batter pile system, an appropriate
displacement force relationship considering plug friction
may be used in modeling the structural system.

Following the shear failure of a batter pile row, the


period of the structure increases such that equal
displacement can be assumed when estimating the
post-failure displacement demand. The new period
may be estimated from the initial stiffness of the post
failure system as shown in Figure 31F-7-14. A new
displacement demand can then be calculated in
accordance with subsection 3104F.2.

For fused and seismic release mechanism batter pile


systems, a non-linear modeling procedure shall be used
and peer reviewed (subsection 3101F.6.1).
3107F.2.9 Concrete Pile Caps with Concrete Deck
3107F.2.9.1 General. The moment-curvature and
moment-rotation relationships shall be computed for
pile caps using the methodology previously described.
When the deck and the pile cap behave monolithically,
an appropriate width of the deck may be included as
part of the pile cap cross-section as per ACI-318 [7.5].
3107F.2.9.2 Plastic Hinge Length. The plastic hinge
length LP, for existing pile caps may be taken as:
LP =
where
Figure 31F-7-14: Pushover Curve for Ordinary
Batter Piles

0.5Dc

Dc is the pile cap depth.

(7-34)

3107F.2.9.3 Ultimate Concrete and Steel Flexural


Strains. The ultimate strain limits defined in subsection
3107F.2.5.5 shall also apply to pile caps and deck.
All concrete shall be treated as unconfined concrete
unless it can be demonstrated that adequate
confinement steel is present.
3107F.2.9.4
Component Acceptance/Damage
Criteria. For new pile caps and deck, Level 1 seismic
performance shall utilize the design methods in ACI-318
[7.5]; Level 2 seismic performance shall be limited to
the following strains:
Deck/pile cap:
Reinforcing steel tension strain:

c 0.005
s 0.01

For existing pile caps and deck, the limiting strain


values are defined in Table 31F-7-5.
Concrete components for all non-seismic loading
combinations shall be in accordance with ACI 318 [7.5].
3107F.2.9.5
Shear Capacity (Strength).
Shear
capacity shall be based on nominal material strengths;
reduction factors shall be in accordance with ACI 318
[7.5].
3107F.2.10 Concrete Detailing. For new MOTs, the
required development splice length, cover and detailing
shall conform to ACI 318 [7.5], with the following
exceptions:
1.

2.

3.

For pile/deck dowels, the development length may


be calculated in accordance with subsection
3107F.2.7.2.
The minimum concrete cover for prestressed
concrete piles shall be three inches, unless
corrosion inhibitors are used, in which case a cover
of two-and-one-half inches is acceptable.
The minimum concrete cover for wharf beams and
slabs, and all concrete placed against soil shall be
three inches, except for headed reinforcing bars
(pile dowels or shear stirrups) the cover may be
reduced to two-and-one-half inch cover at the top
surface only. If corrosion inhibitors are used, a
cover of two-and-one-half inches is acceptable.

3107F.3 Timber Piles and Deck Components


3107F.3.1
Component Strength.
The following
parameters shall be established in order to assess
component strength:
New and existing components:
1. Modulus of rupture
2. Modulus of elasticity
3. Type and grade of timber
Existing components only:

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Original cross-section shape and physical


dimensions
Location and dimension of braced frames
Current physical condition of members including
visible deformation
Degradation may include environmental effects
(e.g., decay, splitting, fire damage, biological and
chemical attack) including its effect on the moment
of inertia, I
Loading and displacement effects (e.g., overload,
damage from earthquakes, crushing and twisting)

Subsection 3104F.2.2 discusses existing material


properties. At a minimum, the type and grade of wood
shall be established. The published stress values in the
ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9] may be used as default values
and shall be multiplied by a factor of 2.8 to convert from
allowable stress levels to yield or ultimate values for
seismic loading.
For deck components, the allowable stresses shall be
limited to the values published in the ANSI/AF&PA NDS
[7.9] increased by a factor of 2.0. Piling deformation
limits shall be calculated based on the strain limits in
accordance with subsection 3107F.3.3.3.
The values shown in the ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9] are
not developed specifically for MOTs and can be used
as default properties only if as-built information is not
available, the member is not damaged and testing is not
performed. To account for the inherent uncertainty in
establishing component capacities for existing
structures with limited knowledge about the actual
material properties, a reduction (knowledge) factor of k
= 0.75 shall be included in the component strength and
deformation capacity analyses in accordance with
subsection 3107F.2.1.2.
The modulus of elasticity shall be based on tests or the
ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9]. Alternatively the values shown
in Table 31F-7-7 may be used for typical timber piles:
TABLE 31F-7-7
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (E) FOR
TYPICAL TIMBER PILES
E (psi)
Species
Pacific Coast Douglas Fir

1,500,000

Red Oak

1,250,000

Red Pine

1,280,000

Southern Pine

1,500,000

3107F.3.2
Deformation Capacity of Flexural
Members. The displacement demand and capacity of
existing timber structures may be established per
subsection 3104F.2.
The soil spring requirements for the lateral pile analysis
shall be in accordance with Section 3106F.

a =

A linear curvature distribution may be assumed along


the full length of a timber pile.
The displacement capacity of a timber pile can then be
established per subsection 3107F.3.3.2.

where:

3107F.3.3 Timber Piles

cu

3107F.3.3.1 Stability. Subsection 3107F.2.5.2 shall


apply to timber piles.
3107F.3.3.2 Displacement Capacity. A distinction
shall be made between a pier-type pile, with a long
unsupported length and a wharf-landside-type pile with
a short unsupported length between the deck and soil.
The effective length, L, is the distance between the
pinned deck/pile connection and in-ground fixity as
shown in Figure 31F-7-15.
For pier-type (long
unsupported length) vertical piles, two simplified
procedures to determine fixity or displacement capacity
are described in MIL-HDBK-1025/6 [7.10] or the Navy
Design Manual 7.02 [7.11], respectively.

(7-36)

cu

allowable strain limit according to subsection


3107F.3.3.3
distance to neutral axis which can be taken
as Dp/2, where Dp is the diameter of the
pile

The curvature is defined as:

M
EI

(7-37)

The maximum allowable moment therefore becomes:

M =

2 a
EI
Dp

(7-38)

The displacement capacity is therefore given by:

2 a L2
3D p

(7-39)

TABLE 31F-7- 8
DISTANCE BELOW GROUND
TO POINT OF FIXITY
Pile EIg

Figure 31F-7-15: Assumed In-Ground Fixity


In order to determine fixity in soft soils, another
alternative is to use Table 31F-7-8.
The displacement capacity, , for a pile pinned at the
top, with effective length, L, and moment, M, using
Table 31F-7-8 or MIL-HDBK-1025/6 [7.10] is:

ML
3EI

(7-35)

where

E
I

= Modulus of elasticity
= Moment of inertia

Assuming linear curvature distribution along the pile,


the allowable curvature, a , can be established from:

Soft Clays

Loose Granular &


Medium Clays

< 1010 lb in2

10 feet

8 feet

> 1010 lb in2

12 feet

10 feet

3107F.3.3.3
Component Acceptance/Damage
Criteria. The following limiting strain values apply for
each seismic performance level for existing structures:

Earthquake Level
Level 1
Level 2

Max. Timber Strain


0.004
0.008

Alternatively, ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9] may be used.


Timber components for all non-seismic loading
combinations shall be designed in accordance with
ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9].
3107F.3.3.4 Shear Capacity. To account for material
strength uncertainties, the maximum shear demand,
Vmax,push , established from the single pile lateral
analysis shall be multiplied by 1.2:
Vdesign = 1.2Vmax,push

(7-40)

The maximum shear stress

max

, in a circular pile can

then be determined:

max =

10 Vmax, push
9 r2

r =

radius of pile

(7-41)

where:

For the seismic load combinations, the maximum


allowable shear stress, capacity , is the design shear
strength, design , from the ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9]

3107F.4.3
Capacity of Mooring and Berthing
Components. The structural and connection capacity
of mooring components bolted to the deck shall be
established in accordance with AISC [7.8], ACI-318
[7.5], ANSI/AF&PA NDS [7.9] as appropriate. The
mooring component capacity may be governed by the
strength of the deck material. Therefore, a check of the
deck capacity to withstand mooring component loads
shall be performed.
3107F.5 Symbols

Ae
Ag

=
=

Ah

The shear capacity must be greater than the maximum


demand.

As
Asp

=
=

3107F.4
Mooring and Berthing Components.
Mooring components include bitts, bollards, cleats,
pelican hooks, capstans, mooring dolphins and quick
release hooks.

co

cu

Applicable safety factors to be applied to the demand


are provided in subsection 3103F.10.

D
D*

Pile diameter

3107F.4.1
Component Strength.
The following
parameters shall be established in order to calculate
component strength:

db

=
=
=

dc

dbl

Depth from edge of concrete to center


of reinforcement
Diameter
of
the
longitudinal
reinforcement

Dc

Dp

=
=

Eccentricity of axial load

Max extreme fiber compression strain

Ultimate concrete compressive strain


Strain at peak stress of confining
reinforcement

multiplied by a factor of 2.8.

capacity = 2.8 design

(7-42)

Berthing components include fender piles and fenders,


which may be camels, fender panels, or wales.

New and existing components:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Yield and tensile strength of structural steel


Structural steel modulus of elasticity
Yield and tensile strength of bolts
Concrete infill compressive strength
Concrete infill modulus of elasticity

Additional parameters for existing components:


1.
2.
3.

Condition of steel including corrosion


Effective cross-sectional areas
Condition of embedment material such as concrete
slab or timber deck

3107F.4.2
Mooring and Berthing Component
Demand. The maximum mooring line forces (demand)
shall be established per Section 3105F. Multiple lines
may be attached to the mooring component at varying
horizontal and vertical angles. Mooring components
shall therefore be checked for all the mooring analysis
load cases. The maximum demand on breasting
dolphins and fender piles shall be established according
to subsection 3103F.6 and Section 3105F.

a
cm
c u

Effective shear area


Uncracked, gross section area
Total area of transverse reinforcement,
parallel to direction of applied shear
cut by an inclined shear crack
Area of reinforcing steel
Spiral or hoop cross section area
Depth from extreme compression fiber
to neutral axis at flexural strength
Outside of steel pipe to center of hoop
or spiral or concrete cover to center of
hoop or spiral
Value of neutral axis depth at ultimate
strength of section
Reference diameter of 6 ft
Dowel bar diameter

Depth of pile cap


Pile diameter or gross depth (in case
of a rectangular pile with spiral
confinement)
Allowable strain limit

sm

Ultimate steel strain

E
fc
fcc
Fp

=
=
=
=
=

Modulus of elasticity

fp

Concrete compression strength


Confined strength of concrete
Prestress compression force in pile
Yield strength of prestress strands

fy

Yield strength of steel

fye

Design yield strength of longitudinal or


dowel reinforcement (ksi)

fyh

Yield stress of confining steel

fyh

Yield strength of transverse or hoop


reinforcement

fy,shell
fye, r
h
hd

=
=
=
=

Yield strength of steel shell


Reduced dowel yield strength
Width of pile in considered direction
Deck depth

Distance from ground to pile point of


contraflexure

Ic

Moment of Inertia of uncracked section

Ie
Ig
K

=
=
=

Effective moment of inertia

k
k

Gross moment of inertia


Subgrade modulus

Factor dependent on the curvature


ductility = y , within the plastic

hinge region
Knowledge factor

Lp
ldc
ld
ldv
Mc
Mc,r
Mn

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Mp

My
N

=
=

The distance from the critical section of


the plastic hinge to the point of
contraflexure
Minimum development length
Existing development length
Vertical development length
Moment capacity at plastic rotation
Moment at secant stiffness

Plastic rotation

Angle between line joining centers of


flexural compression in the deck/pile
and in-ground hinges, and the pile axis

a
m
p
u
`u
y
`y

Allowable curvature

Maximum curvature

Plastic curvature

Ultimate curvature

Adjusted ultimate curvature

Yield curvature

Adjusted yield curvature

Maximum shear stress


Concrete shear strength

=
=

Vdesign
Vmax,push
Vn

=
=
=

Design shear strength

Vs

Vshell

max
Vc

Joint shear stress


Maximum shear demand
Nominal shear strength
Transverse
reinforcement
capacity (strength)
Shear capacity for steel pipe

shear

3107F.6 References
[7.1]

M.J.N. Priestley, M.J.N, Seible, Frieder, Gian


Michele Calvi, Seismic Design and Retrofit of
Bridges, 1996, New York.

[7.2]

Ferritto, J., Dickenson, S., Priestley N.,


Werner, S., Taylor, C., Burke D., Seelig W.,
and Kelly, S., 1999, Seismic Criteria for
California Marine Oil Terminals, Vol.1 and
Vol.2, Technical Report TR-2103-SHR, Naval
Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port
Hueneme, CA.

[7.3]

Federal Emergency Management Agency,


FEMA-356, Nov. 2000, Prestandard and
Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings, Washington, D.C.

[7.4]

Blakeley, J.P., Park, R., Prestressed Concrete


Sections with Cyclic Flexure, Journal of the
Structural Division, American Society of Civil
Engineers, V. 99, No. ST8, August 1973, pp.
1717-1742, Reston, VA.

[7.5]

American Concrete Institute, ACI 318-02,


2002, Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete (318-02) and Commentary
(318R-02), Farmington Hills, Michigan.

As determined from a pushover


analysis
at
displacements
corresponding to the damage control
limit state
Moment at first yield
Pile axial compressive force
External axial compression on pile
including load due to earthquake
action

s
t

=
=

Effective volume ratio of confining steel

=
=

Radius of circular pile

=
=

Shell thickness

1.0 for existing structures, and 0.85 for

Moment capacity of the connection

Plastic hinge length

Nu

new design
Angle of critical crack to the pile axis
(taken as 30 for existing structures,
and 35 for new design)

Nominal principal tension


Spacing of hoops or spiral along the
pile axis
Displacement

[7.6]

Applied Technology Council, 1996, ATC-32,


Improved Seismic Design Criteria for
California
Bridges:
Provisional
Recommendations, Redwood City, CA,

[7.7]

Kowalski, M.J. and Priestley, M.J.N., Shear


th
Strength of Ductile Bridge Columns, Proc. 5
Caltrans
Seismic
Design
Workshop,
Sacramento, June 1998.

[7.8]

American Institute of Steel Construction


(AISC), 2001, Manual of Steel Construction,
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD),
Third Edition, Chicago, IL.

[7.9]

American Forest & Paper Association, 2001,


National Design Specification for Wood
Construction,
ANSI/AF&PA
NDS-2001,
Washington, D.C.

[7.10]

Department of Defense, 1988, MIL-HDBK1025/6, General Criteria for Waterfront


Construction
1025/6,
15 May
1988,
Washington, D.C.

[7.11]

Naval Facilities Engineering Command, 1986,


Foundations and Earth Structures, Design
Manual 7.02, Alexandria, VA.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and 8757,


Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 8
SECTION 3108F - FIRE PREVENTION, DETECTION, AND
SUPPRESSION
3108F.1 GENERAL. This section provides minimum
standards for fire prevention, detection, and suppression at
MOTs. See Subsection 3101F.3 for definitions of new (N)
and existing (E).
3108F.2 Hazard Assessment and Risk Analysis
3108F.2.1 Fire Hazard Assessment and Risk Analysis
(N/E). A fire hazard assessment and risk analysis shall be
performed, considering the loss of commercial power,
earthquake and other relevant events.
3108F.2.2 Fire Plan (N/E). A site-specific Fire Plan shall
be prepared by a registered engineer or a competent fire
protection professional. The plan shall consider the hazards
and risks identified per subsection 3108F.2.1 and shall
include, but not be limited to, the elements of pre-fire
planning as discussed in Section 9 of [8.1] and Chapter 3 of
[8.2].
The Fire Plan shall include goals, resources,
organization, strategy and tactics, including the following:
1.

MOT characteristics (e.g. tanker/manifold, product


pipelines, etc.)
2. Product types and fire scenarios
3. Possible collateral fire damage to adjacent facilities
4. Fire-fighting capabilities, including availability of water
(flow rates and pressure), foam type and associated
shelf life, proportioning equipment, and vehicular
access [8.1, 8.3]
5. The selection of appropriate extinguishing agents [8.1,
8.2]
6. Calculation of water and foam capacities, as applicable,
consistent with area coverage requirements [8.1]
7. Coordination of emergency efforts
8. Emergency escape routes [8.2, 8.3]
9. Requirements for fire drills, training of wharf personnel,
and the use of non-fixed equipment
10. Life safety

11. Rescue for terminal and vessel personnel [8.1]


12. Cooling water for pipelines and valves exposed to the
heat
13. Contingency planning when supplemental fire support is
not available. Mutual aid agreements can apply to water
and land based support
14. Consideration of adverse conditions, such as electrical
power failure, steam failure, fire pump failure, an
earthquake or other damage to the fire water system.
The audit team shall review and field verify the fire-fighting
equipment locations and condition and may check its
operability.
3108F.2.3 Cargo Liquid and Fire Hazard Classifications
(N/E). The cargo liquid hazard classes are defined in Table
31F-8-1, as either High (HC) or Low (LC), depending on the
flash point.
Fire hazard classifications (Low, Medium or High) are
defined in Table 31F-8-2, and are based on the cargo liquid
hazard class and the sum of all stored and flowing volumes,
prior to the Emergency Shut Down System (ESD) stopping
the flow of oil.
The stored volume is the sum of the HC and LC liquid hazard
class piping volumes (VSH and VSL), if the piping is not
stripped.
During a pipeline leak, a quantity of oil is assumed to spill at
the maximum cargo flow rate until the ESD is fully effective.
The ESD valve closure is required to be completed in 60
seconds if installed prior to November 1, 1980 or in 30
seconds if installed after that date (2 CCR 2380 (h) (3))[8.3].
The flowing volume is the sum of the HC and LC liquid
hazard class volumes (VFH and VFL), and shall be calculated
as follows:

VF = QC x t x (1/3,600)
Where:

VF = Flowing Volume (VFH or VFL ) [bbl]


QC = Cargo Transfer Rate [bbl/hr]
t = ESD time, 30 or 60 seconds

TABLE 31F-8-1
CARGO LIQUID HAZARD CLASS
Class

Criterion

Low
(LC)

Flash Point
140oF

Reference
ISGOTT (Chapter 15, [8.4]) Non-Volatile

High
(HC)

Flash Point
o
<140 F

ISGOTT (Chapter 15, [8.4]) Volatile

Examples
#6 Heavy Fuel Oil, residuals, bunker

Gasoline, JP4, crude oils

(8-1)

TABLE 31F-8-2
FIRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATIONS
Stored Volume (bbl)

Class

Flowing Volume (bbl)

Criteria (bbls)*

Stripped

VSL

VSH

VFL

VFH

LOW

VFL VFH , & VT 1200

LOW

VSL + VFL 1200

MEDIUM

VSH + VFH 1200

MEDIUM

VFH > VFL , & VT 1200

HIGH

VSH + VFH >1200

HIGH

VT > 1200

HIGH

VT > 1200

HIGH

VSL + VFL > 1200

HIGH

VSH + VFH > 1200

y yes
n no
Stripped product purged from pipeline following product transfer event.
VSL stored volume of low hazard class product
VSH stored volume of high hazard class product
VFL volume of low hazard class product flowing through transfer line during 30 - 60 secs. ESD.
VFH volume of high hazard class product flowing through transfer line during 30 - 60 secs. ESD.
VT VSL + VSH + VFL + VFH = Total Volume (stored and flowing)
* Quantities are based on maximum flow rate, including simultaneous transfers.

3108F.3 Fire Prevention

3108F.3.2 Emergency Shutdown Systems. An


essential
measure
of
fire
prevention
is
communications in conjunction with the emergency
shutdown. The ESD and isolation system shall
conform to 2 CCR 2380 (h) [8.3] and 33 CFR 154.550
[8.6]. An ESD system shall include or provide:

I, Group D, Division 1 or 2 [8.7]. Actuation


stations shall be wired in parallel to achieve
redundancy and arranged so that fire damage to
one station will not disable the ESD system (N).
5. Communications
or
control
circuits
to
synchronize simultaneous closure of the Shore
Isolation Valves (SIVs) with the shut down of
loading pumps (N).
6. A manual reset to restore the ESD system to an
operational state after each initiation (N).
7. An alarm to indicate failure of the primary power
source (N).
8. A secondary (emergency) power source (N).
9. Periodic testing of the system (N).
10. Fire proofing of motors and control-cables that
are installed in areas classified as Class I, Group
D, Division 1 or 2 [8.7]. Fire proofing shall, at a
minimum, comply with the recommendations of
API Publication 2218 (see Section 6 of [8.8]) (N).

1.

3108F.3.3 Shore Isolation Valves (SIV).


Isolation Valve(s) shall:

3108F.3.1 Ignition Source Control


3108F.3.1.1
Protection from ignition by static
electricity, lightning or stray currents shall be in
accordance with API RP 2003 [8.5](N/E).
3108F.3.1.2
Requirements to prevent electrical
arcing shall be in conformity with 2 CCR 2341 [8.3]
(N/E).
3108F.3.1.3
Multi-berth terminal piers shall be
constructed so as to provide a minimum of 100 ft
between adjacent manifolds (N).

2.
3.

4.

An ESD valve, located near the dock manifold


connection or loading arm (N/E).
ESD valves, with Local and Remote actuation
capabilities (N).
Remote actuation stations strategically located,
so that ESD valve(s) may be shut within required
times (N).
Multiple actuation stations installed at strategic
locations, so that one such station is located
more than 100 feet from areas classified as Class

1.

2.
3.

Shore

Be located onshore for each cargo pipeline. All


SIVs shall be clustered together, for easy access
(N).
Be clearly identified together with associated
pipeline (N/E).
Have adequate lighting (N/E).

4.

5.

6.

Be provided with communications or control


circuits to synchronize simultaneous closure of
the ESD system with the shut down of loading
pumps (N).
Have a manual reset to restore the SIV system to
an operational state after each shut down event
(N).
Be provided with thermal expansion relief to
accommodate expansion of the liquid when
closed. Thermal relief piping shall be properly
sized and routed around the SIV, into the
downstream segment of the pipeline or into other
containment (N/E).

SIVs installed in pipelines carrying hazard class, HC


liquids, or at a MOT with a risk classification Medium
or High (see Table 31F-4-1), shall be equipped with
Local and Remote actuation capabilities. Local
control SIVs may be motorized and/or operated
manually (N).

audible alarms shall be displayed at the Facilitys


Control Center (N/E).
If the fire alarm system is integrated with the ESD
system, the operation shall be coordinated with the
closure of SIVs, block valves and pumps to avoid
adverse hydraulic conditions (N/E).
3108F.6 Fire Suppression. Table 31F-8-3 gives the
minimum provisions for fire-water flow rates and fire
extinguishers. The table includes consideration of the
fire hazard classification (Low, Medium or High), the
cargo liquid hazard class (Low or High) and the
vessel or barge size. The minimum provisions may
have to be augmented for multi-berth terminals or
those conducting simultaneous transfers, in
accordance with the risks identified in the Fire Plan.
3108F.6.1 Coverage (N/E). The fire suppression
system shall provide coverage for:

1.

Marine structures including the pier/wharf and

TABLE 31F-8-3
MINIMUM FIRE SUPPRESSION PROVISIONS (N/E)
Fire Hazard Classification
(From Table 31F-8-2)
LOW

LOW

Vessel and Cargo


Liquid Hazard Class
(From Table 31F-8-1)

MINIMUM PROVISIONS

Barge with LC (including


drums)

500 gpm of water


2 x 20 lb. portable dry chemical and 2 x 110 lb. wheeled dry
chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.

Barge with HC (including


drums)

1,500 gpm of water


2 x 20 lb. portable dry chemical and 2 x 165 lb. wheeled dry
chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.

Tankers < 50 KDWT,


handling LC or HC
MEDIUM

Tankers < 50 KDWT


handling LC

1,500 gpm of water


2 x 20 lb. portable dry chemical and 2 x 165 lb. wheeled dry
chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.

MEDIUM

Tankers < 50 KDWT,


handling HC

2,000 gpm of water


4 x 20 lb. portable dry chemical and 2 x 165 lb. wheeled dry
chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.

HIGH

Tankers < 50 KDWT,


handling LC or HC

3,000 gpm of water


4 x 20 lb. portable dry chemical and 2 x 165 lb. wheeled dry
chemical extinguishers or the equivalent. .

LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH

Tankers > 50 KDWT,


handling LC or HC

3,000 gpm of water


6 x 20 lb. portable dry chemical and 4 x 110 lb. wheeled dry
chemical extinguishers or the equivalent.

Notes: LC and HC are defined in Table 31F-8-1.


KDWT = Dead Weight Tons (Thousands)

3108F.4 Fire Detection.


An MOT shall have a
permanently installed automated fire detection or
sensing system (N).
3108F.5 Fire Alarms. Automatic and manual fire
alarms shall be provided at strategic locations. The
fire alarm system shall be arranged to provide a visual
and audible alarm that can be readily discerned by all
personnel at the MOT.
Additionally, visual and

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

approach trestle
Terminal cargo manifold
Cargo transfer system including loading arms,
hoses and hose racks
Vessel manifold
Sumps
Pipelines

7.

Control Stations

3108F.6.2 Fire Hydrants. Hydrants shall be located


not greater than 300 ft. apart, along the wharf and
approach trestle [Section 4.2.3 of API 2001 [8.1].
Additional hose connections shall be provided at the
base of fixed monitors and upstream of the water and
foam isolation valves.
Connections shall be
accessible to fire trucks or mutual aid equipment as
identified in the Fire Plan (N).
Hydrants and hoses shall be capable of applying two
independent water streams covering the cargo
manifold, transfer system, sumps and vessel manifold
(N/E).
3108F.6.3 Fire Water. The source of fire water
should be reliable and provide sufficient capacity as
determined in the fire plan.
1. All wet systems shall be kept pressurized (jockey
pump or other means) (N/E).
2. Wet system headers shall be equipped with a
low-pressure alarm wired to the control room (N).
3. Fire pumps shall be installed at a distance of at
least 100 ft. from the nearest cargo manifold area
(N).
4. Hose connections for fireboats or tugboats shall
be provided on the MOT fire water line.
Connections shall be installed at a safe access
distance from the high-risk areas such as sump,
manifold and loading arms (N/E).
3108F.6.4
Foam Supply (N/E).
Product
flammability, foam type, water flow rates and
application duration shall be considered in foam
supply calculations.
Fixed foam proportioning equipment shall be located
at a distance of at least 100 ft. from the high-risk
areas such as sump, manifold and loading arms,
except where hydraulic limits of the foam delivery
system require closer proximity.
MOTs shall have a program to ensure that foam is
replaced
according
to
the
manufacturers
recommendations.
3108F.6.5 Fire Monitor Systems. Fire monitors
shall be located to provide coverage of MOT cargo
manifolds, loading arms, hoses, and vessel manifold
areas. This coverage shall provide at least two
independent streams of water/foam. Monitors shall be
located to provide an unobstructed path between the
monitor and the target area (N/E).
If the vessel manifold is more than 30 ft. above the
wharf deck, the following factors shall be considered,
in order to determine if monitors located on elevated
masts or towers are required (N/E):
1. Maximum tanker freeboard

2.
3.
4.
5.

Tidal variations
Pier/wharf/loading platform elevation
Winds
Fire water line pressure

Sprinklers and/or remotely controlled water/foam


monitors shall be installed to protect personnel,
escape routes, shelter locations and the fire water
system (N).
Isolation valves shall be installed in the fire water and
the foam lines in order to segregate damaged
sections without disabling the entire system. Readily
accessible isolation valves shall be installed 100
150 ft from the manifold and the loading arm/hose
area (N).
3108F.6.6
Supplemental
Fire
Suppression
Systems (E). A supplemental system is an external
waterborne
or
land-based
source
providing
suppressant and equipment. Supplemental systems
may not provide more than one-quarter of the total
water requirements specified in the Fire Plan.
Additionally, supplementary systems shall not be
considered in a Fire Plan, unless available within 20
minutes following the initiation of a fire alarm. Mutual
aid may be considered as part of the supplemental
system.
3108F.7 References.
[8.1]

American Petroleum Institute, 1998, API


Recommended Practice 2001 (API RP
th
2001), Fire Protection in Refineries, 7 ed.,
Washington, D.C.

[8.2]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF), 1987, Guide on Marine Terminal
Fire Protection and Emergency Evacuation,
st
1 ed., Witherby, London.

[8.3]

2 CCR 2300-2407 (Title 2, California Code of


Regulations, Sections 2300-2407).

[8.4]

International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), Oil


Companies International Marine Forum
(OCIMF), International Association of Ports
and Harbors (IAPH), 1996, International
Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals
(ISGOTT), 4th ed., Witherby, London.

[8.5]

American Petroleum Institute, 1998, API


Recommended Practice 2003 (API RP
2003), Protection Against Ignitions Arising
Out of Static, Lightning, and Stray Currents,
6th ed., Washington, D.C.

[8.6]

33 CFR 154.550 (Title 33, Code of Federal


Regulations, Section 154.550).

[8.7]

National Fire Protection Association, 2002,


NFPA 70, National Electric Code, Quincy,
MA.

[8.8]

American Petroleum Institute, 1999, API


Publication 2218, Fireproofing Practices in
Petroleum and Petrochemical Processing
nd
Plants, 2 ed., Washington, D.C.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 9

SECTION 3109F - PIPING AND PIPELINES

11.

3109F.1
General.
This Section provides minimum
engineering standards for piping, pipelines, valves, supports
and related appurtenances at MOTs. This Section applies
to piping and pipelines used for transferring:

12.

1.

13.

2.
3.
4.

Oil (see subsection 3101F.1) to or from tank vessels or


barges
Oil within the MOT
Vapors, including Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Inerting or enriching gases to vapor control systems

Additionally, it also applies to piping or pipelines providing


services, which includes stripping, sampling, venting, vapor
control and fire water.
See subsection 3101F.3 for definitions of new (N) and
existing (E).

3109F.3 Pipeline Stress Analysis (N/E). Pipeline stress


analysis shall be performed for:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3109F.2 Oil Piping and Pipeline Systems. All pressure


piping and pipelines for oil service shall conform to the
provisions of API Standard 2610 [9.1], ASME B31.3 [9.2] or
B31.4 [9.3] as appropriate, including the following:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

9.

10.

All piping/pipelines shall be documented on current


P&IDs (N/E).
Piping and pipeline systems shall be installed above
deck (N).
The systems shall be arranged in a way not to obstruct
access to and removal of other piping components and
equipment (N).
Flexibility shall be achieved through adequate
expansion loops or joints (N/E).
A guide or lateral restraint shall be provided just past
the elbow where a pipe changes direction in order to
minimize excessive axial stress (N).
Piping shall be routed to allow for movement due to
thermal expansion and seismic displacement, without
exceeding the allowable stresses in the supports, and
anchor connections (see subsection 9.3) (N/E).
Plastic piping shall not be used unless designated for
oil service (N/E).
If a flanged connection exists within 20 pipe diameters
from the end of any replaced section, the pipe shall be
replaced up to and including the flange.
Pipelines shall be seamless, electric-resistance-welded
or electric-fusion-welded and conform to ASME B31.4.
[9.3] (N)
Piping greater than 2 inches in diameter shall be buttwelded. Piping 2 inches and smaller shall be socket
welded or threaded.

Pipeline connections directly over the water shall be


welded (N). Flanged connections not over water shall
have secondary containment (N).
Pipelines that do not have a valid and certified Static
Liquid Pressure Test (SLPT) [9.4] shall be marked
OUT OF SERVICE. Out-of-service piping and
pipelines shall be purged, gas-freed and physically
isolated from sources of oil.
If a pipeline is out-of-service for 3 or more years, it
will require Division approval prior to re-use.

New piping and pipelines


Significant re-routing/relocation of existing piping
Any replacement of not in-kind piping
Any significant rearrangement or replacement of not
in-kind anchors and/or supports
Significant seismic displacements calculated from the
structural assessment

Piping stress analysis shall be performed in accordance with


ASME B31.4 [9.3], considering all relevant loads and
corresponding displacements determined from the structural
analysis described in Section 3104F.
Flexibility analysis for piping, considering supports, shall be
performed in accordance with ASME B31.4 [9.3] by using
the largest temperature differential imposed by normal
operation, start-up, shutdown, or abnormal conditions.
Thermal loads shall be based upon maximum and minimum
local temperatures; heat traced piping shall use the
maximum attainable temperature of the heat tracing system.
To determine forces at sliding surfaces, the coefficients of
static friction shown in Table 31F-9-1 shall be used.
TABLE 9-1
COEFFICIENTS OF STATIC FRICTION
Sliding Surface
Materials

Coefficient of Static
Friction

Teflon on Teflon

0.10

Plastic on Steel

0.35

Steel on Steel

0.40

Steel on Concrete

0.45

Steel on Timber

0.49

3109F.4 Anchors And Supports. Anchors and supports


shall conform to ASME B31.3 [9.2], ASME B31.4 [9.3], API
Standard 2610 [9.1] and the ASCE Guidelines [9.5](N).

A seismic assessment shall be performed for existing


anchors and supports using recommendations in Section 7
of CalARP [9.6] or Chapter 11 of FEMA 356 [9.7], as
appropriate (E).

tested periodically. These records shall be maintained


for at least 6 years.
3109F.6 Utility and Auxiliary Piping Systems. Utility and
auxiliary piping includes service for:

3109F.5 Appurtenances
3109F.5.1 Valves and Fittings. Valves and fittings shall
meet the following requirements:
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

Conform to ASME B 31.4 [9.3], API Standard 609


[9.8], and ASME B16.34 [9.9], as appropriate, based
on their service (N).
Conform to Section 8 of [9.1] (N/E).
Stems shall be oriented in a way not to pose a hazard
in operation or maintenance (N/E).
Non-ductile iron, cast iron, and low-melting
temperature metals shall not be used in any
hydrocarbon service, fire water, or foam service (N/E).
Double-block and bleed valves shall be used for
manifold valves. (N/E).
Isolation valves shall be fire-safe, in accordance with
API Standard 607 [9.10] (N).
Swing check valves shall not be installed in vertical
down-flow piping (N/E).
Pressure relief devices shall be used in any closed
piping system that has the possibility of being over
pressurized due to temperature increase (thermal relief
valves) or surging (N/E).
Pressure relief devices shall be sized in accordance
with API RP 520 [9.11] (N). Set pressures and
accumulating pressures shall be in accordance with
[9.11] (N).
Discharge from pressure relief valves shall be directed
into lower pressure piping for recycling or proper
disposal. Discharge shall never be directed into the
open environment, unless secondary containment is
provided (N/E).
Threaded, socket-welded, flanged and welded fittings
shall conform to Section 8 of [9.1] (N/E).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Stripping and sampling piping shall conform to subsection


3109F.2 (N/E).
Vapor return lines and VOC vapor inerting and enriching
(natural gas) piping shall conform to 33 CFR 154.808 [9.12],
and API RP 1124 [9.13] (N).
Firewater and foam piping and fittings shall meet the
following requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.

2.
3.
4.

5.

Actuators shall have a readily accessible, manually


operated overriding device to operate the valve during
a power loss.
Torque switches shall be set to stop the motor closing
operation at a specified torque setting
Limit switches shall be set to stop the motor opening
operation at a specified limit switch setting.
Critical valves shall be provided with thermal
insulation. The insulation shall be inspected and
maintained at periodic intervals. Records of thermal
insulation inspections and condition shall be
maintained for at least 6 years.
Electrical insulation for critical valves shall be
measured for resistance following installation and re-

Conform to ASME B 16.5 [9.14]


Fire mains shall be carbon steel pipe (N/E)
High density polyethylene (HDPE) piping may be used
for buried pipelines (N/E)
Piping shall be color-coded (N/E)

Compressed air, venting and nitrogen piping and fittings


shall conform to ASME B31.3 [9.2] (N).

3109F.7 References
[9.1]

American Petroleum Institute (API), 1994, API


Standard 2610, Design, Construction, Operation,
Maintenance, and Inspection of Terminal and Tank
Facilities, ANSI/API STD 2610-1994, 1st ed.,
Washington, D.C.

[9.2]

American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME), 1998, ASME B31.3, Process Piping,
New York.

[9.3]

American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME),
1998,
ASME
B31.4,
Pipeline
Transportation Systems For Liquid Hydrocarbons
And Other Liquids, New York.

[9.4]

2 CCR 2550 - 2556, 2560 - 2571 (Title 2, California


Code of Regulations (CCR), Sections 2550-2556,
2560-2571).

[9.5]

American Society of Civil Engineers, 1997,


Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Design of
Petrochemical Facilities, New York.

[9.6]

CalARP Program Seismic Guidance Committee,


1998, Guidance for California Accidental Release

3109F.5.2 Valve Actuators (N/E).


1.

Stripping and sampling


Vapor control
Fire water and foam
Natural gas
Compressed air, venting and nitrogen

Prevention
(CalARP)
Program
Assessments, Sacramento, CA.

Seismic

[9.7]

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Nov.


2000, FEMA 356, Prestandard and Commentary
for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings,
Washington, D.C.

[9.8]

American Petroleum Institute (API), 1997, API


Standard 609, Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged,
Lug- and Wafer-Type, 5th ed., Washington, D.C.

[9.9]

American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME), 1996, ASME B16.34, Valves Flanged
Threaded And Welding End, New York.

[9.10]

American Petroleum Institute (API), 1996, API


Standard 607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated QuarterTurn Valves, 4th ed., 1993 (reaffirmed 4/1996),
Washington, D.C.

[9.11]

American Petroleum Institute (API), 2000, API RP


520, Sizing, Selection, and Installation of
Pressure-relieving Devices in Refineries, Part I
th
Sizing and Selection, 7 ed., and Part II
th
Installation, 2003, 5 ed., Washington, D.C.

[9.12]

33 CFR 154.808 Vapor Control Systems,


General (Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), Section 154.808).

[9.13]

American Petroleum Institute (API), 1991,


Recommended Practice 1124 (API RP 1124),
Ship, Barge, and Terminal Hydrocarbon Vapor
Collection Manifolds, 1st ed., Washington, D.C.

[9.14]

American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME), 1996, ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings, New York.

Authority:

Sections 8755
Resources Code.

and

8757,

Public

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and 8757,


Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 10

Section 3110F - MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL


EQUIPMENT
3110F.1
General.
This Section provides the
minimum standards for mechanical and electrical
equipment at MOTs.
See subsection 3101F.3 for definitions of new (N)
and existing (E).
3110F.2 Marine Loading Arms.
3110F.2.1 General Criteria. Marine loading arms
and ancillary systems shall conform to 2 CCR 2380
(b) [10.1], 33 CFR 154.510 [10.2] and the Design and
Construction Specification for Marine Loading Arms,
[10.3].
The following shall be considered when determining
the loading arm maximum allowable extension limits:
1. Vessel sizes and manifold locations
2. Lowest-low water level (Datum)
3. Highest-high water level
4. Maximum vessel surge and sway
5. Maximum width of fendering system
3110F.2.2 Electrical and Hydraulic Power Systems
3110F.2.2.1 Pressure and Control Systems (N).
1.

Pressure gauges shall be mounted in accordance


with ASME B40.100-1998 [10.4].

2.

The hydraulic drive cylinders shall be mounted


and meet either the mounting requirements of
ANSI/(NFPA) T3.6.7 R2-1996 [10.5]
or
equivalent.
In high velocity current (> 1.5 knots) areas, all
new marine loading arms shall be fitted with
quick disconnect couplers and emergency quick
release systems in conformance with Section 6.0
and 7.0 of [10.3]. In complying with this
requirement, attention shall be paid to the
commentary and guidelines in Part III of
reference [10.3].
Out-of-limit, balance and the approach of out-oflimit alarms shall be located at or near the
loading arm console.

3.

4.

3110F.2.2.2
Electrical Components (N).
The
following criteria shall be implemented:
1. Equipment shall be provided with a safety
disconnecting device to isolate the entire
electrical system from the electrical mains in

accordance with Article 430 of the National


Electric Code (NEC), [10.6].
2. Motor controllers and 3-pole motor overload
protection shall be installed and sized in
accordance with Article 430, NEC [10.6].
3. Control circuits shall be limited to 120 volts and
shall comply with Articles 500 and 501 of the
NEC [10.6]. Alternatively, intrinsically safe wiring
and controls may be provided in accordance with
Article 504, NEC [10.6] and ANSI/UL Std. No.
913 [10.7].
4. Grounding and bonding shall comply with the
requirements of Article 430, NEC [10.6] and
Section 3111F.
Section 3111F includes requirements for electrical
equipment, wiring, cables, controls and electrical
auxiliaries located in hazardous areas.
3110F.2.2.3 Remote Operation. The remote control
system, where provided, shall conform to the
recommendations of the OCIMF [10.3]. The remote
operation shall be facilitated by either a pendant
control system or by a hand-held radio controller (N).
The pendant control system shall be equipped with a
plug-in capability to an active connector located either
in the vicinity of the loading arms, or at the loading
arm outboard end on the triple swivel, and hard-wired
into the control console. The umbilical cord running
from the triple swivel to the control console shall be
attached to the loading arm. Other umbilical cords
shall have sufficient length to reach the maximum
operational limits (N).
The radio controller if installed shall comply with 2
CCR 2370(e) [10.8] and 47 CFR Part 15 [10.9]
requirements for transmitters operating in an industrial
environment (N/E).
3110F.3 Oil Transfer Hoses (N/E). Hoses for oil
transfer service shall be in compliance with 2 CCR
2380 (a) [10.10] and 33 CFR 154.500 [10.11]
Hoses with diameters of 6 inches or larger shall have
flanges that meet ANSI B16.5 [10.12]. Hoses with
diameters of 4 inches or less may have quick
disconnect fittings provided that they meet ASTM F1122 [10.13].
3110F.4 Lifting Equipment: Winches And Cranes.
Lifting equipment shall conform to [10.14], [10.15],
[10.16] and [10.17].
Electrical equipment shall
conform to the provisions of Section 3111F.

3110F.4.1 Winches.
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

Winches and ancillary equipment shall be


suitable for a marine environment (N/E).
Winches shall be provided with a fail-safe braking
system, capable of holding the load under all
conditions, including a power failure (N/E).
Winches shall be fully reversible (N)
Shock, transient, and abnormal loads shall be
considered when selecting winch systems (N).
Winches shall have limit switches and automatic
trip devices to prevent over-travel of the drum in
either direction. Limit switches shall be tested,
and demonstrated to function correctly under
operating conditions without inducing undue
tensions or slack in the winch cables (N/E).
Under all operating conditions, there shall be at
least two full turns of cable on grooved drums,
and at least three full turns on ungrooved drums
(N/E).
Moving winch parts which present caught-in
hazards to personnel shall be guarded (N/E).
Winches shall have clearly identifiable and
readily accessible stop controls (N/E).

3110F.4.2 Cranes (N/E).


1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

Cranes shall not be loaded in excess of the


manufacturers rating except during performance
tests.
Drums on load-hoisting equipment shall be
equipped with positive holding devices.
Under all operating conditions, there shall be at
least two full turns of cable on grooved drums,
and at least three full turns on ungrooved drums .
Braking equipment shall be capable of stopping,
lowering, and holding a load of at least the full
test load.
When not in use, crane booms shall be lowered
to ground level or secured to a rest support
against displacement by wind loads or other
outside forces.
Safety systems including devices that affect the
safe lifting and handling, such as interlocks, limit
switches, load/moment and overload indicators
with shutdown capability, emergency stop
switches, radius and locking indicators, shall be
provided [10.18].

3110F.5 Shore-To-Vessel Access for Personnel.


This subsection applies to shore-to-vessel means of
access for personnel and equipment provided by the
terminal.
This includes ancillary structures and
equipment, which support, supplement, deploy and
maneuver such vessel access systems.

Shore-to-vessel access for personnel shall conform to


29 CFR 1915.74 [10.19], Sections 19(b) and 21(b) of
[10.20] and the following:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Shore-to-vessel access systems shall be


designed to withstand the forces from dead, live,
wind, vibration, impact loads, and the appropriate
combination of these loads. The design shall
consider all the critical positions of the system in
the stored, maintenance, maneuvering, and
deployed positions, where applicable (N).
The minimum live load shall be 50 psf on
walkways and 25 plf with a 200 pounds minimum
concentrated load in any location or direction on
handrails (N).
The walkway shall be not less than 36 inches in
width (N) and not less than 20 inches for existing
walkways (E).
The shore-to-vessel access system shall be
positioned so as to not interfere with the safe
passage or evacuation of personnel (N/E).
Guardrails shall be provided on both sides of the
access systems with a clearance between the
inner most surfaces of the guardrails of not less
than 36 inches and shall be maintained the full
length of the walkway (N).
Guardrails shall be at a height not less than 33
inches above the walkway surface and shall
include an intermediate rail located midway
between the walkway surface and the top rail
(N/E).
The walkway surface, including self-leveling
treads, if so equipped, shall be finished with a
safe non-slip footing accommodating all
operating gangway inclinations [10.21](N/E).
Under no circumstances shall the operating
inclination of the walkway exceed 60 degrees
from the horizontal or the maximum angle
recommended by the manufacturer, whichever is
less (N/E).
The undersides of aluminum gangways shall be
protected with hard plastic or wooden strips to
prevent being dragged or rubbed across any
steel deck or component (N/E).

3110F.6
Sumps, Discharge Containment and
Ancillary
Equipment.
Sumps,
discharge
containment and ancillary equipment shall conform to
2 CCR 2380(f) [10.22], 33 CFR 154.530 [10.23] and
the following:
1.

2.

Sumps for oil drainage shall be equipped with


pressure/vacuum vents, automatic draining
pumps and shall be tightly covered (N/E).
Sumps which provide drainage for more than one
berth should be equipped with liquid seals so that
a fire on one berth does not spread via the sump
(N/E).

3.

4.

Sumps shall be located at least 25 ft. from the


manifolds, base of the loading arms or hose
towers (N).
Conduct periodic integrity testing of the sump
containers and periodic integrity and leak testing
of the related valves and piping.

3110F.7 Vapor Control Systems. Vapor control


systems shall conform to 33 CFR 154.800 through
154.850 [10.24] and API Standard 2610 [10.25]. The
effects of seismic, wind, dead, live and other loads
shall be considered in the analysis and design of
individual tie-downs of components, such as of steel
skirts, vessels, controls and detonation arresters. The
analysis and design shall include the load transfer to
supporting deck/pile structures or foundation
elements.
3110F.8 Equipment Anchors and Supports. For
new (N) electrical and mechanical equipment, the
seismic lateral loads (demand) shall be calculated
using the methods of Section 6.2 of FEMA 368
[10.26]. The design for load transfer to the wharf
deck shall use the same procedures as for mooring
and berthing components (see subsection 3107F.4.3).
For existing (E) equipment, the seismic assessment
shall be performed in accordance with CalARP
[10.27], FEMA 356 [10.28] or ASCE Guidelines
[10.29].
3110F.9 References.

Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, III, Division


1, Hazardous (Classified) Locations,
th
ed.,
ANSI/UL Standard No. 913, 5
Northbrook, IL.
[10.8]

2 CCR 2370(e), Title 2 California Code of


Regulations, Section 2370(e).

[10.9]

47 CFR Part 15 Private Land Mobile Radio


Services, Title 47 Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR).

[10.10] 2 CCR 2380(a), Title 2, California Code of


Regulations, Section 2380(a).
[10.11] 33 CFR 154.500 Hose Assemblies, Title 33
Code of Federal Regulations Section
155.500.
[10.12] American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
1996, ASME/ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings, New York.
[10.13] American Society for Testing and Materials,
2001, ASTM F-1122-87 (1998), Standard
Specification
for
Quick
Disconnect
Couplings, West Conshohocken, PA.
[10.14] 29 CFR 1918, Subpart F, Title 29 Code of
Federal Regulations Section 1918, Subpart
F.
[10.15] American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
1996, ASME B30.4 - 1996, Portal Tower
and Pedestal Cranes, New York.

[10.1]

2 CCR 2380(b), Title 2, California Code of


Regulations, Section 2380(b), Loading Arms.

[10.2]

33 CFR 154.510, Title 33 Code of Federal


Regulations Section 154.510.

[10.16] American Society of Mechanical Engineers,


2002, ASME B30.7 - 2001, Base Mounted
Drum Hoists, New York.

[10.3]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF), 1999, Design and Construction
Specification for Marine Loading Arms, 3rd
ed., Witherby, London.

[10.17] American Society of Mechanical Engineers,


1999, ASME HST-4, Performance Standard
for Overhead Electric Wire-Rope Hoists,
New York.

[10.4]

American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(ASME), 2000, ASME B40.100-1998,
Pressure Gauges and Gauge Attachments,
New York.

[10.18] 29 CFR 1917.46, Title 29 Code of Federal


Regulations Section 1917.46 Load Indicating
Devices.

[10.5]

National Fluid Power Association (NFPA),


1996, ANSI/(NFPA) T3.6.7 R2-1996, Fluid
Power Systems and Products Square
Head Industrial Cylinders Mounting
Dimensions, Milwaukee, WI.

[10.6]

[10.7]

National Fire Protection Association, 2002,


NFPA 70, National Electric Code, Quincy,
MA.
Underwriters
Laboratory,
Inc.,
1997,
Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated

[10.19] 29 CFR 1015.74, Title 29 Code of Federal


Regulations Section 1015.74, Access to
Vessels.
[10.20] US Army Corps of Engineers, 1996, Safety
and Health Requirements Manual, Sections
19(b) and 21(b), EM 385-1-1, Washington,
D.C.
[10.21] 29 CFR 1918.22, Title 29 Code of Federal
Regulations Section 1918.22.

[10.22] 2 CCR 2380 (f), Title 2, California Code of


Regulations, Section 2380 (f), Small
Discharge Containment.
[10.23] 33 CFR 154.530, Title 33, Code of Federal
Regulations,
Section
154.530
Small
Discharge Containment.
[10.24] 33 CFR 154.800 through 154.850, Title 33
Code of federal Regulations, Sections
154.800 through 154.850.
[10.25] American Petroleum Institute (API), 1994,
API Standard 2610, Design, Construction,
Operation, Maintenance, and Inspection of
Terminal and Tank Facilities, ANSI/API STD
2610-1994, 1st ed., Washington, D.C.
[10.26] Federal Emergency Management Agency,
2001, FEMA 368, NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
Buildings and Other Structures, Part 1
Provisions, Washington D.C.
[10.27] CalARP
Program
Seismic
Guidance
Committee, 1998, Guidance for California
Accidental Release Prevention (CalARP)
Program
Seismic
Assessments,
Sacramento, CA.
[10.28] Federal Emergency Management Agency,
Nov. 2000, FEMA 356, Prestandard and
Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation
of Buildings, Washington, D.C.
[10.29] American Society of Civil Engineers, 1997,
Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and
Design of Petrochemical Facilities, New
York, NY.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.

DIVISION 11

SECTION 3111F - ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS


3111F.1 General. This Section provides minimum
standards for electrical systems at marine oil
terminals.
Electrical systems include the incoming electrical
service and components, the electrical distribution
system, branch circuit cables and the connections.
Also included are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Lighting, for operations, security and navigation


Controls for mechanical and electrical equipment
Supervision and instrumentation systems for
mechanical and electrical equipment
Grounding and bonding
Corrosion protection through cathodic protection
Communications and data handling systems
Fire detection systems
Fire alarm systems
Emergency shutdown systems (ESD)

All electrical systems shall conform to API RP 540


[11.1] and the National Electrical Code (NEC) [11.2].
See subsection 3101F.3 for definitions of new (N)
and existing (E).
3111F.2 Hazardous area designations and plans
(N/E). Area classifications shall be determined in
accordance with API RP 500 [11.3], API RP 540
[11.1] and the NEC,Articles 500, 501, 504, 505, and
515 [11.2]. A marine oil terminal shall have a current
set of scaled plan drawings, with clearly designated
areas showing the hazard class, division and group.
The plan view shall be supplemented with sections,
elevations and details to clearly delineate the area
classification at all elevations starting from low water
level. The drawings shall be certified by a
professional electrical engineer. The plans shall be
reviewed, and revised when modifications to the
structure, product or equipment change hazardous
area identifications or boundaries.
3111F.3 Identification and Tagging. All electrical
equipment, cables, conductors shall be clearly
identified by means of tags, plates, color coding or
other effective means to facilitate troubleshooting and
improve safety, and shall conform to the identification
carried out for the adjacent on-shore facilities (N).
Topics for such identification are found in the NEC
Articles 110, 200, 210, 230, 384, 480, and 504 [11.2].
Existing electrical equipment (E) shall be tagged.

Where identification is necessary for the proper and


safe operation of the equipment, the marking shall be
clearly visible and illuminated (N/E).
A coded
identification system shall apply to all circuits, carrying
low or high voltage power, control, supervisory or
communication (N).
3111F.4 Purged or Pressurized Equipment In
Hazardous Locations (N/E). Purged or pressurized
enclosures shall be capable of preventing the entry of
combustible gases into such spaces, in accordance
with NFPA 496 [11.4]. Special emphasis shall be
placed on reliability and ease of operation. The
pressurizing equipment shall be electrically monitored
and alarms shall be provided to indicate failure of the
pressurizing or purging systems.
3111F.5 Electrical Service. Where critical circuits
are used for spill prevention, fire control or life safety,
an alternative service derived from a separate source
and conduit system, shall be located at a safe
distance from the main power service. A separate
feeder from a double-ended substation or other
source backed up by emergency generators will meet
this requirement. An uninterrupted power service
(UPS) shall be provided for control and supervisory
circuits associated with ESD systems (N).
1.

Electrical, instrument, and control systems used


to activiate equipment needed to control a fire or
mitigate its consequences shall be protected from
fire and remain operable for 15 minutes in a
2000 F fire, unless designed to fail-safe during
fire exposure. The temperature around these
critical components shall not exceed 200 F
during 15 minutes of fire exposure (N).

2.

Wiring in fireproofed conduits shall be derated


15% to account for heat buildup during normal
operation. Type MI (mineral insulated, metal
sheathed [11.2]) cables may be used in lieu of
fireproofing of wiring (N).
Emergency cables and conductors shall be
located where they are protected from damage
caused by traffic, corrosion or other sources (N).
Allowance shall be made for electrical faults,
overvoltages and other abnormalities (N).

3.

4.

Where solid state motor controls are used for starting


and speed control, corrective measures shall be
incorporated for mitigating the possible generation of
harmonic currents that may affect the ESD or other
critical systems (N).

3111F.6 Grounding and Bonding (N/E).

3111F.10 Corrosion Protection.

1.

3111F.10.1
Corrosion Assessment (N).
An
assessment shall be performed to determine the
existing and potential corrosion. This assessment
should include all steel or metallic components,
including the structure, pipelines, supports or other
ancillary equipment, with drawings and specifications
for corrosion prevention/protection. The assessment
shall be performed by a licensed professional
engineer, using the methods and criteria prescribed in
[11.12].

2.

3.
4.

5.

All electrical equipment shall be effectively


grounded as per NEC Article 250 [11.2]. All noncurrent carrying metallic equipment, structures,
piping and other elements shall also be
effectively grounded.
Grounding shall be considered in any active
corrosion protection system for on-shore piping,
submerged support structures or other systems.
Insulation barriers, including flanges or nonconducting hoses shall be used to isolate
cathodic protection systems from other
electrical/static sources. None of these systems
shall be compromised by grounding or bonding
arrangements that may interconnect the
corrosion protection systems or interfere with
them in any way that would reduce their
effectiveness.
Bonding of vessels to the MOT structure is not
permitted (2 CCR 2341 (f)) [11.5].
Whenever flanges of pipelines with cathodic
protection are to be opened for repair or other
work, the flanges shall be bonded prior to
separation.
Direct wiring to ground shall be provided from all
towers, loading arms or other high structures that
are susceptible to lightning surges or strikes.

All
3111F.7
Equipment Specifications (N).
electrical systems and components shall conform to
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
standards or be certified by a Nationally Recognized
Testing Laboratory (NRTL).
3111F.8 Illumination (N/E). Lighting shall conform
to 2 CCR 2365 [11.6] and 33 CFR 154.570 (d) [11.7].
3111F.9 Communications and Control Systems.
3111F.9.1
Communication Systems (N/E).
Communications systems shall comply with 2 CCR
2370 [11.8], and conform to Section 6 of [11.9].
3111F.9.2 Overfill Monitoring and Controls (N/E).
Overfill protection systems shall conform to Appendix
C of API RP 2350 [11.10]. These systems shall be
tested before each transfer operation or monthly,
whichever is less frequent. Where vessel or barge
overfill sensors and alarms are provided, they shall
comply with 33 CFR 154.812 [11.11].
All sumps shall be provided with level sensing devices
to initiate an alarm to alert the operator at the
approach of a high level condition. A second alarm
shall be initiated at a high-high level to alert the
operator. Unless gravity drainage is provided, sumps
must have an automatic pump, programmed to start
at a pre-determined safe level.

3111F.10.2 Inspection, Testing and Records (N/E).


For sacrificial anode systems, periodic underwater
inspections shall be performed and observations
recorded. For impressed current systems, monthly
rectifier readings and annual potential readings of the
protected components shall be taken. If potential
readings for steel structures are outside of acceptable
limits (between 0.85 [11.13] and 1.10 Volts),
corrective actions shall be taken. Voltage drops other
than across the structure-to-electrolyte boundary must
be considered for valid interpretations of potential
measurement. Consideration is understood to mean
the application of sound engineering practice in
determining the significance of voltage drops by
methods such as:
1.
2.
3.

4.

Measuring or calculating voltage drop(s)


Reviewing historical performance of the Cathodic
Protection System (CPS)
Evaluating
the
physical
and
electrical
characteristics of the structure and the
environment
Determining whether or not there is physical
evidence of corrosion

All isolating sections shall be tested immediately after


installation or replacement, and, at a minimum,
annually.
Test results shall be recorded and
documented. Electrical tests on insulating flanges
shall make use of specialized insulator testers. The
test instrument shall make use of RF signals,
capacitive measurements or other means to clearly
determine whether an insulating flange is shorted or
open circuited without being affected by pipe-to-soil
potentials, cathodic protection voltages or whether it
is buried or exposed.
The cathodic protection inspection for buried or
submerged pipelines shall conform to API 570
[11.14].
Insulating and isolating arrangements for protection
against static, stray and impressed currents shall be
tested in accordance with 2 CCR 2341(d) and 2380
[11.15].

3111F.11 References
[11.1]

American Petroleum Institute, 1999, API


Recommended Practice 540 (API RP 540),
Electrical
Installations
in
Petroleum
Processing Plants, 4th ed., Washington,
D.C.

[11.2]

National Fire Protection Association, 2002,


NFPA 70, National Electric Code (NEC),
Quincy, MA.

[11.3]

American Petroleum Institute, 1997, API


Recommended Practice 500 (API RP 500),
Recommended Practice for Classification of
Locations for Electrical Installations at
Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I,
nd
ed.,
Division 1 and Division 2, 2
Washington, D.C.

[11.4]

National Fire Protection Association, 1998,


NFPA 496, Standard for Purged and
Pressurized
Enclosures
for
Electrical
Equipment, Quincy, MA.

[11.5]

2 CCR 2341(f), Title 2, California Code of


regulations, Section 2341(f).

[11.6]

2 CCR 2365, Title 2 California Code of


Regulations, Section 2365.

[11.7]

33 CFR 154.570(d), Title 33 Code of Federal


Regulations Section 154.570(d).

[11.8]

2 CCR 2370, Title 2 California Code of


Regulations, Section 2370.

[11.9]

Oil Companies International Marine Forum


(OCIMF), 1987, Guide on Marine Terminal
Fire Protection and Emergency Evacuation,
st
1 ed., Witherby, London.

[11.10] American Petroleum Institute, 1996, API


Recommended Practice 2350 (API RP
2350), Overfill Protection for Storage
Tanks, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.
[11.11] 33 CFR 154.812, Title 33, Code of Federal
Regulations, Section 154.812 - Facility
Requirements for Vessel Liquid Overfill
Protection.
[11.12] National Association of Corrosion Engineers
(NACE), Standard Recommended Practice,
1994, RP0176-1994 Corrosion Control of
Steel Fixed Offshore Platforms Associated
with Petroleum Production, Houston, TX.
[11.13] Department of Defense, 31 January 1990,
Military Handbook, Electrical Engineering
Cathodic
Protection,MIL-HDBK-1004/10,
Washington, D.C.

[11.14] American Petroleum Institute, 2002, API


570, Piping Inspection Code, 2nd ed.,
October 1998 (February 2000 Addendum 1),
Washington, D.C.
[11.15] 2 CCR 2341(d) and 2380, Title 2, California
Code of Regulations, Sections 2341(d) and
2380.

Authority:

Sections 8755 and 8757, Public


Resources Code.

Reference:

Sections 8750, 8751, 8755 and


8757, Public Resources Code.