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- Ansys Workbench Basics Manual
- Answer Force Pressure
- A.2.2-MISHA
- Grade 9 Monthly Test 2 - November 2011
- Scale Modeling of Cessna 172
- Bernoulli's Principle Disputation.
- r05221402-fluid-mechanics-and-heat-transfer, MEP question paper, II nd year II sem, august 2008
- 68812337-Marine_technology_inspired_by_dolphins_speed
- COMPARISON OF DRAG AND INERTIA COEFFICIENTS FOR A CIRCULAR CYLINDER IN RANDOM WAVES DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT METHODS
- FIGES05
- Chapter 1- Lecture 3 - 20-12-2011
- Fm30-301943ObsoleteAircraftRecognitionPictorialManualPart3
- Method of Characteristics and Numerical Solutions for the Supersonic External Ballistics Problem
- Effects of Bearing Cleaning Peter Ward
- Gas Lift.pptx
- Biomechanics-fluid
- unit overview fa13 keeley 1
- hoffman mae561 hw2 narrative
- three dimension effect.pdf
- ME GATE 2017 Set II Key Solution

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THEME 15. MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF LIFTING SURFACES

AND FUSELAGE

Practically all elements of the aircraft except wing either do not create lift at all or

create it at some flight angles of attack, but this lift is insignificant in comparison with

wing lift. The aircraft drag consists of drag of its separate parts with taking into account

their mutual influence.

Let's consider the problem of wing and fuselage interference in details.

The drag of the wing - fuselage system is much more than the sum of separately

taken drags of wing and fuselage. Jointing the wing and the fuselage into the single

whole causes an additional drag. This drag is called the hazard interference. Let's

consider separately profile and wave drag of the wing-fuselage system.

The force of profile drag consists of three items:

X p w + f = X p is .w . + X p iz . f . + X p ,

where X p is .w . = x p

is .w .

(15.1)

of consoles; X pis . f . = x p

is . f .

If the area of a wing with ventral part S is accepted as the characteristic area for

the wing - fuselage system and X pw + f = x p

x p

w+ f

= kd w x p

is .w .

w+ f

S w + x p

q S , we shall receive

is . f .

+ k d w x p S w ,

(15.2)

137

the fuselage), S w = S w S , S f = S m . f . S is the ratio of the areas of an isolated wing

and of fuselage midsection to the characteristic area.

One should notice that profile drag of an isolated wing x p

is .w .

is calculated at

M w = M kw .

jointing their boundary layers are combined

and the thickness of combined boundary layer

will increase. At subsonic speeds it promotes

a flow stalling in the place of wing and

fuselage jointing where "diffuser" effect -the

expansion of jets is observed (Fig. 15.1, a)

and there is positive pressure gradient. The

premature flow stalling is promoted also by

increasing of local angles of attack of wing

cross-sections and also decreasing of critical

numbers M in these cross-sections. All this

results in drag increasing due to friction forces

Fig. 15.1. Diffuser effect in a place of

wing and fuselage jointing:

a) - area of diffuser flow;

b) - fillets at wing and fuselage jointing

interference the so-called fillets (fairings) are

used (Fig. 15.1, b). It is possible to reduced

greatly the hazard interference at correct

selection of fillets.

For the factor of additional drag we have

x p = k int xp w

S w

,

Sw

(15.3)

138

where k int is the interference factor; generally depends on lifting surface location

(wing, horizontal tail) on a fuselage and shape of fuselage cross section; S w is the

area of a wing occupied by a fuselage ( S w bb d f or S w bb2 c b ).

The point of view of drag the interference between a wing and fuselage (tail unit

and fuselage) is negative. The researches show, that such interference is the most

unfavorable for low-wing airplane, least unfavorable - for high-wing plane.

It is tentatively possible to assume interference factors k int which are listed in

table 15.1 irrespectively from numbers M .

Table 15.1. Interference factors

Wing location

k int

Wing location

k int

0 .5

0 .75

r

0 .15

0 .4

0 .075

wing ( 5% ) installation on a fuselage cylindrical surface by the mid-wing scheme

k int = 0 . It is necessary to note, that in some configurations the diffuser effect can be

more at wing installation by the high-wing scheme. It is possible to consider the diffuser

effect as equal to zero k int = 0 at the horizontal tail installation onto vertical according

to Tee-tail unit scheme, but at that it is necessary to displace the mutual position of

maximum thickness of vertical and horizontal tail airfoils.

139

The interference problem gains special sharpness at configuration of a high-speed

aircraft. At high flight speeds there can appear so-called wave interference, i.e. the

additional wave drag, which is caused by occurrence of shock waves in a place of the

wing and fuselage joint. The unsuccessful joint of wing with fuselage can result in

substantial drag growth, decreasing of critical number M and more intense growth of

drag after occurrence of wave crisis.

Analogously to profile drag it can be written as

X w w + f = X w is .w . + X w is . f . + X w

(15.4)

and

xw

w+ f

= kd w x w

The factor x w

xw

is .w .

is .w .

is .w .

S w + xw

is .w .

S f + k d w x w S w .

(15.5)

2 = f kd w M 2 1 , tg , .

The additional wave drag occurs as a result of interaction of two flows about the

fuselage and the wing.

x w = C x0

ww + f

x w ; x w = 0 .25 exp

k n 1

) ; = M M* ,

1 Mw

(15.6)

where the factors k and n also depend on the wing plan form:

Number M* is the critical number M of the fuselage - wing system. It will be

less than critical number M* of an isolated wing and fuselage. It is possible to assume

140

Effective way to decrease an additional wave drag is using the '' area-rule ". Using

the " area-rule " results into wave drag drop first of all in the zone of transonic speeds

( M* M 1.15 ...1.20 ) (Fig. 15.2).

According to "area-rule" the wave drag of the wing - fuselage system is about to

drag of the equivalent body of revolution. Without using the area-rule, this body will

have a bulge in the place of jointing of the wing with the fuselage (Fig. 15.3, a). It is

necessary

to

make

thinner

the

wing cross-sections area in the place

of wing jointing to fuselage (Fig.

15.3, b) (or to increase fuselage

cross-section on its remaining part

outside the wing) with the purpose of

Fig. 15.3.

There is a generalization of subsonic area-rule to supersonic speeds (supersonic

area-rule).

141

Let's consider a wing - fuselage system put into flow under the angle of attack .

For simplification we shall assume, that the fuselage is a body of revolution close to

cylindrical, and the wing is installed on it by the mid-wing scheme with angle .

Within borders of the linear theory the general configuration wing - fuselage can

be presented as a sum of two schemes:

Fig. 15.4.

Each scheme contribution in lift is

represented as follows:

ya = ya 0 + ya0

where ya 0 is the lift coefficient of the

fuselage - wing system with a symmetrical

airfoil at a zero setting angle ( = 0 , fuselage

with a straight-line axis), ya0 is the lift

coefficient of the fuselage - wing system with

Fig. 15.5.

setting angle ( 0 , fuselage with curved axis).

Let's consider lift of these schemes.

Scheme" 0 ". Let's write down lift as a sum

Ya 0 = Ya is . f .

+ Ya is .w .

+ Ya w( f )

and Ya is .w .

+ Ya f ( w )

(15.7)

straight-line axis (in horizontal plane of symmetry) and flat wing with a symmetrical

airfoil; Ya w( f )

142

influence; Ya f ( w )

influence.

Obviously, the sum Ya is .w .

+ Ya w( f )

fuselage.

We accept

+ Ya w

Ya is .w .

( f ) 0

= Ya is .w .

Ya w

Ya w f

( ) 0

1 +

Ya is .w .

= Ya is .w .

( f ) 0

=Y

a is .w . 0 K ,

K ,

where K and K are interference factors for a flat wing with a symmetrical airfoil

and fuselage having a horizontal plane of symmetry (at = 0 Ya is .w .

Ya is . f .

=0

= 0 ).

Ya 0 = Ya is . f .

+ Ya is .w .

( K

+ K ) .

(15.8)

Ya 0 = y a

q S , Ya is . f .

= ya

is . f . 0

q S m . f . , Ya is .w .

= ya

is .w . 0

qw Sw ,

where S is the characteristic area; q w is the dynamic pressure before the wing, we shall

receive:

ya

= ya

is . f . 0

S f + kd w y a

is .w . 0

( K

+ K ) S w ,

(15.9)

influence), S w = S w S , S f = S m . f . S is the ratio of the isolated wing area and

fuselage mid-section area to the characteristic area S . At it lift coefficient of an isolated

wing ya

is .w . 0

is determined at M w = M kd w .

Ya0 = Ya is . f .

+ Ya is .w .

+ Ya w

( f ) 0

+ Ya f

( w ) 0

(15.10)

143

and Ya is .w .

wing at = 0 ; lift occurs at the expense of camber of fuselage axis, camber of airfoil,

twist and angle of wing setting onto fuselage; Ya w

on a wing because of fuselage influence; Ya f

( f ) 0

( w ) 0

Here, as well as for scheme " 0 ", the sum Ya is .w .

+ Ya w

( f ) 0

represents lift

Let's write down similarly to the previous case

+ Ya w

Ya is .w .

= Ya is .w .

( f ) 0

Ya w f

( ) 0

1

+

Ya is .w .

0

= Ya is .w .0 K ,

(15.11)

where K and K is the interference factor for the wing - fuselage system at = 0 .

If, as well as in the previous scheme, we pass to lift coefficients, we shall receive

ya

= ya

S f + kd w y a

is . f .0

( K + K ) S w .

is .w .0

(15.12)

ya = ya

+ ya

+ kd w y a

= ya

+ ya

S f +

is . f . 0

is . f .0

( K

is .w . 0

+ K ) S w + k* y a

is .w .0

( K + K ) S w .

(15.13)

Fuselage: ya

is . f .

Obviously ya

Wing: y a

is .w .

Obviously y a

= y

a is . f .

= y

a is . f .

is . f . 0

= y

a is .w .

is .w . 0

( ) =

0 is . f .

, and ya

y a is . f .

is . f .0

= y

a is .w .

; ya

is .w .0

a is . f .

= y

a is . f .

( + 0 ) = y

is .w .

a is .w .

= y

0 is . f . .

0 is . f . .

( 0 ) .

( 0 ) .

a is .w .

a is .w .

is .w .

is .w .

144

( )S

ya = y

0 is . f .

a is . f .

+ kd w y

a is .w .

[ ( K

)]

)(

+ K ) + 0is .w . K + K S w .

(15.14)

ya

w/ f

= kd w y

a is .w .

[ ( K

( K

a is .w .

= kd w y

= y

aw

where y

aw

)]

)(

+ K ) + 0 is .w . K + K S w =

K + K

+ K ) + 0 is .w .

K + K

( 0 ) S w

w

Sw =

( )S

ya = y

0f

+ y

aw

( 0 ) S w

(15.15)

ya = y ( 0 ) ; y = y

0 =

S f + y

aw

Sw ;

S

f

w

,

0

0

y

y

f

w

f

aw

where a derivative of a fuselage lift coefficient and angle of zero lift are taken for the

isolated fuselage y

= y

a is . f .

coefficient and angle of zero lift are calculated under the formulas with taking into

account

the

interference

0w = 0is .w .

factors

aw

= kd w y

a is .w .

( K

+ K )

and

K + K

) K + K .

The note: the shown dependence for the wing - fuselage system remains valid for

scheme).

145

For normal scheme, when horizontal tail is located behind the wing it is necessary

to take into account a wing influence on horizontal tail in addition to the interference of

horizontal tail and fuselage. In this case horizontal tail is streamlined at smaller angle of

Let's consider the characteristic of horizontal tail ya

fuselage similar to the wing characteristic ya

ya

h.t . f

= kd h.t . y

ais .h.t .

w/ f

h.t . f

located on the

S h.t . .

h.t .

K + K

system of aircraft with normal scheme:

ya

h.t . f

= y

a h .t .

( 0 ) S h.t .,

h.t .

where the derivative of lift coefficient of horizontal tail and angle of zero lift are equal

to

y

a h.t .

= kd h.t . y

a is .h.t .

(1 )( K + K )

h.t .

and

0 h. t . =

K + K

h.t .

0 is .h.t .

0;

K + K h.t .

1

h.t . is the angle of the horizontal tail setting relatively to the fuselage axis; as a rule,

the symmetrical airfoil is installed on horizontal tail and 0 is .h.t . = 0 . Obviously, the

wing lift in the system of a canard aircraft should also be determined with accounting of

flow downwash located ahead of horizontal tail. Therefore, the last expressions remain

fair and for a wing in the canard scheme after replacement of parameters of horizontal

tail on wing parameters.

Let's consider interference factors K , K , K and K . Generally they

depend on the ratio of fuselage midsection diameter d f to wing span with ventral part

146

l , wing shape and fuselage cross-section, wing setting on fuselage altitude and length,

number M and influence of the boundary layer. These dependencies are complex and

systematic data about them are absent in the literature. The most essential ones, as

researches show, are the dependencies on

df

For an approximate estimation it is

possible to use the following ratios:

K K ( K 1) , K 1,

K K 1 ;

K + K = K2

K + K = K

( K + K ) ( K + K ) = K1

exact than the first three.

Fig. 15.6. Dependence of interference factors

from

df

As

interference

we

see,

factors

calculation

is

reduced

of

to

Let's consider the wing - fuselage system set in a flow under the angle of attack

(a fig. 15.7). Let's assume, that the fuselage is a body of revolution close to cylindrical,

and the wing is located on it under the mid-wing scheme. Let's factor the incoming

undisturbed flow moving with speed V into two components: directed along fuselage

axis with speed Vx = V cos and normal to it with speed V y = V sin . At flow

147

about fuselage cylindrical part by this transversal flow the speed V y is increased in

comparison to V y .

Supposing speeds V y are small, from the theory of potential flow about cylinder

by transversal flow with speed V y = V sin for local streamlining speeds we obtain

d 2f

d 2f

.

V y = V sin 1 +

= V 1 +

2

2

4z

4z

The influence of fuselage onto wing has an effect in changing of the wing angle

of attack, which is equal to w

d 2f

= 1 + 2 .

4 z

wing which span with ventral part differs a little from d f we shall have K = 2 .

Approximately, for a wing set by the mid-wing scheme K 1 + , K ( 1 + ) ,

K = where = d f l .

For a wing set on the fuselage of round cross-section by the low-wing or highwing configurations, wing distance from fuselage axis influences the interference factor

H

K =

1 + 1 h2

1 + 2 h2

, h=

df

2H

,=

.

df

l

148

At first, the lift of the fuselage part is increased by "carry" of raised pressure

under the wing and reduced above the wing on fuselage (Fig. 15.8, a).

Secondly, the lift of fuselage part behind the wing decreases because of presence

flow downwash (Fig. 15.8, b).

As a result the additional lift on the fuselage is equal to

Ya f ( w ) = Ya f ( w ) + Yaf ( w ) .

Let's mark, that the position Ya f ( w ) depends on number M at M > 1 . With

increasing of M applying point Ya f ( w ) displaces back.

15.3. Moment of pitch and position of aerodynamic center

of the wing - fuselage system.

Strictly speaking, the moment of pitch is created by full aerodynamic force or, in

most cases, by normal forces. Approximately it is possible to consider that the moment

of pitch is created by lifting forces of wing, fuselage and additional lifts caused by

interference. At that, we neglect moments of drag forces. Proceeding from mentioned

above we accept: Y f Ya f , Yw( f ) Ya w( f ) , Y f ( w ) Ya f ( w ) , where Ya f is the lift

of an isolated fuselage, Ya w( f ) is the lift of wing installed on the fuselage

149

influence.

The applying point of wing lift generally places a little ahead of the aerodynamic

center of isolated wing ( xFw ), however, it is possible to accept without large error, that

the applying point of lift Ya w( f ) coincides with aerodynamic center of isolated wing

xFw .

Using fig. 15.9, we shall make an equation for moment of pitch M z for wing fuselage system relatively to fuselage nose.

Fig. 15.9.

M z = M*z0 Ya f xF f Ya w( f ) x w + xFw Ya f ( w ) x w + xF f

)(

=

( w)

= M*z0 Ya f xF f Ya w( f ) + Ya f ( w ) x w + xFw Ya f ( w ) xF f

(w)

xFw .

Here M*z0 is the moment at zero lift of isolated parts and their interference.

M*z0 = M z0 is . f . + M z0 is .w . + M z0

f +w

The last item in equation for M z is small, because of small force value and small

arm (especially at M < 1 ) and it can be neglected. The summarized value

Ya w( f ) + Ya f ( w ) represents wing lift in the system Ya w and then

150

M z = M*z0 Ya f xF f Ya w x w + xFw .

Let's pass to the factor of moments, for that we divide the right and the left parts

of equation on dynamic pressure, characteristic area and characteristic length q SL . It

is possible to accept as characteristic length L , for example, the length of a fuselage:

m z = m*z0 C ya f x F f S f C ya w ( x w + x Fw ) S w =

=

m*z0

C ya

( ) x

0f

Ff

S f C ya

( 0 )( x w + x F ) S w .

(15.16)

Here

m*z0 = kd w m z0 is .w . S w + m z0 is . f . S f , C ya

C ya

= kd w C ya

is .w .

= C ya

is . f .

, 0 f = 0 is . f . ,

( K + K ) , 0w = w 0is .w .

K + K

) K + K ,

location of the wing relatively to the fuselage nose, the position of aerodynamic centers

of the fuselage and wing are expressed in shares of fuselage length x w = x w L ,

x Fw = xFw L , x F f = xF f L .

Let's differentiate the equation (15.16) for mz on :

mz = C ya x F f S f C ya

f

( x w + x Fw ) S w .

The position of aerodynamic center of the wing - fuselage system relatively to the

fuselage nose in shares of fuselage length are determined

C ya

x F = xF L = m z

= mz C ya .

problems to determine the position of

aerodynamic center relatively to mean

aerodynamic chord nose in shares of MAC

length bA (Fig. 15.10):

x FA =

xFA

L

[ x F ( x w + x A )] L .

bA

Fig. 15.10.

151

moment factor at zero lift

m z = m*z0 C ya

( ) x

0f

Ff

S f C ya

( 0 )( x w + x F ) S w =

w

= m*z0 + mz 0 + 0 f C ya x F f S f + 0 w C ya

f

As 0 =

( x w + x Fw ) S w .

1

C S f + 0 C ya S w and mz = x F C ya , then

w

0 f ya f

w

C ya

m z0 = m*z0 + m z0

+ m z0 w ,

where m z0 f = x F + x F f 0 f C ya S f , m z0 w = x F ( x w + x Fw ) 0w C ya S w .

f

characteristics

weight, operational and economic characteristics of the aircraft.

Let's consider the main virtues and shortages of all the schemes of mutual

arrangement of a wing and fuselage.

The aircraft made by the low-wing configuration has the following advantages: it

allows to receive the improved take-off and landing characteristics due to more effective

influence of ground proximity, and, also, capability of increasing of high-lift devices

area due to ventral wing part; the design of glider and service of aggregates installed on

the wing become simpler.

Imperfections of this configuration are the following: C ya max decreases due to

interference of wing and fuselage, C xa increases, the lift-to-drag ratio decreases, the

falling of foreign objects is possible at takeoff and landing at engines installation on the

wing.

The advantages of high-wing configuration are: lift-to-drag ratio is higher on

4 K5% than for low-wing configuration with other conditions being equal due to

decreasing of aerodynamic interference; the characteristics of longitudinal stability at

152

high angles of attack are better in comparison with the characteristics of the low-wing

configuration; in case of engines installation on the wing, the probability of outside

objects falling from runway surface essentially decreases, that allows more successful

use of high-wing aircraft on unpaved runways.

The disadvantages of the configuration are worsening of lateral stability

characteristics at high angles of attack, when vertical tail falls into the wake jet from the

wing that demands necessity of vertical tail area increasing on 30 K50% in comparison

with vertical tail area of low-wing configuration.

Weight of high-wing construction is more, than low wing one. In particular,

weight of a heavy high-wing-airplane with the main landing gears fixed on the fuselage,

exceeds the weight of low-wing airplane on 15 K 20% .

The operating economy of passenger high-wing aircraft is a little bit lower, than

of low-wing one because of losses in weight.

The midwing airplane, from a point of view of an aerodynamic interference, has

the greatest advantages. However, this scheme is not applied to the aircraft of mean

seating capacity because the wing should pass through the passenger compartment,

forming ledges or cavities on the compartment floor. The midwing configuration is used

on some wide-fuselage aircraft (airbuses), which wing passes not through the passenger

compartment, but in space between the upper and lower decks.

Now the majority of passenger aircraft has the low-wing configuration. For cargo

and cargo-passenger aircraft the high-wing configuration is more preferable in many

cases.

153

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