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Eng H I M Mahmoud Int.

Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.30-35


Studying the Advance Maintenance Practice & Computerised

Eng Hamdy Ibrahim Mohamed Mahmoud & Eng. Hassan Zare Hassan Zare
Public Authority of Applied Education &Training Kuwait

Many companie think of maintenance a an inevitable ource of cot. For thee companie maintenance
operation have a corrective function and are only executed in emergency condition. Today, thi form of
intervention i no longer acceptable becaue of certain critical element uch a product quality, plant afety,
and the increae in maintenance department cot which can repreent from 15 to 70% of total production cot.
The manager have to elect the bet maintenance policy for each piece of equipment or ytem from a et of
poible alternative. For example, corrective, preventive, opportunitic, condition-baed and predictive
maintenance policie are conidered in thi paper.



It i particularly difficult to chooe the bet mix

of maintenance policie when thi choice i baed on
preventive element, i.e. during the plant deign
phae. Thi i the ituation in the cae examined in
thi paper, that of an Integrated Gaification and
Combined Cycle plant which i being built for an
Italian oil company. Thi plant will have about 200
facilitie (pump, compreor, air-cooler, etc.) and
the management mut decide on the maintenance
approach for the different machine. Thee deciion
will have ignificant conequence in the hortmedium term for matter uch a reource (i.e.
budget) allocation, technological choice, managerial
and organiational procedure, etc. At thi level of
election, it i only neceary to define the bet
maintenance trategy to adopt for each machine,
bearing in mind budget contraint. It i not neceary
to identify the bet olution from among the
alternative that thi approach preent.
The maintenance manager only want to
recognie the mot critical machine for a preallocation of the budget maintenance reource,
without entering into the detail of the actual final
choice. Thi final choice would, in any cae, be
impoible becaue the plant i not yet operating and,
a a conequence, total knowledge of the reliability
apect of the plant machine i not yet available. In
other word, the problem i not whether it i better to
control the temperature or the vibration of a certain
facility under analyi, but only to decide if it i
better to adopt a condition-baed type of maintenance
approach rather than another type. The econd level
of deciion making concern a fine tuned election of
the alternative maintenance approache (i.e.
definition of the optimal maintenance frequencie,
threhold for condition-baed intervention, etc.).

Thi level mut be potponed until data from the

operating production ytem become available.
Several attribute mut be taken into account at
thi firt level when electing the type of
maintenance. Thi election involve everal apect
uch a the invetment required, afety and
environmental problem, failure cot, reliability of
the policy, Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and
Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of the facility, etc.
Several of thee factor are not eay to evaluate
becaue of their intangible and complex nature.
Beide, the nature of the weight of importance that
the maintenance taff mut give to thee factor
during the election proce i highly ubjective.
Finally, bearing in mind that the plant i till in the
contruction phae, ome tangible apect uch a
MTBF and MTTR can be only etimated from failure
data concerning machine working in other plant (in
thi cae oil refinerie) under more or le imilar
operating condition. Furthermore, they will affect
each ingle facility analyed in a particular way and,
a a conequence, the final maintenance policy
It i therefore clear that the analyi and
jutification of maintenance trategy election i a
critical and complex tak due to the great number of
attribute to be conidered, many of which are
intangible. A an aid to the reolution of thi
problem, ome multi-criteria deciion making
(MCDM) approache are propoed in the literature.
Almeida and Bohori dicu the application of
deciion making theory to maintenance with
particular attention to multi-attribute utility theory.
Triantaphyllou et al. ugget the ue of Analytical
Hierarchy Proce (AHP) conidering only four
maintenance criteria: cot, reparability, reliability and
availability. The Reliability Centered Maintenance
(RCM) methodology (ee, for example, ) i probably
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Eng H I M Mahmoud Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.30-35
the mot widely ued technique. RCM repreent a
method for preerving functional integrity and i
deigned to minimie maintenance cot by balancing
the higher cot of corrective maintenance againt the
cot of preventive maintenance, taking into account
the lo of potential life of the unit in quetion .
One of the tool more frequently adopted by the
companie to categorie the machine in everal
group of rik i baed on the concept of failure
mode effect and criticality analyi technique
(FMECA). Thi methodology ha been propoed in
different poible variant, in term of relevant
criteria conidered and/or rik priority number
formulation . Uing thi approach, the election of a
maintenance policy i performed through the analyi
of obtained priority rik number. An example of thi
approach ha alo been followed by our oil company,
which ha developed it own methodology internally.
Thi approach make it poible to obtain a atifying
criticality clutering of the 200 facilitie into three
homogeneou group. The problem i to define the
bet maintenance trategy for each group.
To integrate the internal elf-made criticality
approach, thi paper preent a multi-attribute
deciion method baed on the AHP approach to elect
the mot appropriate maintenance trategy for each
machine group. In thi procedure, everal cot and
benefit for each alternative maintenance trategy are
arranged in a hierarchic tructure and evaluated, for
each facility, through the ue of a erie of pairwie
maintenance manager can never be ure about the
relative importance of deciion making criteria
elected when dealing with thi complex maintenance
problem, to improve the AHP effectivene the
methodology i coupled with a enitivity analyi

plant and reduce the potential pollution of the

refined product. The ame pollution control
requirement, mainly a reduction in the level of
nitrogen and ulphur oxide, together with the
increaing need to control operating and invetment
cot, i puhing electrical firm to earch for more
economic and cleaner production method.
The combined effect of the above-mentioned
factor ha led everal oil refinerie to adopt IGCC
technology for oil refinement heavy reidual
proceing. IGCC technology ha proved to be a
valid olution to the market requirement of efficient,
clean, low conuming and environmentally orientated
production technologie.
The API oil refinery ue a thermal converion
proce and ha a production capacity of about
4,000,000 ton of oil per year (80,000 barrel per
day). The production cycle i typical of oil refinerie
with a imilar production capacity: the current
ditilled yield i higher than 70% and the reidual
are ued to produce fuel oil and bitumen. Oil
refinement heavy reidual with a high ulphur
content will be partly converted into the ynthei
gae ynga (which will be cleaned in the IGCC
gaifier) and partly ued to produce bitumen.
The three main objective of the oil refinery
management are the following:
1. the elimination of heavy reidual ued to
produce fuel oil with high and low ulphur
2. the ability to proce almot every type of heavy
oil with a high ulphur content;
3. the ubtitution of the preent low efficiency
thermoelectrical power plant with a more
efficient ytem, with lower level of pollutant


The API oil refinery IGCC plant: a

brief decription

The Integrated Gaification and Combined Cycle

(IGCC) plant , currently being aembled at The
Falconara Marittima API oil refinery, will make it
poible to tranform the oil refinement reidual into
the ynthei gae which will be ued a fuel to
produce electricity. The IGCC plan will be placed in
a 47,000 m2 area inide the oil refinery.
The electricity produced by the IGCC plant will
be old to ENEL (Italian electrical energy firm) while
ome 65,000 ton/h of team will be ued inide the oil
refinery for proce requirement. The total cot of
the project amount to about 750 million dollar.
In recent year, economic and legilative change
have led to increaed co-operation between
petrochemical and electrical firm. The adoption of
trict environmental tandard, both in Europe and in
the United State, i forcing oil refinery firm to
reduce the emiion of pollutant from the proce

Poible alternative maintenance


Five alternative maintenance policie are

evaluated in thi cae tudy. Briefly, they are the
Corrective maintenance. The main feature of
corrective maintenance i that action are only
performed when a machine break down. There are
no intervention until a failure ha occurred.
Preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance i
baed on component reliability characteritic. Thi
data make it poible to analye the behaviour of the
element in quetion and allow the maintenance
engineer to define a periodic maintenance program
for the machine. The preventive maintenance policy
trie to determine a erie of check, replacement
and/or component reviion with a frequency related
to the failure rate. In other word, preventive
(periodic) maintenance i effective in overcoming the
problem aociated with the wearing of component.
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Eng H I M Mahmoud Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.30-35
It i evident that, after a check, it i not alway
neceary to ubtitute the component: maintenance
i often ufficient.
Opportunitic maintenance. The poibility of uing
opportunitic maintenance i determined by the
nearne or concurrence of control or ubtitution
time for different component on the ame machine
or plant. Thi type of maintenance can lead to the
whole plant being hut down at et time to perform
all relevant maintenance intervention at the ame
Condition-baed maintenance. A requiite for the
application of condition-baed maintenance i the
availability of a et of meaurement and data
acquiition ytem to monitor the machine
performance in real time. The continuou urvey of
working condition can eaily and clearly point out
an abnormal ituation (e.g. the exceeding of a
controlled parameter threhold level), allowing the
proce adminitrator to punctually perform the
neceary control and, if neceary, top the machine
before a failure can occur.
Predictive maintenance. Unlike the condition-baed
maintenance policy, in predictive maintenance the
acquired controlled parameter data are analyed to
find a poible temporal trend. Thi make it poible
to predict when the controlled quantity value will
reach or exceed the threhold value. The
maintenance taff will then be able to plan when,
depending on the operating condition, the
component ubtitution or reviion i really


The IGCC plant maintenance

program definition

An electrical power plant baed on IGCC

technology i a very complex facility, with a lot of
different machine and equipment with very different
operating condition. Deciding on the bet
maintenance policy i not an eay matter, ince the
maintenance program mut combine technical
requirement with the firm' managerial trategy. The
IGCC plant complex configuration require an
optimal maintenance policy mix, in order to increae
the plant availability and reduce the operating cot.
Maintenance deign deal with the definition of the
bet trategie for each plant machine or component,
depending on the availability requet and global
maintenance budget. Every component, in
accordance with it failure rate, cot and breakdown
impact over the whole ytem, mut be tudied in
order to ae the bet olution; whether it i better
to wait for the failure or to prevent it. In the latter
cae the maintenance taff mut evaluate whether it i

better to perform periodic check or ue a progreive

operating condition analyi.
It i clear that a good maintenance program mut
define different trategie for different machine.
Some of thee will mainly affect the normal
operation of the plant, ome will concern relevant
afety problem, and other will involve high
maintenance cot. The overlapping of thee effect
enable u to aign a different priority to every plant
component or machine, and to concentrate economic
and technical effort on the area that can produce the
bet reult. One relevant IGCC plant feature i the
lack of hitorical reliability and maintenance cot
data (the plant tart-up i propoed for March 2000).
Initially, the definition of the maintenance plan will
be baed upon reliability data from the literature and
on the technical feature of the machine. Thi
information will then be updated uing the data
acquired during the working life of the plant. The
analyi ytem ha been tructured in a rational way
o a to keep the update proce a objective a
poible. Thi ha been accomplihed through the ue
of a charting procedure, uing well-undertood
evaluation of different parameter and a imple and
clear analyi of corrective intervention. The
maintenance plan developed for the machine of the
IGCC plant i baed on the well-known FMECA
technique [7 and 8]. The analyi reult have
provided a criticality index for every machine,
allowing the bet maintenance policy to be elected.
4.1. The maintenance trategy adopted by the oil
refinery company
The internal methodology developed by the
company to olve the maintenance trategy election
problem for the new IGCC plant i baed on a
criticality analyi which may be conidered a an
extenion of the FMECA technique. Thi analyi
take into account the following ix parameter:
o afety;
o machine importance for the proce;
o maintenance cot;
o failure frequency;
o downtime length;
o operating condition; with an additional
evaluation for the
o machine acce difficulty
Note that, the ix parameter preented below
derived from an accurate pre-analyi to elect all of
the relevant parameter that can contribute to the
machine criticality. A reported by the maintenance
manager, 12 criteria have initially been conidered:
a. Safety. Conidering the afety of peronnel,
equipment, the building and environment in the
event of a failure.

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Eng H I M Mahmoud Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.30-35
b. Machine importance for the proce. The
importance of the machine for the correct operation
of the plant. For intance, the preence of an interoperational buffer to tock the product can reduce
the machine criticality ince the maintenance
intervention could be performed without a plant
c. Spare machine availability. Machine that do not
have pare available are the mot critical.
d. Spare part availability. The hortage of pare
part increae the machine criticality and require a
replenihment order to be iued after a failure ha
e. Maintenance cot. Thi parameter i baed on
manpower and pare part cot.
f. Acce difficulty. The maintenance intervention can
be difficult for machine arranged in a compact
manner, placed in a retrict area becaue they are
dangerou, or ituated at a great height (for example,
ome agitator electric motor and air-cooler bank).
The machine acce difficulty increae the length of
downtime and, moreover, increae the probability of
a failure owing to the fact that inpection team
cannot eaily detect incipient failure.
g. Failure frequency. Thi parameter i linked to the
mean time between failure (MTBF) of the machine.
h. Downtime length. Thi parameter i linked to the
mean time to repair (MTTR) of the machine.
i. Machine type. A higher criticality level mut be
aigned to the machine which are of more complex
contruction. Thee machine are alo characteried
by higher maintenance cot (material and
manpower) and longer repair time.
l. Operating condition. Operating condition in the
preence of wear caue a higher degree of machine
m. Propagation effect. The propagation effect take
into account the poible conequence of a machine
failure on the adjacent equipment (domino effect).

much more onerou in term of data required and

elaboration time. Beide, the quantitative evaluation
of the factor decribed i complex and ubject to the
rik of incorrect etimate. The following cluter
were created.
The pare machine availability mainly affect
the uninterrupted duration of the production proce
and can therefore be linked to the machine
importance for the proce and the production lo
cot. In term of pare part, the maintenance cot
can include the machine type factor, while the
manpower contribution to the maintenance cot can
be clutered with the downtime length attribute.
Sytem afety, failure frequency, acce
difficulty and operating condition are conidered
to be tand-alone factor by the maintenance taff.
For every analyed machine of the new IGCC plant, a
ubjective numerical evaluation i given adopting a
cale from 1 to 100. Finally, the factor taken into
conideration are linked together in the following
criticality index CI:
where S=afety, IP=machine importance for the
frequency, DL=downtime length, OC=operating
condition, AD=machine acce difficulty.
In the index, the machine acce difficulty ha been
conidered by the management to be an aggravating
apect a far a the equipment criticality i concerned.
It i therefore uitable to evaluate the effect of the
machine acce difficulty a an a poteriori
factor. For thi reaon with thi approach the machine
criticality index ha been multiplied by the machine
acce difficulty.
A rational quantification of the even factor ha
been defined and baed on a et of table. In
particular, every relevant factor i divided into
everal clae that are aigned a different core (in
the range form 1 to 100) to take into account the
different criticality level. The weighted value
aigned by the maintenance taff to the different
parameter are hown in Table 1.
Table 1. Weight value aigned to the relevant
parameter conidered in FMECA analyi

n. Production lo cot. The higher the machine

importance for the proce, the higher the machine
criticality due to a lo of production.
To retrict the complexity (and the cot) of the
analyi to be performed, the number of evaluation
parameter i reduced by grouping together thoe that
are imilar and by removing the le meaningful
one. An increae in the number of parameter doe
not imply a higher degree of analyi accuracy. With
a large number of parameter the analyi become

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Eng H I M Mahmoud Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.30-35
The weight aigned to afety i not the highet
becaue in an IGCC plant danger i intrinic to the
proce. The operating condition are weighted equal
to one in accordance with the hypothei of a correct
facility election a a function of the required ervice.
The breakdown frequency i weighted equal to one in
virtue of the fact that failure rate are currently
etimated value only. The CI index ha been ued to
claify about 200 machine of the plant (pump,
compreor, air cooler, etc.) into three different
group correponding to three different maintenance
trategie, a hown in Table 2. Note that only
corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance
trategie have been taken into account by the
refinery maintenance management.
Table 2. Maintenance policy election baed on
criticality index

The main feature of the three group are the

Group 1. A failure of group 1 machine can lead to
eriou conequence in term of worker afety,
plant and environmental damage, production loe,
etc. Significant aving can be obtained by reducing
the failure frequency and the downtime length. A
careful maintenance (i.e. predictive) can lead to good
level of company added-value. In thi cae, aving
in maintenance invetment are not adviable. Thi
group contain about the 70% of the IGCC machine
Group 2. The damage derived from a failure can be
eriou but, in general, they do not affect the external
environment. A medium cot reduction can be
obtained with an effective but expenive
maintenance. Then an appropriate cot/benefit
analyi mut be conducted to limit the maintenance
invetment (i.e. inpection, diagnotic, etc.) for thi
type of facilitie (about the 25% of the machine).
For thi reaon a preventive maintenance i
preferable to a more expenive predictive policy.
Group 3. The failure are not relevant. Spare part
are not expenive and, a a conequence, low level
of aving can be obtained through a reduction of
pare tock and failure frequencie. With a tight
budget the maintenance invetment for thee type
of facilitie hould be reduced, alo becaue the
added-value derived from a maintenance plan i
negligible. The cheapet corrective maintenance i,

therefore, the bet choice. Group 3 contain 5% of the

4.2. Critical analyi of oil company maintenance
MCDM methodology
Some apect of the criticality index CI propoed
and prepared by the maintenance taff are open to
criticim. Eq. (1) repreent a trange modified
verion of the weighted um model (WSM), which
probably repreent the implet and till the mot
widely ued MCDM method . But, in thi cae, there
are ome weaknee.
(a) The WSM i baed on the additive utility
uppoition . However, the WSM hould be ued
only when the deciion making criteria can be
expreed in identical unit of meaure.
(b) The AD factor hould be added and not ued a a
multiplying factor.
(c) Dependencie among the even attribute hould
be carefully analyed and dicued.
(d) The weight value reported in Table 1 are not
jutified in a atifying manner. The maintenance
taff alo have eriou doubt about thee value,
which would ugget that they have little
confidence in the final reult obtained by the
MCDM model. Moreover, no enibility
analye have been conducted to tet the
robutne of the reult. Thi fact i probably
due to (i) a enitivity analyi i not an eay
matter, and (ii) the abence of a oftware
package upporting thi requet.
Depite thee problem, the claification
produced uing the CI index ha made it poible to
define three homogeneou group of machine. The
compoition of the cluter confirm the expectation
of the maintenance taff and i conidered to be quite
atifactory. On the other hand, the doubt of the
maintenance taff mainly concern the maintenance
trategy to adopt for each group of machine. Thi
factor ha been ued a the tarting point for the
development of an AHP approach to aign the
bet maintenance trategy to each cluter element,
taking into account everal poible apect.



Proper maintenance of plant equipment can

ignificantly reduce the overall operating cot, while
booting the productivity of the plant. Although
many management peronnel often view plant
maintenance a an expene, a more poitive approach
in looking at it i to view maintenance work a a
profit center. The key to thi approach lie in a new
perpective of proactive maintenance approach.
Reviewing the mot likely way that equipment
will fail ha been a major concern in reliabilitycentered maintenance (RCM) to enure that
proactive, predictive and preventive maintenance
activitie during turnaround could be planned and
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Eng H I M Mahmoud Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications

ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 2, (Part - 3) February 2016, pp.30-35
carried out. So often that maintenance department
will adopt a more cautiou approach of playing afe
and relying on the conventional or uual method of
equipment maintenance rather than trying a proven
method which ha been teted to be efficient jut to
avoid any complicated matter ariing from the
Hence another perpective of looking at
maintenance function i not only to maintain but alo
to enhance the proce or the plant operation ytem
a a reult of turnaround planning. Thu rather than
retoring or trying to retore the equipment to it
original performance, planning a turnaround could
better till aimed at enhancing the proce and
performance of a plant, equipment or any ytem.







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