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# SECTION 3.

## AERODYNAMICS OF THE AIRCRAFT

THEME 15. MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF LIFTING SURFACES
AND FUSELAGE
Practically all elements of the aircraft except wing either do not create lift at all or
create it at some flight angles of attack, but this lift is insignificant in comparison with
wing lift. The aircraft drag consists of drag of its separate parts with taking into account
their mutual influence.
Let's consider the problem of wing and fuselage interference in details.

## 15.1. Drag of the wing - fuselage system

The drag of the wing - fuselage system is much more than the sum of separately
taken drags of wing and fuselage. Jointing the wing and the fuselage into the single
whole causes an additional drag. This drag is called the hazard interference. Let's
consider separately profile and wave drag of the wing-fuselage system.

## 15.1.1. Profile drag

The force of profile drag consists of three items:

X p w + f = X p is .w . + X p iz . f . + X p ,
where X p is .w . = x p

is .w .

(15.1)

## q w S w is the profile drag force of an isolated wing composed

of consoles; X pis . f . = x p

is . f .

## X p = x p q w S w is the additional drag force caused by an interference.

If the area of a wing with ventral part S is accepted as the characteristic area for
the wing - fuselage system and X pw + f = x p
x p

w+ f

= kd w x p

is .w .

w+ f

S w + x p

q S , we shall receive

is . f .

+ k d w x p S w ,

(15.2)
137

## where k w = q w q is the coefficient of flow deceleration before the wing (influence of

the fuselage), S w = S w S , S f = S m . f . S is the ratio of the areas of an isolated wing
and of fuselage midsection to the characteristic area.
One should notice that profile drag of an isolated wing x p

is .w .

is calculated at

M w = M kw .

## In places of the wing and fuselage

jointing their boundary layers are combined
and the thickness of combined boundary layer
will increase. At subsonic speeds it promotes
a flow stalling in the place of wing and
fuselage jointing where "diffuser" effect -the
expansion of jets is observed (Fig. 15.1, a)
and there is positive pressure gradient. The
premature flow stalling is promoted also by
increasing of local angles of attack of wing
cross-sections and also decreasing of critical
numbers M in these cross-sections. All this
results in drag increasing due to friction forces
Fig. 15.1. Diffuser effect in a place of
wing and fuselage jointing:
a) - area of diffuser flow;
b) - fillets at wing and fuselage jointing

## and pressure forces. To decrease the hazard

interference the so-called fillets (fairings) are
used (Fig. 15.1, b). It is possible to reduced
greatly the hazard interference at correct

selection of fillets.
For the factor of additional drag we have

x p = k int xp w

S w
,
Sw

(15.3)

138

where k int is the interference factor; generally depends on lifting surface location
(wing, horizontal tail) on a fuselage and shape of fuselage cross section; S w is the
area of a wing occupied by a fuselage ( S w bb d f or S w bb2 c b ).
The point of view of drag the interference between a wing and fuselage (tail unit
and fuselage) is negative. The researches show, that such interference is the most
unfavorable for low-wing airplane, least unfavorable - for high-wing plane.
It is tentatively possible to assume interference factors k int which are listed in
table 15.1 irrespectively from numbers M .
Table 15.1. Interference factors
Wing location

k int

Wing location

k int

0 .5

0 .75

r
0 .15

0 .4

0 .075

## It is possible to consider (taking into account fairings installation), that at thin

wing ( 5% ) installation on a fuselage cylindrical surface by the mid-wing scheme
k int = 0 . It is necessary to note, that in some configurations the diffuser effect can be

more at wing installation by the high-wing scheme. It is possible to consider the diffuser
effect as equal to zero k int = 0 at the horizontal tail installation onto vertical according
to Tee-tail unit scheme, but at that it is necessary to displace the mutual position of
maximum thickness of vertical and horizontal tail airfoils.

139

## 15.1.2. Wave drag.

The interference problem gains special sharpness at configuration of a high-speed
aircraft. At high flight speeds there can appear so-called wave interference, i.e. the
additional wave drag, which is caused by occurrence of shock waves in a place of the
wing and fuselage joint. The unsuccessful joint of wing with fuselage can result in
substantial drag growth, decreasing of critical number M and more intense growth of
drag after occurrence of wave crisis.
Analogously to profile drag it can be written as

X w w + f = X w is .w . + X w is . f . + X w

(15.4)

and

xw

w+ f

= kd w x w

The factor x w

xw

is .w .

is .w .

is .w .

S w + xw

is .w .

S f + k d w x w S w .

(15.5)

## should be determined at M w = M kd w . In particular

2 = f kd w M 2 1 , tg , .

The additional wave drag occurs as a result of interaction of two flows about the
fuselage and the wing.

x w = C x0
ww + f

x w ; x w = 0 .25 exp

k n 1

) ; = M M* ,
1 Mw

(15.6)

where the factors k and n also depend on the wing plan form:

## k = 3 , n = 1 - fuselage - swept wing; k = 1.5 , n = 2 - fuselage - delta wing.

Number M* is the critical number M of the fuselage - wing system. It will be
less than critical number M* of an isolated wing and fuselage. It is possible to assume

## } taking into account the effect of flows interaction.

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Effective way to decrease an additional wave drag is using the '' area-rule ". Using
the " area-rule " results into wave drag drop first of all in the zone of transonic speeds
( M* M 1.15 ...1.20 ) (Fig. 15.2).

## Fig. 15.2. Wave drag of fuselage - wing system.

According to "area-rule" the wave drag of the wing - fuselage system is about to
drag of the equivalent body of revolution. Without using the area-rule, this body will
have a bulge in the place of jointing of the wing with the fuselage (Fig. 15.3, a). It is
necessary

to

make

thinner

the

## fuselage cross section on the value of

wing cross-sections area in the place
of wing jointing to fuselage (Fig.
15.3, b) (or to increase fuselage
cross-section on its remaining part
outside the wing) with the purpose of
Fig. 15.3.

## should have smaller drag.

There is a generalization of subsonic area-rule to supersonic speeds (supersonic
area-rule).

141

## 15.2. Lift of the wing - fuselage system

Let's consider a wing - fuselage system put into flow under the angle of attack .
For simplification we shall assume, that the fuselage is a body of revolution close to
cylindrical, and the wing is installed on it by the mid-wing scheme with angle .
Within borders of the linear theory the general configuration wing - fuselage can
be presented as a sum of two schemes:

Fig. 15.4.
Each scheme contribution in lift is
represented as follows:

ya = ya 0 + ya0
where ya 0 is the lift coefficient of the
fuselage - wing system with a symmetrical
airfoil at a zero setting angle ( = 0 , fuselage
with a straight-line axis), ya0 is the lift
coefficient of the fuselage - wing system with

Fig. 15.5.

## aerodynamic and geometric twist and with

setting angle ( 0 , fuselage with curved axis).
Let's consider lift of these schemes.
Scheme" 0 ". Let's write down lift as a sum

Ya 0 = Ya is . f .

+ Ya is .w .

+ Ya w( f )

and Ya is .w .

+ Ya f ( w )

(15.7)

## refer to an isolated fuselage with a

straight-line axis (in horizontal plane of symmetry) and flat wing with a symmetrical
airfoil; Ya w( f )

## is the additional lift arising on the wing because of fuselage

142

influence; Ya f ( w )

## is the additional lift arising on a fuselage because of wing

influence.
Obviously, the sum Ya is .w .

+ Ya w( f )

## represents lift of a wing set on the

fuselage.
We accept

+ Ya w

Ya is .w .

( f ) 0

= Ya is .w .

Ya w

Ya w f

( ) 0
1 +

Ya is .w .

= Ya is .w .

( f ) 0

=Y
a is .w . 0 K ,

K ,

where K and K are interference factors for a flat wing with a symmetrical airfoil
and fuselage having a horizontal plane of symmetry (at = 0 Ya is .w .

Ya is . f .

=0

= 0 ).

## Taking it in account we obtain

Ya 0 = Ya is . f .

+ Ya is .w .

( K

+ K ) .

(15.8)

## If one passes to lift coefficients

Ya 0 = y a

q S , Ya is . f .

= ya

is . f . 0

q S m . f . , Ya is .w .

= ya

is .w . 0

qw Sw ,

where S is the characteristic area; q w is the dynamic pressure before the wing, we shall

ya

= ya

is . f . 0

S f + kd w y a

is .w . 0

( K

+ K ) S w ,

(15.9)

## where kd w = q w q is the factor of flow deceleration before a wing (fuselage

influence), S w = S w S , S f = S m . f . S is the ratio of the isolated wing area and
fuselage mid-section area to the characteristic area S . At it lift coefficient of an isolated
wing ya

is .w . 0

is determined at M w = M kd w .

## Scheme " 0 ". Let's write down lift as a sum

Ya0 = Ya is . f .

+ Ya is .w .

+ Ya w

( f ) 0

+ Ya f

( w ) 0

(15.10)
143

and Ya is .w .

## - characteristic of an isolated fuselage and

wing at = 0 ; lift occurs at the expense of camber of fuselage axis, camber of airfoil,
twist and angle of wing setting onto fuselage; Ya w
on a wing because of fuselage influence; Ya f

( f ) 0

( w ) 0

## fuselage because of wing influence.

Here, as well as for scheme " 0 ", the sum Ya is .w .

+ Ya w

( f ) 0

represents lift

## of a wing set on the fuselage.

Let's write down similarly to the previous case

+ Ya w

Ya is .w .

= Ya is .w .

( f ) 0

Ya w f

( ) 0

1
+

Ya is .w .
0

= Ya is .w .0 K ,

(15.11)

where K and K is the interference factor for the wing - fuselage system at = 0 .
If, as well as in the previous scheme, we pass to lift coefficients, we shall receive
ya

= ya

S f + kd w y a

is . f .0

( K + K ) S w .

is .w .0

(15.12)

## Finally, for the general scheme " " it is obtained:

ya = ya

+ ya

+ kd w y a

= ya
+ ya
S f +
is . f . 0
is . f .0

( K
is .w . 0

+ K ) S w + k* y a

is .w .0

( K + K ) S w .

(15.13)

Fuselage: ya

is . f .

Obviously ya
Wing: y a

is .w .

Obviously y a

= y

a is . f .

= y

a is . f .

is . f . 0

= y

a is .w .

is .w . 0

( ) =
0 is . f .

, and ya

y a is . f .

is . f .0

= y

a is .w .

; ya

is .w .0

a is . f .

= y

a is . f .

( + 0 ) = y
is .w .

a is .w .

= y

0 is . f . .

0 is . f . .

( 0 ) .
( 0 ) .

a is .w .

a is .w .

is .w .

is .w .

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## Taking it into account, we obtain

( )S

ya = y

0 is . f .

a is . f .

+ kd w y

a is .w .

[ ( K

)]

)(

+ K ) + 0is .w . K + K S w .

(15.14)

## Let's consider the separate characteristic of a wing set on fuselage (w/f):

ya

w/ f

= kd w y

a is .w .

[ ( K

( K
a is .w .

= kd w y
= y

aw

where y

aw

)]

)(

+ K ) + 0 is .w . K + K S w =

K + K

+ K ) + 0 is .w .
K + K

( 0 ) S w
w

Sw =

( )S

ya = y

0f

+ y

aw

( 0 ) S w

(15.15)

## And finally for a wing - fuselage system

ya = y ( 0 ) ; y = y

0 =

S f + y

aw

Sw ;

S
f
w

,
0
0
y
y
f
w
f
aw

where a derivative of a fuselage lift coefficient and angle of zero lift are taken for the
isolated fuselage y

= y

a is . f .

## and 0 f = 0 is . f . ; the derivative of wing lift

coefficient and angle of zero lift are calculated under the formulas with taking into
account

the

interference

0w = 0is .w .

factors

aw

= kd w y

a is .w .

( K

+ K )

and

K + K

) K + K .

The note: the shown dependence for the wing - fuselage system remains valid for

## a system a horizontal tail-fuselage located on a fuselage ahead of a wing (canard

scheme).
145

For normal scheme, when horizontal tail is located behind the wing it is necessary
to take into account a wing influence on horizontal tail in addition to the interference of
horizontal tail and fuselage. In this case horizontal tail is streamlined at smaller angle of

## attack equal to h.t . = 1 0 .

Let's consider the characteristic of horizontal tail ya
fuselage similar to the wing characteristic ya

ya

h.t . f

= kd h.t . y

ais .h.t .

w/ f

h.t . f

located on the

S h.t . .

h.t .

K + K

## Substituting here h.t . = 1 0 , we obtain for horizontal tail in the

system of aircraft with normal scheme:
ya

h.t . f

= y

a h .t .

( 0 ) S h.t .,
h.t .

where the derivative of lift coefficient of horizontal tail and angle of zero lift are equal
to
y

a h.t .

= kd h.t . y

a is .h.t .

(1 )( K + K )

h.t .

and

0 h. t . =

K + K

h.t .
0 is .h.t .
0;
K + K h.t .
1

h.t . is the angle of the horizontal tail setting relatively to the fuselage axis; as a rule,
the symmetrical airfoil is installed on horizontal tail and 0 is .h.t . = 0 . Obviously, the
wing lift in the system of a canard aircraft should also be determined with accounting of
flow downwash located ahead of horizontal tail. Therefore, the last expressions remain
fair and for a wing in the canard scheme after replacement of parameters of horizontal
tail on wing parameters.
Let's consider interference factors K , K , K and K . Generally they
depend on the ratio of fuselage midsection diameter d f to wing span with ventral part
146

l , wing shape and fuselage cross-section, wing setting on fuselage altitude and length,
number M and influence of the boundary layer. These dependencies are complex and
systematic data about them are absent in the literature. The most essential ones, as
researches show, are the dependencies on

df

## , shown in fig. 15.6.

For an approximate estimation it is
possible to use the following ratios:
K K ( K 1) , K 1,

K K 1 ;

K + K = K2
K + K = K

( K + K ) ( K + K ) = K1

## The last three equalities are more

exact than the first three.
Fig. 15.6. Dependence of interference factors
from

df

As
interference

we

see,

factors

calculation
is

reduced

of
to

## 15.2.1. Fuselage influence onto wing (horizontal tail).

Let's consider the wing - fuselage system set in a flow under the angle of attack
(a fig. 15.7). Let's assume, that the fuselage is a body of revolution close to cylindrical,
and the wing is located on it under the mid-wing scheme. Let's factor the incoming
undisturbed flow moving with speed V into two components: directed along fuselage
axis with speed Vx = V cos and normal to it with speed V y = V sin . At flow

147

about fuselage cylindrical part by this transversal flow the speed V y is increased in
comparison to V y .

## Fig. 15.7. The scheme of flow about wing - fuselage system

Supposing speeds V y are small, from the theory of potential flow about cylinder
by transversal flow with speed V y = V sin for local streamlining speeds we obtain

d 2f
d 2f

.
V y = V sin 1 +
= V 1 +
2
2

4z
4z

The influence of fuselage onto wing has an effect in changing of the wing angle
of attack, which is equal to w

d 2f
= 1 + 2 .

4 z

## At z = d f 2 the wing angle of attack increases twice. So it follows, that for a

wing which span with ventral part differs a little from d f we shall have K = 2 .
Approximately, for a wing set by the mid-wing scheme K 1 + , K ( 1 + ) ,
K = where = d f l .
For a wing set on the fuselage of round cross-section by the low-wing or highwing configurations, wing distance from fuselage axis influences the interference factor

H
K =

1 + 1 h2
1 + 2 h2

, h=

df
2H
,=
.
df
l

148

## The wing influence on fuselage has double effect.

At first, the lift of the fuselage part is increased by "carry" of raised pressure
under the wing and reduced above the wing on fuselage (Fig. 15.8, a).
Secondly, the lift of fuselage part behind the wing decreases because of presence
flow downwash (Fig. 15.8, b).

## Fig. 15.8. Wing influence onto fuselage

As a result the additional lift on the fuselage is equal to
Ya f ( w ) = Ya f ( w ) + Yaf ( w ) .
Let's mark, that the position Ya f ( w ) depends on number M at M > 1 . With
increasing of M applying point Ya f ( w ) displaces back.
15.3. Moment of pitch and position of aerodynamic center
of the wing - fuselage system.

Strictly speaking, the moment of pitch is created by full aerodynamic force or, in
most cases, by normal forces. Approximately it is possible to consider that the moment
of pitch is created by lifting forces of wing, fuselage and additional lifts caused by
interference. At that, we neglect moments of drag forces. Proceeding from mentioned
above we accept: Y f Ya f , Yw( f ) Ya w( f ) , Y f ( w ) Ya f ( w ) , where Ya f is the lift
of an isolated fuselage, Ya w( f ) is the lift of wing installed on the fuselage

149

## (Ya w( f ) = Ya is .w . + Ya w( f ) ), Ya f ( w ) is the additional lift on the fuselage from wing

influence.
The applying point of wing lift generally places a little ahead of the aerodynamic
center of isolated wing ( xFw ), however, it is possible to accept without large error, that
the applying point of lift Ya w( f ) coincides with aerodynamic center of isolated wing
xFw .

Using fig. 15.9, we shall make an equation for moment of pitch M z for wing fuselage system relatively to fuselage nose.

Fig. 15.9.

M z = M*z0 Ya f xF f Ya w( f ) x w + xFw Ya f ( w ) x w + xF f

)(

=
( w)

= M*z0 Ya f xF f Ya w( f ) + Ya f ( w ) x w + xFw Ya f ( w ) xF f

(w)

xFw .

Here M*z0 is the moment at zero lift of isolated parts and their interference.
M*z0 = M z0 is . f . + M z0 is .w . + M z0

f +w

The last item in equation for M z is small, because of small force value and small
arm (especially at M < 1 ) and it can be neglected. The summarized value
Ya w( f ) + Ya f ( w ) represents wing lift in the system Ya w and then
150

M z = M*z0 Ya f xF f Ya w x w + xFw .

Let's pass to the factor of moments, for that we divide the right and the left parts
of equation on dynamic pressure, characteristic area and characteristic length q SL . It
is possible to accept as characteristic length L , for example, the length of a fuselage:

m z = m*z0 C ya f x F f S f C ya w ( x w + x Fw ) S w =
=

m*z0

C ya

( ) x
0f

Ff

S f C ya

( 0 )( x w + x F ) S w .

(15.16)

Here
m*z0 = kd w m z0 is .w . S w + m z0 is . f . S f , C ya
C ya

= kd w C ya

is .w .

= C ya

is . f .

, 0 f = 0 is . f . ,

( K + K ) , 0w = w 0is .w .

K + K

) K + K ,

location of the wing relatively to the fuselage nose, the position of aerodynamic centers
of the fuselage and wing are expressed in shares of fuselage length x w = x w L ,

x Fw = xFw L , x F f = xF f L .
Let's differentiate the equation (15.16) for mz on :
mz = C ya x F f S f C ya
f

( x w + x Fw ) S w .

The position of aerodynamic center of the wing - fuselage system relatively to the
fuselage nose in shares of fuselage length are determined
C ya

x F = xF L = m z

= mz C ya .

## It is accepted for flight dynamics

problems to determine the position of
aerodynamic center relatively to mean
aerodynamic chord nose in shares of MAC
length bA (Fig. 15.10):
x FA =

xFA
L

[ x F ( x w + x A )] L .
bA

Fig. 15.10.
151

## Substituting in expression for mz (15.16) parameter = 0 , we obtain the

moment factor at zero lift
m z = m*z0 C ya

( ) x
0f

Ff

S f C ya

( 0 )( x w + x F ) S w =
w

= m*z0 + mz 0 + 0 f C ya x F f S f + 0 w C ya
f

As 0 =

( x w + x Fw ) S w .

1
C S f + 0 C ya S w and mz = x F C ya , then
w
0 f ya f

w
C ya

m z0 = m*z0 + m z0

+ m z0 w ,

where m z0 f = x F + x F f 0 f C ya S f , m z0 w = x F ( x w + x Fw ) 0w C ya S w .
f

characteristics

## The wing setting relatively to fuselage essentially influences the aerodynamic,

weight, operational and economic characteristics of the aircraft.
Let's consider the main virtues and shortages of all the schemes of mutual
arrangement of a wing and fuselage.
The aircraft made by the low-wing configuration has the following advantages: it
allows to receive the improved take-off and landing characteristics due to more effective
influence of ground proximity, and, also, capability of increasing of high-lift devices
area due to ventral wing part; the design of glider and service of aggregates installed on
the wing become simpler.
Imperfections of this configuration are the following: C ya max decreases due to
interference of wing and fuselage, C xa increases, the lift-to-drag ratio decreases, the
falling of foreign objects is possible at takeoff and landing at engines installation on the
wing.
The advantages of high-wing configuration are: lift-to-drag ratio is higher on
4 K5% than for low-wing configuration with other conditions being equal due to
decreasing of aerodynamic interference; the characteristics of longitudinal stability at
152

high angles of attack are better in comparison with the characteristics of the low-wing
configuration; in case of engines installation on the wing, the probability of outside
objects falling from runway surface essentially decreases, that allows more successful
use of high-wing aircraft on unpaved runways.
The disadvantages of the configuration are worsening of lateral stability
characteristics at high angles of attack, when vertical tail falls into the wake jet from the
wing that demands necessity of vertical tail area increasing on 30 K50% in comparison
with vertical tail area of low-wing configuration.
Weight of high-wing construction is more, than low wing one. In particular,
weight of a heavy high-wing-airplane with the main landing gears fixed on the fuselage,
exceeds the weight of low-wing airplane on 15 K 20% .
The operating economy of passenger high-wing aircraft is a little bit lower, than
of low-wing one because of losses in weight.
The midwing airplane, from a point of view of an aerodynamic interference, has
the greatest advantages. However, this scheme is not applied to the aircraft of mean
seating capacity because the wing should pass through the passenger compartment,
forming ledges or cavities on the compartment floor. The midwing configuration is used
on some wide-fuselage aircraft (airbuses), which wing passes not through the passenger
compartment, but in space between the upper and lower decks.
Now the majority of passenger aircraft has the low-wing configuration. For cargo
and cargo-passenger aircraft the high-wing configuration is more preferable in many
cases.

153