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A Footprint to data collection for sustainable decisions COLLECT AND
A Footprint to data collection for sustainable decisions
COLLECT AND

MANAGE DATA – AHCWRK502A

Workforce Innovations Program Project 275

   

Materials produced by Regional Skills Training Pty Ltd Funding provided by the DIISRTE Workforce Innovations Program

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Activity I Fact I Website WEB CONTENTS 01 About yourself
Activity I Fact I Website WEB
Activity I Fact I Website
WEB

CONTENTS

01

About yourself

03

 

02

Trouble with website links

03

 

03

How are these materials used

03

 

04

What are these learning materials about

04

 

05

Employability skills

05

 

06

Unit descriptor and how the unit applies to your workplace

05

 

07

Determine the type and extent of data to be collected

06

 

08

Access and collate data

16

 

09

Evaluate data

41

 

10

Manage and retrieve data

44

 

11

Analyse and interpret data

47

 

12

Summary of key innovations/opportunities as a result of adopting these skills

55

 

13

Bibliography and source material

56

 

14

Being confident about your skill levels

61

 

15

Assessment

62

 

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

Bridging the Gap between Chemical and Organic Food and Fibre Production.

These interactive workbooks were produced by Regional Skills Training and funded by Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education, Workforce Innovations Program and are intended for free use to any student, RTO or school. Note that any work is copyright and should not be reproduced or copied for commercial gain.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

1 ABOUT YOURSELF

Please fill in your details below and save this PDF to your files.

Name

 

Phone

 

Email

 

2

3 HOW ARE THESE MATERIALS USED

TROUBLE WITH WEBSITE LINKS

Sometimes you may click on a web link and the site will say it is not available. Please revisit the site when you are next working on your resource materials as web sites are sometimes “off line” for maintenance reasons.

If you are consistently unable to access a site you are free to answer any associated workbook activity or assessment question by searching for and finding an alternative site that you feel is applicable. PLEASE INCLUDE THE LINK IN YOUR ANSWERS so we know where to look to check your information.

This workbook has a strong focus on the self- directed application of knowledge. Completing this workbook and all formative assessments will thoroughly prepare you for your summative assessment. On successful completion of appropriate summative assessments provided by your Registered Training Organisation (RTO), you will achieve competency in this unit.

(RTO), you will achieve competency in this unit. Please complete the feedback form at the back

Please complete the feedback form at the back of the unit and advise us of any links that do not work

This workbook has a strong focus on the self-directed application of knowledge.

strong focus on the self-directed application of knowledge. AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data 4 WHAT

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

4 WHAT ARE THESE LEARNING MATERIALS ABOUT

This workbook applies to managers and supervisors with a job function that covers the process of collecting, analysing and managing data to ensure improved knowledge and enable sound judgments in your production systems. This workbook defines the standard required to:

• Identify data requirements and establish sampling and data collection techniques

• Collect and collate data using standardised recording sheets and systems

• Review sampling and data collection techniques based on validity and reliability of the data

• Manage data to facilitate retrieval and analysis

• Analyse data using appropriate statistical and analytical techniques

• Draw conclusions based on reasoned argument and appropriate evidence

• Produce a report in required format with information and data presented to support decision making.

This workbook has a strong focus on the self-directed application of knowledge with substantial depth in the areas of:

• Data collection techniques and procedures

• Data recording and evaluation techniques

• Data analysis and interpretive techniques

• Data storage and retrieval methods

• Data reporting methods.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data The work book provides an opportunity to develop and apply

The work book provides an opportunity to develop and apply employability skills that are learnt

5

EMPLOYABILITY

SKILLS

This work book provides an opportunity to develop and apply employability skills that are learnt throughout work and life, to your job.

The statements below list the typical employability skills that should be applied in a situation related to collecting and managing data.

In completing your daily work tasks, activities and summative assessments related to this unit of competence, you must be able to demonstrate that you are applying the “employability skills” listed below to this competency.

• Communication skills

• Identify and accurately report problems

• Organisational skills

• Teamwork skills

• Technological skills

• Use mathematical ideas and techniques.

6 UNIT DESCRIPTOR AND HOW THE

UNIT APPLIES TO YOUR WORKPLACE

This unit of competency applies to managers and supervisors whose job functions include the identification of data to be collected, access and collation of data and the subsequent; evaluation, analysis, interpretation and reporting of data. The focus of this workbook is on the collection and management of data relevant to quality assurance and risk management activities within an agricultural or horticultural enterprise.

Data may include primary and secondary sources including field work and trials, research materials, published books, academic reports, industry reports, colleagues, computer software, internet, newspapers, photographic data, journals, industry publications, industry specialists and experts.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

 

7 DETERMINE THE TYPE AND EXTENT

The following extract from Meat and Livestock Australia (MLA) would be

Meat and Livestock Australia; “Audit Checklist –

OF DATA TO BE COLLECTED

useful for any manager

Landholders in the 21st century will more than ever be driven to work smarter within their natural resources, to not only maintain, but improve the environment for subsequent generations and at the same time, make a profit from the land. Making good decisions is paramount to making this business model work. Good decisions require good data (i.e. timely, complete, reliable, consistent and accurate).

involved in the beef industry to understand the data collection requirements needed to demonstrate compliance with the

So how do you go about determining what data to collect for your enterprise? The selection of what to monitor will be unique to your goals and the specific situation of your business or enterprise. However, the data you do collect should enable you to publicly and privately demonstrate how you are performing against your goals and any given performance indicator. It should also provide

National Vendor Declaration (NVD) or Livestock Production Assurance (LPA).

Livestock Production Assurance”; Australia; 2012.

reliable information on which you may make decisions to continuously improve your practices.

www.mla.com.au/Meat-safety-and-traceability/

Livestock-Production-Assurance/LPA-QA

WEB

As your business evolves, the data you collect will also evolve.

So the best place to start may be to consider:

The most recent edition of the National Vendor Declaration (NVD) incorporates the on-farm food safety program called Livestock Production

The goals and objectives of your business/ enterprise.

Assurance (LPA), which asks producers to be able to ‘back up’ their NVDs by keeping records of on- farm management practices such as:

• How you will achieve these goals/objectives?

• What performance indicators you will use to measure whether you are on track?

• Any regulatory requirements for data collection that you must meet (e.g. quality assurance, legislative reporting requirements, OHS).

The following examples are provided to help you start your research. The sites may not be applicable to your business, but if you have a look at them it will give you a clear understanding of the “type” of data you need to research to find information useful to your enterprise objectives.

• What records are maintained and how they are maintained?

• Food safety-related management practices.

• Management of property facilities relating to food safety, including chemical storage areas.

Now look at this You Tube

video of “Watercress Lane

Duck Eggs UK” which is a

family run business:

WEB
WEB

www.youtube.com/watch?v=LBLEgkYMIj4

While you are watching this video, consider the data that this business might need to collect to determine whether the business goals are being met, the data required to demonstrate safety of their egg products, OHS regulations, the traceability of the product from paddock to plate and customer satisfaction.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Awareness on environmental sustainability has grown rapidly over the last 10 years resulting in a greater degree of scrutiny on products and services. As community concerns about the environment continue to grow, Australia’s milk manufacturers are being asked to demonstrate greater environmental responsibility and transparency.

Department of Primary Industries Victoria; “Farm Planning Resources”; Victoria; 2012.

 

The growing need for

 

WEB

www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/farming-

management/business-management/whole-

farm-planning/farm-planning-resources

 

producers to demonstrate greater environmental responsibility and

Dairy Australia; “Performance Indicators”;

 

Legal and regulatory obligations for specific industries: Biodiversity, Chemical Use, Occupational Health and Safety, Livestock Management, Noxious Weed and Pest Animals, Soil Management, Waste management, Water.

 
 

transparency is evidenced in the following extract from the dairy industry where there is a clear need to develop sustainability reporting programs for

 

Throughout this workbook you will be asked to complete a number of activities to demonstrate your understanding of the subjects being discussed. To get the most out of these activities, you need to make the activities applicable to your business. Use the extracts in this workbook (in this section and in the bibliography at the end of the workbook) and other sources to assist your research. Please include reference sources of information that you have used in your responses to enable us to check these sources as required.

 

dairy managers.

Australia; 2012.

     

WEB

www.dairyaustralia.com.au/Levy-investment/

Natural-resource-management/Measurement/

Performance-indicators.aspx

     
     
     
       
Activity 1 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Using your own business plans, farm plans

Activity 1

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Using your own business plans, farm plans and general research, answer the following questions as they relate to your business.

Question

Response

 

Briefly describe your enterprise and your products/services.

 

What are the goals of your business (i.e. the vision for your business?).

 

What are the objectives of your business? (i.e. these are how the goals will be achieved).

 

Do you have any performance indicators that enable you to measure your progress towards achieving these objectives? If so, please list them.

 

What legislative/regulatory requirements must you conform to?

 

Make an honest appraisal of your ability to publicly demonstrate your compliance with these legislative/ regulatory requirements.

 

Consider all of the responses above and now identify what data you need to collect to be able to support your business requirements, demonstrate whether you are on track and conform to legislative/ regulatory requirements. Indicate whether these exist (E) or are new (N).

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

 

Relevant Data Sources are Identified

 

Primary sources: Surveys were conducted with

 

You have identified what data is required to be collected to support your business requirements. Now you have to determine:

 

16 ginger growers and one industry consultant located in the Sunshine Coast and Wide Bay – Burnett regions. Ten of the selected growers were interviewed face to face at their properties

 

Where will you source this data from

 

during November 2008. Growers interviewed were

   

selected based on advice from the Australian

 

What is the type and extent of the data that you will require

Consider some of the following sources of information:

Ginger Growers Association (AGGA) and Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries (QPIF) staff. The other six participants responded

 

Historical farm records, Farm diaries,

to a mail-out questionnaire that was distributed

 

photographic data Field work, trials and research materials and surveys

among registered members of the AGGA between October and December 2008.

 

Published books, newspapers, journals and

   
 

academic reports Industry reports and publications

MLA; “Transport Audit

code: AHW.125”; Australia;

 
 

Colleagues, industry specialists and experts

 
 

Computer software and internet

and Data Collection for

 
 

The following extracts provide some further examples of primary and secondary sources of information:

Current Practices Project

 
 

Department of

2007.

www.mla.com.au/Research-and-development/

Final-report-details?projectid=12997

WEB

 

Employment, Economic Development and Innovation;

 

“The Australian Ginger Industry – Overview of Market Trends and Opportunities”;2009; P12.

This study represents an industry driven initiative to improve understanding of the complex animal/ journey interactions which are part of land transport of livestock in Australia with a particular focus on animal welfare outcomes (mortalities and injury or illness) and journeys longer than 6 hours. A staged approach was used to first examine the usefulness of retrospective information derived from stored records on transport events as a way of meeting

As you can see there are a wide variety of data

WEB

www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/

BusinessAndTrade_BusinessDevelopment/

Australian-ginger-industry-report.pdf

 

the study objectives. The second stage involved a

 

pilot study in one state to develop and test methods

 

for collecting data from transport events as they

 

Information from this report was collected from both secondary and primary sources.

occurred (prospective data collection). The third stage for this project involved the preparation of a project proposal designed to apply the methods

 

Secondary sources: Preliminary desktop research was conducted to identify global trends in harvesting and production, and to obtain background information regarding ginger production and processing in Australia. The findings provided the basis for developing in-depth interview questionnaires for ginger growers, processors and wholesalers based in Queensland. Information sources included the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), the Food and Agriculture Organisation Statistics Division (FAOSTAT), Market Information Services and the Australian Quarantine Inspection Service.

developed in stage 2 to multiple states and territories around Australia in order to be able to produce a nationally representative picture of land transport practices across Australia for journeys greater than 6 hours.

sources available to you. Which ones you use will be dependent upon your own circumstances.

Activity 2 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data In the previous activity you identified a

Activity 2

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

In the previous activity you identified a range of data that you would need to collect to support your business. List these in the following table and now identify the data sources that you will use to collect this information.

Data To Be Collected

Source of Data

Reference if Applicable

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Type and Extent of Data Required and Data Collection Methods and Techniques are Clearly Defined

 

Now that you have identified the data you need to collect and its sources, you need to consider:

   

Type and extent of data to be collected?

 

How it will be collected – diar y, checklists, data collection templates, electronic information system at the

 

point of data collection? Who will collect data – you or your staff? What training will be required?

 

Where it will be collected?

 

When it will be collected – daily, weekly, monthly, annual, once only, by exception?

 

This is an important part of planning your data collection. Data collection needs to be kept simple and practical if it is to be adopted by you and your team. It also needs to be integrated into everyday business practices at logical points. In this way, it will become the norm rather than the exception. Have a look at the following extracts to get a feel for how different industries approach data collection methods and techniques. As you are reading these, think about the approaches that would work best for your situation.

 

WEB

Meat and Livestock Australia; “LPA Record Keeping”; Australia; 2012.

 

www.mla.com.au/Meat-safety-and-traceability/On-farm-assurance/LPA/Record-keeping

   

Producers need to keep good records to support Australia’s global reputation as a source of safe and traceable red meat. These records act as proof of responsible on-farm risk management. Good records also allow claims made on the Livestock Production Assurance (LPA) National Vendor Declaration and Waybill (LPA NVD/Waybill) to be substantiated. Producers can easily check, for example, when livestock were most recently chemically treated and therefore when they can be sent to market, confident that they will be outside withholding periods (WHP) and export slaughter intervals (ESI).

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

 

Dairy Food Safety

 

And finally, the following extract provides an example of a soil monitoring program developed

 

Victoria; “Technical Standards”; Australia; 2012.

by farmers for farmers. It is based on 10 soil health tests/observations and it includes instructions on how to; conduct each test, record the results and analyse the results against key performance indicators. The tests are conducted on an annual

WEB

www.dairysafe.vic.gov.au/index.

 

php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70&

basis across a number of soil sample sites. This

Itemid=245

 

is a good example of how you might go about

 

Data collection for milk cooling validation on dairy farms – Provides important information for the validation of milk cooling practices on dairy farms.

developing data collection, including; instructions, data collection templates and how to validate or ‘grade’ the results based on ranges, to give feedback to operators quickly.

 

NSW Food Authority;

 

NSW Agriculture,

 
 

“NSW Shellfish Industry Manual – Requirements to Comply with the Seafood

 

Tuckombil Landcare, Natural Heritage Trust; “Northern Rivers Soil Health Card”

WEB

 

Safety Scheme of the Food Regulation 2010 and

2010; P19-20.

 

www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/resources/soils/

 

Standard 4.2.1 of the Food

 

testing/health-card

 
 

Standards Code”; May

 

The aim was to develop a practical tool that all landholders in the Northern Rivers Region can use to monitor the health of their soils. The soil health card lists the 10 tests and provides space for you to rate your own soils after carrying out the

 

WEB

www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/_Documents/

industry_pdf/NSW_Shellfish_Industry_Manual.pdf

tests. By testing regularly and keeping the cards, you can build up a record of your soil health, and understand the effect of management practices on

 

For the purposes of complying with Clause 121 of the Food Regulation 2010, a seafood business collecting or harvesting shellfish must comply with the sampling and analyses provisions. The holder of a licence must ensure that every analysis is carried out in a laboratory approved by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA), or by the Authority, for the particular type of analysis to be undertaken.

soil health. Regular testing will show improvements in response to more sustainable management such as use of mulch in orchards, or minimum tillage in crop rotations, and allow early detection of developing soil problems.

Activity 3 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Copy the data from your previous activity

Activity 3

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Copy the data from your previous activity into the following table. Now update the table with the following information: data elements, extent of data, frequency of collection, who will collect the data and how it will be collected (methods and techniques). An example has been provided to illustrate how to complete this table. Remember, this activity should be of use to your business (now or in the future). Only include those data collection activities that you have or are likely to implement.

Data To Be

Source

What Data Will

Extent of Data

Frequency

Who

How will the Data

 

Collected

of Data

Be Collected?

(i.e. sample,

of

will

be Collected?

 
   

(Data elements)

census, one year

Collection

Collect

(Methods/

 
       

of data only,

(i.e. daily,

the Data?

Techniques)

 
       

specific areas)

weekly)

       

Paddock

Farm

Date

Records to be kept

Same day

Operator

Operator will complete

 

Treatment

operator

Paddock ID

for every treatment

as paddock

 

a

hardcopy paddock

 

Record

MLA

Area

event

treatment

 

treatment record at the

 
 

website

Product

     

end of the treatment. This

 
   

Batch No.

     

is

kept in the chemical

 
   

     

shed for ease of access.

 
   

Application rate and method Expiry date/ Date of Manufacture

     

There is a sign on the back of the shed door that reminds operators

 
   

WHP/ESI/EGI

     

of

the need to update

 
   

Date paddock safe to graze

     

the paddock treatment record before leaving.

 
 
 
 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Data To Be

Source

What Data Will

Extent of Data

Frequency

Who

How will the Data

 

Collected

of Data

Be Collected?

(i.e. sample,

of

will

be Collected?

 
   

(Data elements)

census, one year

Collection

Collect

(Methods/

 
     

of data only,

(i.e. daily,

the Data?

Techniques)

 
     

specific areas)

weekly)

     
 
 
 
 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

OHS Hazards Associated with Data Collecting are Identified

An important aspect that must be considered in data collection activities is workplace and personal safety. Look at the following extracts and links that demonstrate typical OHS issues that may apply during a data collection activity.

University of Sydney

– Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety; “Factsheet 6 – Ergonomics and Manual Handling on Farms”; Australia; 2012.

University of Sydney – Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety; “Resources – Hazard Checklists with Action Plans”; Australia; 2012.

WEB
WEB

www.aghealth.org.au/index.php?id=5030

If you go into the above link and click on the tab ‘Farmer Resources’ you can download practical guidelines and resources to get started with a safety program for the farm. (THESE RESOURCES ARE FREE TO DOWNLOAD AND USE.)

The resources that are available are:

• OHS Introduction – that introduces you to the key principals of farm safety programs.

• Hazard Checklists with Action plans – that provides help to find the common safety hazards on all farms, with plans for making the farm safer.

WEB
WEB

www.aghealth.org.au/index.php?id=5030

Nearly all tasks on farms involve ergonomic problems. The common ones which should always be assessed include:

   

Safety Induction Templates – these provide

 

Machinery Operation

 

Using workshop tools

guidelines for safety induction for workers and

 

Using equipment for example, a wool press or

contractors.

 

hammer mill Manual Handling

Training Register – help to keep your records of training for your workers.

 

Stock Handling

 
   

Injury Register – this will help you learn

 

Lyn Fragar and James

 

from injuries that occur and put in place the necessary improvements.

 

Houlahan; AUSTRALIAN APPROACHES TO THE PREVENTION OF FARM INJURY; NSW Public Health Bulletin; Vol 13; No 5; pp

Safety Guides – there are a number of safety guides to help you find the right solution to just about all the common safety risks on farms. Have a look at all the headings, these are really useful and are industry endorsed.

 

WEB

103-104.

www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_

id=NB02044.pdf

 
   
Activity 4 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Consider the risk of injury associated with

Activity 4

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Consider the risk of injury associated with the collection of the data you have specified for your business.

What are they and are they likely to occur?

 
 

What measures will you implement to mitigate these risks?

 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

 

8 ACCESS AND COLLATE DATA

WEB

Effective records management is a fundamental requirement of certification – ensuring the demonstrated existence of a transparent, traceable and auditable system of organic management. NASAA has a number of template sheets required for completion to ensure consistent record keeping.

MLA; “Guidelines and

Now that you have planned your data collection it is time to develop the forms you will use to record and collate the information. These may be paper based or electronic processes. When deciding which format to use, consider the person who will be collecting the data and what will work best for them, at the point of data collection. For example,

Data can be more easily aggregated and

Look at the links on this website for Data Collection Forms Available for Download:

Tools”; Australia; 2012.

there is no point having a sophisticated computer program if the operator has to spend 20 minutes walking to and from an office every time they need

www.mla.com.au/meat-safety-and-traceability/

on-farm-assurance/lpa/guidelines-and-tools

 

to enter data. For this reason, many farm based data collections are initially done on paper and then data can be entered into a computer program at the end of the day/week/month. Even if data is initially collected in a paper based format there are many advantages in transferring to a computer program such as Word, Excel or an industry based software program. The advantages are:

analysed

Livestock Production Assurance (LPA) is the system that underpins Australia’s reputation as a global source of safe red meat. Given that there is so much at stake, MLA is working to make it as easy as possible for producers to comply with LPA through a number of helpful guidelines and tools. It is important producers remember that if they are audited they will need to prove compliance with the elements of LPA and the best way to do this is by keeping good records. Tools to help:

• Data can be reported in many different formats e.g. graphically displayed to identify trends

• Data is easily distributed (e.g. via email).

You will find many examples of data collection forms online across a range of industries. Have a look at the following examples to get you started:

NASAA Certified

Organics; “Resource Centre – Forms and Templates”;

Australia; 2012.

WEB
WEB

www.nasaa.com.au/resource2.html#

• Guide to LPA NVD/Waybills

• Sample record templates and sample completed record template and property risk assessment flyer

• LPA Audit Checklist

• Property assessment and property risk assessment map

• Export Slaughter Intervals (ESI)/Withholding Periods (WHP) information list for products used in cattle and sheep

• Export Slaughter Intervals (ESI)/Withholding Periods (WHP) information list for agriculture chemical products used in Australia

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

PAM QA Plus is a complete primary production recording system which will store and analyse all paddock records simply and efficiently.

and analyse all paddock records simply and efficiently.  Department of www.daff.gov.au/aqis/export/exdoc/about

Department of

www.daff.gov.au/aqis/export/exdoc/about

Fairport Farm Software;

Agriculture, Fisheries and

“PAM QA Plus”; Australia;

Forestry; “About EXDOC

2012.

 

– the Electronic Export

www.fairport.com.au/Pam/

 

Documentation System”.

PAM QA Plus is suitable for all “broad acre” and livestock farming and is a complete primary production recording system which will store and analyse all paddock records simply and efficiently.

EXDOC is a software application developed by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry for the purpose of managing export documentation for primary produce. EXDOC replaced manually generated permits and certificates.

Activity 5 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data In Activity 3 you identified your data

Activity 5

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

In Activity 3 you identified your data collection requirements. Copy these to the following table (Data to be Collected). Now update the remainder of the table for each data collection.

Data To Be Collected

Do you already have

data collection

form for this? Y/N

Yes, is it

electronic, manual or a combination of

both?

Yes, is it working

for you? Are there

improvements that could be made?

No, develop a

template for your business. Briefly describe what will

be included in the template

 

a

If

If

If

 

e.g. Paddock Treatment Record (see this template provided below)

Y

   

Initially recorded on a paper register and then entered into an excel spreadsheet

Y. Working well.

       
 
 
 
 

Please attach at least one example of a data collection form that you currently use within your enterprise, to the end of this workbook (or insert an electronic copy if possible). Reference this attachment as “Attachment 5.1”.

In the last column of this table, did you identify a data collection form that you believe will be beneficial to develop/implement? If so, please select one of these and develop the template. Attach or insert this at the end of this workbook. Reference this attachment as “Attachment 5.2”.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

REPORT TEMPLATE

Insert Company Name

 
           

Insert Report Title

 
           

Insert Company Details Address, Telephone and Email

   
           

Current Version

 

No.

Date Amended

Amended By

   
 
 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Version History

     

No.

Date Created

Sections Changed

   
 
 
 

Distribution History

     

No.

Date Distributed

Sections Changed

Distributed To

 
 
 
 

Acronyms

Definitions

   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CONTENTS

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

01

Executive Summary

22

 

02

Introduction

23

 

03

Type and Extent of Data Used

24

 

04

Methodology

25

 

05

Issues and Constraints

26

 

06

Results

27

 

07

Discussion

28

 

08

Conclusions

29

 

09

Appendices

30

 

10

References

31

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 page summary including

Introductory statement Scope and objectives of the data collection Type and extent of data used Data collection methodology Issues Results Conclusions

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

2 INTRODUCTION

Details of the data collection, why it is required, who conducted it and the timeframe in which it was conducted Data Collection Scope Purpose Aims and Objectives Background information

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

3 TYPE AND EXTENT OF DATA USED

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

4 METHODOLOGY

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

5 ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

6 RESULTS

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

7 DISCUSSION

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

8 CONCLUSIONS

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

9 APPENDICES

 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

10 REFERENCES

 

END OF TEMPLATE

This study represents an industry driven initiative to improve understanding of the complex animal/ journey interactions

understanding of the complex animal/ journey interactions Data is Researched, Collated, Monitored and Reviewed Now

Data is Researched, Collated, Monitored and Reviewed

Now that you have planned your data collection (what, when, where, how and who), it is time to start the data collection. This might involve one or more of the techniques we discussed earlier (e.g. research, laboratory testing, on the job field work, interviews, surveys etc.)

As with all processes, there is room for error. It is important while you are in the process of collecting data that you consider:

• The use of standard research approaches (e.g. appropriate methods and technologies) when researching data

• Progressive monitoring of data for appropriateness

• Regularly reviewing sources of information for usefulness, validity, reliability and cost.

Let’s have a look at some industry examples to expand on these points. The first example demonstrates a staged approach to the collection of data; researching retrospective information, then implementing a pilot study to collect data within a single state, and then the development of a project proposal to expand the coverage of the data collection across multiple states.

Example 1

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

“This study represents an industry driven initiative to improve understanding of the complex animal/ journey interactions which are part of land transport of livestock in Australia with a particular focus on animal welfare outcomes (mortalities and injury or illness) and journeys longer than 6 hours. A staged approach was used to first examine the usefulness of retrospective information derived from stored records on transport events as a way of meeting the study objectives. The second stage involved a pilot study in one state to develop and test methods for collecting data from transport events as they occurred (prospective data collection). The third stage for this project involved the preparation of a project proposal designed to apply the methods developed in stage 2 to multiple states and territories around Australia in order to be able to produce a nationally representative picture of land transport practices across Australia for journeys greater than 6 hours”. (Source:MLA; Transport Audit and Data Collection for Current Practices Project code: AHW.125; 2007)

www.mla.com.au/Research-and-development/

Final-report-details?projectid=12997)

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Activity 6 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Using this example, describe the advantages of

Activity 6

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Using this example, describe the advantages of a staged approach to data collection:

 
 

Using this example, describe the disadvantages of a staged approach to data collection:

 
 

The second example demonstrates how Meat and Livestock Australia (MLA) reviews the accuracy of the National Livestock Reporting Service (NLRS) data. This is a large database that is used by internal and external industry stakeholders. There are a number of checks and balances that MLA apply to ensure the data is reliable.

Example 2

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

To ensure that a statistically valid data sample is being collected at each sale.

valid data sample is being collected at each sale. “The various collection methods are also used

“The various collection methods are also used as a comparative yardstick to ensure the accuracy of data collated. Direct sale and wholesale prices are compared to physical market rates, highlighting any anomalies that may occur, as well as being cross referenced.

To manage the quality of NLRS information, a series of key performance indicators are set in place to measure daily performance against a predetermined set of requirements. The system, which outlines standards that must be met, is underpinned by a set of standard operating procedures.

All Livestock Management Officers (LMOs) are regularly assessed to ensure they maintain their national accreditation as livestock assessors. LMOs are required to meet a consistent standard of accuracy in the assessment of liveweight, carcase weight, dressing percentage, fat scoring and muscle scoring.

To ensure that a statistically valid data sample is being collected at each sale, LMOs must record a minimum of 70% of the total stock offered for sale. In reality, the introduction of new technologies has allowed coverage to average closer to 90%.

Finally, the NLRS has a plethora of stringent crosschecking measures to warrant its claim of providing the most up-to-date and accurate market information available. All reports are double checked before being published, while our market analysts pride themselves on the integrity of NLRS databases” (Source: MLA; National Livestock Reporting Service (NLRS); “NLRS Data Collection”;

www.mla.com.au/files/9cf981bd-5d82-48e3-b526-9d660088044f/nlrs-data-collection-process.pdf

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Activity 7 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Using the example above, summarise the quality

Activity 7

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Using the example above, summarise the quality assurance activities that are used by the MLA to ensure the NLRS data is accurate.

 
 

Explain why a sample size of 70% of total stock offered for sale is a “statistically valid data sample”.

 
 

The third example demonstrates that producers need to keep abreast of changes that might impact the validity of a data collection. When regulations change, data collections may also need to change.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data An export slaughter interval (ESI) is the period that must

An export slaughter interval (ESI) is the period that must lapse between chemical application to livestock and their slaughter for export.

Example 3

“Withholding periods (WHP) and export slaughter intervals: A WHP is the time that must pass between chemical application, including through the feeding of treated feed, and the slaughter, collection, harvesting or use of the animal commodity for human consumption. These are mandatory for the domestic market and are on the label of all registered products. WHPs can apply to veterinary chemicals e.g. parasite treatments as

Adherence to WHPs and ESIs is the simplest way to minimise the greatest risk of residues. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) updates WHP and ESI species- specific lists on their website regularly, making it easy for producers to comply. It is vital that these are adhered to as they form the foundation of Australia’s excellent reputation for meat safety globally” (Source: Meat and Livestock Australia; “Residues”; Australia; 2012).

well as agricultural chemicals e.g. herbicides.

www.mla.com.au/Meat-safety-and-traceability/

On-farm-assurance/On-farm-risk-management/

Residues

 
   

An export slaughter interval (ESI) is the period

 

that must lapse between chemical application to livestock and their slaughter for export. An export grazing interval (EGI) is the minimum time interval between application of a chemical to a crop or pasture that is continually grazed and slaughter.

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Activity 8 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Consider the legislative/regulatory requirements that affect what

Activity 8

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Consider the legislative/regulatory requirements that affect what data you collect. What processes do you have in place to keep up to date with any changes that might impact the data you collect? Please list these:

     
   

The fourth example demonstrates sophisticated electronic scanning systems. These systems can have the ability to capture information at the most appropriate point in the business process, with minimal interruption to that process and can deliver timely and accurate information by the end of the business process. That is, there are no delays to transcribe and check data before it is released.

 
 

Example 4

 

“Drafting can often be a time consuming and labour intensive task. An Autodrafter has the ability to reduce labour required, speed up the process and almost completely eliminate error. There are many advantages that can be gained by setting up an automatic drafting system. Automated drafting allows producers to easily handle stock and collect information using minimal labour.

 

Some specific benefits include:

 
 

Reduced labour input

 
 

Eliminate transcription mistakes

 
 

Easily and efficiently record live weight and other production traits such as condition score, micron etc. and then draft accordingly

 
 

Better meet target markets to take advantage of premiums paid

 
 

Quickly and accurately identify poor performance animals and remove them from a flock. This could be particularly beneficial when finishing lambs where tight margins are involved”

 

(Source: Department of Primary Industries – Victoria; “Reducing Labour and Improving Efficiency with Electronic Identification (EID) and Automated Drafting”; Note Number: AG1318; February 2009.

 

WEB

www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/farming-management/nlis/sheep-and-goats/improving-efficiency-with-eid-

automated-drafting).

 
     
Activity 9 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Conduct your own research and identify what

Activity 9

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Conduct your own research and identify what electronic systems are available that could assist you to collect and analyse data for your enterprise. What are they?

   
 

Would it be of benefit to you/your enterprise to implement such a system? Briefly explain your response:

 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data A grower group network may agree to meet weekly or

A grower group network may agree to meet weekly or monthly with the purpose of exchanging ideas.

Opportunities are taken to Establish and Maintain Contacts with those who may Provide Useful Information

Consider all of the organisations and people that you come into contact with during the course of your work. These can be valuable resources for you and your enterprise. Establishing networks and keeping in touch with people who are like minded can be of enormous benefit and can present business opportunities.

As an example, a grower group network may agree to meet weekly or monthly with the purpose of exchanging ideas, identifying problems that require a solution or offering business leads and referrals with fellow members. To complement this activity, members often meet outside this circle,

on their own time, and build their own one-to- one relationships. If you have a good network of people to contact, you may be able to find what you are looking for without ‘reinventing the wheel’. Information systems are no exception and if you ask your peers what they are doing, you might just find what you are looking for. In addition to grower groups, attending training courses, workshops, conferences and field days etc. is another excellent way of meeting like-minded people.

Activity 10 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Complete the following table by researching at

Activity 10

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Complete the following table by researching at least 10 information sources that would be useful for your business.

List the link, contact details and name of the information source

Why is this a useful information source for your business?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

9 EVALUATE DATA

Once data has been collected, it needs to be evaluated to ensure that it is relevant, valid, sufficient and reliable.

So what do we mean by these terms?

Relevant: Some data is just ‘noise’ and it is of no further use. This data is not relevant and would be disregarded. Only relevant data would be included for analysis. If you continue to ‘throw out’ data then this is an indicator that the data should not be collected at all, or needs to be collected in such a way that it becomes relevant.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Measuring equipment whose function affects quality and safety must be precise and accurate. When equipment monitoring and a Critical Control Point (CCP) is out of calibration, the CCP is considered to have been out of control since the last documented calibration. The procedure should address the following:

• A list identifying all inspection, test and measuring equipment including thermometers, scales and balances, temperature recorder/ controllers, metal detectors, pH meters, reference weights, etc.

• Identification of calibration equipment and where it is located

• Methods and frequency for calibration and calibration checking

• Acceptable degree of accuracy

Valid: This refers to the correctness and reasonableness of data. For example, data falls within an acceptable range, is in the correct format,

Special conditions for the operations, storage or handling of calibration equipment

has been transcribed correctly, testing equipment was correctly calibrated etc. If you review data

Methods for identifying equipment when it’s found to be out of calibration

Methods for identification and review of

Can you now see the importance of reviewing the

and find errors that are consistent, then this is an indicator that improvements need to be made.

Sufficient: There is enough data to be representative of the situation and to produce a reliable result. In the previous section we discussed the need for adequate sample sizes. This is an example of data sufficiency. Sufficiency might include metrics of sample size and time/duration

Reliable: This is the confidence that you have in

product produced whilst equipment has been out of calibration

quality of data before acting on it? If you make decisions based on poor data, the decision itself will be flawed.

over which the data was collected. If data is insufficient, then it is likely that you need to collect more of it.

the data and is a combination of all of the above (e.g. it is timely, accurate, valid, sufficient, relevant and accessible).

So what are your options if the data you have collected is not valid, sufficient, relevant or reliable? One option is to simply eliminate the data but if this is not an option because the data is needed, then you must fix the data/resolve the problem. This will involve identifying the cause of the problem (e.g. insufficient instructions,

The level of effort that you go to will depend on

This extract from the Tasmanian Dairy Industry, highlights issues that dairy farmers may have with data validity if measuring equipment is not properly maintained and calibrated. If such equipment is not properly maintained, data may not be reliable and the quality and safety of milk may be compromised.

Tasmanian Dairy Industry Authority; “Dairy Food Safety:- Guidelines for Tasmanian Dairy Factories”; 2007; P11.

equipment not calibrated, poorly designed data collection templates, lack of skills to interpret data) and working out ways to resolve it.

the value the data has for you and your enterprise. Have a look at the following examples which demonstrate how some data issues are resolved by different organisations/producers.

www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter,nsf/Attachments/

LBUN-75W777/$FILE/Factory%20guidelines.pdf

WEB

 
 
     

Example 1: Members of the Biological Farmers of Australia must seek clarification from their Certifying Officer (CO) if they are in any doubt about the compliance of their products with the Australian Certified Organic Standard. The operator shall put in place procedures and operations which shall establish full control of certified products and stock on farm, in storage and transport and which shall enable the traceability of all batches or consignments of certified materials or stock to the point of sale. Such traceability shall enable the operator to enact a product recall from the market place at any time for a specified group of products or stock produced or sold on any day or production run.

Biological Farmers of

Australia; “AUSTRALIAN CERTIFIED ORGANIC STANDARD 2010 – VERSION : 1.0”; Australia; 2010; P22-23.

WEB
WEB

www.bfa.com.au/Portals/0/ACO_2010_Standard_full.pdf

Example 2: If you are a land owner and conduct soil tests on your property as part of your data collection, you may need assistance to interpret soil test results. This data often requires additional expertise which may be found online such as cited in the following extract OR by contracting an expert to assist you.

Department of Primary

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

update with relevant information so that the data could be obtained, analysed and made available for future investment decision making processes. This is an example of industry identifying an information gap and then seeking assistance from producers to fill this gap. Note the ‘win win’ approach used by the GRDC: “If you do this for us, this is what we will do for you”.

Grains Research and

Development Corporation; “Australian Sustainable Farming Practices – Grains Industry Sustainable Agriculture Initiatives”; Australia; 2008.

WEB
WEB

www.farmingpractices.com.au/howto.html

Example 4: In the following example, DAFF identified limitations with the data collected, tried to obtain more data via a telephone survey but acknowledged that the data still had issues. Regardless of these issues, DAFF determined that the data was still of some value as it would ‘generate a better understanding of the organic industry’. So here we have a case where the data did not meet expectations but was still of some use, and the limitations of the data were clearly communicated.

Department of

 

Industries NSW; Agriculture – How to Interpret Your Soil Test; NSW; 2004.

 

WEB

Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF); “The Australian Organic Industry

file/0006/183192/australian_organic_industry_

summary.pdf

www.daff.gov.au/

data/assets/pdf_

WEB

www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/resources/soils/

testing/interpret

– A Summary”, 2004; p9.

 

Example 3: In 2008, the Grains Research and Development Corporation identified a gap in the

 

information available to the industry to demonstrate progress in sustainability. To overcome this gap, the industry developed a database for farmers to

   
Activity 11 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Now that you have reached the end

Activity 11

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Now that you have reached the end of this section, you should have an appreciation of the data quality issues that might impact your specific data collections and whether they warrant resolution. Complete the following table related to data quality and the possible impact on your business/enterprise. What measures/processes will you put in place to ensure the data you collect is relevant, valid, sufficient and reliable?

Data Quality Issue

Impact

Data Quality Measures

 
 
 
 
 

10 MANAGE AND RETRIEVE DATA

Throughout this workbook you have undertaken a series of logical steps to build knowledge about data collection and management, including:

• Identifying data collection requirements

• Preparing data collection templates and systems

• Collecting and collating data

• Evaluating and resolving data quality issues

How you now store, manage and retrieve this data will be dependent upon the information systems available to you. Paper based systems may often be the means by which data is collected, but large volumes of paper are difficult to manage. Often this data needs to be entered onto a computer system for subsequent analysis.

Using computer systems to manage data offers greater flexibility for aggregating, organising, displaying and reporting data. Office systems such as Excel and Word are often used as these are usually purchased as part of a home office software package. Specialist software applications may be used to meet more enterprise specific requirements.

One added advantage of specialist software systems is that data analysis and reporting options will most likely be available as a by-product of the information you enter. These systems may also allow you to develop ad-hoc reports that are specific to your needs.

The following extracts are examples of electronic information systems that enable producers to generate reports for analysis and interpretation.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Fairport Farm Software;

http://www.fairport.com.au/en/

This You Tube video provides an overview of cropping software application (PAM)

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-JaF6d1k2mM

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The PAM – Precision Data Processor features enable you to:

• Create very sophisticated images of spatially variable data, such as yield data collected from a yield monitoring system aboard a harvester.

• Automatically generate Contour Map Layers from the generated images of your spatially variable precision farming data (e.g. Yield Data, Soil Samples, EM Survey Data, Elevation Data).

• Create representations of soil test data, leaf test data and any other data you may record along with GPS coordinates.

• Combine data sets to create averaged data over several years.

• Interface with GPS hand held logging devices. This allows you to log areas (e.g. areas of weeds) on the ground and transfer the information to your computer.

• Display statistical analysis of data for whole paddocks or within smaller, digitised areas within paddocks.

• Sub-Set Data to analyse special areas within paddocks.

• Export your data as “CSV” for importing into Excel. Import “CSV” files from Excel.

• Create “VRT” recipe maps for all commonly used Variable Rate Control Systems (John Deere, Raven, AgLeader, Topcon/KEE, Farmscan, Rinex, Flexicontrol, SHP FIle Systems) for accurate seed, fertiliser and chemical applications.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

MyFarm is a mapping application aimed at assisting farmers with farm planning and management.

at assisting farmers with farm planning and management.    Tasmanian Government – Farmpoint;
 

Tasmanian Government – Farmpoint; “MyFarm”; Australia; 2012.

Agricultural Information and Monitoring Service; “Guide to Using the Grazing

WEB

www.farmpoint.tas.gov.au/farmpoint.nsf/folder/_

myfarm-computersoftwareforfarmmappingandre

cordkeeping

Plan Calculator”, Australia;

Pp104, 112.

 
 
 

MyFarm is a mapping application aimed at

WEB

http://aimsag.com.au/software.html

 

assisting farmers with farm planning and management. It has been developed through the Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment’s FarmPoint project to provide a suitable, low cost farm mapping application that will make it easier for farmer’s to manage their enterprises.

The Graze Plan Calculator is a computer program to help you develop your grazing plan, record grazing movements, determine pasture growth rates and explore future seasonal scenarios.

• Displays property related data as the base map, including property boundaries, rivers, contours, roads, aerial photography

• Mapping functions, including measuring distance/area, adding paddocks, gates, dams, fences, and printing a property map

• Recording farm management information, including paddock history, fence details

Activity 12 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data What are the advantages and disadvantages of

Activity 12

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

What are the advantages and disadvantages of paper based information systems within the context of your enterprise?

   
 

What are the advantages and disadvantages of electronic information systems within the context of your enterprise?

 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

 

11ANALYSE

WEB

www.daff.gov.au/

data/assets/pdf_

file/0008/129284/msqa_2nd_ed.pdf

 

AND INTERPRET DATA

 

Now that you have collated the data, you need to put on your ‘investigative hat’ and ask yourself a lot of questions about the data and what it means, for example:

The objective is to define appropriate statistical methods or sampling plans. Statistical techniques are utilised where numerical data is gathered and used to assess a product or process.

 

Is a trend evident? e.g. Is yield/net profit/soil health increasing or decreasing?

Wylde Group and the

 

Does data fall within an acceptable range for your product/enterprise performance indicators?

Government of Victoria;

 

Does the data demonstrate that your business goals/objectives are on track?

 

If data has been collected over a number of sites, is the data comparable at each site and at each site over time?

“Victorian Organic Sector Action Plan”; Australia; 2008; P13.

How does the data you have generated compare to other data from similar enterprises/regions? This is a form of benchmarking.

WEB

www.ofa.org.au/papers/Victorian%20

Organic%20Sector_Action%20Plan_12Dec08.pdf

Does the data identify emerging strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT)?

Have a look at this document for an example of SWOT analysis.

 

How do the results compare to known guidelines or targets?

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Australian Government;

 

There are a variety of statistical methods and techniques that you can use to analyse and interpret data. The following extracts provide some examples of these. Please note that this is not an exhaustive list of such techniques and what you decide to use will be specific to your situation.

“Soil Health Knowledge Bank; Soil Chemistry”; Australia; 2012.

 
   

http://soilhealthknowledge.com.au/index.php?vi

ew=article&catid=16%3Asoilanalysestesting&id

=61%3Asoil-chemistry&tmpl=component&print=

   

AQIS; “Guide for the

1&page=&option=com_content&Itemid=12

 

preparation of the meat safety quality assurance system (MSQA) for fresh meat and processed meat products second edition”; Australia; 2008; pp40, 47.

Data recording relating to management of fertilizer decisions and soil test results is essential for planning and performance evaluation of a nutrient management program.

A range of reports are available to assist in the monitoring of your genetic selection.

to assist in the monitoring of your genetic selection. AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Once

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Once you have experience in data management within your enterprise, you might identify gaps in the existing systems that need to be filled. These might be gaps in skills/knowledge, gaps in information available or simply that that the existing information systems have reached their limitations and you need a more sophisticated system.

The following table provides some examples of what producers might ‘upgrade’ to in the event that their existing systems no longer meet their needs.

 

Description

WEB

Link

 

Genescreen has been developed by Genetics Australia as a data analysis service for dairy farmers. It uses individual herd recording data to analyse within-herd genetic performance and benchmarking, as well as providing mating recommendations to support your genetic improvement strategy. A range of reports are available to

Genetics Australia; “Genescreen”. www.genaust.com.au/services/genescreen

 

assist in the monitoring of your genetic selection, and to evaluate its contribution to the performance of your herd. Please contact your local branch or Genetics Australia on freecall 1800 039 047 for further details on this service.

Department of Primary Industries Qld; Australian

 

Examples of agricultural software programs that producers

Farm Software Directory.

 

may choose to upgrade to.

www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/ BusinessAndTrade_ServicesAndGeneral/ AFSD-Software-catalogue.pdf

 

Overview of new technology (portable ultrasound) for livestock pregnancy testing and associated recording of test results

www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT_DouRM-mQ

 
Activity 13 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Conduct your own research and identify a

Activity 13

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Conduct your own research and identify a range of analysis techniques that would be useful within the context of your enterprise. List these and explain how you would apply them:

   
 

Do you feel that you have the necessary skills to perform the above data analysis techniques with confidence? If not, what actions/training can you undertake to fill the skill gap?

 
 

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Do you believe that you need new methods of data storage and retrieval within your enterprise? If so, what are they and how would you go about making recommendations for their purchase/implementation?

   
 

Now that the data has been analysed and interpreted it is time to report the findings, organise the data into a suitable report to aid decision making and draw conclusions based on reasoned argument and appropriate evidence.

Throughout this process it is important to keep in mind what the data will be used for, who will use it and what their needs are. In this way, you will deliver a report that is practical, meaningful and ‘fit for purpose’.

First consider what the report will be used for. Some examples are:

• Demonstrate accountability

• Justify budget or other resource requests

• Make operational resource allocation decisions

• Trigger in-depth examinations of what performance problems exist and what corrections are needed

• Help motivate personnel to continue making program improvements

• Monitor the performance of staff/contractors

• Provide data for special, in-depth program evaluations

• Help provide services more efficiently

• Support strategic and other long-term planning efforts (by providing baseline information and later tracking progress)

• To convince, educate, document, gain support

• To communicate better with industry participants, customers, key stakeholders

Now consider the target audience and what their needs are, for example:

• Data should be relevant to the target audience. Only the most important data should be presented.

• If there are multiple audiences, the data may have to be packaged and formatted differently according to the main interests and preferences of each audience.

• Large “data dumps” of information are counterproductive. Know what the decision-makers want and provide them with the necessary information in the format with which they are most comfortable.

• What is needed in a report to aid decision making?

• How effective are charts, diagrams and tables as a method to easily convey and demonstrate data rather than large amounts of text.

Activity 14 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data “Quickly” have a look at the following

Activity 14

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

“Quickly” have a look at the following diagram, Figure 1 – A value chain for food in Australia.

diagram, Figure 1 – A value chain for food in Australia. WEB Source: Wyld Group; “VICTORIAN
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Source: Wyld Group; “VICTORIAN ORGANIC SECTOR ACTION PLAN – Prepared for Victorian Organic Industry Collaborative Entity”; Victoria; 2008 ;P5.

www.ofa.org.au/papers/Victorian%20Organic%20Sector_Action%20Plan_12Dec08.pdf)

Now describe what this picture is telling you about the value chain for food in Australia. The idea of this exercise is to demonstrate what information you can ‘see at a glance’ without having to read its context:

     
   
Activity 15 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data You have identified a number of data

Activity 15

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

You have identified a number of data collections that are applicable to your enterprise in the previous activities. Provide some examples of how you could represent your data diagrammatically i.e. graphs, flow charts.

Insert diagrammatic examples related to data collected from your business here or attach them to this workbook as “Attachment 15.1”

Insert Examples Here

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Conclusions Drawn are Based on Reasoned Argument and Appropriate Evidence

Now that the data has been analysed, interpreted and findings have been reported, you can now make informed decisions. Some advantages of using documented results of data collections (e.g. reports) in this way, is that you have an increased ability to:

• Demonstrate the effectiveness of your decisions through reference to factual records, and

• Review, challenge and change opinions and decisions.

Applying the principle of “factual approach” to decision making typically leads to:

• Ensuring that data and information is sufficiently accurate and reliable

• Making data accessible to those who need it

• Analysing data and information using valid methods

• Making decisions and taking action based on factual analysis, balanced with experience and intuition.

The following links provide examples of conclusions drawn from reasoned arguments and appropriate evidence.

Department of Agriculture and Food – Western Australian

Government; “Farming for the Future – Industry Practice Baselines”; Resource Management Technical Report 342; Western Australia Agriculture Authority; 2009.

WEB
WEB

www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/sust/f4findustrypracticebaselinejune09final.pdf

Wyld Group; “VICTORIAN ORGANIC SECTOR ACTION

WEB
WEB

PLAN- Prepared for Victorian Organic Industry Collaborative Entity”; Victoria; 2008 ;P5.

www.ofa.org.au/papers/Victorian%20Organic%20Sector_Action%20Plan_12Dec08.pdf

Biological Farmers of Australia; “Agriculture: Chemically

treated Bt corn seed kills honey bees; GM mosquito fears”; 2012.

 

www.bfa.com.au/IndustryResources/BFAPublications/OrganicAdvantage/OrganicAdvantageArchives2011/

newsid742/131.aspx

 
   
 

WEB

 
Activity 16 AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data Throughout this workbook you have undertaken a

Activity 16

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Throughout this workbook you have undertaken a series of activities about data collection, management and analysis relevant to your enterprise. It is now time to pull all of this together in 1 activity that accurately and fully demonstrates your data collection, management and analysis capabilities. Make sure you use this activity to collate and analyse data that you also need to use for your business. Your report should include information such as:

• Executive Summary

• Introduction: Why did the monitoring occur and any contextual background information

• Type and extent of data used: Site locations, timeframe, sample size

• Methods: List the methods used to collect data, review and validate data, store and retrieve data

• Issues/Constraints: List any issues with the data collection that occurred and whether these were resolved

• Results: Display your results in the most appropriate way (e.g. graph or table)

• Discussion: Here you could compare your results between sites and/or also against guidelines or targets. How do the results at different sites compare to each other? Do the results at any site vary over time (either seasonally or between years)? Are the results above or below guidelines? Are the results meeting or failing targets?

• Conclusions: Does the data you have gathered answer the questions you originally set out to answer when planning your program?

• References: Be sure to list any documents or sources you have used in preparing the report and acknowledge any help you may have received throughout the project.

Ideally, you will use the data collection and template example you have been working with in previous activities. The report will assume that you have actually implemented the data collection process, collated and analysed the results. You may use your own template or the template provided on page 19 of this workbook.

12 SUMMARY OF KEY INNOVATIONS/ OPPORTUNITIES IDENTIFIED AS A RESULT OF ADOPTING THESE SKILLS

The adoption of new opportunities and key innovations should always be considered from the perspective of the triple bottom line. However each producer will need to determine:

• What are the most important aspects of each opportunity and innovation?

• How can a new innovation or opportunity be sustainably applied to your business or production system?

The summary below is provided as a list of suggested innovations or opportunities that could be implemented based on data collection, management and analysis. It is by no means complete. It is also unrealistic to assume any single business can adopt every opportunity.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Staff empowerment resulting from:

• Documented procedures and staff training relative to data collection requirements and data outputs (e.g. how well are we performing compared to our peers; what do we need to do to improve?).

• Minimising the incidence of injuries through the appropriate implementation of OH&S procedures/training relevant to data collection operations.

• Improved decision making via better information (quality, timeliness, relevance, accuracy, completeness).

• Ability to monitor performance over time as a result of collecting, analysing and presenting data appropriate to the needs of the enterprise and taking pro-active corrective procedures to address deficiencies.

• New skills acquired as a result of implementing electronic data recording technology.

Land managers that collect, manage and analyse data will own the most detailed information about environmental performance on their property. They can then choose to provide information to others such as industry groups, various levels of government, financiers, catchment groups or regional bodies. Having clear evidence of good environmental performance may provide a producer with market advantage if exporting or providing to niche markets.

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

13 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCE MATERIAL

Organisation

Standard

Contact Details

Web Site

Reason for Inclusion

 

Legislation

     

AIMS –

Agricultural

Information

 

http://aimsag.com.

au/software.html

http://aimsag.com.

au/contactdetails.

html

Agricultural Information and Monitoring Services provides an evidence-based consultancy to

This site provides links to a number

Monitoring

     

graziers to improve the profitability

System

     

and health of grazing businesses.

       

AIMS works with the concept of understanding agricultural ecosystems and relies on sound underlying principles rather than particular recipes. AIMS has worked with graziers in the north-west slopes, northern tablelands and northern rivers of NSW and the mid-north and northern agricultural districts of South Australia.

of data collection templates (pasture checklist) and software (excel based feed budget and graze planning tools).

ABARE –

Australian

Bureau of

 

http://www.daff.gov.

au/about/contactus

http://www.daff.

gov.au/abares

ABARES is a research bureau within the Department of

Capabilities in multi-disciplinary

Agricultural

     

Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry which provides professionally

and Resource

     

independent, world-class research,

Economics

     

analysis and advice to inform

       

decision-makers on current and future policy challenges affecting Australia’s primary industries.

research and analysis span the fields of economics, science and social science covering the agriculture, fisheries, forestry and food sectors.

Australian Egg

Code of Practice For

 

http://www.aecl.

org/system/

attachments/362/

original/Code%20

of%20Practice%20

for%20Shell%20

egg%20

production,%20

grading,%20

packing%20

and%20

distribution%20

2009.

pdf?1291694499

Code of practice, including data

Corporation Ltd

Shell Egg, Production,

 

collection procedures, templates

 

Grading, Packing and

 

and techniques for the egg industry.

 

Distribution

   
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Organisation

Standard

Contact Details

Web Site

Reason for Inclusion

 

Legislation

     

APIQ –

Australian Pork

Industry Quality

Assurance

Program

Code of Practice

http://www.apiq.

com.au/index.

php?option=com_

content&view=articl

e&id=2&Itemid=2

http://www.apiq.

com.au/index.

php?option=com_

content&view=

frontpage&Itemid=1

APIQ® is an on-farm quality assurance system. It is based on managing farm risks by following Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), using the principles of Hazard

         

Analysis and managing Critical Control Points (HACCP).

APVMA –

Maximum chemical

PO Box 6182

http://www.apvma.

gov.au/about/

index.php

The APVMA is an Australian

Australian

residue limit standard

KINGSTON ACT

government statutory authority

Pesticides

 

2604 AUSTRALIA

established in 1993 to centralise

and Veterinary

Export slaughter

   

the registration of all agricultural

Medicine

intervals

T: +61 2 6210 4700

 

and veterinary chemical products

Authority

Withholding periods and export intervals for pesticide products

F: +61 2 6210 4813 W: www.apvma. gov.au

 

into the Australian marketplace. Previously each State and Territory government had its own system of registration.

 

Risk Assessment of Short-Term Dietary

   

Pesticides and veterinary medicines are vital to quality food and fibre

 

Exposure to Chemical

   

production. Australia’s primary

 

Residues

   

production is worth an estimated $30 billion a year with an export value of over $25 billion.

AQIS –

Australian

Import and export inspection and

Contact to various AQIS divisions can

http://www.daff.

gov.au/aqis

The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) is part

Quarantine

certification

be found at: http://

 

of the Australian Government

and Inspection

Service

National Standard

www.daff.gov.au/ aqis/about

http://www.daff.

gov.au/

data/

assets/pdf_

file/0019/126181/

haccp_ffp.pdf

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF).

 

for Organic and Biodynamic Produce

 

AQIS manages quarantine controls

       

at our borders to minimise the risk of

 

A

Guideline to

   

exotic pests and diseases entering

 

Compliance with the

   

the country. AQIS also provides

 

Export Control (Eggs and Egg Products)

   

import and export inspection and certification to help retain Australia’s

 

Orders

   

highly favourable animal, plant

 

A

Guideline to

   
 

Compliance with the Export Control (Fish and Fish Products) Orders

   

and human health status and wide access to overseas export markets.

Biological

Farmers of

Australian Certified Organic Standard;

http://www.bfa.com.

au/ContactUs.aspx

http://www.bfa.

com.au

Provision of industry standards, data collection procedures, data

Australia

version 1; 2010.

   

collection templates and auditing tools.

Dairy Australia

Codes of Practice

http://www.

dairyaustralia.com.

au/Standard-Items/

Contact-Us-Content.

aspx

http://www.

dairyaustralia.

com.au/Home/

Standard-Items/~/

media/Documents/

Industry%20

overview/

Food%20safety/

AMRA%20and%20

Chemicals.ashx

Australian Milk Residue Analysis Survey

Fact sheets

       

Data collection templates

         
       

Audit tools

         
         

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Organisation

Standard

Contact Details

Web Site

Reason for Inclusion

 

Legislation

     

DAFF –

Government

National Residue Survey

Exdoc Software

http://www.daff.gov.

au/agriculture-food/

http://www.daff.

gov.au/agriculture-

NRS monitors residues of agricultural and veterinary

Department

 

nrs

food/nrs

chemicals and environmental

of Agriculture

Application

   

contaminants in Australian food

Fisheries and

   

http://www.daff.

gov.au/aqis/export/

exdoc/about

commodities. The cost of this

Forestry

   

monitoring is largely industry-

     

funded through levies on the animal

       

and plant commodities that are tested

Department of Lands – NSW Government

 

https://six.nsw.

gov.au/wps/portal

/!ut/p/b1/04_Sjz

QzMje1MDI2

NNKP0I_KSyz

LTE8syczPS8w

B8aPM4oO

dnEJNHQ3ND

A3MnV0MPA3N_

EycQw29Ag

NN9INT8_

RzoxwVAVit2Ic!/

http://six.maps.

nsw.gov.au/terms/

acceptTerms.html

Spatial Information Exchange is available to farmers to map their properties.

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

Department

State based policies,

http://www.dpi.nsw.

gov.au/aboutus/

about/contact

 

How to interpret soil tests

of Primary

regulations and

   

Industries NSW

legislation for food and fibre industries

 

Factsheets to assist farmers collect data (by industry)

   

http://www.dpi.nsw.

gov.au/

   
     

Ebeef – NLIS electronic data

       

collection software/equipment

Fairport Farm

Software

 

http://www.fairport.

com.au/contact/

http://www.fairport.

com.au/Pam

Primary production software

 

Code of Practice and

   

Members are required to meet

Free Range

Farmers

Association

QA Program

http://www.

freerangefarmers.

com.au/contacts.

html

http://www.

freerangefarmers.

com.au/food-

safety.html

the standards of the Free Range Farmers Association Quality Assurance and Food Safety

       

Program and the Code of Practice for Shell Egg Production, Grading, Packing and Distribution. The QA program is available from the Association and the Code of Practice is available from the Australian Egg Corporation. It includes data collection procedures, examples of data collection forms and standard operating procedures.

FSANZ – Food

General food standards

email:

http://www.

foodstandards.

gov.au/

FSANZ is a bi-national Government

Standards

 

info@food

agency. Our main responsibility

Australia New

Food product standards

standards.gov.au

is to develop and administer the

Zealand

Food safety standards

   

Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (the Code), which

 

Primary production

   

lists requirements for foods such

 

standards

   

as additives, food safety, labelling and GM foods. Enforcement and interpretation of the Code is the responsibility of State/Territory departments and food agencies within Australia and New Zealand.

Graincare

Australia Pty

Ltd

Graincare Quality

Assurance

http://www.

graincare.com.au/

Contact%20Us.htm

http://www.

graincare.com.au/

index.htm

Graincare is an on-farm program designed to assist grain growers produce grain which will satisfy the

     

quality assurance (QA)

AHCWRK502A – Collect and Manage Data

Organisation

Standard

Contact Details

Web Site

Reason for Inclusion

 

Legislation

       

ISO –

ISO 9000 Quality Mgt

E-mail: central@

http://www.iso.org/

iso/home.htm

ISO is a network of the national

International

 

iso.org

standards institutes of 157 countries

Organization

ISO 31000 Risk Mgt

 

and develops and publishes

for Standardi-

     

International Standards in a wide

sation

ISO 14000 Env Mgt

   

range of areas including agriculture.

 

ISO 22000 Food Safety

   

Documentation standards are available.

Kondinin Group

 

http://www.

kondiningroup.

com.au/static.

ASP?t=1&I=0

http://www.

kondiningroup.

com.au/static.

ASP?t=2&I=19

The Small Landholder Information Service (SLIS) has teamed up with

Kondinin Group to deliver a series

of

technical notes on running a

       

small farm, or property. This series of Noteworthy fact sheets provide practical information from the Department of Agriculture and Food WA to help small landholders make better choices. A number of these have relevance to data collection and management.

MLA – Meat Standards Australia

NLIS

http://www.mla.com.

au/General/Contact

http://www.

mla.com.au/

Meat-safety-and-

traceability/On-

farm-assurance/

LPA

(Livestock Production Assurance)

is

National Vendor Declaration and

a program that underpins the

     

Waybill (LPA NVD/Waybill), which

     

upholds Australia’s reputation as a

     

world leader in meat and livestock food safety. Tools and templates

     

http://www.

ausmeat.com.

au/auditing-

accreditation/

quality-

management-

systems.aspx

are available to assist with the

     

documentation and analysis of this

     

data set.

         
         
         
         

NASAA

Certified

Organics

 

http://www.nasaa.

com.au/contact.html